Strategic Management

“Final Project”

Submitted to Submitted by

Mr. Faiez Seyyal

Saeeda Jabeen MBA-131 Naeem Riaz Bajwa MBA-110 M. Urfan Shahid MBA-103 SyedUsman Shah FA09-MBA-149


Rabbani Jakhar MBA-119


Political analysis of England

Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament

As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system. There has not been a Government of England since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Before the union England was ruled by monarch and the Parliament of England. Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, although other countries have devolved governments. In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the British Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 532 Members of Parliament (MPs) for constituencies in England, out of the 650 total.

In order to achieve a majority the Conservative party. prescriptions. the Liberal Democrats. nine UK Independence Party (UKIP). 2010 the Conservative Party had won an absolute majority in England's 532 contested seats with 61 seats more than all other parties combined (the Speaker of the House not being counted as a Conservative). Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved. now led by Ed Miliband. . The 2009 European Parliament election saw the regions of England elect the following MEPs: twenty-three Conservatives. Some have suggested the creation of a devolved English parliament. Wales and Northern Ireland—each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues. entered into a coalition agreement with the third largest party. there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England. in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England. headed by David Cameron. two Greens and two British (BNP). in which other countries of the United Kingdom—Scotland. while others have proposed simply limiting voting on legislation which only affects England to English MPs. One major issue is the West Lothian question. has led to a steady rise in English nationalism. while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters. this has not been carried out. ten Labour. This when placed in the context of England being the only country of the United Kingdom not to have free cancer treatment. Since devolution. but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum. Subsequently Gordon Brown announced he was stepping down as prime minister and leader of the Labour party. led by Nick Clegg.In the United Kingdom general election. nine Liberal Democrats. residential care for the elderly and free.

is the foundation of many legal systems throughout the Anglosphere. The court system is headed by the Supreme Court of Judicature. The prison population doubled over the same period. under the Treaty of Union. and the Crown Court for criminal cases. The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts. consisting of the Court of Appeal. which must follow its directions. It was created in 2009 after constitutional changes. Despite now being part of the United Kingdom. as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.000. Crime increased between 1981 and 1995. the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued. applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent—stare decisis—to the facts before them. Her Majesty's Prison . taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. developed over the centuries. A decision of the Supreme Court is binding on every other court in the hierarchy. but fell by 42% in the period 1995– 2006.Law The Royal Courts of Justice The English law legal system. the High Court of Justice for civil cases. The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest court for criminal and civil cases in England and Wales. giving it the highest incarceration rate in Western Europe at 147 per 100.

there was a desire to see local administration performed by elected officials. as in the reformed municipal boroughs. housing over 80. coroner. Henceforth. but completely corrected for enclaves and exclaves. . based on the ancient/historic counties. often there was no-one who could be held responsible for the failure to undertake the required duties. The counties themselves had undergone some boundary changes in the preceding 50 years. The act called for the creation of statutory counties. They were run by volunteers. it was clear that the piecemeal system that had developed over the previous century in response to the vastly increased need for local administration could no longer cope. or other". mainly to remove enclaves and exclaves. With the advent of elected councils. allowing more localised administration. but were not part of the mechanism of government. since the major boundary changes of 1974) were used as the basis of the system. all administrative counties and county boroughs would be divided into either rural or urban districts. custos rotulorum. lieutenant. justices. By 1888. the increased "county business" could not be handled by the Quarter Sessions. The Act was therefore the first systematic attempt to impose a standardised system of local government in England The counties of England at the time (now known as the historic counties. Furthermore. A second Act in 1894 (Local Government Act 1894) also created a second tier of local government. The sanitary districts and parish councils had legal status.Service. reporting to the Ministry of Justice. since the major boundary changes of 1974) were used as the basis of the system. The counties of England at the time (today known as the historic counties. and adjusted so that all settlements were completely within a single county. Finally. These statutory counties were to be used for nonadministrative functions: "sheriff. manages most prisons. the offices of lord lieutenant and sheriff became largely ceremonial. Local governance The Local Government Act of 1888 was the first systematic attempt to impose a standardised system of local government in England. militia.000 convicts. nor was it appropriate to do so.

These were part of the statutory counties. to carry on some of these responsibilities (others being transferred to the district/county councils). the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 established the Irish Free State (now the Republic of Ireland) as a separate state. which did not have a local government district to themselves. so that districts did not overlap two counties). separated from the ecclesiastical parishes. it was felt that large cities and primarily rural areas in the same county could not be well administered by the same body. the civil parishes were not a complete third-tier of local government. apart from three metropolitan areas of Merseyside. they were absorbed into the new urban districts. they were 'community councils' for smaller. leaving Northern Ireland as part of the United Kingdom. or 'county boroughs'. 20th and 21st centuries Political issues Following years of political and military agitation for 'Home Rule' for Ireland. all administrative counties and county boroughs would be divided into either rural or urban districts. A second Act in 1894 (Local Government Act 1894) also created a second tier of local government. In 1969 it recommended a system of single-tier unitary authorities for the whole of England. Where urban parish councils had previously existed. and replaced with a Royal Commission (known as the Redcliff-Maud commission). This would give England a local Parliament like those already functioning for Scotland. which became the European Union in 1993. There is a movement in England to create a devolved English Parliament. were created to administer the urban centres of England. The urban and rural districts were based upon. The municipal boroughs reformed after 1835 were brought into this system as special cases of urban districts. Northern Ireland and Wales. and incorporated the sanitary districts which had been created in 1875 (with adjustments. However. Thus 59 "counties in themselves". Henceforth. The 1894 Act formed an official system of civil parishes. England. as part of the UK. but not part of the administrative counties. rural settlements. joined the European Economic Community in 1973. allowing more localised administration. Selnec (Greater Manchester) and West Midlands(Birmingham and the Black Country). Instead. The official name of the UK thus became "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". General history and local government A Local Government Commission was wound up in 1966. This issue is referred to as the West Lothian question.The statutory counties formed the basis for the so-called 'administrative counties'. which were to have both a . However. The Act also provided for the establishment of civil parishes.

and the campaign failed to change Government policy. Onto the blank canvas. . county boroughs. but that the remainder of their parent counties remain two-tier. Powers to restrict council budgets have remained in place ever since. civil parishes . The aim of the act was to establish a uniform two tier system across the country.statutory counties. This report was accepted by the Labour Party government of the time despite considerable opposition. especially in the north. counties corporate. and on a manifesto that committed them to a two-tier structure. The campaign's tactic was that councils whose budgets were restricted would refuse to set any budget at all for the financial year 1985-86. All previous administrative districts . In 1986. The affected councils were almost all run by left-wing Labour Party leaderships. and that in some counties the status quo should remain. all 15 councils which initially refused to set a rate eventually did so. However. They effectively wiped away everything that had gone before. or to concede. This firmly separated all local authority areas (whether unitary or two-tier). the metropolitan county councils and Greater London were abolished. The counties represent a compromise between the historic counties and the counties established in 1974. and built an administrative system from scratch. It was considered too expensive to make the system entirely unitary. The rate-capping rebellion was a campaign within English local councils in 1985 which aimed to force the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher to withdraw powers to restrict the spending of councils. municipal boroughs. and make recommendations on where unitary authorities should be established. many of these were obviously based on the historic counties.were abolished. In 1997. and also there would doubtlessly be cases where the two-tier system functioned well. The lieutenancies it established became known as ceremonial counties. administrative counties. since they were no longer administrative divisions. The reforms arising from the Local Government Act of 1972 resulted in the most uniform and simplified system of local government which has been used in England. new counties were created to cover the entire country. The commission recommended that many counties be moved to completely unitary systems. This uniform two-tier system lasted only 12 years. This restored autonomy (in effect the old county borough status) to the metropolitan and London boroughs. the Lieutenancies Act was passed.metropolitan council and district councils. that some cities become unitary authorities. requiring the Government to intervene directly in providing local services. but there were some major changes. The Local Government Act (1992) established a commission (Local Government Commission for England) to examine the issues. but the Conservative Party won the June 1970 general election. from the geographical concept of a county as high level spatial unit.

In five shire counties the functions of the county and district councils were combined into a single authority. only a London Assembly (and directly elected Mayor) was established. In the event. England is a highly industrialized country. and in two counties the powers of the county council were absorbed into a significantly reduced number of districts. the guiding principles of the government's "New Localism" demand levels of efficiency not present in the current over-duplicated two-tier structure. This would have sat alongside the devolved Welsh. with manufacturing and primary industries in decline. Scottish and Northern Irish Assemblies. The service sector of the economy as a whole is now the largest in England. the financial services sector has played an increasingly significant role in the English economy and the City of London is one of the world's largest financial centers. Although automobiles. Since the 2005 general election the government has floated the idea of voluntary mergers of local councils. insurance companies. Rejection in a referendum of a proposed North-East Assembly in 2004 effectively scrapped those plans. to devolve power to the regions. a significant proportion of the country's income comes from the City. It is an important producer of textiles and chemical products. avoiding a costly reorganisation but achieving desired reform. Banks. Economic Analysis of England Economic growth The Economy of England is the largest economy of the four countries of the United Kingdom. commodity and futures exchanges are heavily concentrated in the City. A pre-condition of having a regional assembly was for the whole area to move to unitary authority status. In 2009. and aircraft are among England's other important industrial products.The Labour government (1997–2010) had planned to introduce eight regional assemblies around England. The only major secondary industry . Since the 1990s. For instance. new changes to local government were made whereby a number of new unitary authorities were created in areas which previously had a 'two-tier' system of counties and districts. locomotives.

the Bank of England. North West 8. South East 3. GDP. South West 5. The following table shows the GDP (2004) per capita of England as a whole and each of the nine regions. administrative and financial sector.that is growing is the construction industry. London 2. and GDP per capita is highest in London. North East Place GDP per capita in Euros 26 904 44 401 31 300 27 778 27 348 26 683 25 931 25 396 25 300 22 886 Two of the 10 economically strongest areas in the European Union are in England. West Midlands 7. Inner London is number 1 with a €71 338 GDP per capita (303% above EU . fuelled by economic growth provided mainly by the growing services. East of England 4. East Midlands 6. The British pound sterling is the official currency of England and the central bank of the United Kingdom. Yorkshire and the Humber 9. Rank England 1. is located in London Sectors Agriculture and fishing Finance Manufacturing Tourism Regional variation The strength of the English economy varies from region to region.

Until recently predicting a rise this month. Even Goldman Sachs. He added that the PMI data signalled that GDP was expanding at a quarterly rate of just 0.5pc for the 27th consecutive month on Thursday. has revised its forecasts." . as key data on the UK's dominant services sector came in weaker than expected. it was below forecasts of 55. and the market is factoring in just one rate rise in 2011 . The Markit/CIPS headline services PMI index fell to 54. The weak PMI data has forced economists to push back their expectations of a rate rise to the end of the year. Together with weak PMIs on manufacturing and construction earlier this week. While still indicating growth. but the first hike could be as late as the start of 2012. Markit's chief economist. Many are now expecting them to be left unchanged until early next December.7. which remains relatively optimistic on growth. Berkshire.4pc. Just two months ago. the services sector survey indicated "the largest loss of growth momentum seen since just after the collapse of Lehmans" in September 2008.1 in March. chief economist Kevin Daly said: "We have penciled in the fourth quarter. said Chris Williamson.average). Buckinghamshire & Oxfordshire is number 7 with a €40 937 GDP per capita (174% above EU average Interest rates Britain has suffered its sharpest fall in growth since the collapse of Lehman Brothers amid mounting evidence that the recovery is stalling in the face of tough fiscal austerity The Bank of England left rates on hold at their historic low of 0.3 in April from 57. the markets believed there was a nine-in-10 chance that rates would have been lifted on Thursday.

sea transport and international rail travel including the Easter holidays. Easter in 2010 was much .5%.5 per cent in April.0 per cent in March.The level of inflation Inflation CPI 4. RPI 5.12 month percentage change CPI annual inflation – the Government’s target measure – was 4. up from 4.2 per cent (the record high for CPI). The timing of Easter in 2011 had a significant impact on certain travel costs included in the CPI due to the collection periods for air transport. The last time CPI annual inflation was higher was September 2008 when it stood at 5.2% Annual inflation rates .

earlier and did not affect the April 2010 CPI.9 per cent a year ago.3 per cent in March. fares rose by 22. rose by a record 5.3 per cent between March and April 2011 compared with a rise of 2.2 per cent. RPI annual inflation was 5.0 per cent between March and April 2011.0 per cent. The largest upward pressures to the change in CPI inflation came from: • Transport: by far the largest upward effect came from air transport where the timing of Easter contributed to fares rising by 29. Although there is a smaller price rise this year. This was partly due to the fact there was a decrease in excise duty that influenced fuel prices in April 2011 whereas in April 2010 there was an increase in excise duty • Alcoholic beverages and tobacco: prices.1 per cent a year ago Partially offsetting these upward effects within transport was downward pressure from petrol and diesel where prices rose by less than a year ago. which rose by more than a year ago The largest downward pressures to the change in CPI inflation came from: • miscellaneous goods and services: the largest downward effects came from appliances and products for personal care and transport insurance • Clothing and footwear: prices. The next largest upward effects came from sewerage collection where charges rose this year but fell a year ago and rental costs for housing. overall. . The increase in excise duties on alcohol and tobacco this year had a more significant impact than the increases a year ago • Housing and household services: the largest upward effect came from gas where average bills were unchanged between March and April 2011 but fell by 2.3 per cent between March and April 2011 compared to an increase of 3.2 per cent increase a year ago. rose by 1. fares fell by 1. between the same two months in 2010. overall.3 per cent between March and April this year compared with a 2.3 per cent is still the second largest rise for a March to April period In the year to April. There was also a large upward effect from sea transport where again Easter was a factor.1 per cent a year ago. the increase of 1. down from 5.

The UK is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The British economy comprises (in descending order of size) the economies of England.4 per cent in March. and for much of the 19th century possessed a dominant role in the global economy. In the 18th century the UK was the first country in the world to industrialize. and the third-largest in Europe measured by nominal GDP (after Germany and France) and second-largest measured by PPP (after Germany). the World Trade Organization and the United Nations. the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.[10] However. down from 5. the costs of fighting both the First World War and the Second World War further weakened the relative economic position of the UK. Despite victory. The UK rate was 4.1 per cent.RPIX annual inflation – the all items RPI excluding mortgage interest payments – was 5. the International Monetary Fund. Wales and Northern Ireland.3 per cent in April. the G8. the G20. the World Bank. the G7. . the CPI shows that the UK inflation rate in March was above the provisional figure for the European Union. Employment level per capita The economy of the United Kingdom is the sixth-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal GDP and seventh-largest measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). the UK still maintains a significant role in the world economy. by the late 19th century. and by 1945 Britain had been superseded by the United States as the chief player in the global economy. the European Union.0 per cent whereas the EU’s as a whole was 3. the Second Industrial Revolution in the United States and the German Empire presented an increasing challenge to Britain's role as the leader of the global economy. Scotland. As an internationally comparable measure of inflation. However. The UK's GDP per capita is the 20th highest in the world in nominal terms and the 17th highest measured by PPP.

valued at an estimated £250 billion in 2007. The UK entered a recession in Q2 of 2008. France.4% In Q2 of 2010 the economy grew by 1. 2010. economy grew yet again by 0. In December 2009. in Q3 of 2010 figures released showed the UK economy grew by 0. the country eventually returned to growth in the last quarter of 2009.2% the fastest rate of growth in 9 years. The British economy is boosted by North Sea oil and gas reserves. there are some cultural practices that are associated specifically with England. the last major economy in the world to do so In the 3 months to February 2010 the U.K. London is the world's largest financial centre alongside New York and has the largest city GDP in Europe.2%.6% fall the previous quarter. The unemployment rate among 18 to 24-year-olds has risen from 11. the economy had shrunk by 4. English culture is often difficult to differentiate from the culture of the United Kingdom as a whole. compared to a 0. had left its recession. On January 26. As of December 2010 the UK had the third-largest stock of both inward and outward foreign direct investment (in each case after the United States and France). . The aerospace industry of the UK is the second.2% in May 2008 to 7. Government figures from the Office for National Statistics showed that the UK was officially in recession for the first time since 1991. accompanied by rising unemployment which increased from 5. it was confirmed that the U. according to the UK Office of National Statistics (ONS) and exited it in Q4 of 2009. and the US which all returned to growth in the second quarter of 2009.9% to 17. Japan.9%.K.6% in May 2009. depending upon the method of measurement. the Office of National Statistics revised figures for the third quarter of 2009 showed that the economy shrank by 0.The UK is one of the world's most globalize countries. The pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in the UK economy and the country has the third-highest share of global pharmaceutical R&D expenditures (after the United States and Japan). On 23 January 2009.8%. this was the fastest Q3 growth in 10 years Social Cultural Analysis of England The culture of England refers to the idiosyncratic cultural norms of England and the English people. Because of England's dominant position within the United Kingdom in terms of population.Though initially Britain lagged behind other major economies including Germany. However. It entered a recession in the final quarter of 2008.or third-largest national aerospace industry.3%. As of the end of November 2009. The revised ONS figures of November 2009 showed that the UK had suffered six consecutive quarters of negative growth. making the 2008-2009 recession the longest since records began.

Merseyside. such as Morris dancing and folk music. "Britain" and "British" derive from a Roman term for the inhabitants' language of the British Isles. England is also a culture of many smaller regionalisms. southwest. The south. It was adopted after the Crusades. the latter of which is (although more modernized) used by the England national rugby union team. "Jerusalem". chiefly represented by the regions of the southeast. and Cheshire. The English oak and the Tudor rose are also English symbols. allow people to shape their attachments to their communities and the nation. the cradle of industrialization and the site of traditional smokestack industries. Merged with the north–south divide and regionalism are notions of working class. Local products. the north has experienced deindustrialization. Durham. Lancashire. Cumbria. now contains the economically most dynamic sectors of the country. East Anglia.The English flag is a red cross on a white background. and regional rituals and art forms. Saint George. however. the Angles. The most important regional divide is between the south and the north. such as ale. the United Kingdom's "God Save the Queen" is Currently used. England's role as a destination for migration also has influenced conceptions of Englishness. "Rule Britannia". includes Yorkshire. Northumberland. and "I Vow to Thee. many of which date back to the preindustrial era. middle class. Especially in the last decades of the twentieth century. the most prominent immigrant group has been the Irish. called "Brythonic" or p-Celtic. and cultural balkanization. and upper class as well as rich versus poor. The three golden lions on a red background were the banner of the kings of England derived from their status as Duke of Normandy and is now used to represent the English national football team and the English. still centred on the old governmental unit of the county and the local villages and towns. Englishness is highly regionalized. is also the patron saint of England.. including "Land of Hope and Glory" (used as England's anthem in the Commonwealth). severe economic hardship. My Country". later famed as a dragonslayer. Other songs are sometimes used. England has no official anthem. and the Midlands. both in London. though in blue rather than gold. commonly called the Cross of Saint George. Moves by certain groups are encouraging adoption of an official English anthem following similar occurrences in Scotland and Wales The name of the country and the term "English" derive from the Old English word for one of the three Germanic peoples that invaded the British Isles in the fifth century C. The north. including the City (the chief financial centre of the United Kingdom) and the seat of the national government. E . . Historically.

. as is often the palatial 'stately home'. The architectural character of Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastical buildings ranges from Coptic-influenced architecture in the early period. of these. German. believed by many English people and foreigners alike to hold an iconic place in the landscape of England. Indians. to. blank arcading. All except one timber church are built of stone or brick. often for economic reasons. Specifically English architecture begins with the architecture of the Anglo-Saxons. as evidenced by visits to properties managed by English Heritage and the National Trust. although in some cases the Anglo-Saxon part is small and much-altered.who came in two major waves in the modern era: 1847 and 1848 after the potato famine. Other buildings such as cathedrals and parish churches are associated with a sense of traditional Englishness. Cypriot. Architecture and gardens The Neolithic peoples of what would become England Constructed many impressive stone circles and earthworks. Scots were present in England by the 1700s and settled in England in large numbers during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. and visiting gardens. French Huguenot. and migrants from north-western and eastern Africa in significant numbers. Many people are interested in the English country house and the rural lifestyle. and in some cases show evidence of reused Roman work. Almost no secular work remains above ground. baluster shafts and triangular-headed openings. Gardening. an architecture characterized by pilaster-strips. in the later Anglo-Saxon period. Polish. is regarded as typically English pursuits. Welsh in-migration came to prominence when deindustrialization began in Wales in the 1920s. The loss of Britain's colonies has brought Afro-Caribbean’s. and during and after World War II. Italian. Turkish. Dutch. This immigration has brought the so-called Celtic fringe into English culture in a host of ways. There has also been the impact of Jewish. Bangladeshis. and Chinese cultures since the twelfth century. Landscape gardening as developed by Capability Brown set an international trend for the English garden. Judgments of whether England's newcomers feel themselves to be "English" vary by group and even by individual. the largest and most famous is Stonehenge. At least fifty surviving English churches are of Anglo-Saxon origin. Flemish. Pakistanis. Early Christian basilica influenced Architecture.

eggs. fried mushrooms. particularly the former.M.Art English art was dominated by imported artists throughout much of the Renaissance. and the south of England has seen the reintroduction of vineyards producing high quality white wine on a comparatively small scale. This has resulted in a traditional cuisine which tended to veer from strong flavours. such as bread and cheese. contains recipes for these. fried bread or toast. and sausages. Hogarth also developed a distinctive style of satirical painting. Cider is produced in the West Country. and freshwater and saltwater fish. usually served with a mug of tea. Black pudding is added in some regions as well as fried leftover mashed potatoes called Potato cakes. there are some forms of cuisine considered distinctively English. It is often considered to be typified by landscape painting. . and dates from the royal court of Richard II. roasted and stewed meats. but in the 18th century a native tradition became much admired. Turner and John Constable. such as the work of J. Cuisine Since the early modern era.W. Tea and beer are typical and rather iconic drinks in England. the food of England has historically been characterized by its simplicity of approach. The normal ingredients of a traditional full English breakfast are bacon. Modern English cuisine is difficult to differentiate from British cuisine as a whole. the Forme of Curry. The full English breakfast is a variant of the traditional British fried breakfast. Joshua Reynolds and William Hogarth are also significant. The 14th century English cookbook. However. such as garlic. and an avoidance of complex sauces which were commonly associated with Catholic Continental political affiliations. and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce. Portraitists like Thomas Gainsborough. meat and game pies. honesty of flavour. fried or grilled tomatoes. Traditional meals have ancient origins.

the link was made famous by Henry's patriotic ballad "The Roast Beef of Old England". yeast-leavened bread Lancashire hotpot Cornish pasty Mushy peas Worcester sauce Clotted cream from Devon and Cornwall Yorkshire pudding Sausage and mash Eccles cake Cumberland sausage Lincolnshire sausage . Indeed. it is distinguished from its Scottish equivalent by its greater thickness Muffins. England produces hundreds of regional cheeses. including: • • • • • • • • • Cheddar cheese Stilton cheese Wensleydale cheese Lancashire cheese Dorset Blue Vinney cheese Cheshire cheese Double Gloucester cheese Red Leicester Blue cheese More dishes invented in or distinctive to England include: • • • • • • • • • • • • The English crumpet is a form of crumpet.Roast beef is a food traditionally associated with the English. since the 1700s the phrase "les rosbifs" has been a popular French nickname for the English. known as 'English muffins' in North America. are a form of rounded. and William Hogarth'spainting of the same name.

but variants of these tales are associated with locations in England. The utopian vision of a traditional England is sometimes referred to as Merry England. to contemporary urban myths and facets of crypto zoology such as the Beast of Bodmin Moor. people still gather for May Day festivals on the first of May to celebrate the beginning of summer. England abounds with folklore. Examples of surviving English folk traditions include the Morris dance and related practices such as the Abbots Bromley Horn Dance and the Mummers Plays.• Apple pie Folklore English folklore is the folk tradition that has evolved in England over the centuries. usually rural places.a large pole erected on the village green (historically a tree would have been specially cut down) . The famous Arthurian legends may not have originated in England. from such obvious manifestations as semihistorical Robin Hood tales. in all forms. culminating in the crowning of a 'May Queen'. Many regional variations of the festivals exist.each carrying a colored ribbon. such as Glastonbury and Tintagel. Law . This traditionally involves local children skipping around a maypole . In many. The festival traditionally features Morris dancing and various festivities. the oldest still practiced today is the "'Obby 'Oss festival of Padstow. which dates back to the 14th century. resulting in a multi-colored plaited pattern.

though it has no superseding jurisdiction. literature is now written in English across the world. and the Lake Poets (the Lake District). and English law prior to the American revolution is still part of the law of the United States. Geoffrey Chaucer is the most famous writer of this period. Arnold Bennett. The Elizabethan era is sometimes described as the golden age of English literature. and Rupert Brooke (whose poem "Grant Chester" is often considered quintessentially English). except in Louisiana. Thomas Hardy(Wessex). and provides the basis for many American legal traditions and policies.English law is the legal system of England and Wales. and the Elizabethan theatre produced William Shakespeare. Agatha Christie's mystery novels are outsold only by Shakespeare and The Bible. but in the medieval period there was a flourishing of literature in Middle English. Other writers are associated with specific regions of England. Due to the expansion of English into a world language during the British Empire. which was written in Old English. Houseman (Shropshire). For many years. Due to the British Empire. Writers often associated with England or for expressing Englishness include Shakespeare (who produced two tetralogies of plays about the English kings). these include Charles Dickens (London). Jane Austen. E. Literature English literature begins with Anglo-Saxon literature. . In the lighter vein. A. it has been exported across the world: it is the basis of common law jurisprudence of most Commonwealth countries. often considered the English national poet. Latin and French were the preferred literary languages of England. as numerous great poets were writing in English.

the emergence of figures such as Edward Elgar and Arthur Sullivan in the 19th century showed a new vitality in English music. Benjamin Britten and Michael Tippett emerged as internationally-recognized opera composers. Elton John. and in the composing duo of John Lennon and Paul McCartney. which peaked at the end of the 1960s and into the 1970s. John Taverner andWilliam Byrd have tended to overshadow instrumental composition. a new trend emerged out of Liverpool in 1962. Cecil Sharp was a leading figure in the English folk revival. The Beatles became the most popular musicians of their time. The semi-operatic innovations of Henry Purcell did not lead to a native operatic tradition. The Smiths. Queen. Finally. when England became independent from Rome. Radio head. Iron Maiden and Pink Floyd to the globe. The Hollies. a form of Christianity that is both reformed and Catholic. English Christians have predominantly been members of the Church of England (a branch of the Anglican Communion). Robbie Williams. like most European countries. David Bowie. The Spice Girls. The Kinks. undergone a roots revival in the last half of the 20th century. Genesis. but George Frederick Handel found important royal patrons and enthusiastic public support in England. The "Fab Four" opened the doors for other English acts such as The Rolling Stones.Music England has a long and rich musical history. Black Sabbath. popularized the concept of the self-contained music act. Oasis. Led Zeppelin. Blur. The United Kingdom has. The Book of Common Prayer is the . However. In the 20th century. and Ralph Vaughan Williams and others collected English folk tunes and adapted them to the concert hall. Arctic. George Michael. Some of England's leading contemporary artists include Eric Clapton. Party. The achievements of the Anglican choral tradition following on from 16th century composers such as Thomas Tallis. English music has been an instrumental and leading part of this phenomenon. Coldplay and Muse. Cream. The rapturous receptions afforded by audiences to visiting musical celebrities such as Haydn often contrasted with the lack of recognition for home-grown talent. a little over 37 million people in England and Wales professed themselves to be Christian. The Who. very few popular singers composed the tunes they performed. Before the Beatles. Since the English Reformation of the 16th century. Religion In the 2001 Census.

and diplomacy. and Old Norse.[citation needed] Immigration to Britain from India and Pakistan since the 1950s means that a large number of people living in England practice Islam (818. Hinduism (467. affiliated to the Church of England. communications. Sport and leisure . or Sikhism (301. at least nominally. Cornish. Historically. caused by emigration and intermarriage. most English people practicing organized religion are. a member of the West Germanic language family. Language English people traditionally speak the English language. however this represents a decline of about 50% over the previous 50 years. Today. aviation.000). The modern English language evolved from Old English. mainly in urban areas. Latin. 252. however. or 15% of English people.000). science. Jewish immigration since the 17th century means that there is an integrated Jewish English population.foundational prayer book of the Church of England. English has become the international language of business. another Brythonic Celtic language.000). are currently spoken by about 3. Because of the 19th century geopolitical dominance of the British Empire and the post-World War II hegemony of the United States. with lexical influence from Norman-French. the Quakers and the Salvation Army.500 people. was spoken in Cumbria in North West England. Cumbric.000 Jews were recorded in England & Wales in the 2001 Census. claim no religion. Churches that originated in England include the Methodist church. and the Church of England functions as the established church in England. Both the Church of England and the Catholic Church in England and Wales trace their formal history from the 597 Augustinian mission to the English. The 2001 census also revealed that about seven million people. the census shows that adherents to these religions are more likely to regard themselves as British rather than English. replacing the various Latin rites of the Roman Catholic Church. Other significant Christian denominations are Roman Catholicism and Methodism (itself originally a movement within the Anglican Church). a Celtic language originating in Cornwall. but it died out in the 11th century although traces of it can still be found in the Cumbrian dialect.

There are many sports which have been codified by the English. One of the most prestigious tournaments in tennis. and the other countries of the United Kingdom. and then spread worldwide including badminton. it seems. field hockey. such as in clothing and music. However. especially in football. The England cricket team actually represents England and Wales. table tennis and thoroughbred horse racing. Different sports directly represent the different social classes within England. since the English Rugby World Cup victory in 2003. rugby league. Now. England. is held in England. rugby union. Tennis is also one of England's major sports. competes as a separate nation in some international sporting events. Wimbledon. in the Olympic Games. where it evolved into baseball. croquet football. rugby union and rugby league are considered to be the national sports of England. the English have begun to remember who they are. the English game of rounder was transported to the American Colonies. England competes as part of the Great Britain team. cricket has regained much of the popularity it had lost throughout the 1990s. was traditionally associated with the old mill towns of north-west England. cricket and rugby union. and the United Kingdom as a whole. and nationalism lost its aggressive edge. Association football. Football maintains a consistent popularity across the country and is often indicative of trends across wider culture in England. Rugby league. with the red. lawn tennis. In an article in the Daily Mirror on 17 September 2005. The increase in hooliganism amongst football fans in the 1970s and 1980s can in part be attributed to a parallel rise in unemployment. violent football culture was transformed into a culture where families were welcome. I couldn't help but be amazed at how quickly the flag of St. Technology . However. England games looked a lot like Last Night of the Proms. In the late 18th century. cricket. returned to a more affluent and stable financial position in the late 1990s. the sport has seen a revival in widespread popularity across the class system. whereas cricket and rugby union have their origins in the private schools of the 18th and 19th centuries respectively. George has replaced the Union Flag in the affections of England fans. Supporters are nowadays more likely to carry the Cross of Saint George flag whereas twenty years ago the British Union Flag would have been the more prominent. A generation ago. cricket. As England. for instance. Billy Bragg said "Watching the crowd in Trafalgar Square celebrating The Ashes win. Likewise. white and blue firmly to the fore. after the Ashes victory of 2005.

Tim Berners-Lee. and Robert his eponymously named law of elasticity. England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th century. Robert Hooke.English inventions and discoveries Prominent English figures from the field of science and mathematics include Sir Isaac Newton. first secretary of the Royal Society in 1668. the motorised vacuum cleaner. Andrew Wiles and Richard Dawkins. the jet engine. the thermo siphon. J. the rubber band. Christopher Wren. the first industrial spinning machine. Thomson. Robert Boyle. Charles Babbage. and numerous important bridges. Alan Turing. Inventions and discoveries of the English include. the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering . Charles Darwin. the electric motor. Stephen Hawking. steam engines. Other inventions include the iron plate railway. hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering. Newtonian mechanics. "cat's eye" road safety device. Michael Faraday. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins. and infinitesimal calculus. best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway. the World Wide Web along with HTTP and HTML. Thomas Newcomen's steam engine helped spawn the Industrial Revolution. a series of famous steamships. steam locomotives. Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel. the hovercraft.Joseph Lister. As birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. joint development of the light bulb. the first computer and the first modern computer. the first successful human blood transfusion. tarmac. The lawn mower. and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory. Francis Crick. J. Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation. the seat belt. the mousetrap. Joseph Priestley.