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Space exploration is merely an outlet for the state to expand its capitalist grip – infinite wars will be fought over new resources – also their advantages are made up and/or inevitable in capitalism Dickens 9 – Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex
(Peter, “The Cosmos as Capitalism’s Outside,” The Sociological Review, 57: 66–82, dml)

The imminent conquest of outer space raises the question of ‘outside’ and ‘inside’ yet again. Capitalism now has the cosmos in its sights, an outside which can be privately or publicly owned, made into a commodity, an entity for which nations and private companies can compete. As such the cosmos is a possible site of armed hostilities. This means, contra Hardt and Negri, that there is an outside after all, one into which the competitive market can now expand indefinitely. A new kind of imperialism is therefore underway,
albeit not one attempting to conquer and exploit people ‘outside’ since there are no consumers or labour power to exploit in other parts of the solar system. Ferrying wealthy tourists into the cosmos is a first and perhaps most spectacular part of this process of capital's cosmic expansion. Especially important in the longer term is making outer space into a source

of resources and materials. These will in due course be incorporated into production-processes, most of which will be still firmly lodged on earth. Access to outer space is, potentially at least, access to an infinite outside array of resources. These apparently have the distinct advantage of not being owned or used by any preexisting society and not requiring military force by an imperializing power gaining access to these resources. Bringing this outside zone into capitalism may at first seem beneficial to everyone. But this scenario is almost certainly not so trouble-free as may at first seem. On the one hand, the investment of capital into outer space would be a huge diversion from the investments needed to address many urgent inequalities and crises on Earth. On the other hand, this same access is in practice likely to be conducted by a range of competing imperial powers.

Hardt and Negri (2000) tell us that the history of imperializing wars is over. This may or may not be the case as regards imperialism on earth. But old-style imperialist, more particularly inter-imperialist, wars seem more likely than ever,

as growing and competing power-blocs (the USA and China are currently amongst the most likely protagonists) compete for resources on earth and outer space. Such, in rather general terms, is the prospect for a future, galactic, imperialism between competing powers. But what are the relations, processes and mechanisms underlying this new phenomenon? How should we understand the regional rivalries and ideologies involved and the likely implications of competing empires attempting to incorporate not only their share of resources on earth but on global
society's ‘outside’? Social crises, outer spatial fixes and galactic imperialism Explanatory primacy is given here to economic mechanisms driving this humanization of the universe. In the same way that they have driven imperializing societies in the past to expand their economic bases into their ‘outsides’, the social relations of capitalism and the processes of

capital-accumulation are driving the new kind of outer space imperialisms. Such is the starting-point of

this paper (See alsoDickens and Ormrod, 2007). It is a position based on the work of the contemporary Marxist geographer David Harvey (2003) and his notion of ‘spatial fixes’. Capitalism continually constructs what he calls ‘outer transformations.’ In the context of the over-accumulation of capital in the primary circuit of industrial capital, fresh geographic zones are constantly

sought out which have not yet been fully invested in or, in the case of outer space, not yet been invested in at all. ‘Outer spatial fixes’ are investments in outer space intended to solve capitalism's many crises. At
one level they may be simply described as crises of economic profitability. But ‘economic’ can cover a wide array of issues such as crises of resource-availability and potential social and political upheavals resulting from resource-shortages. Furthermore, there

is certainly no guarantee that these investments will actually ‘fix’ these underlying economic, political and social crises. The ‘fix’ may well be of a temporary, sticking-plaster, variety. Cap causes endless genocide and spurs violent resistance that kills millions in the name of resource expansion. Jalata 11 – Professor of Sociology & Global Studies
(Asafa, January 24th 2011, “Terrorism from Above and Below in the Age of Globalization”, p.1-4) NAR

As capitalism developed in Western Europe, the need for raw materials, minerals such as gold and silver, markets, and free or cheap labor expanded due to the desire to minimize the cost of production and to increase the accumulation of capital or wealth. “The treasures captured outside of Europe by undis-guised looting, enslavement, and murder,” Karl Marx (1967: 753-754) writes, “floated back to the mother-country and were there

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turned to capital.” Most liberal and leftist scholars have failed to identify and explain the role of state-sponsored or state
terrorism that colonial officials, European companies, and ex-peditionary forces used during the expansion of the racialized capitalist world system to transfer the economic resources of the indigenous peoples to European colonial forces or settlers and their collaborators. The development of the nation-state and the capitalist world system occurred through

war making, violence and organized crime (Tilly, 1985: 170). We cannot clearly understand the essence and meaning
of global terrorism without comprehending the essence and characteristics of state terrorism since states were born and consolidated through vi-olence. Under the guises of “free markets,” “civilization,” and Chris-tianity, forces of European states

or state-sponsored companies committed acts of terrorism and genocide that were, more or less, ignored. In fact, the issue of terrorism only started to be addressed when, after World War I, colonized peoples in Africa and Asia began their liberation struggles against European co-lonial states. The terrorist attack on the life and liberty of American indigenous peoples by European colonial powers and their collaborators destroyed existing institutions and econo-mies and exposed the conquered peoples to poverty and fa-mineinduced “holocausts” (Davis, 2001). Discussing how the cultural destruction of indigenous peoples resulted in massive
deaths, Karl Polanyi (1944: 159-160) argues, “The catastrophe of the native community is a direct result of the rapid and vio-lent disruption of the basic institutions of the victim. These institutions are disrupted by the very fact that a market econo-my is foisted upon an entirely differently organized community; labor and land are made into a commodity, which, again, is only a short formula for the liquidation of every … cultural institution in an organic society.” The capitalist world economy that in the 19th century was permanently eliminating famine from Western Europe was

simultaneously accelerating famine and famine-induced deaths in the rest of the world: “Millions died, not outside the „modern world system,‟ but in the very process of being forcibly incor-porated into its economic and political structures. They died
in the golden age of Liberal Capitalism; indeed, many were mur-dered by the theological application of the sacred principles of [Adam] Smith” (Davis, 2001: 9). Today, mainstream Eu-ro-American scholars gloss over such crimes and

refer to them as actions of “discovery” and “civilization.” State terrorism, genocide, and the destruction of indigenous institutions and the devastating consequences of famine have been closely inter-connected in the global capitalist world system. In addition, the international community rarely
holds accountable its members that engage in state terrorism and genocide. Kurt Jonassohn (1998: 24) recently noted that terrorist state leaders in develop-ing countries “not only go unpunished, they are even rewarded. On the international scene they are accorded all the respect and courtesies due to government officials. They are treated in ac-cordance with diplomatic protocol in negotiations and are treated in the General Assembly of the United Nations. When they are finally ousted from their offices, they are offered asylum by countries that lack respect for international law, but have a great deal of respect for the ill-gotten wealth that such perpetra-tors bring with them.” Despite the fact that some government elites claim that the state provides protection from domestic and external violence, “governments organize and, wherever possible, monopolize the concentrated

means of violence. The distinction between „legi-timate‟ and „illegitimate‟ force makes no difference” (Tilly, 1985: 171). Political violence has always been involved in producing and maintaining structures, institutions, and organi-zations of privileged hierarchy and domination in society. Those who have state power, which incorporates the power to define terrorism, deny their involvement in political violence or terrorism and confuse abstract theories about the state with reality. Based on an idealized relationship between the state and
society, philosophers and thinkers such as Hobbes, Hegel, Rousseau, and Plato have identified three functions of the state that would earn it legitimacy. According to state theories, the state protects and maintains internal peace and order in society; it organizes and protects national economic activities; it de-fends national sovereignty and national interests (Bushnell, et al., 1991: 6). In reality, most states violate most of these theo-retical principles by engaging in political repression and state terrorism

in order to defend the interests of a few powerful elites. Furthermore, the revolutionary theories of the state by
Karl Marx and V. I. Lenin (1971) remain a dream because states failed to introduce revolutionary social transformations that would eliminate oppression, repression, state terrorism, and the exploitation of people (Maguire, 1978). The occurrence of political repression, oppression, state ter-rorism, and dictatorship in the former Soviet Union, China and other former revolutionary countries demonstrate that the state has remained the site of violence despite its legitimating dis-course. As Charles Tilly (985: 1819) puts it, political violence is closely related to the art of statecraft, and most of the time, “the state, like an unchained beast, ferociously [attacks] those who claim to be its master, its own citizens” (Tilly, 1985: 7). Annamarie Oliverio (1998) criticizes scholars who produce definitions of terrorism on behalf of the state and promote outmoded concepts, analyses, and theories in state bureaucracy, the media, and in academia. The motivations of those who hold state power and

engage in state terrorism are to maintain the global economy, structures of politics, and hierarchies of cultures and peoples in order to extract economic resources. The main objective of those who engage in nonstate terrorism is mainly to politically respond to economic, political, and cultural inequalities. One common denominator of the theories of non-state terrorism is that it is mainly caused by grievances of one kind or another. These grievances involve national/religious/cultural oppression,

eco-nomic exploitation, political repression, massive human rights violations, attacks on life and liberty, state terrorism, and vari-ous forms of social injustices. Yet, whilst it is acknowledged that revolutions, social movements, and non-state terrorism generally involve grievances, all grievances do not result in revolutionary or social movements, nor do they all cause sub-versive

DML, Ian, Harry, Jay, Amanda, Rothenbaum, Clayton

strives to shape those ‘anticipating elements’. as Marx (1852) wrote.” Interface 2:2. although social structures are sustained solely through the practices that reproduce them. with radical effects. which practices and which alignments of movements and practices. the question of counter-hegemony evokes the dialectic of bringing the new into existence. the latter being a preferred trope of modernity (Blumer 1969). Gramsci captured this dialectic with the metaphor of welding the present to the future: How can the present be welded to the future. as in the incorporation of indigenous ways as alternatives to neoliberal practices that have grown decidedly old (cf. Bahn 2009). Amanda. movements. and political contexts in which it takes place. weigh ‘like a nightmare on the brains of the living. Rothenbaum. and the emergence of leaders. a well-established hegemonic structure naturalizes social cleavages and contradictions. Counter-hegemony. Indeed. Alt – vote negative to reject the flawed capitalist nature of the affirmative. This dialectic between what already exists and what might be constructed out of that is integral to any project of purposeful socio-political change. Harry. the new preserves yet transforms extant reality. ‘Fermenting in the process of the real itself’ is what Ernst Bloch called ‘the concrete forward dream: anticipating elements are a component of reality itself’ (1986:197). Desai and Tuğal 2009: 216. and cadres in aggrieved populations can facilitate the emergence of subversive terrorism. the continued oppressive and exploitative policies of state elites. new relationships and kinds of relationships’ that Williams (1977: 123) identified with cultural emergence. They are carriers of the ‘new means and values. Ian. The combination of factors such as collective grievances.Cap Kritik 4/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab terrorism. There must therefore be some intervening structural. the development of extreme ideologies in the form of religion or another ideology. so that they may become lasting features of social life. and theorized by those who have contradictory interests and objectives and since the subject matter of terrorism is complex and elusive. Most experts on the subject look at this issue from a narrow perspective by ignoring what I argue to be the reality: that terrorism is a social cancer for all human groups affected by it. Joseph 2002). Clayton . ideologues. counter-hegemony: in search of the new. the refusal of state actors to address longstanding grievances peacefully and fairly.’ Yet it is from existing practices and relations that the new is fabricated. Often the new reworks the old. social. dml) In the most general terms and at the highest level of abstraction. Fraser 1995). economic. conjunctural. Since terrorism has been conceptualized. DML. For counter-hegemony. new practices. Movements succeed in creating change when political and cultural opportunity structures open up (Tarrow 1998). ‘emergent publics’ that create possibilities for a more democratic way of life (Angus 2001). defined. Viewed dialectically. in short which ‘new combinations’ (Dyer-Witheford 2001) might already carry the new – and under what contemporary conditions might they have efficacy? These are more concrete questions of counter-hegemony. against the sedimented practices and relations that. Jay. precisely because they are structurally reproductive. only transformative practices have that capacity (Bhaskar 1989. as distinct from defensive forms of subaltern resistance. Movements. such practices. and behavioral factors particularly that act to transform some grievances into non-state terrorism through some agencies of the aggrieved population. securing the active. closely integrated with consumer-capitalist accumulation strategies. and thus with reproducing the status quo. which is to say that the future is already contained as potential within the present. The alternative is the only way out – we need to analyze the flaws in the system to find the preconditions for movements away from capitalism and its inevitable collapse – this is key to develop a real political strategy Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William. as Melucci (1989) has emphasized. Theorists of agency and structure note that. there currently is a wide gap in establishing a common understanding of terrorism among scholars of terrorism studies. do not produce much that is new. “Crisis. so that while satisfying the urgent necessities of the one we may work effectively to create and ‘anticipate’ the other (1977: 65)? The new is no mere ‘fashion’. agentic consent of subalterns to their subordination (De Leon. the challenge is to seek out in the present the preconditions for a post-capitalist future and to develop political strategy based on an analysis of those immanent possibilities (Ollman 2003). 168-198. are laboratories for social invention. But which movements. We cannot adequately grasp the essence and characteristics of modern terrorism without understanding the larger cultural.

Ian. Jay.Cap Kritik 5/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **LINKS** DML. Clayton . Harry. Amanda. Rothenbaum.

“The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. they are short-term solutions. Clayton . We can then begin taking a more measured view of space humanization. will begin attracting investments. an outside is needed as a zone into which surplus capital can be invested. On the one hand.10 Rather. resistance to capitalism is either everywhere or nowhere. expansion into the cosmos offers no benefits to capital in the form of fresh sources of labor power. existing outsides. the geological substratum or the biological superstratum are immune from transformation by capital. No 6. Luxemburg’s second reason for imperial expansion is the search for cheap supplies of labor and raw materials. Harry. the atmosphere. But. Neil Smith’s characterization of capital’s relations to nature is useful at this point.e. the attempt is to fix capitalism’s crises. there are. social. these will include artificial fixes such as satellites. Regarding the latter.7 As outlined earlier. particularly those of declining economic profitability. appended to Earth. The kind of theory mentioned above also has clear implications for the humanization of the cosmos. and more critical look at what is happening and what is likely to happen. space fiction fantasies about aliens aside. At first. and exploiting zones of profitability for surplus capital. The reproduction of material life is wholly dependent on the production and reproduction of surplus value. the social relationships and mechanisms underlying space-humanization are very familiar. harder. capitalism’s emergent outside. In the early twentieth century. as suggested above. The stage would then be set for wars in outer space between nations and companies attempting to make their own cosmic “fixes. Similarly. Rothenbaum. and environmental crises on earth. with new parts of the cosmos being invested in by competing nations and companies. capital is being physically invested in new regions. At this point. and which are generating this demand for expansion into outer space.”11 Capitalism is everywhere. space technology has extended and deepened this process. and start developing more progressive alternatives.” DML. no absolute guarantees that such fixes will really correct an essentially unstable social and economic system. the oceans. Since Luxemburg wrote. On the other hand.” i.. Amanda. and more from that of finding. At best. Some influential commentators argue that the current problem for capitalism is that there is now no “outside. governments protecting the zones for which they are responsible. Jay. such as the moon and Mars.Cap Kritik 6/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Generic Their explotative project is a band-aid solution for Earthly problems that simply serves to buttress capitalist structures Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. the humanization of the cosmos seriously questions these assertions.” again in response to economic. capital stalks the Earth in search of material resources. these being located mainly on earth. but is also in its totality an appendage to the production process…no part of the Earth’s surface. Outer space will be “globalized. Although the humanization of the cosmos is clearly a new and exotic development. First. we must return to the deeper. allowing an increasing number of people to become integral to the further expansion of global capitalism. Rosa Luxemburg argued that an “outside” to capitalism is important for two main reasons. nature becomes a universal means of production in the sense that it not only provides the subjects. however. Military power will inevitably be made an integral part of this process. and space hotels. But during the next twenty years or so. Developing “outsides” in this way is also a product of recurring crises. of course. Nature on a cosmic scale now seems likely to be incorporated into production processes.9 Capital is now also “stalking” outer space in the search for new resources and raw materials. space stations. Clearly. making. Ian. an increasing number of political economists have argued that the importance of a capitalist “outside” is not so much that of creating a new pool of customers or of finding new resources. These crises are followed by attempted “fixes” in distinct geographic regions. Projects for the colonization of outer space should be seen as the attempt to make new types of “spatial fix. dml) Instead of indulging in over-optimistic and fantastic visions. and perhaps other cosmic entities such as Mars. Monthly Review Vol 62. objects and instruments of production. The word “fix” is used here both literally and figuratively. we should take a longer. New “spatial fixes” are due to be opened up in the cosmos. To this end. Economic and social crisis stems less from the problem of finding new consumers. underlying processes which are at the heart of the capitalist economy and society. the moon.8 But expansion into the cosmos does offer prospects for exploiting new materials such as those in asteroids. November 2010. it is needed as a means of creating massive numbers of new customers who would buy the goods made in the capitalist countries.

will be controlled by those already in possession of the capacity to do so. nearby resources on the Moon. particularly the land. we can envisage capital ‘stalking’ the nearby cosmos in search of the resources needed for production. Tokar 1999). whilst choosing to overlook their social position. own and control these regions as a first step towards their privatization and commodification as part of a process of humanization. In theory they are. Since the 1980s. capital stalks the Earth in search of material resources. Harry. mechanisms operating in virtue of the necessary underlying relationships of capitalism. Hulstroj (2002) makes the important observation that the UN declaration that space should be ‘free for exploration and use by all states’ assumed that space was an infinite resource and that there would be enough space for everybody. outer space law is another instance of how a ruling class rules. the geological substratum or the biological superstratum are immune from transformation by capital. Attempts are already under way to legally subdivide. 56) Now. commodification and space law Neil Smith. the oceans. dml) DML. The object is to make the universe into ‘an appendage to the production process’. etc. the atmosphere. if they ever are commodified. leaving no room for satellites launched by developing countries who might in future want to do so. However. University of Essex and **James. a number of books have examined the commercialization of outer space from a business or legal perspective. . in critical realist terms. Commodification and space law The contemporary development of space law (dividing outer space into items where property rights apply and over which contracts and individual juridical rights can be drawn up) is therefore an obvious harbinger of the forthcoming commodification of the nearby universe and the extension of the secondary and tertiary circuits into outer space. but in reality they will be available only to the wealthy and to large corporations. those on the Moon. The principle of ‘first come. It extends and proliferates a process started. Law and property rights are. and Hulstroj notes that speed settles these disputes rather than value judgements (2002: 110). One of capitalism’s main attempts at crisis resolution has been via commodification and privatization on Earth. The geostationary orbit for satellites (an orbit that keeps satellites directly above the Earth’s equator) is already overcrowded. (Smith 1984: 49. but is also in its totality an appendage to the production process . Amanda.*Peter. The Antarctic is proving attractive to pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries searching for new compounds and genetic resources. Clayton . The circuits of capital pull progressively more materials into their midst. when populations began to be removed from their means of subsistence. Ownership and commodification are the ways in which this appendage are made. The Antarctic Treaty and the Law of the Sea Treaty were both used as models for the legal treaties governing outer space appropriation. But gaining access to outer space assets is a rather different kind of accumulation.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Oil companies are drilling in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge as their response to the energy crisis and political upheavals in the Middle East. The process now continues with the privatization and commodification of assets such as welfare provisions and services previously held and operated by states. encountering strong opposition from environmentalists and others (Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition 2004. But both such kinds of potential ‘fix’ remain fair game for future capital investment. first served’ has been endorsed by the International Telecommunications Union. he argues. They operate on the illusion that property rights are available to all citizens. however. Jay. pg 59-60. near-Earth asteroids. Commodifying outer space But this is part of a bigger pattern. allowing them to be developed throughout the globe and outer space. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. This is what Harvey (2003) calls ‘accumulation by dispossession’. Rothenbaum. IWren) The outer spatial fix. with ‘primitive accumulation’. . space is not uniform in its usefulness. nature becomes a universal means of production in the sense that it not only provides the subjects. Seen in this way. To this end. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. as he rightly says. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 179. . The Arctic and Antarctic are the closest Earthly equivalents to the nearest outer spatial assets. Ian. one not dispossessing anyone already using these resources. Similarly. just over a decade later. Space control=capitalist Dickens and Ormrod 7 . objects and instruments of production. No part of the Earth’s surface. a close collaborator of Harvey. These new types of ‘spatial fix’ are. They help guarantee such relations. has argued that: The reproduction of material life is wholly dependent on the production and reproduction of surplus value. They do so by apparently working to the same ‘universal’ rules as subordinated classes.Cap Kritik 7/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space development is simply an extension of the capitalistic drive to secure and appropriate external resources as appendages to a system dominated by the wealthy power-elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 .

pied by government satellites? Presumably. amongst those with access to the heavens. economic and environmental upheaval. in a devolution to anar. But Chapters 7 and 8 suggest that the cosmos is also integral to an imminent fourth stage: capitalism being extended by the most powerful. Here again. the universe is conceived as an object that those with political and economic power can utilize to retain and extend social power. A number of interesting questions present themselves once it is recognized that common property could exist in anarcho-capitalism. the increasing use of the cosmos for military and surveillance purposes increases their distance from it. 5 and 6. The humanization of outer space is therefore being used to control or manage an earlier phase of imperialist expansion while ushering in a new one. technology which itself forms part of capitalism’s hegemonic resolution to its own inherent crises. economic and cultural means. Clayton .ernments. populations. was he acting as an individual homesteading that area of the moon. The global market is proving increasingly unable to contain the many contradictions of capitalism. Meszaros. but they are almost certainly making the world more dangerous. DML. presumably such celestial govern. culture and military adventures on Earth. subaltern. and that the humanized cosmos is central to this transition. Who owns the orbital paths that are now occu.pg26. Capitalism is the root cause of territory expansionism in space.Cap Kritik 8/194 The main theme running through the later chapters of this book is that imperialism 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab is now entering into a new Similar questions arise about ownership in outer space. with an additional problematic issue that the original users have been gov. The emergent form of cosmic society makes sense only when placed in this context of Earthly chaos. For example. as with roads and parks on Earth. so that area of the moon would be government property? In anarcho-capitalism. Rothenbaum. On the one hand. hegemonic messages are being asserted by this technology. or was he acting as an employee and an agent of the United States government. Jay.cho-capitalism. But in the meantime. attempting to ‘fix’ it by military. Amanda. elites and nations into outer space. It is being used to manage the ‘third stage’ of imperialism.Spring 2005. Ian. even to the point of what Ernest Jones (1913) describes as the ‘God complex’. mises. gathering valuable moon rocks and undertaking other activities. Holcombe 5 -DeVoe Moore Professor of Economics at Florida State University (Randall G. when Neil Armstrong landed on the moon in 1969 and combined his labor with a section of the moon’s land area.. At the same time. JOURNAL OF LIBERTARIAN STUDIES 329. the most powerful classes of modern society are using the cosmos as a means of managing and controlling this chaos. Harry. including the economic and military demands of competing geopolitical powers. These ‘fixes’ may be organized by dominant economic and military powers such as the US. as we have outlined in Chapters 4.ernment-owned roads. The result is the further development of narcissism. “COMMON PROPERTY IN ANARCHO-CAPITALISM”. writing of the growth of armaments in the late twentieth century. On the one hand. wrote ‘we have entered the most dangerous phase of imperialism in all history’ (2001: 37).ment property would revert to common ownership. again competing. further crisis and risk are being generated. Global society is in social. the cosmos is being increasingly used to regulate social relations. those orbits would be treated the same way as gov. This danger is now being increased by its spread into outer space. For other. political.

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Link – Aerospace
Keynes got it wrong—aerospace industry funding doesn’t boost the economy, it just sustains the expansion of capitalism and exploitative class relations. Dickens and Ormrod 7 - *Peter, Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of
(Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe, pg 86-87, IWren) Capital, ‘spatial fixes’ and government in absentia Governments Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology, University of Essex and **James, Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton

do not channel funds into the military merely as a form of industrial welfare – they do so to ensure the geographic expansion of their capitalist economies. ‘The new imperialism’ consisted, and still consists, of ‘accumulation by dispossession’. It was above all a reassertion of class power, with trade unions being marginalized, the creation

of ‘flexible’ labour markets and financial capital having a key role in allocating funds on a global scale. Keynesianism was largely rejected as flows of capital were now injected into newly commodified and privatized public goods and services. Investments started to flow into the other parts of the capitalist economy that looked promising sources of accumulation. ‘Structural Adjustment Programs’ were imposed by the International Monetary Fund on developing countries, opening up global markets and reducing state welfare spending. But new investments included, and still very much include, the Far East, particularly India and China. It is the

necessity of overseeing capital’s geographic expansion and monitoring its social and political implications that gives space a revived significance over and above the demands of the military– industrial–space complex. This is where we can usefully return to Lenin’s understanding of monopoly capitalism as
outlined in the previous chapter. Not only do regional monopolies represent a threat to global ‘free trade’, they represent a threat to peace. A militarized outer space becomes a medium through which some such monopolies can be

protected. But for global capitalism outer space is a medium through which regional monopolies can be regulated and, if necessary, destroyed. Lefebvre (1976) refers to the creation of ‘super regions’, which are
now expanding themselves into space.

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Link – Asteroids/Helium-3
Resource mining is supa cap Dickens and Ormrod 7 - *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton
(Peter and James, Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 144-145, dml)

Outer space is now increasingly envisaged as providing inputs to the Earthly production process. It is, for example, seen as an unlimited source of metals for human use. Private companies have also been established working on the research and design for asteroidal and lunar mines. This is
discussed in a number of books elaborating the commercial potential of outer space (e.g. Lewis 1996; Zubrin 1999; Hudgins 2002). The expansion of industry into space has been referred to by Harry G. Stine (1975) as the ‘third industrial revolution’ and by Krafft Ehricke (1972) as ‘the benign industrial revolution’ (as there were supposedly no environmental issues associated with it). Asteroids are receiving special attention (Lewis 1996). The Moon might seem an obvious first target

for the acquisition and mining of resources, but asteroids are currently seen as a better bet thanks to their metallic density. They have three hundred times as much free metal as an equal mass taken from the
Moon. Metals found on the Moon are just the dispersed debris from asteroids. In the mid-1990s the market value of metals in the smallest known asteroid, known as 3554 Amun, was about $20 trillion. This included $8 trillion worth of iron and nickel, $6 trillion worth of cobalt, and about $6 trillion in platinum-group metals (ibid.). As and when it is possible to launch

thousands of people into orbit and build giant solar power satellites, Lewis argues, it should be possible to retrieve this and mine other asteroids to supply Earth with all the metals society will ever need. Extracting valuable helium-3 from the Moon is another possibility. One metric ton of helium-3
is worth $3 million, and one million tons could be obtained from the Moon. This has led Lawrence Joseph to question in a New York Times article whether the Moon could become the Persian Gulf of the twenty-first century (cited in Gagnon 2006). Needless to say, we

need to remain cautious in accepting these highly optimistic forecasts. Even the most enthusiastic pro-space activists see materials in space as useful only for building in space. The cost of returning materials to Earth would add so much to the cost of extracting them that this would never be financially viable.

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Link – Astronauts/Desire to Space Travel
Astronauts become the new social elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 - *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton
(Peter and James, Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 162, dml) In the previous chapter, we outlined the form of ‘cosmic narcissism’ present in the fantasies of pro-space activists about taking trips into Earth orbit. However, this narcissism is also manifest in grandiose fantasies about omnipotence

being exercised through the conquest and colonization of space. Previous research (Ormrod 2007) revealed
activists with fantasies about bouncing up and down on the Moon, playing a round of golf there, mining asteroids or creating their own small colonies on Mars. These particular human beings, far from being oppressed by or subjected to forces in the heavens, are now being

reconstituted as all-powerful individuals expressing a control over the external world, which might be likened to that experienced in the earliest years of childhood. The fantasy of life in a spacefaring civilization protects the narcissistic idea that the whole universe revolves around him/her and that the whole cosmos is there to be consumed. It is a universe that promises that the power and limitless freedom of the Western individual can be guaranteed. Reality of course dictates
that pursuit of such a relationship with the universe will necessarily result in conflict with others and between the different needs of the individual.

DML, Ian, Harry, Jay, Amanda, Rothenbaum, Clayton

*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Jay. Clayton . with outer space being envisaged as a source of energy and materials. the surveillance of society and broadcasting information and propaganda. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 148. George W. It now seems clear that this process is to be extended. DML. Harry. may be possible. Ian. Amanda. Other still less exotic forms of humanization are already well in place. In the longer term the ‘terraforming’ of nearby planets. Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 12/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Colonization/ISS The humanizing mission of space is championed by the ISS Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Bush’s Space Exploration Initiative includes plans for a permanent lunar base manned in six-month shifts. making them into environments suitable for human beings. And here experiments are being conducted on the effects of gravity loss on human beings and other species. Here are living quarters for human beings. We have already encountered humanization in the form of militarization and. dml) But it is little appreciated that the colonization of outer space has already started with the International Space Station. via satellites.

These have enabled an increasing number of people to become part of the labor market.” This is part of a wider strategy of “Full Spectrum Dominance. No 6.S. DML. Monthly Review Vol 62. aimed to intercept incoming missiles while facilitating devastating attacks on supposed enemies. are extremely important elements of contemporary communications systems. Amanda. or “Star Wars” program. Satellite-based communications have also facilitated new forms of consumption such as teleshopping. The 1980s Strategic Defense Initiative.4 Using surveillance and military equipment located in outer space is now seen as the prime means of protecting U. Without satellite-based communications. Ian. It has now been made an integral part of the way global capitalist society is organized and extended. economic and military assets both on Earth and in outer space. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. This action is done by remote control from Creech Air Force Base at Indian Springs. they are now being used to observe and attack Taliban and Al-Qaida operatives in Afghanistan and elsewhere.-designed “missile defense shield.S. November 2010)NAR Yet among these plans and proposals. A version of the program is still being developed. the global economy in its present form would grind to a halt. with the citizens of the Czech Republic and Poland now under pressure to accept parts of a U. Combined with pilotless Predator drones. Nevada. Satellites. Rothenbaum.” which has for some time been official U. Clayton .S. Teleworking is the best known example. it is easy to forget that outer space is already being increasingly humanized. Satellites have also been made central to modern warfare. for example. Defense Policy. Jay. Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. Harry.Cap Kritik 13/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Communications Communication technologies are used to protect and further capitalist exploitation.

dml) This imagined past has long been associated with making an essential American national character. These are key values of the libertarian right. he believed. in which the destruction caused by the American Western expansion is highlighted (Launius 2003: 345). stagnate. DML. Jay.Cap Kritik 14/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Frontier The frontier mentality frames space as a place to be exploited Dickens and Ormrod 7 . along with the imagery. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 164. present and future. American culture will. Clayton . There is. of course. a well-established counter-hegemonic critique of the frontier. Rothenbaum. Zubrin and Wagner cite Turner and argue that ‘without a frontier from which to breathe life. He argued that the challenges of the frontier fostered an individualist survivalism based on risk-taking and hostility towards centralized power. The frontier is a transposable myth and ideological rendering of the past. Without such a frontier. This oft-reinvented tradition of a toughened individual forged by making a new frontier has its roots in Frederick Jackson Turner’s 1893 The Significance of the Frontier in American History (see Turner 1962). Ian. Modern space advocates have adopted this understanding of the frontier. it is believed. the spirit that gave rise to the progressive humanistic culture that America has offered to the world for the past several centuries is fading’ (Zubrin and Wagner 1996: 297). in order to justify the colonization of space. Pro-space activists are frequently reflexive about the fact that the needs of capitalism drive the frontier but they simply do not apply critical apparatus to their thinking about the necessity and desirability of capitalist development. Amanda.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. This in turn leads. to American democracy and the American entrepreneurial spirit. Harry. character types and settings it evokes.

This raises some of the debates surrounding the second contradiction thesis. Like the proponents of capitalism’s infinite expansion into an infinite outer space. it is not clear that this is an accurate account of the Left version of the second contradiction. Amanda. Humanizing nature on Earth or in the cosmos need be neither a complete disaster nor a complete triumph. The priority for historical materialism is to consider the implications of outer space humanization for particular societies. As pro-space activists show. may come off much worse than others as a result of such humanization. some sociologists have started mirroring the arguments of pro-space advocates and are considering the development of space resources as a permanent resolution of the second contradiction. But this is a long way from saying that capitalism and nature will come to an end as a result of commodification and environmental degradation. Ian. Clayton . the second contradiction thesis can be seen as depending on a form of catastrophism: the idea that society and nature are doomed. used largely to monitor climatic and environmental change. particular sectors of the population and particular species and ecological systems. Certainly some people.5 billion in 2007 for Earth observation data and services. One example is the revenue generated by Earth-imaging satellites. Rothenbaum. is quite misleading. the pessimism of the second contradiction thesis can easily be adopted not just by socialists but by the promoters of capitalism who would use the possibility of the Earth’s ‘demise’ as an excuse to continue privatizing the cosmos. Jay. Harris and Olby (2000) projected a market of $6. Harry. specifically the poor.Cap Kritik 15/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Get Off the Rock The rock isn’t gonna die – but only the elite will be able to get off it Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Developing the rest of the cosmos entails what Enzensberger (1996) might call the next stage of the eco-industrial complex: providing economic opportunities for those in the business of rectifying the degradation caused by capitalism in the first instance. But. But the picture of catastrophism. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 156-157. O’Connor (1996) is the leading contemporary Marxist proponent of the second contradiction and he argues that it is most likely to be addressed by state intervention and limited state ownership of the means of production. DML. dml) On the other hand. first.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Whatever happens to the Earth and the cosmos there will still be some form of a nature there (Harvey 1996). and working this into a fundamental critique of Marx’s political economy (Thomas-Pellicer 2004). whether propounded by Left or Right.

(Mean and Wilsdon 2004: 31–2) DML. Amanda. A photograph may look very much like a neutral.*Peter. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. . But photographs. University of Essex and **James. During the Vietnam War. Perhaps the most famous example was during the lead-up to the second Iraq war. that these images dated from an earlier period before the installations were removed. Yet this does not stop the powerful from using it as a means towards their particular ends. representation of an objective reality. for example. at least according to some websites. . Such. (For a historical account of America’s surveillance satellites. being conducted by the private sector. IWren) There is now every sign that the power of the military–industrial–space complex will continue to be enhanced. for example. photographs seem to offer a way of appropriating the objective reality of the world and understanding it. Mean and Wilsdon report that: During the Afghanistan war in 2001 the Pentagon signed an exclusive deal with Space Imaging. We talk more about the effects of surveillance from space in the next chapter. Using outer space for military surveillance has taken a great leap forward in recent years. to be working on new devices able to ‘peer through the skull and see the brain at work’ (cited in Fleming 2001). Surveillance previously conducted by military and other state authorities are now. It now seems likely. were provided by a private sector company called MapQuest. are ways of saving capitalism from its declining rates of profit. ‘Ownership’ of an objective reality via observing a photograph is more apparent than real. As in the case of the internet. ‘treacherous’. For the duration of the war. At the same time. Important elements of Harvey’s ‘tertiary circuit’ are therefore being transferred to the ‘primary circuit’ in which commodities. which could penetrate clouds and storms. intrusions on selected aspects of the world. earlier military applications set the original pace for making technologies that use outer space in the exercise of power. but rather an intrusion granted to the military by powerful corporations. The whole experience is reminiscent of Susan Sontag’s (2001) analysis of photography. Harry.) This is a process now very much caught up in ‘the war on terror’. Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 16/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Images Photographs and surveillance do not represent an objective medium of communication. This illusion of “ownership” culminates in paranoia and unilateral war waged by the military-industrial-complex. This entails not only further weaponization of outer space but its use for military surveillance. At a resolution of one metre. the Pentagon paid Space Imaging for control of all high-quality images of Afghanistan [. But photographs are ‘aggressive’. Dickens and Ormrod 7 . in Sontag’s word. enabled individual soldiers to be detected walking around on the ground (Fleming 2001). in large part at least. Clayton . are. Colin Powell’s famous 2003 pictures shown to the UN. however. sold and profited from. a US company that sells photographs from its Ikonos satellite. These images were part of an attempt to justify unilateral war against Iraq. On the one hand. pg 93-94. Military planners are said by Newsweek. these were the best available pictures on the commercial market. the provision of these resources for war is being infiltrated by capital. Jay. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. in this case public or state means of exercising authority and control. see Burrows 1988. infra-red sensors. at a cost of over $2million a month. finished. Ian. the satellite was out of action at the time and place the pictures were supposed to have been taken.] This blanket control also meant that humanitarian groups were denied access to information that could have helped them locate the large number of refugees created by the war. with the media and the internet active in promoting all kinds of conspiracy. a medium that has largely replaced print as a form of communication in modern society. In February 2003 Colin Powell (United States Secretary of State) presented US intelligence satellite images that purported to show evidence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. again. Surveillance rapidly increases levels of paranoia. are being made.

D-Vermont (Senate Passes Feingold-Leahy 2004). and Kosovo wars. These were originally part of an extension of the controversial PATRIOT Act.Cap Kritik 17/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Information Expansion of information services under the guise of national security leads to biopolitical domination over populations and war between nation states. and local as well as commercial databases including critical infrastructure like telecommunications and computers. 2004. national defense recedes as a plausible motive. warrant-less surveillance. at the same time that the administration has been making it harder and harder for the public to learn what government agencies are up to. According to the Intelligence Resource Program.1 (2006) 133-169. Afghanistan. The New Centennial Review 6. Ian. Ultimately. before he was [End Page 138] Secretary of Defense. Rothenbaum. such as provisions to loosen standards for FBI surveillance warrants and to allow the detention of suspects without bail. both in their afferent (intelligence-gathering) and efferent (intelligencedisseminating) aspects. the logic of the spy state unfolds: Admiral Poindexter's controversial Total Information Awareness program was we have to understand Abu Ghraib. Harry. There is a real and grim parallel between the gray future of perpetually monitored American citizens and the luckless present of the inhabitants of Fallujah. and psychological elements—in the polity the Prometheans imagine.5 Today. This was followed in some states by the floating of the crime-fighting computer database known as MATRIX (Robinson 2004).d. described America as frighteningly vulnerable to space attacks and concluded that the United States was "an attractive candidate for a space Pearl Harbor" (Stoullig 2001). mapping. Jay. while in the Iraq. underscores the importance of the spiritual—the mental. state.3 "Ironically. The most crucial point of these spy programs is [End Page 137] that access to some of this data may be given to the CIA. and more than what is spent today on NASA ($16 billion) or Homeland Security ($31 billion) (Tracing the Rise n. subjected to the retinal scans. Step by step.d. and indefinite detentions. more than the GDP of several nations. which ordinarily is not supposed to spy on citizens. and both operate in a manner essentially invisible to the public. moral. Congress canceled funding (Manjoo 2003). providing coordinates of targets. espionage and propaganda have become central.). When such sleepless watch is being kept. which. That suspicion became concrete on December 10. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. in 2004 the United States was spending more than $40 billion on intelligence. Otherwise. and militarized work gangs of the imperial state (Jamail 2004). “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR The centrality of information networks. disseminating intelligence.d. and surveillance becomes an end in itself through which the corporate state jealously seeks to provoke rather than deter enemies. DML. the government and its private sector partners have been quietly building more and more databases to learn and store more information about the American people. the first harbingers of a police state. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics. Some officials even suspect that terrorists will not be the only subjects.. " says Senator Patrick Leahy. it enables simultaneous surveillance of everything from credit reports to insurance claims (ACLU 2004). in reaction to public outrage. a panel that included Donald Rumsfeld. In 2001. about double in real terms what was spent on intelligence at the height of the Cold War. Thus. It demonstrates that what drives espionage and interrogation in Iraq is not some extreme ticking bomb contingency but the state's own inexorable drive to totality. warning of attacks. Military Space Programs n. the new provisions speed the journey to secret arrests. For this reason. a 50 percent increase over 1998. leaked to the media and dubbed PATRIOT II. Afferent The expansion of afferent functions recently has been stupendous.). Amanda. Now reintroduced as standalone legislation. dozens were spying. and intercepting messages at all times of day and in all weather over the entire globe in keeping with the motto of the National Reconnaissance Office that "we own the night" (Short n. when Congress approved an intelligence reform package with little-noticed changes.4 The afferent network extends to the new American frontier in outer space. Clayton . why have interrogations and torture the most comprehensive surveillance project ever conceived until. The National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004 lays the foundation for a de facto national identification card and links hundreds of federal. satellites are already involved in force enhancement. was never introduced as a bill (PATRIOT Act II 2004). ID badges. it is not from the framework of the so-called War on Terror but from this expansion that continued in Iraq even thought it was already well-known by early 2004 that the prisons there were peopled by petty criminals and innocent bystanders? (International Committee of the Red Cross 2004).

By the late 20th century. Mars presents a unique case for postcolonial spatial analysis: it is precolonial. We use the term ‘spatiality’ to refer to the composite nature of any geographical space: it works as a shorthand for the combination of physical. and commodified under capitalism was prefigured in the enclosures movement that began in the late 14th century. colonialism incorporates expansionist capitalism. It begins with ideas. Ian. 2 The European Space Agency. Behind this drive has been. In his 2004 announcement of the USA’s new space policy. The shape of future capitalist commodification strategies became further evident in moves by early traders to ‘gather up’ and concentrate the efforts of Europe’s traditional craft workers in a piecework system that de-localized the character of work (Weber 1930). The first motivation driving this study is a straightforward concern with spatial accountancy: what kind of a space is Mars at this moment? What kind of a place is Mars before the work of its physical colonization begins? Can Mars be legally owned. labour became oriented towards the future realization of a price. a space at the threshold of a significant spatial change. and on colonialisms other than those of the European past. China and Russia announced in March 2007 that they would send a joint mission to Mars by 2009. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. The dominant tense of work thereby moved from past to future. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. it refers to the creation of distant land as the property of a metropolitan state. expectations. with many millions of dollars already invested in its success. epistemologies. Space colonialism has featured on US Space policy agendas. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. We attend to Martian spatiality for two key reasons. marketing. Jay. Martian colonialism is therefore not science fiction fantasy: it has begun in earnest. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. similarly. it is also necessary to briefly contextualize them within capitalism. Since the 1986 US National Commission on Space’s declaration of its aim to settle on Mars and the Moon. an organizing of the world in a legal. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. by whom and through which processes? And are any of the numerous lessons learned from European colonialisms of the past relevant to Mars? And is the future of Mars necessarily colonial? The second motivation is a curiosity about the ways in which geographies are produced as artefacts of systemic trends in political economic terms. logical. dml) In order to understand the politics of Martian spatiality. strategic. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. whether on the part of traders (as profits) or workers (as wages). Rothenbaum. from a network of mutual obligations to motives of future personal gain (Graham 2001). and operational plans at work. 1 As such.Cap Kritik 18/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Mars The colonization of Mars is an expansion of capitalism – their discourse of colonization being “necessary” is misguided and justifies intervention Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. a more universalized managerial class. Seen at its most abstract and general level. and managerial framework that demands colonization. Rather than being seen or experienced as an expression of accumulated history. the DML. And in schools around the world. Harry. Bush (2004) stated that Mars would be the next body on which the USA’s human presence would be felt. and local knowledge. Bush’s Martian vision was not a new development in the USA. The trajectory of western political economies has unquestionably been towards the monetization and commodification of everything imaginable. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. tradition. first. the full expression of this movement came in the form of a massive debt bubble. the propertied classes of Europe and. claimed. generally for the economic benefit of the colonizer. and if so. children design Martian colonies as part of their homework. Framing Mars through terms of colonization and resources guarantees capitalist exploitation Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. There are political. It represents an opportunity for postcolonial studies to refocus on the present – and future – tense. dml) ‘Colonialism’ has a specific meaning here: rather than a vague pejorative portmanteau used to house a myriad of power relations. Martian colonialism does not begin with the launch of the first exploration ships or at the moment the first rocket touches down on Mars. discourses. latterly. is investing heavily in robotic probes that will scour the Martian surface for optimal colonization sites (BBC 2006). with teachers being trained in how best to bring Mars into the classroom (Middle 2006). and epistemological spaces that together comprise a single place. and pronouncements. George W. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. and companies offering schools ready-made Martian exploration simulation programs (Space Explorers 2007). Clayton . imagined. from actual to potential. What was to be owned. Amanda.

the NASA Administrator directed the Agency to support the President’s Freedom to Manage Initiative with the principal goal of removing barriers to more efficient management. Like Dickens and Ormond’s (2007) exploration of capitalism’s expansion into Space. NASA Management Systems Policy. the full range of mission risk managed at HQ and Centers. that ‘what is at stake – politically and geopolitically – in the contemporary struggle over outer space is too serious to pass without critical comment’ (MacDonald 2007. species. Ian. Mars can therefore be seen in discourse as a synecdoche of capitalist value relations – a distant and seemingly small ‘part’ of the system in which the pattern and trajectory of the whole can be seen. and private companies are investing intense energy in Mars’s exploration and future colonization.Cap Kritik 19/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab current global financial crisis is nothing less than the commodification of future human life and energies. which today begins all approaches to reality with a ‘strategic plan’: a technical device for defining. (NASA 2009a) NASA has situated itself firmly within strategic management discourse. while accommodating and providing flexibility to. Our approach is grounded in cultural geography set within a postcolonial framework. and ideas. and control are investigated. Thus the arc of capitalist commodification can be seen to stretch from heritage. As NASA is one of the primary agencies conducting missions to the planet. although geopolitics is included in its meaning. 593). In what follows. managerial control. It therefore focuses on Martian spatiality as a political object. To support this government-wide initiative and achieve management excellence. and Parker’s (2009) analysis of Space capitalism. ownership. DML. Rothenbaum. and an exemplar of historical trends in political economy. ‘Political’ here does not refer solely to geopolitics. Here is NASA on the matter of management: On April 24. We concentrate on two important aspects of discourse about Mars that encapsulate the political and the economic. territories. and controlling future environmental and factoral contingencies based on expectations of profit and personal gain. provides for management systems rigor and discipline. we attend to debates around the meaning of Mars as an artifact of managerial discourses of control and exploitation. Clayton . National governments. with the expectations of improved accountability and performance. with McDonald. It is an important object of contemporary political economy. shaping. and. the Administrator established a new policy. This becomes most clear when the politics of Martian exploration. we use ‘political’ to describe motivated relationships between organizations. and capitalist commodification processes. culture. and tradition – broadly speaking. Harry. Jay. 2002. Mars has also become an object of strategic planning. all of which is to be achieved through increased control and ‘efficiencies’. Amanda. Space agencies and societies.1. NASA Policy Directive 1280. the Past – to the commodification of all future social relation s (Graham 2002).We see this as an inherent and inevitable function of contemporary managerial discourse. a systemic expression of colonialist capitalist commodification processes. we agree that ‘it is naïve to imagine that Apollo and the rest have been free from such earthly entanglements’ (Parker 2009). and in which we can see the synechdocal aspects of Martian colonization in respect of capitalism’s historical development: (1) the debate about whether Mars is legally terra nullius or terra communis (politico-legal concerns) and (2) the debate about whether Mars should be terraformed to accommodate human occupation or preserved to respect the innate value of an alien planet (economic and environmental concerns).

and historical. each seeking a toehold in policy and in practice. Mars is a dead space of no intrinsic value. or alteration of. Manipulation in the case of chilly Mars entails the heating and thickening of the atmosphere. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. and the detonation of nuclear explosives on the planet to release subsurface water (Fogg 1995. 2005). considering Martian terraforming means working out the relationship between humans and Martian space. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. To preservationists. a tablua rasa dumbly awaiting human animation. Mars’s political spatiality is currently dominated by anthropocentrism. dml) Clearly. and interesting: this position demands very limited human impact on. Antarctica. Zubrin’s (1996a) spatiality is committedly anthropocentric and utilitarian: in his vision. The argument is primarily an environmental one: terraformers argue that terrestrial overcrowding and resource depletion mean that a failure to colonize Mars would eventually result in the decline of humanity. As Paul York (2005) writes. As the debate about whether Mars should be legally terra communis or terra nullius demonstrates. arguing that humans are the natural ‘pollinators of the universe’ whose instinctive task it is to fertilize the galaxy. Shayler et al. The next step in the process is terraforming: this is the more ambitions plan of ‘creating an uncontained planetary biosphere emulating all the functions of the biosphere of earth’ (Fogg 1995. in that it may contain material of future scientific benefit. At present. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. Mars is a resource for humans to use and colonize (Zubrin 1996a). this perspective remains a muted one in western thinking. From a terraforming perspective. McKay (1990) similarly biologizes Martian colonialism. the planet. Two distinct versions of Martian spatiality emerge from the terraforming debate. Jay. then. Martian space is autonomously valuable. and whether planetary resource extraction should benefit few or many. they insist. It similarly informs another important dimension of Martian spatiality. utilitarian. beautiful. Terraformers position Mars as instrumental. which holds that ‘as long as life or other cultures are not present. They argue that Martian space is valuable on several fronts: intrinsically. Martian space is inert and dead. Ian. the founder of the assertively pro-terraforming Mars Society. the position. This preservationist view sees Martian space as intrinsically valuable rather than valuable only as a resource for humans. Is keeping a lifeless planet lifeless more important than allowing for the continuation of human life. and the latter arguing for large-scale private colonization as quickly as possible (Lambright and VanNijnatten 2003) – the spatiality of Mars as a passive resource for human use and possession remains largely unchallenged. Rothenbaum. Uluru. mutely awaiting its activation by human terraformers. there is no ethical or political crisis [in terraforming] except whatever we choose to impose on ourselves’. Amanda. despite the establishment of National conservation parks in places such as Death Valley.Cap Kritik 20/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Mars Terraforming Y’all are cap Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. volcanoes. As in the schism between NASA and the Mars Society – the former advocating gradual colonization led by scientists. as beautiful. Karl Sagan published the first scientific study advocating terraforming in 1961. which is whether or not to terraform Mars. Two divergent spatialities – terraforming and preservationist – now hover over Martian space. as a place that is marked by early visits to the planet. In 1990. Its current dimensions are being shaped in the corporate and policy domains and will therefore DML. as Pyne (2003) writes. and Alaska under similar premises. Parks should be created. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. Chief among the various proposed methods for Martian ecopoiesis are the focusing of giant mirrors on Mars’s surface. but the terraforming debate began in earnest in 1990 when NASA published the proceedings of a major terraforming workshop (see Committee on Human Exploration of Space 1990). argues that as an entirely lifeless space. 90). Lee (1994) argues that current environmental management frameworks must be expanded beyond the biocentric so that they encompass abiotic or inanimate environments such as Mars. 210) states that terraforming is natural because humans are essentially expansionist. Harry. Zubrin is far from alone in championing this version of Martian spatiality. Cockell and Horneck (2004) propose a series of Martian Planetary Parks that preserve key areas of Martian space in their current form. Robert Haynes coined the term ‘ecopoiesis’ to describe the possibility of modifying terrestrial biota for implantation on Mars (Haynes 1990): this process would first involve manipulation of the Martian environment in order to render it habitable (Fogg 1995). they ask? Fogg (2000. and the freeing up of some of the planet’s currently frozen water supplies. and icecaps – from any human intervention. ideological orientation underpins debates about legal spatiality: at stake is the question of whether or not planets should be the possession of states and or corporations. Mars’ political spatiality is thus far from settled. thus falling squarely within the positive side of utilitarian ethics (an intellectual pet of the 19th-century propertied classes): Zubrin. Clayton . to protect and preserve key Martian sites – deserts. The preservationist version of Martian spatiality arises in response to terraforming.

and privatisation. Amanda. Ian. Jay.Cap Kritik 21/194 enclosure. 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab be shaped in the image of past and present political economic trends where new spaces are concerned: DML. Rothenbaum. Clayton . Harry. expropriation.

right intent. and force application should be expected. Colonel at US army war college (Jeffrey. http://www. Harry. suggests that space dominance by any nation is antithetical to fundamental national beliefs and values. Jay. Pursuit of unilateral U. Rothenbaum. which does.S. space superiority would likely exacerbate perceptions of American imperialism. space hegemony should be expected. constitutional formula that separates and balances power to protect liberty and tranquility from tyranny. while the new space policy does not advocate space superiority as an objective. Amanda. the U. is problematic. DML. proportionality and legitimacy considerations of the Just War tradition. these considerations pose a moral challenge in adhering to the just cause.71 Proper space strategy objectives must be congruent with these notions of peaceful international coexistence under the rule of the same or worse reaction against U.Cap Kritik 22/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Militaristic Rhetoric Reject the militaristic language of the aff – furthers imperialism Farnsworth 7.70 Just as the specter of space weapons and Soviet space domination sparked the space race and the strong U. This is not to say that objectives to establish some form of a controlled and stable space operating environment or the capacity to protect and defend space interests are not needed. It is to say that adopting current language from defense policy and doctrine into space strategy is probably not acceptable.pdf&AD=ADA469671) Taken together. balance and separation of power. space superiority. space control.S. Further.S. and result in undesirable if not irreparable consequences. response in the Cold War.dtic. Ian. could permanently fracture important international relationships.S.” 3/30/07. Thus.72 DoD policy and doctrine advocating U. Clayton . its inculcation of defense policy and doctrine language.Lt. but these notions are advocated without a full theoretical foundation to rationalize the need for and consequences of space preeminence. Different paradigms are needed to formulate more appropriate objectives and temper cultural tendencies toward unilateralist space dominance objectives. and reflect the preference for collective security arrangements to protect common space interests while adhering to the Just War tradition. “SPACEPOWER: A STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT AND WAY FORWARD.

These include social expenditures.*Peter. These existing and proposed outer spatial fixes all rely intrinsically on two processes: the increasing commodification and privatization of the commons. the American economy now deeply depends on military spending. Rothenbaum. and the increasing compression of time and space by new technology. especially for the industries of ‘developed’ countries. Similarly. Military expenditures. Most importantly for our subject. DML. make increasing use of outer space. IWren) Surplus capital. though they contribute to ensuring the reproduction of the social system. Investments of this kind can be also be made in somewhat less sinister directions. These include the channelling of capital into satellites designed to monitor weather conditions or to assist refugees in their attempt to make a better life. pg 58. leading some to use the term ‘warfare state’ (Edgerton 2005). The military clearly requires the materials made by private defence contractors whereas the contractors are highly dependent on military spending as a steady revenue stream. Indeed. Amanda. such as welfare and military expenditure. Indeed. Governments are again making investments siphoned off from the primary circuit in the form of taxes and ploughed into further primary circuits which. it is hoped. Jay. is channelled into other ‘tertiary circuit’ elements. will become profitable. Clayton . originally siphoned off from the primary circuit. have now been made highly profitable. We now discuss each of these processes in turn.Cap Kritik 23/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Military Funding Military elites ensure that funding is siphoned off to sustain the monitoring of civilian populations and the growth of the military-industrial complex Dickens and Ormrod 7 . and in parallel with other forms of military spending. they are directed by military and industrial elites into expenditures that. as we later discuss. they are being channelled into surveillance: monitoring subaltern populations deemed socially or militarily problematic. Harry. The close working relations between the economy and the military are sometimes known as ‘the military industrial complex’. University of Essex and **James. the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space has displayed posters campaigning to ‘end aerospace corporation welfare’: contracts given to major weapons and space manufacturers to keep them in business. Ian. combined with taxes on consumers. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. in which immediate prospects of profitability for capitalism may again not be clear.

Within a moonbase. Amanda. The Outer Space Treaty has theoretically forbidden any nation from claiming sovereignty over any “celestial body”. the epicenter of the guilt trip questions are now being asked. Clayton . including the one that happened in Hawaii at the end of the Second World and journalist (Taylor. Another source of experience might be the transitions from martial law to civilian law that have taken place over the years. The “c-word” is supposed to invoke all the terrible aspects of old-fashioned imperialism. will amount to sovereignty. in practical terms. None of these have involved any change in sovereignty. The ship itself is considered the sovereign territory of the state that owns it while the waters through which it passes may be international or belong to another sovereign state that is obliged to respect the right of innocent passage The ship’s crew lacks anything like the ability to function as free citizens and to buy sell and trade in a free marketplace. “Independent space colonization: questions and implications.thespacereview. Yet. the government that sent them there will regulate their lives in more or less the same way a government regulates the lives of the crew of a warship. then so are “conquest”. http://www. if the provision in the Outer Space Treaty (OST) regarding their extended responsibility of launching states for whatever they put into space means anything. One question that advocates for space colonization have to consider is: how can the transition from a quasi-military lifestyle to a civilian one be handled? The experience that many communities in the US have had when a nearby military base closed down might be relevant.” 1/15/07.Cap Kritik 24/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Moon Moon activity in space beyond exploration is controlling and imperialist. “settlement”. Ian. and “industrialization”. particularly European imperialism. Within a couple of decades we will see if this approach can pass the reality test. forwarding the cycle of domination and exploitation Dinerman 7. nations will find themselves exerting control over parts of that body which. it mean that states will have to exercise control over the inhabitants of a colony no matter how long ago their ancestors left Earth. “exploitation”. Even in Europe. there was a major debate in France last year over whether the “positive aspects of colonialism” should be taught in schools. Post World War Two decolonization involved such a change. Jay. One notes that neither the Japanese nor the Turks nor the Russians feel particularly guilty about their now-defunct empires. DML. Once one or more bases are established on the The term “space colonization” has been declared off-limits in polite society. Harry. even one occupied by only a couple of astronauts. If colonization is a dirty word. Rothenbaum. anything that goes beyond simple exploration is problematic. If fact.

the chairman of the editorial board of Podhoretz's National Interest. Ian. the think tank that in a notorious paper in 2000 proposed American world domination. have remained stubbornly hidden while others. is a friend of Wolfowitz. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics. Hollinger's board also includes the columnist George Will. even Trotskyites. In the Bush first term. and policy networks behind them. for instance. Even then. in spite of a flood of reports. So are Wolfowitz and Feith. The interlocking system orchestrates media reports and opinions to frame issues in particular ways so that certain themes appear in tandem. Krauthammer. Midge Decter. The New Centennial Review 6. Consider the manner in which the prison abuse story broke. was defense comptroller until his resignation. have received sustained coverage. Jay. the bias lying as much in what it omitted as what it stated. in which front groups for business lobby government or other organizations through mass mailings that imitate the activism of genuine citizen groups (Lind 2002). the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) and the Center for Strategic Policy (CSP). neoconservatives have replaced career civil servants with political [End Page 149] appointees and nullified DML. they carried over their revolutionary roots in the cadres and networks through which they operated. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR The similarity of the social agenda and Weltanschauung of the neo-conservatives to liberalism should thus not be surprising. although the neo-conservatives strongly support American military strength and corporate interests. former editor of the neo-conservative Commentary. is owned by the stridently pro-war newspaper magnate Rupert Murdoch. It is run by the editor of the neo-conservative Weekly Standard. When they did. not in October 2003. The End of History.Cap Kritik 25/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Their appeal to the neoconservative mainstream should be rejected – it is all propaganda that leads to violence. Both were also part of Team B. Dov Zakheim. The neo-conservatives see themselves as a revolutionary vanguard. Clayton . a prominent hawk. It also goes hand in hand with unquestioning support for the Israeli right. Rothenbaum. Eliot Cohen was a member of Rumsfeld's Defense Policy Board and the NSC. Wolfowitz was deputy defense secretary. Richard Perle. rather than in the grassroots fashion of other ethnic constituencies. such as the one on child abuse. Members of the PNAC now control the commanding heights of policymaking. Gertrude Himmelfarb. media. Lind 2004). This network of neo-conservative idealogues in the press and in policy team up incessantly to write their vehement tracts. Stephen Cambone was undersecretary for intelligence and also influential in [End Page 148] pro-nuclear circles. many of these proIsraeli lobbies work in the top-down manner of business lobbies. and the Daily Telegraph. certain stories. not in December 2002. AIPAC makes use of a kind of top-down "astroturf" lobbying. Especially powerful are two organizations. is the father-in-law of Elliott Abrams. in a few cases. which Black partly subsidizes through the Nixon Center. who was convicted in the Iran-Contra affair. the godfather of neo-conservatism and his wife. whose members have come to occupy innumerable influential government posts from where they press the same agenda as their ideological fellow travelers in the think tanks and media outlets. For instance. Committee on the Present Danger. but only in May 2004 after the corporate media—CBS—took it up on the heels of an expose by investigative journalist Seymour Hersh. Harry. The hard-line position they advocate rests on national missile defense. Also at PNAC is Francis Fukuyama. With the clout of the lobbying. Kristol is the son of Irving Kristol. sacrificing their professional integrity to support their bias (M. like Fox Television and the New York Post. The tone is set and the issues framed. Amanda. Typical of the revolutionary style of functioning. Norman Podhoretz. when the Post first published a revelatory piece on torture in Afghanistan (Priest and Gellman 2002). second at the Pentagon. such as the formulation of the torture memos. and preemption. and ideology. is a fellow at the American Enterprise Institute and on the board of Hollinger International. family.1 (2006) 133-169. Hollinger itself is run by Conrad Black. a right-wing media conglomerate that includes the Jerusalem Post. abrogation of arms control treaties. Libby was Cheney's chief of staff. undersecretary of defense under Reagan. only in the services of Link – Neocon Think Tanks capital rather than labor. are repeated until they have the required effect. is a veteran of the old anti-Communist group. The Weekly Standard. when AP ran a story about torture at Abu Ghraib itself (Hanley 2003). John Bolton was undersecretary of state for arms control and international security. Podhoretz is also the director of Near Eastern affairs at the National Security Council. a Post columnist. who only moved to the right on foreign policy in response to the Vietnam War (Raimondo 1993). the intelligence advisory group responsible for grossly exaggerating the Soviet threat in the 1970s and 1980s in order to get massive budget appropriations for defense. Project for the New American Century (PNAC). author of the most influential book of democratic triumphalism. for which Decter writes.[End Page 147] Take. Government has been effectively captured by such private lobbyists as JINSA and the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) and such think tanks as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI). which are driven by transnational business interests rather than strictly national interests (Vest 2002). a neo-conservative historian at Chicago University. and then vanish simultaneously. and his wife. they originated on the left as social democrats and. and institutions supposedly serving the national interest have come to be dominated by their private and transnational networks of business. Bill Kristol.

Clayton . Amanda. That was precisely what happened when lawyers from the Judge Advocate General's office were marginalized in 2003 by Pentagon appointees determined to implement policies that involved military dogs. leaving the executive unrestrained. is often bypassed (Editorial 2005). Whoever has the ear of the president has nearly limitless power to overthrow law. is supposed to be part of the checks against an imperial and secretive executive. mandated since Nixon. thus effectively overturning any constraints placed by law against a consolidation of power within the executive branch. Now those checks have vanished entirely. extreme sensory deprivation. They 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab have unified all intelligence-gathering and propaganda functions under defense (Eland 2004) and have then usurped those functions through personal networks.Cap Kritik 26/194 the traditional checks and balances between branches of government. Congressional oversight of intelligence. Jay. and psychological torture. but an independent intelligence agency. Rothenbaum. Ian. nonetheless. and the expertise of career civil servants. Harry. precedent. policies that shredded the Geneva Conventions and the Uniform Code of Justice (Silverstein 2004). DML.

and refers to the ‘demi-god’ status of astronauts and cosmonauts based on their ability to travel to the heavens. Rothenbaum. Harry. White seems more than well aware of the ways in which visiting outer space provides a sense of empowerment. dml) On the other hand. Although rejecting the idea that space travel is inherently a spiritual experience. Arguably they have been made the new intermediaries in the Great Chain of Being.1). White most definitely sees space travel as a positive thing for the self and for society.Cap Kritik 27/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – The Overview Effect White’s Overview Effect is a product of selfish empowerment and capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 .*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. White talks about the trip being like a death and rebirth. Clayton . marking a transition of the self. Ian. His desire to write the book came from his own feelings when flying over Washington DC and thinking how preposterous it was that the tiny beings down there were making decisions for him. he acknowledges the power of the myth of the heavens as the dwelling place of God. DML. It was ‘like ants making laws for humans!’ (White 1987: 3). Jay. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 134. this clearly being more a part of Space Adventures’ advertising campaign than is humility (see Box 5. Amanda. Clearly he envisages the overview effect as aggrandizing the self. but in order to understand what is going on we need to reconcile these two very different elements.

Harry. though it is not seen as profitable within the next twenty years. Ian. furthermore. But.Cap Kritik 28/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Privatization Like actually how capitalist can you get Dickens and Ormrod 7 . This process is part of a much more general trend that has been experienced by almost all societies since the 1980s. Clayton . Harnessing the Sun’s rays with solar panels in space and beaming the energy to electricity grids via Earth-bound receivers is another kind of outer spatial fix under discussion. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 144. dml) Private corporations have always been used to make and maintain space activities funded by the US government. Now. Amanda. as we have seen. space activities are now being envisaged as profitable in themselves. especially through new competition schemes.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Jay. This is another stage of Luxemburg’s restless search for further profits or of what Harvey (2003) calls ‘accumulation by dispossession’. and so space activity is now becoming increasingly commercialized as well as privatized. In the more distant future humanization will further encroach on its ‘outside’. Previously state-run activities are being contracted out to the private sector. DML. it is being extended to the military and to surveillance. Rothenbaum. Using outer space as a source of raw materials is one suggestion under very active consideration. but there is a trend towards increasing private sector participation. making planets into zones appropriated for the further expansion of capitalism.

Vol.-designed “missile defense shield.Cap Kritik 29/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Satellites Satellites are the lifeblood of modern capitalism.24 Satellites are the means by which western culture imposes cultural imperialism on global scale and monitors falsely constructed “deviant” populations to sustain dominant. published in the Monthly Review. dml) The issue is now being highlighted by an argument over the geostationary orbit (GEO). Satellites are already a means by which territories and investments on Earth are monitored and protected by governments operating on behalf of their economic interests.*Peter. authoritarian power relations Dickens and Ormrod 7 . or “Star Wars” program. November 2010. A version of the program is still being developed. But the prospect of galactic colonialisms raises the distinct possibility of hostilities in space. for example. IWren) There are two quite distinct ways in which the humanization of outer space is implicated in the maintenance of hegemony.S. between colonizing nations as well as between the colonizers and aboriginal peoples. a media conglomerate. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. they are now being used to observe and attack Taliban and Al-Qaida operatives in Afghanistan and elsewhere. It has now been made an integral part of the way global capitalist society is organized and extended.” which has for some time been official U. Jay. and for the surveillance of the population. it is easy to forget that outer space is already being increasingly humanized. Indonesia. Satellites have also been made central to modern warfare. Using space. are extremely important elements of contemporary communications systems. Galactic wars may therefore be the product of galactic colonialism. With only three satellites in the GEO. DML.S. and Kenya under this strip? Or is it jointly owned and managed by all states? But even manufactured risks may be minimal in scope. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. economic and military assets both on Earth and in outer Satellites are the best opportunity for capitalist actors to gain control Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. compared with another risk stemming from cosmic colonization. Is it owned by the equatorial countries such as Colombia. This action is done by remote control from Creech Air Force Base at Indian Springs. Satellite-based communications have also facilitated new forms of consumption such as teleshopping. Satellites serve as a medium for the transmission of hegemonic worldviews. This is the 30 km-wide strip 35. pg 68-69.” This is part of a wider strategy of “Full Spectrum Dominance. Ian. a communications company. with the citizens of the Czech Republic and Poland now under pressure to accept parts of a U. one still not adequately resolved. Defense Policy.S. ’10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex [Peter Dickens. University of Essex and **James. Armed conflict has long been a common feature of past colonialisms.”15 This raises the urgent question. or a government surveillance agency can cover the whole world. These have enabled an increasing number of people to become part of the labor market. the global economy in its present form would grind to a halt. Amanda. of who actually owns this area of outer space. Issue 6. The 1980s Strategic Defense Initiative. Such a scenario was prefigured by the Star Trek science fiction television series in which the main role of “The Federation” is the protection of capitalist mining ] Jay Yet among these plans and proposals. Combined with pilotless Predator drones. aimed to intercept incoming missiles while facilitating devastating attacks on supposed enemies. a form of electronic cultural imperialism.786 km above the equator. No wonder it has been called “space’s most valuable real estate. Clayton . 26. Harry. No 6. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – to What End?”. surveillance and military equipment located in outer space is now seen as the prime means of protecting U. Teleworking is the best known example. http://monthlyreview. Nevada. one in which satellites can orbit at the same speed as the ground below them. professor at the University of Brighton and Cambridge. The first is that space technology has become central to the process of promoting dominant cultural forms throughout the global society. November 2010. Monthly Review Vol 62. This is outright war. Rothenbaum. Satellites. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. Without satellite-based communications. Dickens.

communications. But dominant blocs and alliances can remain dominant only if subordinated classes actually adopt and internalize such values themselves. Ian. Closely allied with these panics has been the increased surveillance of ‘deviant’ populations. Its forms are again unevenly developed but in most advanced Western societies it is a combination of appeals to ‘old values’ such as religion. As Mowlana has argued with specific reference to satellites: The Western-fuelled system of ‘communications. Restoring class hegemony is a difficult and ongoing enterprise. DML. It needs constant renegotiation and has no guarantee of success. (Mowlana 2004: 300) This e-sphere is certainly not imposed on audiences. latterly. satellites 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab help communicate hegemonic worldviews to living rooms around the world. home and duty with the neo-liberal values of possessive individualism.Cap Kritik 30/194 As explored in Chapter 4. Rothenbaum. consumerism and continuous change’ contains seeds of a new form of conquest. and this is despite the massively increased social inequalities stemming from the neo-liberal experiment. capitalism. and capitalism seems to be seeking to conquer the culture and diverse human capacities of the world. nation. despite the illusion of consumer choice. who voluntarily wire themselves into it. Satellite technology is again central to this hegemonic project of surveillance. Subaltern groups are under pressure to accept as inevitable new forms of authoritarianism. The focus was on supposedly lawless and hedonistic groups of young people breaking the boundaries of respectable society and hence wrecking the entire social order (Hall et al. This now surging e-sphere of information. Hegemonic settlements made in the postwar period have been socially and spatially uneven. Subordinates therefore not only must be reconstituted but must reconstitute themselves as atomized individuals whose pressing priorities. it is one way in which capitalism is able to spread an increasingly global culture. but Mowlana’s argument is that. Harry. the acquisition of property and a dedication to hard work. Clayton . Amanda. include consumerism. and even deviant states. ‘terrorists’. Jay. Authoritarian populism has been retained in the twenty-first century. Moral panics over ‘youth’ have been supplemented by panics over immigrants. Muslims and. like those in the dominant bloc. 1978). In the British case a series of ‘moral panics’ was created by politicians such as Margaret Thatcher and sections of the media. as discussed in Chapter 4.

” Now such progress is regularly challenged. This is because the very venture of space colonization brings new risks. the success of a galactic colonialism is by no means guaranteed. Monthly Review Vol 62. Ian. Even whole satellites may collide. many of these causing potential damage. observable tracked objects to around thirty thousand.Cap Kritik 31/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Satellites/Space Debris Cleaning up space debris is a capitalist fix for a capitalist problem – the mindset they uphold recreates their impacts Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. Note. Clayton . November 2010. Such collisions are estimated at millions or even billions to one. is readily recognizable in space-humanization progress. for which no one agency or individual is usually culpable. No 6. and plans are now afoot to launch even more satellites.21 DML. much scientific intervention today stems from the crises stemming from earlier intervention. designed to drag older satellites out of orbit in order to avoid collisions. Jay. such a collision actually happened. or what some social scientists have called “manufactured risk.20 Space junk poses a serious threat to the whole enterprise of space colonization.”19 This kind of risk. 2009. A defunct Russian satellite crashed into an American commercial satellite. Rothenbaum. But on February 10. generating thousands of pieces of orbiting debris. dml) But even if it were desirable. known as “space debris” or “space junk.” Improved tracking systems will increase the number of smaller. for example. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. that there are now around fourteen thousand tracked objects circling around the earth. Furthermore. The fifteenth-century Renaissance and the Enlightenment placed great faith in science as a means of bringing “progress. Amanda. Harry.

Jay. environmentalist and even nudist principles. for example. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. Goulding’s position has been attacked by writers like Jenkins (Jenkins 1992. This obvious transgression against the protestant ethic had to be redressed by the Enterprise crew. pg 69-71. it is hard to deny that science fiction. astrofuturism also carries within it an idealism. capitalist ambitions and utopian.] This [speculative] impulse has produced a strand of futurist thought that seeks an eternal extension of contemporary political and economic arrangements. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. there is clearly some hope that critical science fiction writing and the critical reading of science fiction can contribute to the exploration of alterative futures to the extension of global capitalism into space. Harry. Amanda. capitalist power relations by normalizing dystopian futures and depicting economic tension as inevitable Dickens and Ormrod 7 . possessive individualism and the ‘Darwinian ethic’ of the survival of the fittest. Goulding (1985) has argued that science fiction shows like Star Trek ‘preserve a “halo of free choice” within rigid rules and structured inequalities’. 4) However. However. Kim Stanley Robinson’s (1993. University of Essex and **James. IWren) Some commentators on science fiction have also argued that the stories told there about human exploration and settlement of space are distinctly hegemonic. However.*Peter. This is a point made eloquently by Sardar and Cubbitt: Science fiction shows us not the plasticity but the paucity of the human imagination that has become quagmired in the scientist industrial technological. 1996) trilogy of books on a Martian mining colony explore the ethics of exporting capitalism to the rest of the cosmos. and especially popular science fiction. capitalism (through military and diplomatic protection of mining colonies). Tulloch and Jenkins 1995). the narratives of the show are stories about the crew of the Enterprise teaching the various space colonies which they visit to be American. Our imagination as regards possible human futures in space is the product of hegemonic relations. but. Whether or not the readers of science fiction have the ability to critically dissect the messages of the shows they watch and the books they read has been hotly debated. there is probably some truth to DeWitt Douglas Kilgore’s assessment of the scope of science fiction and science writing about space (what he calls ‘astrofuturism’): Astrofuturist speculation on space-based exploration. (Kilgore 2003: 1. In one episode. glossing over war and crises to fragment contemporary resistance. who has argued that the science fiction audience is highly creative and reflexive. albeit stripped of unpleasant resonances and rendered innocent. alternative Earthly solutions to our social and environmental problems are ignored entirely in favour of exporting them to space. Yet it should also be noted that there are those who emphasize the way in which science fiction explores the conflicts of Western society. . Science fiction as resistance fails—it’s appropriated by capital to project social issues far into the future.Cap Kritik 32/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Science Fiction Science fiction is both the product of and the sustainment for hegemonic. he reports. (Sardar and Cubbitt 2002: 1) Sardar and Cubbitt. Science fiction is the fiction of mortgaged futures. [. . retreat from this altogether critical position to discuss the ways in which science fiction can play out the conundrums of civilization. more importantly. Ian. is often supportive of existing social practices. groups of Martian settlers break away from the capitalist mining operations to establish their own social order based on socialist. the crew are disturbed upon visiting a planet on which people worked the minimum amount of time possible and spent all their free time high on drugs. The Federation to which the Enterprise belongs promulgates male authority (preserved through the notion of the chain of command). Some science fiction clearly goes even further with narratives that attack the legitimacy of contemporary social relations through telling dystopian stories about how a human future in space might look. As Goulding argues. As such. In the trilogy. It can imagine space frontiers predicated on experimental arrangements and the production of relationships uncommon or unknown in the old world. Rothenbaum. and highlights the problems with imperialism and capitalism. socialist hopes. Not only is the imagined spacefaring civilization one that continues to operate on neo-liberal principles. DML. and colonization is capacious enough to contain imperialist. Clayton . exploitation. 1994. The futures imagined by most science fiction writers reflect a hegemonic worldview simply through their demonstrated inability to imagine anything other than an extension of contemporary social relations. a liberal or utopian commitment that seeks alternatives and solutions to these problems and conflicts characterizing contemporary American life. If this is so. like Kilgore. but this requires engagement in praxis. some writers influenced by the critical theory of the Frankfurt School have been much more outspoken against the duping effect that science fiction has on an audience that is encouraged to accept social relations as inevitable through witnessing them projected in time and space. cultural-socio-psycho babble of a single civilizational paradigm.

This had a flying saucer landing in Washington DC and its captain ordering world leaders to abandon the nuclear arms race or face annihilation from aliens (McCurdy 1997). Harry. All its moral messages are worthwhile. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. Still more acutely. Furthermore. A war far. hatred and fear underlying war (Lancashire 2002). Capitalism is capable of making even our most revolutionary impulses part of its own system of social power. is manipulated by greedy and ambitious rulers into investing in the development of immense military power. Continuing concessions and possible solutions are made without clarifying. One relevant to our present discussion is the 1951 Robert Wise movie. The natural parallel with American society is made clearer in the second-made trilogy (which are actually prequels to the first trilogy). And it will not do so indefinitely. This is a great example of the one-dimensionality of capitalism identified by Herbert Marcuse (1991). The Republic.*Peter. such messages are always up for revision. or the Klingons as Vietnamese (Goulding 1985). in relation to the Star Wars series of films. Of course. G. IWren) Fear of Soviet domination of space was also reflected in contemporary science fiction films. The ideological dimensions of wars being conducted in space are most obviously discussed. Even if the message of the plot contains the potential for critical thought. here we can only offer a few examples. This is just one instance of public suspicion and paranoia being reflected and amplified by the producers of popular movies. Orson Welles caused widespread panic with his radio version of the 1898 H. in which we witness the formation of the Empire. In this case. It offers hope that good will win out at some point in the future through the fantastic powers of an extraordinary group of activists. DML. for example. as consumers bought into the Star Wars brand. is an anti-war propagandist and the films can be read as a commentary on the greed. far away’. However. Amanda. This is how Lucas presents the cycle of empire (Lancashire 2002). Furthermore. Hegemony works not by suppressing the truth – it is not propaganda in that sense – but by dissipating resistance to the social order (Lee Harvey (1990) uses the terms ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ ideology to make this distinction). One way in which films might do this is by projecting contemporary political issues far away from today’s material reality. no single movie is going to exert ideological hegemony on its own. bringing ‘profits beyond your wildest imagination’. then the franchise’s marketing operations subsume it in another ‘Disneyized’ consumption spectacle (to use a term from Bryman 2004). They also shore up the notion of a pure war by using laser weapons. the Borg as communists as well as Asians (Wertheim 2002). Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. The programme was broadcast at precisely the time when America was jittery about the threat of fascism and Nazi Germany. aggressiveness. however. and one that has much to contribute to a sociology of the universe. the fundamental social and economic institutions and processes involved. an account of an alien invasion from Mars. Wells classic novel The War of the Worlds. Rothenbaum. But the widespread and constant projection of such messages and images must have its effect. Science fiction studies is a massive field. far away However. and undermining. unfortunately. the films’ director. Star Wars merchandise was worth billions of dollars to Lucas. The alien races in Star Trek have been read as representations of a number of threats to the US from cultural ‘others’. Jay. In the later films the empire will be defeated by distinctly American rebels seeking freedom. represented by the Republic. which turns its back on democracy to become the Empire. motivated by fear. University of Essex and **James.Cap Kritik 33/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Dickens and Ormrod 7 . it is an attack on greedy corporations whose interests are served by war. it is not impossible to imagine a film offering a critical commentary on society that actually contributes to hegemony. allowing a contemporary weakening of resistance. for example. In our own time Steven Spielberg’s 2005 version of War of the Worlds deliberately played on fears stemming from the attacks on 11 September 2001. In the case of Star Wars it all takes place in a distant future and a galaxy ‘far. the Star Wars films are entrenched in an American movie culture intimately bound to capital. despite what is potentially a powerful critique of a contemporary American society gone wrong. pg 96-97. but not here and not just yet. In 1938. Still less will it halt an anti-war movement in its tracks. Clayton . George Lucas. Ian. The Day the Earth Stood Still. faster-thanlight travel and other technological developments that remove the picture of war away from its brutal realities. Separatists work a deal with corporations (the Trade Federation) to destroy the Republic. the Star Wars films can also be interpreted in a less subversive light. The images of the movies abstract away from particular capitalist interests or particular parts of the political class. Here Lucas is deliberately critical of American society.

Inasmuch as such expansion promotes US hegemony it tends to increase the international competitiveness of US firms and the profits they enjoy. Amanda. Ian. And its aim in militarizing outer space is to achieve what the US Joint Chiefs of Staff call ‘full-spectrum domination’. War is the handmaiden of property relations and economic imperialism: The primary goals of US imperialism have always been to open up investment opportunities to US corporations and to allow such corporations to gain preferential access to crucial natural resources. a military presence in space to ensure these rights is becoming an increasing priority. dml) Harvey can also help us understand how the militarization of space helps establish new empires on Earth via imperialism at a distance or ‘at arm’s length’. they will need guarantees from their governments that their investments will be protected. Star wars systems are conceived in part to protect space assets from perceived threats. Fortunately.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. This entails attempting to control and subject societies deemed to be weaker. by remote control. present and future. but also to secure economic interests actually in space. one that would ensure that access to space was vetoed by American interests.Cap Kritik 34/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Militarization The militarization of space is the new strategy for colonial domination Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Rothenbaum. and for that reason an American Space Station was proposed. Military Space Forces: The Next 50 Years (Collins 1989). seen in the context of Gramsci’s analysis of power. IWren) The United States government is by far the dominant military force in outer space. land and sea. But the success of such military and economic governance at arm’s length is also by no means guaranteed. The US has historically been anxious about other nations attempting to control Earth orbit. the US decided. argued along similar lines that whoever held the Moon would control access to space. Clayton . and so the American Space Station became the International Space Station. Jay. We return to this point in summary. and appears to be a possible motive for the recent initiative to establish an inhabited Moon base by 2024. In 1989 a congressional study. As we go on to argue in Chapter 4. as many pro-space advocates point out. parliamentary democracy and markets will not necessarily be widely shared. colonization has been DML. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. combining with key sectors of the economy. pg 94-95. University of Essex and **James. The societies and peoples deemed ‘weaker’ do not necessarily see themselves in that way and are likely to fight back. It is recognition that the values of individualism. If more people are going to be encouraged to invest in space technology. it does have something in common with earlier forms of imperialism.*Peter. either from Earth-based weapons or from weapons mounted on other satellites. The purpose of this monopoly is not simply to control the use of force on Earth. Forget heg—militarization and weaponization of space is only a precursor to the exploitation and imperialist appropriation of the entire cosmos Dickens and Ormrod 7 . one in which the US government actively enforces a monopoly over outer space as well as air. The new kinds of space-based war and surveillance which have emerged since the Second World War are a central part of the attempt by American governments. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. increasing militarization is itself a sign of weakness. At the same time US imperialism promotes the interests of the other core states and of capitalism as a whole insofar as these are in accord with US requirements. (Foster 2006: 145) But. satellites have become so crucial to the functioning of the world economy that there has been increasing tension amongst the cosmic superpowers over their vulnerability to attack. Accumulation by dispossession continues to generate its own antagonisms and social movements. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 88-89. that in the post-Cold War climate cooperation with other countries in the project would be more beneficial than a unilateral solution. to make ‘fixes’ in absentia. With a system of property rights already being drawn up for space resources. Harry. As Foster argues. The militarization and weaponization of outer space is recognition that global hegemony based on a Western model can no longer be assumed. If the values of Western cultures and ways of life come under question they must be enforced. Resorting to warfare is an indication that domination by consent has broken down. This echoed an older 1959 study. Historically. perhaps historically rather surprisingly.

Harry. Jay. This process is developing within the ‘advanced’ societies. but even fewer see it as a positive use of space. Clayton . There are. Harvey’s analysis of the new form of imperialism is again useful in understanding these military developments. some who see it as a necessary evil in order to protect space assets and operations. It is unlike that typically pursued until the late nineteenth century. There are those who are against it per se. Pro-space activists have generally been divided over the issue of weapons in space (Michaud 1986). Rothenbaum. Ian. Amanda. DML. it is a strategy that is being spread throughout the cosmos. such as the US. it entails societies (and particularly the US with its enormous fusion of capital and political power) privatizing and commodifying resources previously owned by the public sector or held in common in other ways. It does not entail one society invading another with a view to permanently occupying that society and using its resources. even more important. But.Cap Kritik 35/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab established through the military. and as a possible step in the eventual settlement of space. Rather. however.

Cap Kritik 36/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Property Attempts to develop space lead to leadership claims that expand the totalitarian capitalist regime Monibot 2k. There have been a number of legal disputes over the ownership of clouds. None of these presumptions is any more absurd than the claim to possess exclusive control over part of our own planet. Ian. DML.won the UN 500 award for outstanding environmental achievement. in southern India. blocks of air. Lexis) Terrifying as the impending capture of the essence of humanity is. change hands for tens of millions of dollars. almost everything which once belonged to all of us is being seized. Rothenbaum. as firms battle for the right to make them drop their rain where they want it. The attempt to grab the genome is just one of many symptoms of a far graver disease.(Guardian Leader Pages). Amanda. which (once legally transferred to a suitable site) allow their owners to build skyscrapers. I told him the bad news. who told me that. But. the ownership of land is as inconceivable as the ownership of air would be in the northern hemisphere. east London. and other colleges (George. “ Comment & Analysis: This is a war of all worlds: Fuss about the human genome just hides the brutality of global capitalism. destitutes everyone it excludes. as property rights proliferate. Companies are now claiming they own asteroids and landing spaces on the moon. by seizing absolute control of fundamental resources. Jay.” 6/20/00. a political and economic system which. fellowship/professorship holder at oxford. to the tribal people he works with. Clayton . bestselling author and columnist for the guardian. it is far from unprecedented. We are entering an age of totalitarian capitalism.On Saturday I met a campaigner from Kerala. Harry. In several American cities.

The kind of theory mentioned above also has clear implications for the humanization of the cosmos. and space hotels. there are. On the one hand. and more from that of finding. To this end. “The Ecological colonization of space. they are short-term solutions.9 Capital is now also “stalking” outer space in the search for new resources and raw materials. it is needed as a means of creating massive numbers of new customers who would buy the goods made in the capitalist countries.Cap Kritik 37/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Resources Expansion into space to sustain Capitalism is a short term solution that causes global wars. particularly those of declining economic profitability. these being located mainly on earth. (Peder. and environmental crises on earth. no absolute guarantees that such fixes will really correct an essentially unstable social and economic system. of course. Clayton . Volume 62. At first. capitalism’s emergent outside. Economic and social crisis stems less from the problem of finding new consumers. Nature on a cosmic scale now seems likely to be incorporated into production processes.10 Rather. Harry.” Attempting to resolve terrestrial resource needs through space is unethical and fuels capitalism Anker 5. with new parts of the cosmos being invested in by competing nations and companies. space technology has extended and deepened this process.8 But expansion into the cosmos does offer prospects for exploiting new materials such as those in asteroids. The Humanization of the Cosmos—To What End?)NAR In the early twentieth century. Dickens 10 – Visiting Professor of Sociology (Peter. expansion into the cosmos offers no benefits to capital in the form of fresh sources of labor power. existing outsides. the geological substratum or the biological superstratum are immune from transformation by capital. the atmosphere. social. Rothenbaum. an increasing number of political economists have argued that the importance of a capitalist “outside” is not so much that of creating a new pool of customers or of finding new resources. space fiction fantasies about aliens aside. governments protecting the zones for which they are responsible. UK. Military power will inevitably be made an integral part of this process. New “spatial fixes” are due to be opened up in the cosmos.” i. Luxemburg’s second reason for imperial expansion is the search for cheap supplies of labor and raw materials. space stations. appended to Earth. First. and perhaps other cosmic entities such as Mars. At best. On the other hand. nature becomes a universal means of production in the sense that it not only provides the subjects. The word “fix” is used here both literally and figuratively. allowing an increasing number of people to become integral to the further expansion of global capitalism. these will include artificial fixes such as satellites.. Rosa Luxemburg argued that an “outside” to capitalism is important for two main reasons. making. such as the moon and Mars. research fellow at the Center for Development and the Environment at University of Oslo.7 As outlined earlier. Issue 6. Similarly. The stage would then be set for wars in outer space between nations and companies attempting to make their own cosmic “fixes. Ian.PhD in history of science from Harvard.” April 2005. capital stalks the Earth in search of material resources. Jay. Some influential commentators argue that the current problem for capitalism is that there is now no “outside. Since Luxemburg wrote. the humanization of the cosmos seriously questions these assertions.” again in response to economic.”11 Capitalism is everywhere. Outer space will be “globalized. Monthly Review. Neil Smith’s characterization of capital’s relations to nature is useful at this point. Regarding the latter. These crises are followed by attempted “fixes” in distinct geographic regions. The reproduction of material life is wholly dependent on the production and reproduction of surplus value. as suggested above. resistance to capitalism is either everywhere or nowhere. Developing “outsides” in this way is also a product of recurring crises. But during the next twenty years or so. an outside is needed as a zone into which surplus capital can be invested. Amanda. JSTOR) DML. Clearly. will begin attracting investments. however.e. But. objects and instruments of production. Norway. the moon. the attempt is to fix capitalism’s crises. but is also in its totality an appendage to the production process…no part of the Earth’s surface. capital is being physically invested in new regions. November 2010. and exploiting zones of profitability for surplus capital. Projects for the colonization of outer space should be seen as the attempt to make new types of “spatial fix. the oceans.

when space colonies became the model for Spaceship Earth. and worth. To supporters. In the same way that gold and diamonds were taken from Peru and South Africa or sugar cane was taken from Jamaica and Java in eighteenth. According to Stewart Brand. Indeed. off which it feeds (Luxemburg 1968. Luxemburg also went on to argue that by incorporating a non-capitalist society in either way. Hardt and Negri 2000). and historical space were invaded by ecological science aimed at reordering ill-treated human environments according to the managerial ideals of the astronaut’s life in the space colony. Every limit appears as a barrier to be overcome’ (1973: 408). As regards materials. The very commodities it needs (whether it be labour power or just materials) are now brought within its ambit. The use of colonial terminology was deliberate and in line with the imperial tradition from which ecology as a science emerged. so can the materials of the Arctic or of the Moon and Mars be incorporated into capitalist production processes. as indeed it was when the African continent was subdivided by rival powers.5 This article holds that advocates of the Martian ecological perspective sought to create on Earth what one proponent described as a “neo-biological civilization” at the expense of the humanist legacy. First. all human beings became “Space natives” colonized by ecological reasoning: Social. political. Assuming that the cost of reaching the Moon and the nearby planets is sufficiently low. As Rosa Luxemburg. The connection between ecological colonization of outer and earthly space has largely been ignored. postcolonial analysis has yet to be applied to the history of ecology. and ill-managed Earth.”2 Yet. disorderly. while also saving a Noah’s Ark of earthly species from industrial destruction and possible atomic apocalypse on Earth. a leading defender of space colonization.and nineteenth-century forms of imperialism. one of Harvey’s antecedents.Cap Kritik 38/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space colonization caused hardly any controversy until 1975. orderly. it could be said that it requires limits. as this article argues. in order to continue reproducing and expanding. space colonies came to represent rational. in contrast to the irrational. In the debate that followed. which holds that every human being has intrinsic and unique capacities. into capitalist forms. capitalism expands by making other kinds of society in its own image. and wise management. Regions such as the DML. when royalties from the counterculture sourcebook. today’s main power blocs (the United States. Jay. this makes the Moon and nearby planets an attractive prospect for the further expansion of capital. it will in due course use them up or make them prohibitively expensive to extract. the overwhelming majority thought space colonies could provide well-functioning environments for astronauts seeking to push human evolutionary expansion into new territories. were used to finance space-colonization research. moral. necessarily encounters limits.6 Capitalism needs an outside to obtain resources from in order to survive – space will become that outside Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Amanda. the European Union and in due course other societies such as China and India) are beginning to scramble for outer space in much the same way as the European societies competed for African territory in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 154-155. in line with Marx. The establishment of property rights is central.3 The few historical analyses of space ecology that do exist have hardly paid attention to its importance to ecologists’ understanding of Earth. This is where outer space is becoming significant. But. The skeptical minority argued that space colonization was unrealizable or unethical. capital needs an ‘outside’ beyond its boundaries. since these are the basis for capital’s ‘dynamism’. yet nevertheless adopted terminology. technology. argued in developing her theory of imperialism.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. the term “space colony” (instead of “space settlement”) was unproblematic since “no Space natives [were] being colonized. Though hardly novel in other areas of historical research. The colonialist agenda of space research invites the use of postcolonial theory. The Whole Earth Catalog. But capital. Rothenbaum. its constant restructuring and reorganization. making feudal or aboriginal societies. Ian. This ‘outside’ takes two main forms. But zones outside capitalism can also be used as just a source of materials. Some of them built Biosphere 2 in Arizona to prepare for colonization of Mars and to create a model for how life on Earth should be organized. dml) Capitalism is necessarily an expanding and crisis-making type of society. As discussed in Chapter 3. As Marx himself put it. dignity. for example.4 Scholars have rightly emphasized the significance of modeling closed ecosystems. capital creates yet another barrier. resistances and barriers of different kinds. ‘The tendency to create the world market is directly given in the concept of capital itself. but have not placed this methodology in the context of ecological colonization of space. Clayton . and methodology from space research in their efforts to reshape the social and ecological matrix onboard Spaceship Earth. This means that capital must find yet another source to satisfy its demand for infinite expansion. Harry.

Extracting valuable helium-3 from the Moon is another possibility.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. however. Rothenbaum. Private companies have also been established working on the research and design for asteroidal and lunar mines. Needless to say. displacing governments and using outer space for commercial purposes.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Harry. or alien life confirming the superiority of Western democracy. In the mid-1990s the market value of metals in the smallest known asteroid. and as this happens investors will need to be increasingly wealthy to afford to exploit it. Considering the immensity of space as a whole. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 143. for example. United Nations legislation and the most optimistic proponents of space exploitation assume that space resources are infinite and there will be enough for everyone to own plenty of space. The cost of returning materials to Earth would add so much to the cost of extracting them that this would never be financially viable. dml) Outer space is now increasingly envisaged as providing inputs to the Earthly production process. Lewis 1996. Jay. for example. outer space being used as a refuge from disasters. It may well be used. Amanda. investments may be made in outer space colonies. Space is seen solely as an area of resources for capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab as soon as the Moon is exhausted. and about $6 trillion in platinum-group metals (ibid. One metric ton of helium-3 is worth $3 million. Even the most enthusiastic pro-space activists see materials in space as useful only for building in space. But it is overlooked that the nearer parts of space are those which are most profitable and viable to exploit. Asteroids are receiving special attention (Lewis 1996). But a number of sociological theories offer better insights into the future humanization of the cosmos. Clayton . It is. known as 3554 Amun. Some DML. The expansion of industry into space has been referred to by Harry G. we need to remain cautious in accepting these highly optimistic forecasts. dml) The humanization of outer space is at an early stage and attempts by social scientists to predict the future have almost always ended in failure. As and when it is possible to launch thousands of people into orbit and build giant solar power satellites. was about $20 trillion.000 to develop computer models that could lead to the production of propellant from the lunar regolith or rock mantle (SPX 2004). for example. NASA has recently given the chemical engineer Jonathan Whitlow a grant of nearly $50. Stine (1975) as the ‘third industrial revolution’ and by Krafft Ehricke (1972) as ‘the benign industrial revolution’ (as there were supposedly no environmental issues associated with it).g. This is discussed in a number of books elaborating the commercial potential of outer space (e. They have three hundred times as much free metal as an equal mass taken from the Moon. with projects supposedly beneficial to society actually generating considerable potential for disaster. indications of how society’s relations with the cosmos are changing. Metals found on the Moon are just the dispersed debris from asteroids. This included $8 trillion worth of iron and nickel. Research is also being conducted. there are some important straws in the wind. capital will be seeking more resources on Mars. it should be possible to retrieve this and mine other asteroids to supply Earth with all the metals society will ever need. On the other hand. ‘The Risk Society’ is being made cosmic. In the more distant future.Cap Kritik 39/194 Arctic or outer space are good examples. Lewis argues. It is also increasingly envisaged as a source of materials for investment in new circuits of capital. but asteroids are currently seen as a better bet thanks to their metallic density. The Moon might seem an obvious first target for the acquisition and mining of resources. Science fiction and forward-looking space scientists give some indication of the nature of these developments. Ian. Science fiction shows. In reality. The attempt to colonize and exploit space is the new front of capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 144-145. To an increasing extent capital is setting the pace. So. the part of space that is not yet owned and exploited will always become further and further from the Earth.). Zubrin 1999. as a means of harvesting energy for the Earth. This has led Lawrence Joseph to question in a New York Times article whether the Moon could become the Persian Gulf of the twenty-first century (cited in Gagnon 2006). This chapter is in part speculative. and so on. Hudgins 2002). this is of course true. but there is also a sense in which the proposals for humanizing the universe are in themselves interesting illustrations of the way in which humanity imagines its future. $6 trillion worth of cobalt. and one million tons could be obtained from the Moon. into the production of fuel for further humanization from space materials (Zubrin and Wagner 1996). The issue of ownership of means of production is again vitally important here. seen as an unlimited source of metals for human use.

com/) Government agencies have dominated space exploration for three decades. February 13. For purposes of exposition. We therefore argue that Earthly fixes may be expanded to incorporate even more ‘outer transformations’.*Peter. The spread of society into an external nature far beyond the Earth also raises ethical issues which already form part of a wider debate. public-private partnerships. raw materials.wsj. Harvey (2007) initially assumes a single and closed region in which production and realization of surplus values take place. Cisco and Apple of space to be born. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. drive job creation and open the cosmos for the rest of us.Cap Kritik 40/194 authors borrowing from Marx might 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab interpret the colonization of outer space as an attempted resolution of ‘the second contradiction of capitalism’. Ian. This process can presumably continue until all external possibilities are exhausted or because other regions resist being treated as mere convenient appendages’ (ibid. DML. Clayton . IWren) Importantly for Harvey and other Marxist geographers. “Space: The Final Frontier of Profit?” Wall Street Journal. University of Essex and **James. however. Whether these fixes are (at least temporarily) effective depends on whether they are seen as profitable or. The tendency towards overaccumulation within the original region remains unchecked. unless tempered. We therefore term them ‘outer spatial fixes’. The drive to accumulate space resources is an extension of the capitalistic project of seizing areas and sucking them dry Dickens and Ormrod 7 . First. reproducing labour power or successfully managing social relations. Honorary Doctorate at International Space University. The plan lays the foundation for the future Google. Harry. Spatial fixes are only ever provisional and therefore offer only short-term resolutions to the contradictions inherent in capitalism. Rothenbaum. one offering new possibilities for capital accumulation. the raw materials of outer space are increasingly envisaged as a means of developing Earthly production processes. for adventure as well as profit. at Harvard Medical School. commodities or productive capacities of fresh labour powers from other regions’ (ibid. willing to fund individuals who are passionate about exploring space. unprofitable or containing people resisting their appendage status. Mineral mining in space drives capitalist agendas forward.D. Second. this chapter raises the possibility of a ‘cosmic consciousness’ taking the form of an individualism which envisages the whole of the cosmos as within its reach. workforces and markets are drawn into the capitalist system. M. The two further circuits of capital are involved in the making of these new outer spatial fixes. What right does humanity have to model the cosmos in its own image? Finally. http://online. We cannot overexaggerate the fact that success for Earthly or cosmic spatial fixes is by no means guaranteed. whether they fulfil their purpose of. Two fundamental realities now exist that will drive space exploration forward. Jay. They involve the geographic expansion of the circuits of capital as new territories. But. Once made. with capital despoiling the natural environment to such an extent that it searches for new materials ‘off-planet’. ‘the frontiers of the region can be rolled back or relief gained by exports of money capital. 2010. for example. but ‘devaluation is avoided by successive and ever grander ‘outer transformations’. these fixes commonly take on a ‘spatial’ nature. Amanda. This time the fixes are in the cosmos. in the case of state and social expenditures. a spatial ‘fix’ is likely to be destroyed or devalued in order to make way for a new spatial fix. companies and investors are realizing that everything we hold of value—metals. Clearly there is no question of importing labour power from outer space to help out a failing region on Earth but. Diamandis 10—. pg 54-55. he argues. But even Earthly spatial fixes may now be proving relatively ‘exhausted’. Chairman and CEO of X Prize Foundation. But in a new plan unveiled in President Barack Obama's 2011 budget earlier this month. outer space is being used to manage flows of capital and information and to regulate social relations (including the social relations of production) on Earth. private capital is seeing space as a good investment.: 427). as discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. as we will discuss in Chapter 6.: 427). Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. What was once affordable only by nations can now be lucrative. Signs of this subjectivity are already in evidence and we predict that. a new player has taken center stage: American capitalism and entrepreneurship. Co-Founder and Managing Director of Space Adventures (Peter. it will become a central feature of a ‘cosmic society’. And.

Once thought of as "Seward's Folly" (Secretary of State William Seward was criticized for overpaying the sum of $7. Alaska has since become a billion-dollar economy. and the asteroids—could be central to social and environmental salvation. and modern science was born. his head in the heavens and his bowels located in earthly regions. the Space Renaissance Initiative argues. The Space Renaissance Initiative believes in these concepts. What will ploughing large amounts of capital into outer space colonization really do for stopping the exploitation of people and resources back here on earth? The “solution” seems to be simultaneously exacerbating social problems while jetting away from them. be made into a source of clean power from outer space. environmental. with its prime focus on the power of the supposedly autonomous and inventive individual. one seeing the whole of the cosmos at his or her command. Harry. The progress made by the private sector in developing technologies and efficiencies for space tourism means that commercial enterprise can now start planning to venture still further afield. technology. The manifesto also praises the writings of Descartes. Clayton . UK. November 2010. Their focus on resources ‘out there’ ignores environmental degradation on Earth. there seems rather little reason to celebrate or restore it. more critical. Members of the Medicis even made themselves into popes. and later Copernicus and Galileo leading the way. Alaska serves as an excellent analogy. The Initiative argues that opening up the cosmos to humanity—colonizing the solar system. energy and real estate—are in near-infinite quantities in space. in liberty. perspective on humanizing the cosmos tell us? DML. Environmental degradation will be exacerbated rather than diminished by this technological fix. and population crises because it is thinking too small. What would an alternative. Voltaire. kings. The language used by intellectual elites of the day was Latin. This kind of modern human identity has since been enhanced by consumer-based capitalism and. The Humanization of the Cosmos—To What End?)NAR In short. Rothenbaum. Humanization in this shape—one now finding favor in official government circles—raises all kinds of highly problematic issues for society and the environment. systematically omits questions of social. One category. or Venice. Mars. But such “solutions” are again imaginary. given the problems it creates both for ourselves and our environment.2 million to the Russians for the territory in 1867). The philosophical roots of the Space Initiative are no less than the sixteenth-century Italian Renaissance and the Enlightenment. the Initiative’s focus on the apparently universal benefits of space humanization ignores some obvious questions. Volume 62. This appealed to scholars across Europe but not to the great mass of individuals living in Florence. With the enlightened patronage of such families as the Medicis. liberating. thus further enhancing their wealth and that of their many illegitimate offspring. This “Man” is perhaps best symbolized by Leonardo’s famous image of a male human being. what was once seen as a wasteland will become the next gold rush. society is undergoing massive social. As space transportation and operations become more affordable. magnesium silicates and a variety of other metals. progressive. an unprecedented new age of development took place: arts knew a wonderful age of innovation. which would solve society’s energy shortages at a stroke. Similarly. Another of the Medicis was made the Queen of France.6 The Medicis and individuals such as Leonardo are often celebrated as examples of “The Renaissance Universal Man. This movement led to the Age of Enlightenment and its most famous offspring: the American and French Revolutions. They used this money to enhance their position within their feudal societies. including cobalt and platinum. for example. But there are surely major problems here.Cap Kritik 41/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab minerals. and politics. known as S-type. stretched over the circle of the cosmos. in freedom. narcissistic individualism of our own day. Consumer-led industrial capitalism necessarily creates huge social divisions and increasing degradation of the environment. Issue 6. The general point is that the vision of the Space Renaissance Initiative. Jay. with men like Leonardo da Vinci. is composed of iron. Dickens 10 – Visiting Professor of Sociology (Peter.” one capable of spanning every kind of human practice such as art. Michelangelo. Amanda. humanization of the cosmos. A simplistic and idealistic view of history. Monthly Review. and nobility. economic. The belief of these philosophers in the enterprising individual. one based in Northern Italy. But this Renaissance Man—or Woman—can also be seen as prefiguring the self-centered. For example. and Jefferson. and military power. music. and in reason all mean that political power should be vested in the common person and not in states. Cheap electricity is most likely to increase levels of production and consumption back on earth. The Medicis were bankers and merchants who made their money at the center of an emerging global mercantilist capitalism. Why should a galactic capitalism do otherwise? The Space Renaissance Initiative argues that space-humanization is necessarily a good thing for the environment by introducing new space-based technologies such as massive arrays of solar panels. seeing them as the basis of a new. and opening up resources in the moon. Ian. For example. The same will hold true for space. An average half-kilometer S-type asteroid is worth more than $20 trillion. and human agency therefore underpins the starting point of the Space Renaissance Initiative. there are millions of asteroids of different sizes and composition flying throughout space. any claim that the Medici family (and similar families such as the Borgias) helped overthrow feudalism is far-fetched. The energy of the sun can. culture took on some essential principles of classical Greek philosophy. Milan.

DML. The main criticism is the expense of the electricity they would produce. Amanda.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. dml) The idea of using satellites for harnessing solar power was introduced by Glazer (1968). However. But this will only be at the point when the unit cost of electricity produced by Earthly power sources rises above the unit cost of satellite solar power. According to many estimates this will not be until reserves on Earth are much more depleted. for the next quarter of a century at least. Rothenbaum. Jay. Kassing 2000. Clayton . So it is advisable to again be cautious about much of the highly optimistic publicity surrounding the use of solar power for Earthly needs. would very likely be monopolized. the energy produced would be extremely expensive and. at least in the short to medium term (Macauley 2000). If it were ever to happen. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 145-146. outer space collectors of solar power look like an excuse for a space programme rather than a legitimate solution to energy problems. Only then will this particular outer spatial fix become profitable. and became central to Gerard O’Neill’s space colony plans discussed below. and it would be a great deal cheaper. But we need again to remain cautious. Those who do not write off the idea completely believe that it will become profitable and viable and may actually happen fairly soon. Harry. safer and easier to maintain (Collins (2000) disagrees). To Launius.Cap Kritik 42/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – SPS SPS is a band-aid solution for internal contradictions of capitalism and would be monopolized by the elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 . because of the massive investment it would require. conventional electricity generation in both developed and developing countries will be more than adequate to deal with demand (Macauley 2000). Ian. Woodell 2000). A study of representatives of the energy industry and of industry concluded that. though requiring some form of private–public partnership or World Bank funding (Collins 2000. One commentator (Launius 2003) outlines the argument that equivalent electricity could be produced by covering a section of the Sahara in solar panels. it can be argued that it will simply never be viable because it is cheaper to produce renewable energy on Earth than it would be in space. There are serious questions about its profitability.

Cap Kritik 43/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Tourism Space tourism is a narcissistic exercise that reinforces class divisions Dickens and Ormrod 7 . he is pointing to a certain tendency. to literally make their ‘selves’ (Britton 1991.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. one incorporating pro-space activists.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Space tourism forms part of this process. and space tourists confirming that they have made new persons out of themselves as a result of their experience. Oakes and Minca 2006). Another form of ‘circuit’ is therefore involved here. one in which consumers are using purchased commodities to develop their aesthetic and cultural identities. Clayton . the aerospace industry. dml) Whichever kind of tourism is consumed and participated in. in the form of a new self. Consumption addresses the alienated qualities of modern social life and claims to be their solution: it promises the very things the narcissist desires – attractiveness. They actively use this commodity. Hence all of us. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 129. Tourism makes space into a commodity Dickens and Ormrod 7 . This hegemonic view of the cosmos and society’s relation to it is a product of a new dominant social bloc. Rather. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 124. and its images. the tourism industry and governments. outer space is being made by elite groups into the new exotic destination of choice. As a number of sociologists have argued. It is well recognized that capitalism caters to the narcissistic personality type prevalent in late modernity by offering consumer goods that claim to replace a widespread loss of identity. It is another part of society’s ‘outer spatial fix’. in these we search for the appearance of an unblemished. Ian. one in which surplus profits are being ploughed into outer space. trips into space being presented by the space tourism industry as an ultimate aesthetic and spiritual experience. people do not simply ‘consume’ holidays and images of holidays offered by brochures. dml) Space tourism is a rapidly growing field of economic activity. (Giddens 1991: 172) Giddens is almost certainly wrong to suggest that literally all of us are narcissists searching for a sense of self. Crang 2006. in modern social conditions. But this is only part of the picture. wonder and renewed identity to the space tourist. Amanda. The humanization of outer space also uses and reinforces an ancient and powerful worldview. Ateljevic and Doorne 2006. Travelling there supposedly brings the same kinds of rewards. the chances are that it will help make and reinforce a particular kind of social identity. DML. socially valued self. Harry. Jay. live as though surrounded by mirrors. concerning society’s relations with the cosmos. Crouch 2006). one which particularly afflicts some classes of consumer. Tourism in outer space will be the newest way in which social elites forge their identities. beauty and personal popularity – through the consumption of the ‘right’ kinds of goods and services. Rothenbaum. But the producers of commodities are recognizing these tendencies amongst the consumers and are producing new forms of ‘aestheticized’ or ‘cultural’ tourism (Lury 1996. Now that virtually all space on Earth has been humanized and thoroughly populated. It relies on the idea that outer space is an apparently pure and serene ‘other’ place offering a profound sense of awe. as does travelling to a holy site during a pilgrimage.

to bring to their attention new products via advertising or promotion over the internet. As we shortly discuss. however. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 116. even though the sheer amount of information generated by all these technologies is difficult to cope with. A system of geosynchronous satellites is arguably the modern-day equivalent of a punishing God or supreme power in the sky feared by societies throughout human history. Not only does it involve the observation of populations. Data on consumers’ purchases. Amanda. dml) Foucault’s account is useful when we turn to one of the main ways in which the socialization of outer space is being deployed today. Clayton . Rothenbaum. and in neither case do the monitored have any knowledge of whether or not they are being watched. is used not only for stock-control purposes but also to make profiles of individuals as consumers. for example. Surveillance is becoming especially important in contemporary society.500 satellites can be seen exercising ‘biopower’ and ‘capillary’ authority via satellite. Telephone conversations can also be quite easily monitored. Jay. This data can be used to target consumers. the outcome is a cowed and self-policing population. Car number plates can be photographed and matched to centralized records to track individuals or to charge them for the use of certain streets. If Foucault is right. About 200 of the Earth’s 2. But personalized surveillance goes even further than this. There is a direct parallel between Bentham’s panopticon and this new orbital or ‘planetary’ panopticon (Whitaker 2000). Both involve a watchstation up on high that observes deviant populations. Ian. Satellites capable of monitoring and transmitting pieces of information around the globe are a step towards making a global panopticon. but increasingly it is implicated in the transmission of information about people around the globe. The planetary panopticon monitors and transmits highly personal information. this picture needs some modification.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James.Cap Kritik 44/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Surveillance (Biopower) Satellites are the new Panopticon – they exercise biopolitical control over the population Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Closed-circuit television monitors the activities of individuals. Harry. DML.

Cap Kritik 45/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Terraforming Terraforming is not neutral – only the elite can take advantage of it and the expendable are expended to make it possible Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Ian.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. On the other hand. It brings another possible set of risks. Yet of course. Lovelock’s proposal for terraforming is entirely unforthcoming about the kind of society that would live and work on a terraformed planet. as well as those corporations which might supply genetically engineered bacteria or orbital mirrors to heat the planet. Harry. DML. but it is always worth recalling the kind of society transforming nature. We may well ask who might actually dwell and work in ‘terraformed’ zones and who might actually benefit. dml) Yet environmental risks are not the only ones associated with planetary engineering. terraformed environment? Respect for environments and ecological systems may be an inherently ‘good thing’. What social relations are involved for the making of its harmonious. some are even winning research grants now to study such things. should the environment ever prove truly stable and lush with vegetation (as utopian space art would have us believe) then one can only assume it will be the most privileged members of society who escape the chaos of Earth to achieve a new freedom in the Heavens. it could well be expendable and exploitable people who will work in zones of growing environmental risk once it is under way. Environmental sustainability does not always imply social justice. Rothenbaum. The most likely scenario is that it will be groups of highly qualified and highly paid scientists who will benefit most from the project. this time of a social and political kind. Clayton . Indeed. slowly evolving. Jay. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 151. Amanda.

consent is won. and. the U. and one woman said she thought it was what the American space programme was leading up to. rather than expressing a clear view for or against. Jay. I would be astonished if this didn’t happen eventually. One management consultant said it was inevitable given that humans by nature are fearful and aggressive animals. It also constitutes the ‘‘space-controlling’’ state. dml) Each of the three forms of space weaponization has important constitutive effects on modern sovereignty. expressing the view occasionally heard in pro-space circles that a military interest is necessary to get funding for a space programme at all [J3248]. Harry. by convenient fiction——for example.S. building on assumptions of human nature that disseminated hegemonically Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Together. a town planner. and it’s possibly happening already’ [C3006]. Four people said that on technical grounds Earth-based weapons would be better. What is particularly disturbing is that several respondents seemed to believe that the weaponization of space was inevitable given human nature. This is the subtle. are reduced to empty shells of sovereignty. Such weaponization has been naturalized as ‘common sense’. sustained. an exceptional “nation” linked to that sovereign. IWren) As with other questions.*Peter. in turn.”” Space weaponization in the form of capacities for direct force application obliterate the meaning of territorial boundaries for defense and for distinguishing an inside from an outside with respect to the scope of policing and law enforcement——that is authorized locus for deciding the exception. accepted it as inevitable. other than the exceptional “American” state. persuasive power of hegemony in practice. pg 99. Even in crisis conditions of contestation. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. who were both critical of the idea themselves. Another was not critical about this. a global capitalism. There is a dialectic in place here as well. and as a state populated by an exceptional people. as sovereign for a particular global social order. Exclusive missile defense constitutes a “hard shell” of sovereignty for one state. a concept which in turn weakens resistance to such an ‘inevitable’ project were it to proceed. Review of International Studies (2008) 34: 755-775. and “bare life” for individuals and groups globally to participate in that social order. as the very idea of placing weapons in space feeds into a concept of human nature as aggressive and fearful. the political subjects of which are a global sovereign.. Nine people said they believed that the placing of weapons in space was inevitable. Amanda. Clayton . the claim with which this paper began——that modes of political killing have important effects——would be an understatement! Claims that space weaponization are inevitable are self-fulfilling. these three sets of effects constitute what we believe can appropriately be identified as late-modern empire.Cap Kritik 46/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Weapons You cause cap Duvall and Havercroft 8 – *professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota AND **professor of Political Science at the University of Oklahoma (Raymond and Jonathan. The disturbing part is that these people. If our argument is even half correct. ““Americans. And their “citizens” are produced as “bare life” subject to the willingness of the global sovereign to let them live. Rothenbaum. DML. University of Essex and **James. productive effects on political subjectivities. Ian. A few mentioned that the weapons could be used to blast an asteroid on course for Earth or debris floating in space rather than referring to their military potential. remarked that ‘Given man’s persistent ingenuity and determination to find new ways of killing and maiming people. Space control reinforces that exclusive constitution of sovereignty and its potentiality for fostering unilateral decision. as useful administrative apparatuses for the governing of locals. States. a global social order normalized in terms of capitalist social relations. while erasing the sovereign political subject status of other states. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. if at all. “Taking sovereignty out of this world: Space weapons and empire of the future”. Another middle-aged man. it should be noted that there were a number of respondents who chose to comment on the likelihood and practicality of placing weapons in space.

Harry. Clayton .Cap Kritik 47/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **IMPACTS** DML. Jay. Rothenbaum. Ian. Amanda.

the Holocaust marked the first attempt at the systematic extermination of a whole group of people by industrial means. The other side of bio-politics.. for Foucault. robotics. “Capitalism and Genocide. and the political and ideological transformation of capitalist rule. and technology as the subject of history. both on the population of one's enemy. the body imbued with the mechanics of life and serving as the basis of the biological processes: propagation.reocities. in the epoch of which humanity now lives. This "obsolescence of man" can at the level of total capital thereby create the necessity for mass murder. leaving virtually no room for Marxist hope (communist revolution). Michel Foucault's concept of bio-power can also be refunctioned to explicitly link it to the basic tendencies of the development of capitalism. it is because power is situated at the level of life. and information technology. births and mortality. preparing the way for their replacement by machines. a dead weight. Rothenbaum. and regulate the intimate details of the life -. http://www.. the extortion of its forces. while at the same time making it possible to grasp those features of capital which propel it in the direction of genocide. and in which Hiroshima marks the point at which "humanity as a whole is eliminatable"[tötbar]. a source of exchange-value. According to Anders.even potentially -. 2k [Internationalist Perspective.and death -.. of this power over life. and on one's own population: "the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of the power to guarantee an individual's continued existence. they constituted . its integration into systems of efficient and economic controls.. which. with all the conditions that can cause these to vary.” Issue 36. Nonetheless." entailing an awesome power to inflict mass death. life expectancy and longevity. Moreover. The extension of the law of value into every sphere of human existence..of whole populations in the form of technologies of domination: "In concrete terms . ceasing to be -. computers. becomes a biological (in the case of Nazism) or class enemy (in the case of Stalinism. and the subordination of man to the machine. inserting the industrial extermination of whole groups of people into the very logic of capital: genocide as the apotheosis of instrumental reason! Reason transmogrified into the nihilistic engine of destruction which shapes the late capitalist world. focused on the species body. . the parallel increase of its usefulness and its docility. The second . corresponds to one side of the dialectic of socialism or barbarism which presides over the present manage. indeed." Such a bio-politics represents the subjugation of biological life in its diverse human forms to the imperatives of the law of value. in order to become an insuperable burden for capital.. economic and military. for Foucault. in which the world is "overmanned". two poles of development linked together by a whole intermediary cluster of relations. threatens its profitability. Jay. Ian. though the latter also claimed that biological and hereditary DML. his vision of a totally reified world. Their supervision was effected through an entire series of interventions and regulatory controls: a bio-politics of the population." Nuclear. from the cycle of accumulation as a whole.. by which he means making a cut in the biological continuum of human life. then. and creates domination over people with the ability to destroy entire populations. If genocide is indeed the dream of modern powers . also necessarily entails racism. and. is marked by the subordination of the biological realm itself to the logic of capital. Anders's philosophy of technology is unabashedly pessimistic.. Internationalist Persepective. Spring 2000. It allows capital to mobilize all the human resources of the nation in the service of its expansion and aggrandizement. opening the way for the extension of the process of extermination to virtually the whole of the human species. is what he terms "thanatopolitics. One of these poles . For Anders.. so long as it lives and breathes. and the large-scale phenomena of population. Such a group. on the bases of which ever larger masses of living labor are ejected from the process of production. a stage which he designates as "post-civilized cannibalism" [postzivilisatorischen Kannibalismus]. Amanda. this power over life evolved in two basic forms . culminating in the present stage of automation. the culminating point of the real domination of capital. Anders's concept of an overmanned world can be fruitfully linked to the immanent tendency of the law of value to generate an ever higher organic composition of capital. the first industrial revolution introduced the machine with its own source of power as a means of production. Clayton . designating the very existence of a determinate group as a danger to the population. the level of health.html] For Anders. the species. and the "birth of state racism". This stage corresponds to what Foucault designates as bio-politics.. which encapsulates both the "statification of the biological". the optimization of its capabilities. and biological. culminating in an Endzeit. the third industrial revolution. Bio-politics. I would argue. in which case it provides a point of intersection between the triumph of the real domination of capital economically. centered on the body as a machine: its disciplining.Cap Kritik 48/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Biopower Capitalism relies on biopower. and even to its very life. Harry. the race. has made humans obsolete. Bio-politics entails the positive power to administer.... while the second industrial revolution saw the extension of commodity production to the whole of society. chemical. and the end of history (Endzeit). to its health and well-being.. weapons make it possible to wield this power to condemn whole populations to death.a productive force. all this was ensured by the procedures of power that characterized the disciplines: an anatomo-politics of the human body..

that is. intersects with the transformations at the level of the political and ideological moment of capital. an intelligent life that by expressing itself in production and reproduction as well as in circulation (of labor. Biopower names these productive capacities of life that are equally intellectual and corporeal. by linking this concept to the real domination of capital. and it is to these. and both are synonymous with the globalized productive order.gnutenberg. Ian. Jay. and in particular his concept of the "integral state". Such a perspective. which allows us to better grasp its necessity. What is at issue here is not Gramsci's politics. Clayton . The powers of production are in fact today entirely biopolitical: in other words. and to be able to inflict mass death on populations or races designated as a biological Kritik 49/194 characteristics were linked to one's class origins). As we saw earlier. on the basis of technologies of domination. they run throughout and constitute directly not only production but also the entire realm of reproduction. However. that I now want to turn in an effort to better elucidate the factors that propel capital in the direction of mass death and genocide. his interventions in the debates on strategy and tactics within the Italian Communist Party. his concept of hegemony. which is labor. Biopower is another name for the real subsumption of society under capital. Rothenbaum. and languages) stamps society with a new collective meaning and recognizes virtue and civilization in cooperation. all of which have enriched Marxist theory.php?id=1034709069754) The danger of the discourse of general intellect is that it risks remaining entirely on the plane of thought. Moreover. however. and what I see as vital contributions to their theorization by Antonio Gramsci and Ernst Bloch. The illusion of biopower is just an abstraction of the fundamental basis of social relations. we are able to see how the value-form invades even the biological realm in the phase of the real domination of capital. Amanda. but rather his theorization of the political and ideological moment of capital. his understanding of the state as incorporating both political and civil society. affects. Michael & Antonio. And 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the danger represented by such an enemy race can necessitate its elimination through physical removal (ethnic cleansing) or extermination (genocide). The Foucauldian concept of bio-politics allows us to see how. which exploded the crude base-superstructure model of orthodox Marxism and its vision of ideology as simply false consciousness. and which revolutionaries ignore at their peril. while bio-power entails the horrific possibility of genocide. when reproduction and the vital relationships that constitute it themselves become directly productive. Harry. Production ‘ fills the surfaces of empire: is a machine that is full of life. and his understanding of ideology as inscribed in practices and materialized in institutions. DML. it is possible to subject biological life itself to a formidable degree of control. as if the new powers of labor were only intellectual and not also corporeal (Section 3.4). new forces and new positions of affective labor characterize labor power as much as intellectual labor does. “Empire” http://textz. his political practice. where he followed the counter-revolutionary line of the Stalinist Comintern. Biopower becomes an agent of production when the entire context of reproduction is subsumed under capitalist rule. Hardt & Negri 2k – Professors at the European Graduate School (Professors. it is Foucault's ruminations on the binary division of a population into a "pure community" and its Other.

the other must soon follow. The result is an DML. public relations. to the detriment of our democratic duties. the challenge for citizens is to stop these economic entities from being the authors of the rules by which we live. is thriving. They are encumbered by the same problems that have hobbled American democracy in recent years. long sold as the yin to democracy’s yang. democracies have struggled to perform their own basic functions: to articulate and act upon the common good. Capitalism corrupts and erodes democracy. but not political freedom. Clayton . Of course. on the other. poised to become the world’s third largest capitalist nation this year after the United States and Japan. September/October 2007. Foreign Policy Journal. they have been accompanied by widening inequalities of income and wealth.thechicagocouncil. As these two forces have spread around the world. and even bribes and kickbacks. “How Capitalism is Killing Democracy”. no democratic nation is effectively coping with capitalism’s negative side effects.thechicagocouncil. Democracy. September/October 2007. Amanda. and environmental hazards such as global warming. Many economically successful nations—from Russia to Mexico—are democracies in name only. while democracy is struggling to keep up. Reich 07—Chancellor's Professor of Public Policy at the Goldman School of Public Policy. Ian. Democracy is designed to allow citizens to address these very issues in constructive ways. allowing corporations and elites buoyed by runaway economic success to undermine the government’s capacity to respond to citizens’ concerns. and the United States. has embraced market freedom. and how its rules are set. If the purpose of capitalism is to allow corporations to play the market as aggressively as possible. Reich 07—Chancellor's Professor of Public Policy at the Goldman School of Public Policy. seeking laws that give them a competitive advantage over their rivals. Rothenbaum.pdf)//AW Why has capitalism succeeded while democracy has steadily weakened? Democracy has become enfeebled largely because companies. “How Capitalism is Killing Democracy”. And yet a sense of political powerlessness is on the rise among citizens in Europe. while capitalism takes away this collective identity. China. even as consumers and investors feel more empowered. their fortunes are beginning to diverge. Former US Secretary of Labor (Robert B. But though free markets have brought unprecedented prosperity to many. however. And while capitalism has become remarkably responsive to what people want as individual consumers. in intensifying competition for global consumers and investors. enables citizens to debate collectively how the slices of the pie should be divided and to determine which rules apply to private goods and which to public goods..Cap Kritik 50/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Democracy Capitalism and democracy are on opposite ends of the spectrum—democracy tries to ensure that people are collective. This fact is not. %2007%20Events/111407%20Reich%20Article. heightened job insecurity. have invested ever greater sums in lobbying. It is a system for accomplishing what can only be achieved by citizens joining together to further the common good. http://www. Capitalism. Former US Secretary of Labor (Robert B. Japan. those tasks are increasingly being left to the market. %2007%20Events/111407%20Reich%20Article. nothing more. on the one hand. Yet today.. Foreign Policy Journal. democracy means much more than the process of free and fair elections. What is desperately needed is a clear delineation of the boundary between global capitalism and democracy— between the economic game. a failing of capitalism. Jay. at its best.pdf)//AW Conventional wisdom holds that where either capitalism or democracy flourishes. we have blurred their responsibilities. and to help societies achieve both growth and equity. Capitalism’s role is to increase the economic pie. Harry. In short.

Cap Kritik 51/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab arms race for political influence that is drowning out the voices of average citizens. are typically contests between competing companies or industries.have largely failed. By pretending that the economic success corporations enjoy saddles them with particular social duties only serves to distract the public from democracy’s responsibility to set the rules of the game and thereby protect the common good. it is imperative to remember that we are also citizens who have it in our power to reduce these social costs. While corporations are increasingly writing their own rules. It is much the same with what passes for corporate charity. The only way for the citizens in us to trump the consumers in us is through laws and rules that make our purchases and investments social choices as well as personal ones. As a result. and publisher of Rachael’s Environment and Health News. might give communities a bit more time to adapt to changing circumstances. the fights that preoccupy Congress. at least indirectly. Nor do they have any expertise in making such moral calculations.greenleft. companies donate money to good causes only to the extent the donation has public-relations value. Extended unemployment insurance combined with wage insurance and job training could ease the pain for workers caught in the downdrafts of globalization. 14 October 1998 http://www. Clayton . Rothenbaum. The first step. widening inequality. The larger danger is that these conspicuous displays of corporate beneficence hoodwink the public into believing corporations have charitable impulses that can be relied on in a pinch. We can accomplish this larger feat only if we take our roles as citizens seriously. That leaves societies unable to address the tradeoffs between economic growth and social problems such as job insecurity. or when they appear to take on social responsibilities that they have no real capacity or authority to fulfill. for example. presumably. My inner consumer won’t like that very much. which is often the hardest. But those private benefits usually have social costs. But democracy cannot fulfill this role when companies use politics to advance or maintain their competitive Democracy is supposed to represent the public in drawing such lines. and climate change. Let us be clear: The purpose of democracy is to accomplish ends we cannot achieve as individuals. thereby boosting the bottom line. After 30 years of exceedingly hard work and DML. In these roles we should strive for the best deals possible. Corporate executives are not authorized by anyone—least of all by their investors —to balance profits against the public good. Amanda. for example. global investors. making the true price of the goods and services we purchase as low as possible. That is how we participate in the global market economy. Politicians praise companies for acting “responsibly” or condemn them for not doing so. And the message that companies are moral beings with social responsibilities diverts public attention from the task of establishing such laws and rules in the first place. Harry. Shareholders who wish to be charitable would. They invest to earn high returns. consumer and investor interests almost invariably trump common concerns. Under today’s intensely competitive form of global capitalism. Extinction Montague co-director Environmental Research Foundation 98 [Peter Montague. There is abundant evidence that our efforts -and they have been formidable. And for those of us living in democracies. they are also being entrusted with a kind of social responsibility or morality. Ian. Jay. is to get our thinking straight. The vast majority of us are global consumers and. In the United States. A small transfer tax on sales of stock. those that consume weeks or months of congressional staff time. The return on my retirement fund might go down by a small fraction. even heroic -. but the citizen in me might think it a fair price to pay. make donations to charities of their own choosing in amounts they decide for themselves. Yet the purpose of capitalism is to get great deals for consumers and investors. But shareholders do not invest in firms expecting the money to be used for charitable purposes. but the citizen in me thinks it worth the price. A change in labor laws making it easier for employees to organize and negotiate better terms. to slow the movement of capital ever so slightly. might increase the price of products and] The environmental movement is treading water and slowly drowning.

It is deep. If they are allowed to make decisions behind closed doors. cows' milk?” The AEC scientists had no response. and the general welfare will not usually be promoted.Cap Kritik 52/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab tremendous sacrifice. we got a glimpse of what had happened to the environment and the people under the Soviet dictatorship. causing cancer. the AEC reported to Congress in 1953.even when Congress has been willing to impose them -. if we are honest with ourselves. we must contend for the full power of government to be harnessed toward achieving our goals. but few successes building longterm organisations that people can live their lives around and within (the way many families in the '30s. Naturally. Openness. The AEC's best and brightest studied this problem in detail and and ultimately unsuccessful. This question of democracy is not trivial. “What about the Secrecy in government and corporate decision-making continues to threaten the well-being of everyone on the planet as new technologies are deployed at an accelerating pace after inadequate consideration of their effects. those laws meant nothing. strontium-90 was not endangering people. In the early 1950s. The focus of our strategies must be on building organisations that involve people and. Clearly. “The only potential hazard to human beings would be the ingestion of bone splinters which might be intermingled with muscle tissue in butchering and cutting of the meat. their atomic fallout was showering the population with strontium-90. What. Once in the body. or blow the whistle on egregious violations. narrow perspectives and selfish motives are rewarded. so they prefer to leave ordinary people out of the equation. Open. Harry. are we to do? This article is intended to provoke thought and debate.have often proven to be expensive. and certainly is not offered as the last word on anything . During the past 30 years. The power to govern would naturally flow from those efforts. Our technologies are now too complex and too powerful to be left solely in the hands of a few experts. small groups of experts can make fatal errors.). a highly radioactive element that masquerades as calcium when it is taken into the body. They fundamentally don't trust people to make good decisions. strontium-90 moves into the bones. would contaminate cows' milk. Errors remain uncorrected. Then they lobby Congress in hopes that Congress will impose this latest “solution” on us all.” Thus. Have our efforts been adequate? Have we succeeded? Have we even come close to stemming the tide of destruction? Has our vision been commensurate with the scale and scope of the problems we set out to solve? To those questions. For the same reason that science cannot find reliable answers without open peer review. “We have met the enemy and he is us”. which of course it did. After the Berlin wall fell. they concluded. mimicking calcium. In the modern world. can we survive as a human society. and their “solutions” -. burdensome open democratic decision-making is essential to survival. democratic decision-making will be an essential component of any successful strategy. They had neglected to ask whether strontium-90. finding new allies. Instead. Many members of the mainstream environmental movement tend to view ordinary people as the enemy (for example. On that basis. Only by informing people. Open. democratic decision-making is no longer a luxury. it is a necessity for human survival. Experts. and trusting their decisions. In the modern era. Things would be much worse today if our work of the past 30 years had never occurred. Rothenbaum. then. the environmental movement has had some notable successes mobilising people. As soon as these memos became public. bureaucracies (whether public or private) cannot achieve beneficial results without active citizen participation in decisions and strong protection for whistle-blowers. or rather movements. One thinks of the old Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) justifying above-ground nuclear weapons testing. The fundamental importance of democratic decision-making means that our strategies must not focus on legislative battles. and the amount that would end up in the cows' bones. Ian. '40s and '50s lived their lives around and within their unions' struggles). An insignificant amount would enter the body in this fashion. in that process. The Soviets had some of the world's strictest environmental laws on the books. Clayton . Make no mistake: our efforts have had a beneficial effect. DML. but this is quite different from focusing our efforts on lobbying campaigns to convince legislators to do the right thing from time to time. They calculated the strontium-90 intake of the cows. then announce their “solution”. And it deeply divides the environmental movement. However. we have failed to stem the tide of environmental deterioration. we must answer No. but without the ability for citizens to participate in decisions. they scheme with lawyers and experts behind closed doors. Lobbying can mobilise people for the short term. but mobilising is not the same as organising. the question is. Jay. argued in secret memos that the only way strontium-90 could get into humans would be through cattle grazing on contaminated grass. where it irradiates the bone marrow. Congress declassified many of the AEC's deliberations. The following year. such people don't develop a big following. they love to say. Amanda. scientists and citizens began asking.

Capital twists racism and sexism to its own ends. Indeed. subordinate moments in the capitalistic mode of production. on the one hand. racism and sexism. As such displaced forms. Ian. One does not get at what is specific and essential in DML. and autonomy between and among spheres. to the sexual or racial domains. sexism. Racism and sexism in the West and North we are approaching rejecting in principle but not capital. Asia. Also. coequal forms of domination. Amanda. but the reverse is generally not true. extending not only over the United States and Western Europe but also over the Third World in Africa. specificity. a vulgar Marxist model that denies any autonomy at all. In this respect. A tendency now exists in leftist circles to talk about racism. but is finally not justified. sexism and racism are holdovers from prior epochs and. one-dimensional domination. without downplaying their tremendous moral evil and the enormous suffering they inflict in their contemporary manifestations. Critique Action and Liberation. Capitalism will transform sexual and racial relations to achieve its goals. Also. in my opinion. Rothenbaum. and South America. using the former to fragment the working class and the latter. then. late capitalism has more or less immunized the monopoly sphere of the economy from serious conflict. Marsh 95. Clayton . the fate of women professionals asking for salaries equal to men in a context of economic retrenchment is another. Such a tendency is understandable in the light of the economism and reductionism of much of the Marxist left. Why is class domination ultimately more fundamental and important and overriding? It is more universal. technocratic. twisting them to its own ends. because of its thirst for surplus value. an asymmetry exists between racism and sexism. not only over women and African-Americans but also most men and whites. Capital. Class struggle is the most antagonistic of conflicts-fundamental cooperation is emerging between the sexes and races but not between labor and capital. we must consider the question concerning the relationship among racism. and capitalism on the other. Three different models are possible here.Cap Kritik 53/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Discrimination Capitalism rigs the game . has an infinity to it and tends to overcome limits and incorporate them into itself. The fate of Martin Luther King's civil rights movement when it came North and began to be more openly economic in its orientation is one example. The result is that conflict has been displaced to other spheres more or less peripheral to this central monopoly sphere. If this fact is not recognized. but they are not equal in importance to class domination. like the contradiction between symbolic interaction and purposive rational action. As such. Progress in overcoming racism and sexism occurs up to the point where that overcoming infringes upon fundamental capitalistic social relations. Racism and sexism serve capital as ideology. are no different from rent and interest. to legitimize a tough-minded. Another way of putting the same point is to say that capitalism is a process of self-expanding value oriented to the production of surplus value. of which American foreign policy in Vietnam and Nixon's machismo on the Watergate tapes is a dramatic example. the three-sector model mentioned above. they are important and must be fought. Jay. We make the mistake of thinking that an AfricanAmerican person is fully liberated if he becomes an NFL quarterback and a woman if she becomes an executive on Wall Street. which come in fairly late in Marx's analysis in volume 3 of Capital. Racism and sexism are like other holdovers from precapitalist epochs. The sophisticated Marxist model thus retains the strengths of the other two while avoiding and overcoming their onesidedness. quantitative. The reign of capitalism up to this point has been nonnegotiable in the West. capitalism.Professor of Philosophy at Fordham University (James. and in their own right as well. and classism. Both movements at that point have simply degenerated into demands for equal participation in the rat race. and class domination as distinct. The sophisticated Marxist approach. will relate racism and sexism to itself and incorporate them in various ways. sexism. as such. is the best account. Capitalism defines the modern in a way that sexism and racism do not. Racism and sexism. Harry. to an extent are indirectly displaced forms of class domination and colonization. and a sophisticated Marxist model that asserts the dominance of class exploitation but allows relative autonomy on lived and ideological levels to the other two spheres. p 282-3) Next. to the extent that it fully comes into its own.simply allowing minorities or women to succeed within capitalism ensures reproduction of the harms. if Habermas is correct. It allows some diversity. like rent or interest. then at a certain point the revolutionary elan of the civil rights and feminist movements is negated.

will inevitably destroy us as well. Harry. Rothenbaum. the effects of uncontrolled power.) To study racism is to study walls. and powerlessness are cruel. The danger point of self-destruction seems to be drawing ever more near . Pastor and Co-director of Crossroads 91 –– Ministry working to dismantle racism (Joseph. of military buildups and violent aggression. Ian. restraints and limitations. which are the marks of our white prison. the walls of racism. institutional. of overconsumption and environmental destruction may be reaching a point of no return . privilege. once and for all. Jay. D-rule Barndt. As a glance at and reflection on the streets of Los Angeles after the 1992 riots shows (see below). But we have also seen that the walls of racism can be dismantled. but are offered the vision and the possibility of freedom . Brick by brick. capitalized sexism is not the same as pre-capitalist sexism. and cultural racism can be destroyed. inhuman. You and I are urgently called to join the efforts of those who know it is time to tear down. The results of centuries of national and worldwide conquest and colonialism. stone by stone. As reflection on the use of women in advertisements to sell products indicates. Clayton . Dismantling Racism: The Continuing Challenge to White America 155-6. A small and predominantly white minority of the global population derives its power and privilege from the sufferings of the vast majority of peoples of color. The prison of racism confines us all. ghettos and prisons. capitalized racism is not the same as pre-capitalist racism. Amanda. For the sake of the world and ourselves. The walls forcibly keep people of color and white people separate from each other. the prison of individual. in our separate prisons we are all prevented from achieving the human potential that God intends for us. people of color and white people alike. we dare not allow it to continue. and unjust.Cap Kritik 54/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab capitalist modernity by talking about rent or interest or racism or sexism as such. but by understanding these phenomena as related to and incorporated into this process of capitalist valorization. It shackles the victimizer as well as the victim. We are not condemned to an inexorable fate. and greed. The limitations imposed on people of color by poverty. subservience. We have looked at barriers and fences. DML.

He has achieved international recognition for his work over many years in the field of epidemiology. The numbers for counties in Kansas showed the greatest variation. an effective measure of fairness. Capitalism makes disease spread inevitable – profit motive cripples health sector and community response – data proves Levins 2K (Richard Levins is a professor of biology at Harvard University. 1099-1100. states showed somewhat less difference. the rates varied. / However. we observed average rates as well as the disparity. while Rio Grande do Sur in Brazil had a more typical. that is. 07. its unevenness. Ian. we divided the variation. "in principle. the difference between best and worst. Anthropological Quarterly. we found that Saskatchewan was somewhere between Kansas and Cuba. but in Cuba it was . different health districts in a Brazilian state. That Cuba scored so high was not very surprising. p. “is capitalism a disease?”. One aspect of my approach to the issues of healthcare comes from my background as an ecologist. in each place. occupational groups. Amanda. / The reason we chose these places is that on the one Canada. “Pharmaceuticalization: AIDS Treatment and Global Health Politics."46 With drugs available and structural violence ongoing. A Marxist approach to health would attempt to integrate the insights of ecosystem health. for example. Project Muse) As Susan Reynolds Whyte and colleagues note in the context of ARV access in Uganda. and the order in its disorder. I asked. or in a Canadian province? Very interesting patterns emerged from that work.National Institute of Mental Health postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University (João. when we viewed the same data from the perspective of the range from the best to the worst rates of infant mortality. But the process is a rough and inequitable one. When we hand Brazil. much more was revealed. http://findarticles. unlike Cuba. or other socially defined categories. and much "healthcare for all. For Kansas the range divided by the average is . Pre-modern and modern ways to access resources and convert risk into life possibilities routinely overlap to redistribute technology and care unequally. reflecting the quality of healthcare . politically motivated and deceiving discourses have surfaced to rationalize in a perverse fashion the survival dilemmas the most vulnerable now face in the absence of improved living conditions—poor HIV-positive mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. the variability within given populations. that Kansas had a rate a little higher than the U. is the outcome in healthcare in different states in the United States. third-world infant mortality rate. Jay. environmental justice.S. but the variability is higher in Kansas than in Cuba. and the least variation was in Cuba. from the best to the worst. As drugs for AIDS become more common. average. by the average.Cap Kritik 55/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Disease Alt solves disease better—capitalism prevents effective disease solvency—poor members of society can’t get access to technology and are left with limited resources Biehl. different provinces in Cuba. Saskatchewan and Rio Grande do Sur along with Cuba have national health systems that provide fairly uniform coverage over a given geographic area." and alternative medicine. examined Canadian data. they have the disadvantages of capitalism. while the numbers that compared U. and Kansas all have capitalist economies in which investment decisions are based on maximizing profit rather than any social imperative meant to equalize economic circumstance. We saw that the cancer rates in Kansas and in Cuba are comparable. giving them an DML. among other factors. The Canadian and Brazilian regions have the advantage of a better and more just healthcare system but. both as an average and how. the social determination of health. What we saw was that infant mortality rates in United States were more or less comparable to Cuba.34. they expose the nature of healthcare —its dynamism. I looked at variability in health across geographic locations.col1) A radical critique of medicine has to deal with the things that make people sick and the kind and quality of healthcare people get. Once again. affordable treatment will change the meaning of AIDS (and of life!). Harry. Clayton . Just how variable. different counties in Kansas. age groups. who used medicines to prevent vertical transmission are now left "to choose" to breastfeed their newborns (as the least lethal option) because lack of clean water makes formula feeding a riskier practice. The difference across health districts of Rio Grande was even less. My colleagues and I examined the rate of infant mortality in each of these regions. Rothenbaum. Similar things happen when we look at all causes of death.85.S.

Kansas. those most likely to develop the cancer have livers that are not able to effectively process a particular chemical as well. knows that the categories themselves must be challenged. There are always preconditions to the exercise of choice. not all kids turn out badly. They're structured. If you are a superb shopper. from those that were freely chosen and for which we can only blame ourselves. in a factory emitting toxic fumes. For example. Genetics is not an alternative explanation of social conditions. People who have few choices in life at least can make the choice to smoke. do not experience the kind or quality of freedom that gives them control over their own lives. Amanda. There is an intimate interdependence among biological. when to be in the library. Suppose a pupil is a bit nearsighted but. finally forced to concede that there are big differences in health outcomes between rich and poor. In the inner city of San Juan. the most obvious is pigmentation. The teacher is overworked and does not notice that the student cannot see the blackboard. from the point of view of genetics and physiology. so it is unlikely their behavior will change simply by lecturing to them." In fact. Examined were such variables as whether there was running water or what proportion of the people spoke Spanish. they may have difficulty taking care of their babies. The research showed that the more marginal communities had worse health outcomes. in fact. So. others may vary greatly over smaller geographic units. Suddenly she has become someone with a "learning problem" and is transferred to a vocational course even though she might have been great poet. / Behavior is one of the areas where public health workers want to intervene. because she is tall. for example. "it might give me cancer in twenty years. he or she will have proved that crime is hereditary. obviously poverty is not good for you. such as smoking. and other dangerous means used to compensate for inadequate heat in their houses. so what we need are education programs to teach people to make the best of their situation. it is also caused by the environment. now say. Clayton . as a consequence. the lives of. she gets into a fight with the kid at the next desk. Conservatives will say. or that you read the ads but cannot get away for two hours for comparison shopping. we assume that something we do now will have an impact later on. ovens. Why? Because neighborhoods are not simply random pieces of environment. which generally are not a good idea. "teen pregnancy is a danger to people. that may be unfair and/or can be eliminated. Rothenbaum. where the classes are smaller and teachers pay attention. Harry. Ian. like different neighborhoods within the city of Wichita. or Tuesday and Thursday. and Friday. in the quality and quantity of healthcare--clearly unnecessary from the point of view of any limitation in our medical knowledge or resources. / It is an as-yet-unrecognized ecological principle in public health that when a community or an individual organism is stressed for any reason (low income. f rom personal experiences growing up. in Puerto Rico. and is gone. trivial. worry a great deal about teen pregnancies. Why? The environment of racism erodes health to such an extent that it makes a certain amount of sense to have your babies early if you're going to have them. exercise. ranking them according to how marginalized they were from Mexican life. some of the things that are unwise choices under other circumstances become the lesser evil. unexpectedly. And so whenever we can get data across neighborhoods. and the babies are more likely to be underweight. it will be extremely sensitive to other disparities. Smoking increases inversely with the degree of freedom one has at work. "yes. a professor may conveniently order his or her teaching schedule around patterns of Monday. it turns out that the health of a baby born to an African-American teenager is on the average better than the health of a baby born to an African-American woman in her twenties. and others who deal with these issues. We know that kids do better if their mothers have had more schooling. We also notice that unemployment in Kansas averages 9 or 10 percent in most Kansas counties but is 30 percent in northeast Wichita." The unhealthy choices people make are not irrational choices. The apparently trivial difference in experience can have a vast effect on the health of someone who is marginal. or across small areas like counties. If the conditions of life are very poor or oppressive. for example)." What they miss is the notion of increased vulnerability. / This method can also be applied when comparing different diseases. individual differences in where you work. The difference in melanin between Americans of African and European origin is. this kid would simply end up with glasses. Nevertheless. people will develop cancer at a higher rate. Or that you live in a neighborhood where the local supermarket was not as profitable as the national chain that owned it thought it should be. We have to see them as constrained rationality. you need a poor neighborhood. This makes as much sense as the notion that black people get more tuberculosis because they have bad genes. the data also showed that there was tremendous difference among the outcomes in poor villages that you didn't get among the villages that were integrated into the Mexican economy. But. it a component of an investigation of causal factors. Individual differences can come from anything. like nearly everyone else. A Marxist confronted with choices among mutually exclusive categories like choice versus environment. / Yet another dimension of choice is found in the way we perceive time. For example. There are good reasons why it might go either way. Most people. The Centers for Disease Control. Teen mothers are not experienced. heredity versus experience. / The illusion of Choice / Poor health tends to cluster in poor communities. It is one of the few legitimate ways in some jobs to take a break and step outside. the life pattern is such that one can work unloading a ship for twenty-three hours a day for two days. Conservatives. but it is not the experience of everyone. She fidgets. a small difference in temperature can have a big effect on their health--one that doesn't affect the more affluent. On a shorter time scale. some health education programs are valuable. So is this a lethal gene? Is this a gene for a higher spread of pigmentation-one that also makes you more vulnerable to arrest? A standard geneticist would look at family histories and determine that if your uncle was arrested. in two or three years. academics are notable for the way time is organized. This is something that is not obvious when you simply say. We choose food. When people are unemployed. / Public health people. For instance. Wednesday. biological versus social. "I will quit smoking now so that I won't get cancer in twenty years. only to be lost in the averages we develop for large areas. that is. and social factors." Not everyone can organize their lives along an orderly annual time scale. where a study was conducted of several villages. this is because the poor make unwise decisions. Physicians decide when to see patients. and if you clip all the coupons and scrutinize the supermarket ads. but it sure keeps me alive today. why can't you? Some people have become CEOs of corporations who came out of that neighborhood. whether you can have a babysitter available or not. / Another interesting case can be found in Mexico. / Smoking is another example. a very severe climate. will prepare them for a career. "well. we find a threefold variation in infant mortality. When we are able to look at smaller areas." they say. We know this from elections and from shopping. But let us take a closer look at this question of choice. The same is true in relation to food. It is simply the way in which a pigment is deposited in the skin. can have a big impact on your health. if people have very low income. like northeast Wichita. When making a choice about health. Choices are always made from a set of alternatives that are presented to you by somebody else. Following the rules of genetics in this mechanistic way. Choice also implies the lack of choice. Conclusion: the cause of criminality is genetic. when to go to DML. but only from the products a company has chosen to make available to us. the people who dream up these baskets assume you are a wiz at finding bargains. making the best of a bad situation. then unexpectedly work in a restaurant for another two days because his or her cousin has to go to a funeral in the mountains. even from genetics. But even when genetics is responsible for a given human characteristic. they cut back on food and other kinds of expenditures with an immediate impact on nutrition. say." We need to look at teen pregnancy in a much broader social context before we can think about making it simply a public health issue. it is only responsible within a particular context. you might just get by on the Department of Agriculture poverty level basket. environmental. Safety orientation within factories does help people cope with unsafe conditions. unchoice. changing seasonal temperatures become very important. But suppose you are not so good. Under those circumstances. emergency rooms have a lot of people coming in with burns from kerosene stoves. Wherever there is a rich neighborhood. how much energy you have. / On the other hand. They would have us distinguish between disadvantages imposed o n us. That may seem obvious. The same is true with respect to the opportunity to exercise choice. The choice is distinguished by the lack of choice. One question we want to answer is whether variability will be greater across states and other large geographic regions. The cancer is not a result of genetics alone. but after all. then sleep for three days. Time does not have the same structure when you can't make solid plans now for what is going to happen to you later. For such people. is seated at the back of the classroom. This is a genetic variable and thus a genetic disease but it occurs only with exposure to those fumes. to serve it. genetic. and with it your opportunity to get quality food. Or suppose that you would love to eat organic food for lunch but what you have is a half-hour break to go down to the vending machines. there would be a higher probability of you being arrested as well.Cap Kritik 56/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab intermediate location in the variability of health outcomes. say only some things can be chosen. we see very large variations in social conditions and. You have to change the context within which choice is made. Yet this difference can cost you ten years of life. while others are imposed by the environment. or if the prices go up. that would allow them to say. So there are people who choose: "yes. In a more affluent community. I made it. Students can and do choose courses of study that. arguing that much that differentiates health outcomes in poor neighborhoods from rich ones can be associated with behavior. weather could impact the data in large areas like states. The appropriate remedy is education. Jay. Most of the apparently unwise decisions people make have a relative rationality to them when their circumstance is taken into account. / Trivial biological differences can become the focus around which important life outcomes are located. in late autumn and early winter. But weather is not the only variable. and diet.

HMOs. it was yet another reincarnation of the White Man's Burden that justified nineteenth-century imperialism. we can be hit by a car. then. They organized to improve the quality of food in the roadside canteens and collaborated with restaurant owners and canteen owners and food was improved. their opposition may take some political form. obviously. with counselors to advise them of their right to unemployment insurance and other benefit programs. for example. including. of course. Like any aggressive business. Doctors. The basic reason that programs fail is not incompetence. none of these measures affects profitability or challenges the market. as a social problem rather than an inevitable byproduct of a vigorous market. /If good health depends on one's capacity to carry out those activities that are necessary and appropriate according to one's station in life. as trying to prevent communism. Not absolute predictions. So the council cannot create employment. / In some cases improving on-the-job health is relatively cost-free. and pharmaceutical companies. the more the possibility. they will be even more resistant. in Europe. In that situation. Things can come up. and do away with inequalities. at great sacrifice. the health industries engage in public relations--the winning of hearts and minds. do we permit policies that create inequalities that have such a negative impact on our health? How do we explain this? We have schemes to improve agriculture but they increase hunger. In taking each of these steps. through government programs to improve health. But health is also a consumer good. share experiences. In other places. The history of struggle is long and not without achievements. social democrats historically have taken a different approach--one that acknowledges inequality as an obstacle. it matters how that station is determined. for the employer. An enterprise zone might be established in an inner city that actually brings in investment. but there is no impact on poverty because the assumption that benefits would trickle down was an illusion. where they can meet one another. they employ oxygen tanks in their living rooms. A town council will address it by financing a center for the unemployed. where all citizens have the vote. would go into the jungle and set up clinics and work very hard under very difficult conditions for low pay. What has gone wrong? One answer might be that we are just not smart enough. Abroad. Some of the clinics that were established in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War and earlier. and failed. We have described at length both the prospects and problems of that system. perhaps byway of a union demand. Healthcare in the United States exists against background of this country's unrestrained capitalism. What they do is to try to make things more equitable--for instance. operate is in the delivery of health services elsewhere. nothing else mattered. a paper was distributed that posed the following dilemma: Why. Rather than improve water quality. But. the more control you have over your life and your experience of life. there is a program to break down the isolation of young mothers. for example. after having failed to eliminate hunger. hospitals. and working conditions. The center may even organize a support group where people can deal with their feelings about not being able to bring home an income to the family. Of course. This highlights the lie in the notion that society is trying to improve health for everybody. / What Can Be Done? / At a recent meeting I attended. For example. after each new expenditure. He probably would like medicines to be cheaper. This distinction is clear when an employer negotiates health insurance for his or her employees. Health is part of the wage goods of a society. / A good way to see how these hidden constraints. management will see workers impinging on the very core of class prerogative. But. perhaps we need to face facts and conclude that it just cannot be done. part of the value of labor power. people need to control their own lives. but only if not expropriated from plantation owners. living in a democracy. President Clinton would rather have people covered by health insurance than not. Harry. If the union's demands deal with the organization of work itself. more consciously. But it begins to get a little tricky when you talk about the reorganization of work or the expenditure of money. and which are relatively neutral. but only if the pharmaceutical industry continues to make high profits. / When health policy is looked at from the point of view of which issues involve a direct confrontation of fundamental. Or. improve people's health. which ones involve simply relative benefits to a class. Even the most farsighted programs initiated by European social democratic governments do not challenge the capitalist order in any way. particularly for the affluent. But that is subject to the side condition that insurance industry profitability must be protected. the repeal of some aspect of health and safety regulation. Secondly. the more it makes sense to make the kind of decisions that public health experts recommend. we can expect the business class to object. No employer will object to putting up a sign reminding workers to wear their hard hats on the construction site. and part not. But struggle is also difficult. Sometimes we discover that part of a program is carded out successfully. basically. ruling-class interest. these systemic barriers. We create hospitals and they become the centers for the propagation of new diseases. and provide support. They will say that it is bad for competition and threaten to close down and move somewhere else. they buy bottled water. through progressive income taxes or generous unemployment insurance. So some people can actually structure their lives in such a way that we can actually make predictions. so that they can exercise all their faculties to make meaningful choices. they perceive some interference with their competitive position. Amanda. of exercising choice. They have treated unemployment. were for this purpose. unions have negotiated collective agreements to change shift work. or we are selfish. Those who can determine for themselves what constitutes necessary and desirable activities are clearly different from the people who have that determination made for them. they need to provi de the tools for making those choices. or stupidity. seeing themselves either as bringing benefits to people who needed it or. we see that those ostensibly aimed at improving the people's lives are nearly always hobbled by some hidden side condition. during the Malayan insurrection. But when we look at the policies that emerge from those institutions of democracy. In London. We invest in engineering projects to control floods and they increase flood damage. We need to see healthcare in a more complex way. / We should reject any of these unduly pessimistic conclusions. And if. Or the problems are just too complicated. If the expenditure of money comes from taxes. and therefore a regular object of contention in class struggle. they even push it on people who do not need it. only a powerful and wellorganized labor movement will be able to impose changes. transport workers demanded improved food to reduce heart disease among truck drivers. Or perhaps we're just the kind of species that is incapable of living a cooperative life in a sensible relation to nature. Rothenbaum. Clayton . we directly challenge the false dichotomies that rule thinking about public health and constrain it within predetermined societal boundaries. When that was achieved. Third. the cost of the benefits package will always come before what employees may DML. but because they are constrained by the interests of the powerful. Ian. or we have some defect. it is easy to depend on the illusion of democracy and a beneficent government to solve our problems. I am sure that on the whole. the United States would like peasants to have land.Cap Kritik 57/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab seminars. we can predict which kinds of measures are possible. When an expenditure has to come from the individual employer. Jay. rather than improve air quality. Local governments can address other social concerns. They sell healthcare to as large a market as can afford to pay for it. Health is also a commodity invested in by the health industries. hours of work. The unions recognized that health concerns were but another aspect of class relations. A reasonable return on investment was the goal of the developers. In Sweden. So the answer to those who talk about decision-making and choice is to tell them. For instance. to expand the range of choices. who can buy improvements in health for themselves. first of all. ignorance.

once thought to be under control . The rapid growth rate of the total world population. Steinbruner. So knowledge and ignorance are determined. as in all scientific research. the human body has developed physical barriers and a biochemical immune system whose sophistication and effectiveness exceed anything we could design or as yet even fully understand. In the long course of evolution. The threat of infectious pathogens is not just an issue of public health. “Biological Weapons: A Plague Upon All Houses. Amanda. An infectious agent believed to have been the plague bacterium killed an estimated 20 million people over a four-year period in the fourteenth century. with 1. There is class struggle in the debates around what kind of research ought to be done. But evolution is a sword that cuts both ways: New diseases emerge.Cap Kritik 58/194 think they need. there are also issues of health service and health policy. Clayton . and cholera . changing conditions have enhanced the potential for widespread contagion. Increasingly. there have been epidemics during which human immunity has broken down on an epic scale.4 million worldwide. the main lines of defense against this threat have not depended on explicit policies or organized efforts. research in the health field is dominated by the pharmaceutical and electronic industries. some 20 variations of the HIV virus have infected an estimated 29. Winter 1997/1998. So is medical and scientific research. who 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab health is always a point of contention in class struggle. DML.” FOREIGN POLICY n. and scientific advances that expand the capability for the deliberate manipulation of pathogens are all cause for worry that the problem might be greater in the future than it has ever been in the past.are now making a comeback. As we enter the twenty-first century. by who owns the research industry. Jay. so far. ASP. including nearly one-quarter of Western Europe's population at the time. 109. Rothenbaum. while old diseases mutate and adapt. Disease causes extinction Stienbruer 98 – Senior fellow at the Brookings institute (John D. Malaria. the unprecedented freedom of movement across international borders. Throughout history. and social questions they raise.) It is a considerable comfort and undoubtedly a key to our survival that. not an alternative to it. but a fundamental security problem for the species as a whole. We have to take up health as a pervasive issue as we do with problems of the environment. / There are intellectual concerns about how to analyze data. about how widely we need to look at the epidemiological. historical. they are aspects of class struggle.5 million people currently dying of AIDS each year. But they are all part of one integral system that has to be our battleground in the future. Since its recognized appearance in 1981. 85-96. Ian. tuberculosis. pp. about how to think about disease. Harry. commands the production of knowledge production.

There can be no disruption of existing class or power relations. the capitalist class. “Capitalism and the Environment. or they talk of floating DML. we are now being told on every side — even by Gore — that where global warming is concerned there is a free lunch after all. financial panics. we are led to believe. Not surprisingly. having learned to perform miracles of production. mobilizes its defenses to repulse environmental-protection measures perceived as dangerously extreme. All proposed solutions must be compatible with the treadmill of production. Thus despite the development of a growing environmental consciousness and the movements to which it has given rise in the last century.” http://www. Professor of Sociology. at the very least. is the meaning of revolutionary change today. Monthly Review. capitalism by now would have destroyed both its environment and itself. virtual shopping and improved cement. The goal is clearly to save the planet — but only if capitalism can be fully preserved at the same time. Less It is characteristic of the magic-bullet solutions that now pervade the media that they promise to defend our current way of life while remaining virtually cost free. the environmental crisis continues to deepen. http://www. If this conclusion is accepted—and it is hard to see how anyone who has studied the history of our time can refuse. tells us that climate change can be stopped on the cheap — if only the magic of technology and markets is applied.htm Such is the inner nature. Founding Editor. Naturally it does not operate without opposition. as Marx and Engels always conceived it. not part of the problem. the essential drive of the economic system that has generated the present environmental crisis. while sometimes interfering with the operations of individual capitalists. in Capital. in its policy proposals. describing the latter as a great victory for the political economy of the working class. such constraints. must at last learn to use its miraculous powers not to degrade itself and destroy its home but to make the world a better place to live in for itself and its progeny for millennia to come. Rothenbaum. not only by its victims but also in extreme cases by its more far-sighted leaders. Even the IPCC. Monbiot pointedly tells us that the rich countries can solve the global warming problem without becoming “Third World” states or shaking up “middle-class” life —or indeed interfering with the distribution of riches at all. Is the position taken here in effect a restatement of the traditional Marxist case for a socialist revolution? Yes. including the state which it controls. John Foster.monthlyreview. cyclical depressions. in a nutshell. Monthly Review. to take it seriously—it follows that what has to be done to resolve the environmental crisis. This. could at best slow down the fatal process of decline and fall that is already so far advanced. better insulated homes. wrote feelingly about nineteenth-century movements for factory legislation and the ten-hours bill. but with one crucial proviso: The socialism to be achieved must be conceived. never go so far as to threaten the system as a whole. renowned Marxist economist. University of Oregon.indypendent. which instead focuses on such things as more buses. Hence. Amanda. no matter how desirable in themselves. Ian. Efforts have always been made to curb its excesses. are part of the solution. our industrial waste. Clayton . Even progressive thinkers such as George Monbiot in his new book Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning have gotten into the Politics is carefully excluded from his analysis. Despite the fact that economists have long insisted that there is no such thing as a free lunch. Editor. 2007. It is capitalism itself. Harry. mass unemployment. Long before that point is reached. We can have our cars. 2004. hence also to insure that humanity has a future. There is nothing in the record or on the horizon that could lead us to believe the situation will significantly change in the foreseeable future. And during the present century conservation movements have emerged in all the leading capitalist countries and have succeeded in imposing certain limits on the more destructive depredations of uncontrolled capital. Lesser measures of reform. The affirmative declares war on the planet. Corporations.Cap Kritik 59/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Environment Partial reform only pacifies the masses. Magic bullet reform sustains capitalism in its entirety. It is hardly an exaggeration to say that without constraints of this kind arising within the system. Marx. more technocratic thinkers look for substitutes for hydrocarbons. Paul Sweezy. replicating the root causes of ecological damage. with its in-built attitude toward human beings and nature alike as means to an alien end that must be rooted out and replaced. “A New War on the Planet?”. Jay. the most prominent proposals are shaped by the fact that they are designed to fit within the capitalist box. as the quintessential negation of capitalism—not as a society that eliminates the most objectionable features of capitalism such as gross inequality of income. such as biofuels or even nuclear power. is to replace capitalism with a social order based on an economy devoted not to maximizing private profit and accumulating ever more capital but rather to meeting real human needs and restoring the environment to a sustainably healthy condition. our endlessly expanding commodity economy and climate stability too. Total replacement of capitalism is the only way to resolve the root of environmental crises. Humanity. and so on. virtual work.

the trading of credits and the like. The nascent capitalist economy was fostered by the feudal state. We need to learn. Clayton . to promote biofuels as a partial solution to global warming — without acknowledging that this will accelerate world hunger. More broadly. Joel Kovel. on the one hand. then took over that state (often through revolution). people increasingly live their lives under the terms of capital. employing new. faced by natural obstacles.Cap Kritik 60/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab white plastic islands in the oceans (a geoengineering solution to replace the lost reflectivity due to melting ice). Extinction Young. on the other. pollution control. Too much is at stake to close the argument with a demonstration of abstract laws. It is then possible. and takes shape as this is subjected to the peculiar forces of money Its nucleus is the abstraction of human transformative power into labour-power for sale on the market. the day after the stock market went into free-fall and in the context of a gathering crisis of accumulation. Broadly speaking. then. the imperative to expand continually erodes the edges of ecologies along an everlengthening perimeter. finally. the cancerous imperative to expand. explained: “Under modern [capitalist] conditions not destruction but conservation spells ruin. and the laws it obeys. the answer is to unleash a more powerful array of technological and market innovations so that the system can continue to expand as before. the temporal pace of their life accelerates. this has taken place in three dimensions — existentially. overcoming or displacing recuperative efforts and accelerating a cascade of destabilization. it operates through a host of intermediaries embedded within the gigantic machine for accumulation that is capitalist society. as much as we can about just what these actions are and how they can be changed. Although the Second Contradiction may be offset in individual circumstances by recycling. from this narrow perspective. The giant corporations we rightly identify as ecological destroyers are not the whole of capital. and. are no more than tendencies.talkingnature. they live in a world where institutions are in place to secure this across an ever-expanding terrain: the world of globalization. http://www. being mediated by consciousness. the capitalist mode of production was installed as such after which capital began to convert society into its image and created the conditions for the ecological crisis. Amanda. which includes such problems as species extinction. destruction of the oceans. What all of this suggests is that a real solution to the planetary environmental crisis cannot be accomplished simply through new technologies or through turning nature into a market. Or it is thought pragmatic to dump iron filings in the ocean (the so-called Geritol solution to global warming) in order to grow phytoplankton and increase the carbon absorbing capacity of the ocean — without connecting this at all to the current oceanic catastrophe. With this. Ian. But this means stepping outside the capitalist box and making peace with the planet — and with other human beings. Capital originates with the exploitation of labour. The dominant answers to global warming thus amount to what might be thought of as a new declaration of war on nature. high-tech armaments. Or it can be deduced from the combined tendencies to degrade conditions of production (the Second Contradiction). Rothenbaum. If nature has “struck back” at capitalism’s degradation of the environment in the form of climate change. Jay. As Hannah Arendt. p. centring it about capital accumulation. In this way a society. PhD coastal marine ecology. It is necessary to go to the root of the problem by addressing the social relations of production. italics in original] DML. The fact that the biosphere is one interconnected whole is downplayed in favor of mere economic expediency. sees no alternative to a new assault on etc. The ecological irrationality of this response is evident in the tendency to dissociate global warming from the global environmental crisis as a whole. as they do so. desertification. 51-52 Capital’s responsibility for the ecological crisis can be shown empirically. New social and democratic solutions need to be developed and rooted in human community and sustainability. tropical deforestation. Capital is no automatic mechanism. toxic wastes. one of the leading political philosophers of the 20th century. 10 [Ruth. we mean that certain human actions are carried out under the auspices of capital. embodying principles of conservation that are essential to life. are created hostile to the integrity of ecosystems. by tracking down ecosystemic breakdowns to the actions of corporations and/ or governmental agencies under the influence of capital’s force field. We need to take a closer look at how this society works on the ground. but only its prime economic instruments. Harry. therefore. the force of capital expansion can be seen directly — as when President George W Bush abruptly reversed his pledge to trim emissions of CO2 in March 2001. We must recognize that today’s ecological problems are related to a system of global inequality that demands ecological destruction as a necessary condition of its existence. When we say ‘capital does this’ or that. temporally and institutionally In other words. Capitalism destroys the environment – three warrants. professor of social studies at Bard. February 9th. 2002 “The Enemy of Nature”. but also across society and within the human spirit. capitalism. On occasion. and a whole way of being. “Biodiversity: what it is and why it’s important”.” Hence. Capital acts through the corporation.

So a fish previously thought to be ‘unimportant’ is actually a keystone species in the recovery of coral reefs overgrown by algae! Who knows how many other species are out there with unknown ecosystem roles! In some cases it’s easy to see who the keystone species are but in many ecosystems seemingly unimportant or redundant species are also capable of changing niches and maintaining ecosystems. the more likely these species will be present and the more resilient an ecosystem is to future impacts. such as apex predators (See Jeremy Hance’s post at Mongabay). The scope of this task is immense. This is the international year of biodiversity – a time to recognize that biodiversity makes our survival on this planet possible and that our protection of biodiversity maintains this service. but when offered a big patch of algae it turned into a hungry herbivore – a cow of the sea – grazing the algae in no time. Amanda. ecosystem services are maintained by entire functional groups. This led to a population explosion in the sea otters’ main source of prey. In some cases its groups of species not just one species that are vital for the ecosystem. leading to the recovery of the kelp forests and fish stocks. During the last 35 years. we only need to protect the species and functional groups that fill the kexystone roles. Diverse mangrove and coral reef ecosystems provide a wide variety of habitats that are essential for many fishery species. However. they all have a niche.) to eat the algae and enable the reef to switch back to a coral dominated ecosystem. the removal of these species can result in the collapse of an ecosystem and the subsequent removal of ecosystem services. Ian. These skates and rays eat bay scallops and their out of control population has led to the closure of a century long scallop fishery. Presently we’re only scratching the surface of understanding the full importance of biodiversity and how it helps maintain ecosystem function. The bat fish was previously thought to feed on invertebrates – small crabs and shrimp. The “over-fishing” was simulated by fencing off coral bommies thereby excluding and removing fish from them for three years. sea urchins. In doing so. But. In other cases. a team of researchers estimated their value – it amounted to $US33 trillion per year. This research examined what would happen to a coral reef if it were over-fished. This may lead to the nonkeystone species being considered ecologically worthless and subsequently over-exploited. Pollination carried out by insects such as bees enables the production of ⅓ of our food crops. These are just two examples demonstrating how biodiversity can maintain the services that ecosystems provide for us. Harry. surprisingly. Similar to the removal of a keystone from an arch.g. The more biodiverse an ecosystem is. Sea otters are a keystone species once hunted for their fur (Image: Mike Baird) Eventually a treaty protecting sea otters allowed the numbers of otters to increase which inturn controlled the urchin population. “By protecting biodiversity we maintain ecosystem services” Certain species play a “keystone” role in maintaining ecosystem services. This loss of habitat led to declines in local fish populations. Rothenbaum. medicines and timber. there are a couple of problems with this idea. When the time came to remove the fences the researchers expected herbivorous species of fish like the parrot fish (Scarus spp.Cap Kritik 61/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Different species within ecosystems fill particular roles. To make it simpler for economists to comprehend the magnitude of services offered by biodiversity. such as fisheries. the reefs had changed from a coral to an algae dominated ecosystem – the coral became overgrown with algae. we increase the chance of maintaining our ecosystem services in the event of future impacts such as disease. Clayton . An example of this was discovered on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. even if we did complete the enormous task of identifying and protecting all keystone species. Second. over fishing of large shark species along the US Atlantic coast has led to a population explosion of skates and rays. they all have a function. Jay. for most ecosystems we don’t know which species are the keystones! Ecosystems are so complex that we are still discovering which species play vital roles in maintaining them. DML. climate change. Sometimes we may not even know which species are likely to fill the keystone roles. For example plant species convert carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and energy from the sun into useful things such as food. the shift back to coral was driven by a supposed ‘unimportant’ species – the bat fish (Platax pinnatus). The most well known example of this occurred during the 19th century when sea otters were almost hunted to extinction by fur traders along the west coast of the USA. One could argue that to maintain ecosystem services we don’t need to protect biodiversity but rather. a wise insurance policy for maintaining ecosystem services would be to conserve biodiversity. By the end of the experiment. First of all. pollution or disease) led to the demise of these ‘keystone’ species? Would there be another species to save the day and take over this role? Classifying some species as ‘keystone’ implies that the others are not important. They interact with each other and the physical environment to provide ecosystem services that are vital for our survival. In the meantime. what back-up plan would we have if an unforseen event (e. invasive species and of course. Because the urchins graze on kelp their booming population decimated the underwater kelp forests.

Clayton . nor can you share a fear without hoping that it will not come to pass. The production of all these things uses human lives in the shape of labor. Marx writes. So to look into the face of another human being is to see the commandment. brings me back to capitalism. as well as the resources of the earth. what is the foundation of moral life? What makes it possible for human beings to recognize that they have responsibilities to each other and to their communities? For example: What could possibly make anyone willing to pay living wages to workers in Indonesia or Haiti if you can get them to work for less? The 18th Century philosopher David Hume asks. making profits is becoming a more important goal than caring for sick people. Nel Noddings. In medicine. To show why this is the case. Lewis and Clark Educational Papers. What reason can anyone give me to not to prefer the annihilation of all mankind to a scratch on my finger? Hume is one of many philosophers who argue that no such reason can be given. to the expansion of production. with the result that we grow up with an interest in cultivating our own capacity to care for others. argues that the ethical commitment arises out of the caring response that most of us feel towards those who. to be directed by the ethical concern for life. But before I go there. or shelter the purpose of the housing industry. So now we must ask. But feeding people is not the aim of the food industry. But to understand someone's feelings is. Nevertheless. are in need. like children. or seem to meet. the growth of markets. in her 1984 book Caring. in part. The 20th century proves otherwise. or caring determines all. it sees there only eyes through which brand names and advertising can enter and mouths that can demand and consume food. Another American philosopher. Now none of these philosophers are naive: none of them thinks that those needs. let me turn to capital's greatest critic. If human faces express needs.lclark. Karl Marx. The human face reveals its capacity for suffering. http://legacy. What they do offer. I want to claim. though. If we care about life. shelter. and all the necessities of life. but are valuable only if they can be used to turn a profit. is the hope that human beings have the capacity to want the best for each other. or an obstacle. if the needs are incompatible with the growth of capital. This means that the foundation of ethics lies not in reason. or even most. Most parents encourage this caring response in their children. and the temptation to use and abuse others will probably survive in any future society that might supersede capitalism. And you cannot share an aspiration or a need without wanting to see it fulfilled. Ian. For Hume it is part of our nature that we feel sympathy for each other. To put it in religious terms.html)//AW Well. Harry. Amanda. clean air. the development of technology. and tobacco products. love. Thou shalt not kill. nothing has value of its own. Josiah Royce an American philosopher of the last century argued that you do not really understand another person if you do not understand her aspirations. human lives -. fears. For those who manage and live from capital. but rather in our passions or our hearts. human behavior. I want to acknowledge that capitalism is not the only thing that blocks our ability to care. the putting the world at the disposal of those with capital has done more damage to the ethical life than any thing else. So the mere recognition of what other human beings are involves us in wanting to see them live and prosper. a suffering we are capable of either inflicting or opposing.all mean nothing in themselves. What forces are at work in our world to block or cripple the ethical response? This question. capital is the devil. Other philosophers have taken similar positions.Cap Kritik 62/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Ethics Capitalism destroys ethical concerns. to share them. Mountain streams. Radio Active Philosophy. As capitalist enterprises these activities aim single-mindedly at DML. Capital profits from the production of food. Obviously what capitalist enterprises do have consequences for the well being of human beings and the planet we live on. or else. Rothenbaum. of course. and the circulation of money. and needs. if we see our obligations in each others faces. The French-Jewish philosopher Emmanual Levinás whose major work appeared in 1961 claims that ethics arises in the experience of the face of the other. Exploitation and cruelty were around long before the economic system of capitalism came to be.[1] If capital looks at (not into) the human face. and this sympathy counters our narrow self-interest. then we have to want all the things capital does to be governed by that care. drink. Jay. everything in nature and everything that human beings are and can do becomes an object: a resource for. “Why Capitalism is Evil”. Under capitalism. Morgareidge 98—Associate Professor of Philosophy at Lewis and Clark College (Clayton. then the faces expressing them must be unrepresented or silenced. then either products can be manufactured to meet.

is left out of deliberations about what the heavyweight institutions of our society are going to do. sometimes even by politicians and widely read commentators. in letters to the editor. They still think they can't stop it. Rothenbaum. the overriding commitment to meeting human need. Ian. and such purposes as caring for the sick or feeding the hungry becomes a mere means to an end. Clayton . Therefore ethics. Jay. DML. Moral convictions are expressed in churches." but only because they have learned not to call economic growth progress. Only a minority ("idealists") can take seriously a way of thinking that counts for nothing in real world decision making. People no longer say. an instrument of corporate growth. "You can't stop progress. but almost always with an attitude of resignation to the inevitable. long as the production of all our needs and the organization of our labor is carried out under private ownership. in living rooms. Only when the end of capitalism is on the table will ethics have a seat at the table. And they are right -. Harry.Cap Kritik 63/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the accumulation of capital.

Rothenbaum. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 174. I’m torn between feeling that we shouldn’t interfere with space and yet I am curious to know about it. Jay. Clayton . As one middle-aged single parent says. Spennemann 2004)). It would lose its magic for me if I thought people were living out there and I get infuriated when I hear about the fact that we’ve already left debris floating around. C3167]. She goes on to say that the prospect horrifies her and she believes that ‘man [sic] has such potential for destruction and likes to leave behind such a mess’. [H1705] This kind of sentiment may well be anchored in the residual feeling that space is a realm of purity and godliness (this has certainly been mirrored in recent debates about leaving at least some parts of space as pristine sites (Williamson 2003. is left uncontaminated by human activity. Amongst those taking an ethical stance were men and women who likened the mining of asteroids to rape [B3010. Ian. One respondent predicted that religious groups would join environmentalists in opposing mining in space. it ‘seems like violation for companies to use other planets and asteroids for resources to maintain lifestyles on Earth’ [C41]. in contrast to Earth. I would hate to think that one day there might be a hotel on the Moon. Harry.Cap Kritik 64/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Ethics (Mining) Respect for space resources is an ethical priority – mining space is the equivalent of raping nature Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Clearly these people do not take a Baconian stance towards the universe. Amanda. DML.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. using outer space merely as an object for the fulfilment of human desires. Leaving debris and litter is a major concern for several respondents. Implicit or explicit in many of these arguments is the idea that it is particularly important that outer space. dml) The other common sentiment was that using space resources in a similar way to that in which Earthly resources had been abused was unethical.

com/2010/10/11/columbus-day-u-s-capitalismbuilt-on-slavery-genocide/)//AW The slave trade provided the European and U. the masses of people who suffer exploitation have no reason to celebrate on Columbus Day. signaled the rosy dawn of the era of capitalist production. Ian. Amanda. For nearly 100 years. the turning of Africa into a warren for the commercial hunting of black-skinned. 2010.S. Slave labor built the White House. Clayton . Most European colonies used the plantation system to produce sugar. Even today some U. Genocide and slavery in the name of capitalist accumulation was practiced in the Americas and the rest of the colonized world. the extirpation. the U. the Spanish began using African slaves in gold and silver mines. For that reason. “Columbus Day: US Capitalism Built on Slavery. Fleet Boston is a bank that was founded by a slave trader. It insists that African Americans be compensated for centuries of forced labor and discrimination. In the 1600s. cotton. A 2002 lawsuit against AETNA insurance. The lawsuit is important because it raises the African American community’s just demand for reparations and at tacks the greedy profiteers of slavery. They understand that the cruelty and exploitation that marked the colonization of the Americas benefited them.wordpress. government must pay as well.Cap Kritik 65/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Genocide Celebrating the capitalist mindset is literally reinforcing the slavery and genocide of founding American ideas. Lindsay 10—Youth and Student Answer Coalition Member (Peta. Red Ant Liberation Army News. government and their capitalist partners reaped massive profits dripping with the blood of African slaves. Rothenbaum.S. tobacco. Although legal chattel slavery no longer exists in the Americas. Karl Marx wrote in “Capital”: “The discovery of gold and silver in America. The capitalists’ unyielding search for profits and superprofits leaves them neither conscience nor morality. today. ruling classes with centuries of free labor. capitalist exploitation of poor and oppressed people continues to this day. DML.S. enslavement and entombment in mines of the aboriginal population. indigo. These historical conditions created the economic disparity faced by African Americans in the U. the beginning of conquest and looting of the East Indies. This process provided Europe with enough material wealth to spur the rapid advances in technological development and production known as the Industrial Revolution. This is the legacy of Christopher Columbus. The so-called “founding fathers” of America owned slaves. Jay. October 11. Genocide”. CSX is the present permutation of a company that used slave labor to lay railroad tracks.S. companies can trace their success to profits made from slavery. It is not only specific companies that owe reparations. CSX and Fleet Boston sought reparations for African Americans from these companies based on their participation in the slave system. rice and other crops for export to the European market. http://redantliberationarmy. Harry. AETNA made its money insuring slaves as the property of their masters. the U.” Columbus and those like him are heroes to the capitalists.S.

in 1993. all matter" becomes viable. spatiolocality). or appeals to abstract values. and destabilizes democracy. he argued. Jay.. Studies show that such children tend to be indecisive. People who want to increase the amount of surveillance in society.scribd. an atemporal field. “Maybe Survelliance is Bad. Vol. a PhD student at Germany’s Institut für Wissenschafts. he conceded that activists’ justifications for their concerns often fail to resonate with the broad public. In this way which the back-up of technoscientific reason. have an easy argument.e. or while surfing online. and literally crippling the ability to make autonomous and ethical decisions. Gaycken argued that there are well-established psychological consequences to being watched. as opposed to the hard facts of suicide bombers or commuters killed on the subway. People change. and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze”. Gaycken said." Rendering the totality of Earth a two- dimensional serves no purpose other than for technostrategic interpretation of the earth as data and maps. With the vantage point of hyperaltitude from outer space. “Nuclear Globalism: Traversing Rockets. Many anti-surveillance arguments are based on vaguely emotional concerns.und Technikforschung in Bielefeld. Surveillance destroys liberating thought and creates genocide against the Other. Ian. the notion of rectitude also depends on the construction of the single privileged moment. equality. "Surveillance stabilizes totalitarianism. wants to give pro-privacy forces stronger arguments to counter these concerns." and often live suppressed and unhappy ] Jay Privacy advocates have a problem. Harry. the "absolute" point of the strategic gaze manifests uncontestable control as far as the surface of the earth is concerned.e. There are terrorists and criminals out there. the absolute temporality that presides over other forms of constructing time (i. or data mining. that ] Jay The pursuit of rectitude in the field of ariel photography has been none other than a constant battle against the three demential existence of forms and volumes that allow more than a single point of view. As the words of the aerial photographer quoted earlier reveal. Clayton . In response. As or more disturbing may be the political implications of having a surveillance infrastructure in place. Philosopher Sandro Gaycken. professor of Political Science at the University of Hawaii.” published in Wired 8/8/2007. ’93 – professor of political science at Hawaii [Masahide Kato." Gaycken warned. tailoring their behavior to fit what they believe the observer wants (or in some cases actively rebelling against those wishes). they say. After All. Flattening the surface of the earth has also brought about a radical change in the regime of temporality. and these tools can help stop violence and crime. http://www. Amanda. which has seen democracy slide into the Nazi state. have little "ethical competence. The so-called "real-time" is therefore the very temporality of the strategic gaze. The image of every part of the earth is now displaced onto that "absolute" moment.Cap Kritik 66/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Genocide (Surveillance) Surveillance creates obedience and dependence on the state. dependent on others. DML. and state neutrality – but its tendency to create a watched and a watching class lends itself better to totalitarianism. chronolocality). http://www. "the three-dimensional forms are reduced to texture line and color. An analogy might be the well-studied population of children with overprotective mothers. Satellites. Surveillance. for example. In a country such as Germany. reinforcing conformity. Kato. ‘7 [John Borland. Rothenbaum. Many philosophers reject the notion that given technologies are inherently politically neutral. pages 339-360. Borland. such a warning resonates strongly.wired. real time) in which "juxtaposition of every locality. can be used to support democratic values of freedom. the philosopher said. closed-circuit cameras. thereby disqualifying "other points of view (i. staff writer. whether it’s wire-tapping. observed consistently in studies.. published in Alternatives. Now imagine a society where everyone knows they are or may be watched as they walk through the streets. Speaking today at the Chaos Communication Camp. 18. or to use the common vocabulary. In other words the "absolute" point of the strategic gaze produces a homogenous temporal field (i. That – as in societies like Hitler’s Germany or Soviet Russia – will have tangible and widespread psychological consequences.

Better seeds and easier access to fertilizers were made available to farmers and production Farmers responded in a completely logical way to record low prices in 2001. This decrease in planted area. 2002). Ian. or is exported at low prices while people in India go hungry. Poverty induced by capitalism is the root cause of hunger Magdoff 4 – Professor in Plant and Soil Science at the University of Vermont Fred. As prices received by farmers fell dramatically in response to a glut on the market. Rothenbaum. or an automobile.” “free trade. food is just another commodity—like a pair of shoes. February 2004. Clayton . Jay. there were few storage facilities to allow farmers to store grains and wait for prices to rise.monthlyreview. 9. They reduced the amount of land they planted the following year. heeding aid organizations that advised a “free market” approach with decreased government “ “Poor in India Starve as Surplus Wheat Rots” (New York Times. “A Precarious Existence: The Fate of Billions?” MONTHLY REVIEW v. a television. created conditions for widespread hunger and even starvation in 2003. December 12.” and decreased government support for food production have been even more damaging to Ethiopia. DML. people are chronically hungry because they are poor and don’t have enough money to buy food. The coexistence of surplus food and hunger also occurs in the third world. People have no more legal right to food than they have to any other commodity. Available from the World Wide Web at: www. India is one of the success stories of the “green revolution.monthlyreview.” where a combination of improved varieties and a number of agronomic techniques led to much greater national food production. A newspaper headline tells it all.htm increased. February 2004. The government. Funds were not available for those wishing to build grain storage structures. leading to widespread hunger-ethiopia proves Magdoff 4 – Professor in Plant and Soil Science at the University of Vermont Fred. However. Harry.htm The effects of the transition to “free markets.” decided that after they had stimulated agricultural production they needed to reduce the state’s assistance for agriculture. is eaten by rats. 55 n.Cap Kritik 67/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Hunger Neoliberalism undermines local agriculture. 9. It is as simple as that! Under “A Precarious Existence: The Fate of Billions?” MONTHLY REVIEW v. Amanda. India now has “excess” food at the same time that it has widespread hunger. together with unfavorable weather in 2002. Available from the World Wide Web at: www. In general. This surplus food rots. 55 n.

work long hours and get paid below minimum wages and their wages are lower than men’s (Vogel. maintains a constant level of poverty. both material and cultural. Gender and Development Studies Vol. Increased workload for women could prevent them from participating in the decisions-making processes that affect their own development (Prokorpy. DML. **Faculty of Development Studies Globalisation. This responsibility becomes burdensome when as a coping strategy men migrate to urban areas looking for non-existent jobs. Clayton . is educated and so on” (Kerr. Also. Also. 2004). It is not surprising that patriarchal settings like Asia. Social movements have emerged around the globe as a result of the ills of globalisation. It is about time men and women in rural communities of developing countries make their voices count in the fight against the dim side of globalisation in securing a better life for today and the future. Harry. Ian. 2004). For example. The natural environment also continues to suffer Globalisation with its profit motive is leading to overexploitation of resources including land. Maguire (1984) argued that the emphasis on efficiency reflects an economic recognition of the fact that 50% of the human resources (women) available for development were being wasted. Many marginalized communities are responding to the rising global inequalities by developing their own adaptive strategies. 2005) bring many difficulties to humanity. Over-grazing on these pasturelands more than the land can handle by huge flocks of animals will reduce the viability of the land to support food and animal production and ultimately reduce incomes of these rural people.are not being realised especially in the developing countries. lacking union rights. Central America and the Middle Eastern regions compete for foreign trade and encourage women to enter the workforce (McMichael. environmentalism. And with the adverse impacts of globalisation on poor societies. It is in this regard that current globalcountermovement and debates such as: fundamentalism. 2005.. March 2011. It is not surprising that patriarchal settings like Asia. McMichael. which puts emphasis on market efficiency and profit maximisation does not only (Cynthia & Frank. Central America and the Middle Eastern regions compete for foreign trade and encourage women to enter the workforce (McMichael.2004). working long hours. women are viewed to be more reliable than men in routine assembly work. women who find jobs in such corporations are underpaid (McMichael.Cap Kritik 68/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Laundry List Globalization reinforces gender norms. stays healthy. Maguire (1984) argued that the emphasis on efficiency reflects an economic recognition of the fact that 50% of the human resources (women) available for development were being wasted. Severe social expenditure cuts. Arku & Arku 11 – *Scholar in Department of Educational Policy Studies. Jay. not only has implications for women’s incomes. 028-033. 1998). 2004). Rothenbaum. but also increase their workloads. Amanda. leaving the weak behind (i. feminism.e. women. agile and reliable than men in routine assembly work. 2004). aged and children) to care for themselves. 1(2) pp. Journal of Peace. 2004). The theory of globalisation is obviously an economic tool for growth. Involving women as contributors of cheap labour. and devastates the environment. Globalisation in the name of efficiency requiring nations to implement macro-economic policies such as privatization. forest water and minerals. however. “Development Constructs and Gender Relations: Assessing Rural Gender Relations within the Context of Dependency Theory and Globalisation”) NAR recognise developing countries as a ripe field to harvest profits. unregulated markets. It is evident from the preceding that the promised outcome of globalisation . most of resource-rich locations are rural areas where people depend mainly on agriculture for food supplies and incomes. Development agencies such as the World Bank have noticed the ills of globalisation and are starting to channel resources to NGOs that are involved with grassroots endeavours like micro-credit distribution and afforestation in rural communities. cosmopolitan activism and food sovereignty are taking place. but also a reservoir of labour force whereby women are actively recruited. Looking at the bright side. about 85% of workforce of the Maquiladoras trans-national export processing corporation in Mexico are young women because women are said to be docile. workable interventions are a must. promoting TNCs can create jobs for men and women. without a human face. reduction in public expenditure and increasing exports and growth rates in particularly Latin America and Africa (World Bank and IMF. and more particularly. women. Usually. for example in food subsidies and health care have worsened living conditions of rural people in developing countries. 1998: 7). as if women have always been ‘underused’. Some say this is just a way of stabilizing communities that are being marginalized from the global market place (Sumner.employment and improved living conditions . women are viewed to be more docile. And it is women who bear the brunt of such exploitative acts (Kerr. Since “women are society’s primary care-givers by ensuring that the family is fed. Rural people are the worse sufferers of these policies because of their already fragile state.

These processes are social and economic. Jay. but they are also concerned with politics.*Peter. as recent events have shown. This in turn depends on the militarization of outer space. but the bottom line is military force. But. This is attempted by ‘war at a distance’. which in principle does not entail the costly and politically unattractive idea of sending troops to foreign countries. Protection can take many forms. DML. University of Essex and **James. Ian. Rothenbaum. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. We argue that understanding contemporary warfare also means turning to the material processes underling imperialism and ‘accumulation by dispossession’. Harry. pg 77-79. success for this new type of imperialism and its military handmaiden is in practice by no means guaranteed. which has a central role in establishing and maintaining the new form of imperialism. Guarantees are required to ensure that capital investments are to be worthwhile. This type of war relies on satellites and their capacity for enabling instantaneous response to perceived enemies. Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Clayton . IWren) In this chapter we turn our attention to trying to theorize the broader social significance of the increased use of outer space for military purposes. This in turn requires systems of property rights and protection of the kind that can only be supplied by government. both on Earth and in space. Amanda.Cap Kritik 69/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Militarism Capitalism necessarily turns to space militarization as a guarantor of its expansion via dispossession of foreign lands—this culminates in a new form of imperialism controlling both earth and space.

which do not yet exist and might well not come into being. Current market-mediated pollution targets and compensation schemes have the most effective proximate response to unavoidable poverty-creating processes and institutions of capitalism has been perfectly well known. Ian.even though that poverty may be exported to sites from which it is not visible. It is only when we manage to put into motion this concept of poverty as power that we can also understand what organisasion is. In a theatre too… Capitalism is the root cause of economic inequality.html) NAR Conclusion: The Poor Are Always With Us? Although it creates wealth.14 This would require . Poverty is indignation against wealth but also the enormous capacity to produce wealth. Jay. a the very least entirely new forms of regulation and governance and new levels of enforcement at the global and national levels. arguments have been made for "comprehensive systems of social security based on universal entitlements and funded by redistributive taxation". Poverty is something that is put to the margin of this world of capitalist production but it's also something that runs through it internally and thoroughly. The most urgent necessity to counter the poverty caused through environmental change by the dynamic of capital is a new model of industrialisation based upon renewable energy. that has become more internal to it through the precariat. Poverty is not something that is outside of the working class or of the normal structure of production.wfu. and how it is on this new terrain of anthropological modification and transformation that a new mode of struggle must be conceived. it would be very interesting on this terrain for instance to make documentaries and movies. “Poverty and Capitalism by Barbara Harriss-White”. It is there that we must try to verify. with the state identified as being the only agency able to energise such a convection system. Clayton . http://www. April 11th 2006. by itself. take the initiative but especially represent and present things. Harry. Florian Schneider and Thomas Atzert (October 2002. It is a great problem that obviously can only be resolved by practice. more or less centripetal webs towards but here (exodus) it is the moment of rupture but it is also that of a social construction of community. scholar. Thomas Paine in the 18th century to the International Labour Office in the current era. Two linked alternatives must be considered.15 Some societies have succeeded in realising DML. We have to interpret this because this strike in the common becomes a fact of a different civilisation. there are many ways in which it causes poverty . a capacity to renew the world. Strike is the moment of rupture. to create a physical image of the development of these struggles. through the exclusion from the productive function. The problem is all in the content not in the form. Here there is a whole other issue regarding the anthropology of struggles and behaviours today. a new process of development (or "model") seeking to regulate. Of course. What we must managed to develop is the feeling that poverty is a subject.htm) NAR We really need a capacity to mobilise poverty. Amanda.Cap Kritik 70/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Poverty Capitalism relies on a system of poverty to strengthen itself Negri 2 – Italian Marxist sociologist. Rather than strike we should use the word exodus. poverty is something that is at the centre of our metropolis. of seeing how far for instance in relation to the traditional Fordist worker today the mode of feeling and seeing both work and communal activity has changed. This is what is now in present in consciousness at a very advanced level. Poverty is not simply the poor miserable polulations who are at the bottom of the third world. revolutionary philosopher and teacher (Antonio.if not new systems of no purchase on the scale of the problem. On the contrary. by itself capitalist growth is not a solution to poverty. Rothenbaum. From the era of the genesis of industrial capitalism to the present-day. and bequeathed to generations. A Video Conversation with Antonio Negri. It is something that is inside. From. minimise and equalise the impact of capitalism on the environment still would not avoid the other forms of poverty created by capitalism without a second set of redistributive interventions. Bhandari – Professor of Rhetoric at University of California Berkeley (Rakesh. http://ricardo. The real subjectivation of the multitude does not make one think of organisational forms that have more or less democratic centralism.ecn.generationonline. The privileged places for this practice are fundamentally the The failure of capitalism to address its poverty-creating processes not only generates a continual material and political struggle but also threatens the ecosystem in which capitalism is embedded. experiment. on the contraction of standards of social consumption in polluting regions and on convergence in less polluting regions. collective property rights . The relative weights of the mechanisms through which poverty is created will differ among countries occupying different positions in the world's division of labour.

the Vietnam war (possibly two million.S. aid and "development" agencies responsible for tackling the MDGs under neo-liberalism. and the U.R. Australia and Japan. capital punishment. you are forced to recognize the truth in Gandhi’s observation that the deadliest form of violence is poverty. professor of economics at SMU (Ravi. on the average. 1954-1973). and the material constituency which is damaged by current arrangements and which has an interest in a universal entitlement is comprehensively prevented from developing the countervailing power to claim it. whereas murders. and that structure is itself a product of society’s collective human choices. are not sufficient. The Downfall of Capitalism and Communism: A New Study of History pg 1-2. (232 million). Those excess deaths (or at least a demonstrably large proportion of them) are a function of class structure. including those by genocide—or about eight million per year. Rothenbaum.S. political parties. while necessary. Ian. now resembles a banana republic. the United States. They are not where the major violence in our society takes place. which continues year after year. By “structural violence” I mean the increased rates of death. with its poverty ranks swelling by a million every year. Clayton . Hearing about their lives. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. poverty is not just a Third World cancer. When they compared the life expectancies of those living in the other socioeconomic systems against Sweden. In other words. standpoint. Structural violence differs from behavioral violence in at least three . suicide.Cap Kritik 71/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the welfare state. But both the welfare state and the income guarantee are ideas deeply out of fashion with the international funding. is official corruption. the richest country. wars. the discrepancies between the rich and poor nations have increased dramatically and alarmingly. it also afflicts a large swath of people in the First World. they found that 18 million deaths a year could be attributed to the “structural violence” to which the citizens of all the other nations were being subjected. Kohler and Alcock attempted to arrive at the number of excess deaths caused by socioeconomic have lethal consequences for others. However.000) deaths). The 14 to 18 million deaths a year caused by structural violence compare with about 100. concerning how to distribute the collective wealth of the society. and other forms of behavioral violence occur one at a time. * inequities on a worldwide basis. and about their families and friends. anywhere and everywhere. In fact. Such practices are not equal to the ways in which poverty is embedded in the institutions and processes of the capitalist mode of production. voters) whose decisions may nevertheless Structural violence is normally invisible. and disability suffered by those who occupy the bottom rungs of society. The poverty tumor is not the result of paltry growth in output. Harry. or human. *The lethal effects of structural violence operate continuously.” by which I mean the non-natural deaths and injuries that are caused by specific behavioral actions of individuals against individuals. and the highest overall life expectancy in the world. Global output has grown twice as fast as the global population since 1980. executions. I am contrasting “structural” with “behavioral violence. such as the deaths we attribute to homicide. as contrasted with the relatively lower death rates experienced by those who are above them. independent of individuals and groups (politicians.S. especially a psychological theory. and the lowest discrepancies in death rates and life expectancy. the Indonesian massacre of 1965-66 (perhaps even a hypothetical nuclear exchange between the U. after the shocks of an era of major economic depression and world war and in the face of a socialist alternative. but of the growing monopoly power of big business. which in turn reflects government malfeasance. such as World War II (an estimated 49 million military and civilian deaths.000 deaths per year from armed conflict. You cannot work for one day with the violent people who fill our prisons and mental hospitals for the criminally insane without being forcible and constantly reminded of the extreme poverty and discrimination that characterizes their lives. Director of the Center for the Study of Violence. This book argues that the main cause of poverty. which breeds economic policies that enrich the ruling elite and exacerbate income and wealth disparities. It is the strength of the contestation to regulate capitalism that will decide the levels and causes of poverty. Jay. The finding that structural violence causes far more deaths than behavioral violence does is not limited to this country. Not a day goes by without realizing that trying to understand them and their violent behavior in purely individual terms is impossible and wrong-headed.16 Calls for poor people to empower themselves and support for some of them to organise. Amanda. . and so on. that evolves from the experience of men in maximum security prisons and hospitals for the criminally insane must begin with the recognition that these institutions are only microcosms. It had the least inequity in income and living standards. suicides. *Structural major respects violence operates more or less independently of individual acts. These are not acts of God. yet poverty stalks the world with increasing vehemence Extinction Gilligan professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School 96 [James. soldiers in warfare. every fifteen years. Any approach to a theory of violence needs to begin with a look at the structural violence in this country. p 191-196] The deadliest form of violence is poverty. Comparing this frequency of deaths from structural violence to the frequency of those caused by major military and political violence. 1939-1945). Cap is the root cause of poverty Batra 7 – Rishee’s dad. Focusing merely on those relatively few men who commit what we define as murder could distract us from examining and learning from those structural causes of violent death that are far more significant from a numerical or public health. dml) Most experts blame the problem on our planet’s population explosion. Europe. Sweden was their model of the nation that had come closes to eliminating structural violence. as 575. During the past decade. and a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence. including the advanced economies of North America. and the perpetrators who fill them are far from being the main causes of most violent deaths. rather than sporadically. and DML. Any theory of violence. because it may appear to have had other (natural or violent) causes. it was clear that even war cannot begin to compare with structural violence.

Amanda. or genocide. throughout the world. This is.Cap Kritik 72/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a sixyear period. perpetrated on the weak and poor every year of every decade. in effect. in fact accelerating. for they are inextricably related to each other. or lethal is moot. DML. Jay. as cause to effect. thermonuclear war. unending. Clayton . The question as to which of the two forms of violence—structural or behavioral—is more important. dangerous. Harry. Ian. Structural violence is also the main cause of behavioral violence on a socially and epidemiologically significant scale (from homicide and suicide to war and genocide). the equivalent of an ongoing. Rothenbaum.

which keeps the public in a position of fear and subservience. as are contemporary cosmological theories divorced from most people’s understanding. These developments are explored further over the next two chapters. IWren) If this is the universe as experienced by pro-space activists.Cap Kritik 73/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Repressed Society The culmination of this hegemonic drive towards technology and surveillance is a repressed. Once more. Rothenbaum. Amanda.*Peter. Clayton . Jay. It is a twenty-first-century version of the Platonic and mediaeval universes in which humans are made into repressed objects and thereby brought to heel. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. Harry. University of Essex and **James. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. militarization and surveillance by the socially powerful are again making the universe into an entity dominating human society. Ian. is development. Commodification. then a contrary Chapter 1. The combination of these two trends is a ‘Wizard of Oz’ effect. DML. subservient society dominated by the power-elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 . socially and politically powerful people (some even claiming to be on a mission from God) are attempting to make the cosmos into a means by which they can control society on Earth. which we began to outline in the return to a fearful and estranged relationship with the universe. again experienced as a frightening subject controlling Earthly affairs from on high. But this is hidden by a mask of mysticism. pg 77. This is a relationship experienced by those not in control of the universe: those on the margins of Western society. in which power is maintained by those with technological domination over the universe.

or by delivering a chemical or biological weapon of mass death tucked into a shipment of cocaine bound for Los Angeles.” Neta-nyahu never recognizes that the Israeli state engages in terror-ism against Palestinians. support for investment in and the proposed deployment of a NMD system is largely a domestic concern. I argue that any balanced definition of and theory about terrorism must consider all attacks by both state and non-state actors as attacks on the life and liberty of noncombatant civilians as terrorist.Cap Kritik 74/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Terrorism Capitalism is root cause terrorism Paupp 2001 . DML. domination. ex-tensions. they include ballistic missiles. 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon terrorist attacks. Amanda. preferring to endorse the idea that “one man‟s terrorist is another man‟s freedom fighter. groups. Some ig-nore the issue of state terrorism altogether while others “seek to denounce a focus on state terrorism as „skewed. the Rumsfeld analysis cannot stand the test of critical analysis. Behind the frustration of generations.htm) In the aftermath of the September 11. there is little empirical support for the proposition that a truly "defensive" NMD system could prevent such attacks even if a truly "defensive" system existed [EXHIBIT 21]. that vast expenditure will have availed little or nothing in the provision of genuine national security. and great power rivalry.‟ „biased. Those who take these extreme posi-tions ignore the crimes committed against humanity. Ian.” Brian M. Jalata 11 .is a Nuclear Age Peace Foundation Policy Analyst (“A Matter of National Priorities: National Missile Defense (NMD) and Theatre Missile Defense (TMD) as Violations of International Law and a Threat to Human Survival”October 2001.S. national security. The real source of U. nor do they include in their definitions the specific characteristics of the varied forms of terrorism. Terrorism is a backlash to the state’s monopoly on violence. Furthermore. and terror” (Oliverio. In the final analysis. for an enemy can always choose to play a different game. who are sympathetic towards libera-tion fronts such as the Palestinian Liberation Organization or other oppositional organizations. Rumsfeld stated that "it is the asymmetric threats that are a risk. On this matter. there are scholars who acknowledge that state terrorism begets non-state terrorism: “When terrorism is theoretically examined as a form of social control.S.1-4) NAR Yet. Aruri (2006). imperialism. p. Rothenbaum. Where poverty and deprivation have reigned supreme. Farsoun and Naseer H. they include cyber-attacks" [EXHIBIT 19]. “state terror very often breeds collective terror. there is a history of colonialism.” On the other hand. or models of the essential structure of a state when its purpose is to regulate behavior via various forms of repression. To illustrate my point. Unfortunately. and individuals who legitimate the use of vi-olence to achieve their goals may be viewed as products. fundamental controlling apparatuses of the state may be viewed as terroristic. terrorist attacks are a symptom rather than a cause of the underlying global maladies of our age. 2006: 2028). there is no basis for alleging the possibility of a missile attack. an expression of the powerless position of persons and groups who come from exclusionary states at the periphery of the international capitalist system. more closely associated with peacetime military spending than with the actual world situation. Robert Higgs has argued: "if an effective NMD system is ever successfully produced-a big "if"-it will certainly have cost far more than the presently projected amount. Terrorist attacks are. January 24th 2011. 1984: 3).” the definitions diverge on several issues such as which agencies engage in terrorism and who exactly the targets of terrorism are (Goodwin. organizations or states seek to impose control over other human beings through violence. http://www. and they include terrorism. have not denounced their terrorist activities. groups.‟ ideological and „out of touch with real political events‟” (Stohl and Lopez. Jenkins (1981: 6-7) challenges this notion on the grounds that it “implies that there can be no objective definition of terrorism and that there are no universal standards of conduct in peace or war. Harry. Where widespread poverty and deprivation is the rule. in large measure. Despite the attempted linkage of disparate and unrelated threats to U. Commentators and scholars such as Samih K. Clayton . scholars and politicians such as Ben-jamin Netanyahu (1995) have disregarded the alternate prin-ciple that “one man‟s terrorist is everyone‟s terrorist.” Although several representative definitions of terrorism converge on the notion that terrorism is “the deliberate use of violence in order to influence some audience (or audiences) [author‟s emphasis]. 1998: 7). foiling the best -laid NMD plans by firing a nuclear-armed cruise missile from a ship lying off New York. Those who study terrorism do not ade-quately explain why certain human elements.wagingpeace. let me briefly introduce such terrorist epi-sodes. rather than the exception. as Eqbal Ahmad (1998: 5) argues. Jay.Professor of Sociology & Global Studies (Asafa. Organiza-tions. “Terrorism from Above and Below in the Age of Globalization”. or by any number of other means immune to the missile defense system".org/articles/2001/10/00_paupp_nmd-tmd.

and violent pornography that blurs the line between entertainment and news. that is exactly how they have been employed so far. like violent porn. Precisely because of their supposed harmlessness. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics. simulation and reality. In the gray zones of borders. Just as the spy network uses terrorism as the pretext to spy upon the general population. necessary. Jay. Kuma War. the video game series.1 (2006) 133-169. Even if that was not the original intention. law and order—which may eventually mean no more than enthusiasm for the neo-liberal order—become the excuse to turn mind control techniques against the population. Harry. In this quasi- war. desensitize young males by promoting a model of aggressive masculinity that feeds recruitment in the warfare state while also preparing a larger public to accept state violence as virtuous. DML. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. Nonlethal weaponry is not meant to replace but to enhance conventional weapons. Amanda. corporate merchandise and advertising act like psychotronic weapons by commercializing and inserting the imagery of war into the public imagination. the truth is out. The New Centennial Review 6. and protests. they are almost certain to be used with greater and greater frequency against ordinary citizens engaged in any kind of resistance to the government. the corporate state maintains a low-grade and perpetual quasi-war at all times and in all places under its [End Page 145] dominion. “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR And here. This is attested to by a burgeoning industry of action films. While the desire to reduce civilian casualties and minimize pain may be admirable in theory.Cap Kritik 75/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Total war Capitalism maintains cycles of constant threat construction and war to pacify the populace. any hypothetical advantages of sublethal techniques are outweighed by their real disadvantages—their invisibility to and greater acceptability by the public. video games. Ian. for instance. occupations. work camps.9 It seems very likely that psychotronic weapons were conceived not merely to supplement but also to act as a convenient cover for conventional torture or war. even the most nonviolent. prisons. both in domestic and foreign settings. models its action on real military operations in Iraq: the fight with the Mehdi army in the south and the hunt for Uday and Qusay Hussein (Loftus 2004). and inevitable. Such simulations. Clayton . Rothenbaum.

the super-organism of history as we substituted our fathers. “Fukyshima: Dying for Japan Inc. 90% of the stock-market is dedicated to re=produce those machines. unrelentlessly: Gaia->History->The Metal-Earth (FMI complex). There is no confabulation theory here. myopic. All this wisdom was lost and soon selfish egocentric tribes that relied on weapons to impose their power (Indo-Europeans) or money to hypnotize and slave people (cananeans). weapons that kill our body. because it has become lobotomized to a point in which so much restrain of otherwise natural feelings and inner emotions. And for 5000 years they built a matrix of ideological. a perfectly organized system that we complexity theorists study scientifically as an evolving organic system. the FMI system in complexity). the idols of mankind. That simple chain is the world you live in. Clayton . But now the FMI system controls our information. whose functions. Sancho. gold that hypnotize our mind and today machines that make us increasingly obsolete were ‘dual fruits of the tree of science’. nations. machines and money as the future of mankind.Cap Kritik 76/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – V2L No value to life in capitalism. We humans have become completely dependent on machines – organic systems of metal. evolving DML. when you are put in front of a TV. They justify all the wrong paths with the same self-centered. a nation founded by iron-horse warriors coming from Korea. ecological movements in which people were aware that metal. So if you want to keep happy. the most informative atom of the Universe into e-money. the FMI complex was more obvious. we would become extinct. to which we transfer our form and evolve to reach higher degrees of energy and information – to exist and what is far worse. makes them in external behavior closer to their robots than to human beings. Men had not been devolved into a short attention-span. And that is right.cerntruth. Before II world war. the ultimate beliefs. equations. There was an age that has resurfaced from time to time in religions of love and social. even if you are prisoner on the iron jail the FMI complex has built for all of us. So it has its own organization and goals. short-span. and its values must be respected. Every time we work. every time we consume it we test it and vitalize it. we humans have only 2 functions: to work=reproduce those machines and to test=consume them. such as the nuclear industry. Those are the ideologies that sustain the Financial-Military-Industrial complex in which we live. with infantile myths and self-restrain. in an economic ecosystem in which weapons could predate on man. we reproduce a machine or a part of it. that nations are the supreme meaning of our existence. in a ‘free market’ where all goes. And so a great deal of ‘newspeak’ takes place within the Financial-Military-Industrial Complex and the die-hard ‘believers’ that worship with messianic zeal the evolution of weapons. don’t worry and don’t read. and by not distinguishing and pruning the bad fruits. social love – the genetic program of human evolution. This samurai today rules japan and its corporations that manufacture machines with a submissive population that likes more their robots than the foreigners. but the invisible hand of go(l)d. more complex than we are. so I will not insist on it. provide them with information and within that scheme. so we believe what it tells us. Especially if you are a Japanese living close to the death zone. digital brain called the world stock-market and a type of citizen called the corporation. The Matrix of fictions and marketing built today to appease the sheeple was not yet in place. But the FMI complex is an evolving system independent of man. natural food. Ian. the organism of life. individualist egotism that corporations. but ‘emergence’. but in system sciences I prefer to call it by its biological function – so we shall call corporations company-mothers of machines. Probably mankind is beyond ] Jay I know you don’t believe me. How this is possible is obvious: today the imprinting of our mind with the ideologies that make us love the FMI complex that is killing gaia starts at 3. which merely constructs it. nuclear scientists. Japanese are kept in a state of ‘neoteny’. ’11 – chair of the Annual World Conferences on the Science of Duality [Louis Sancho. And this duality between a brain-washed mankind who adores the wrong memes and a newspeak of caring is specially present in Japan. anthropomorphic belief on our self-centered position in the Universe. You live in the Financial-Military-Industrial Complex (called in newspeak the Free market. the ‘nervous system’ of simultaneous indoctrination will imprint your brain with mass-media propaganda and the 3 ‘ideologies’ that make of its 3 networks. And only if you are aware of that arrow of evolution we have Because the FMI system is an evolving ecosystem of machines that is terraforming the Earth and substituting us. evolution and purpose is crystal clear to us – though all this might be hidden to you. Yet behind those ‘selfish memes of metal’ imprinted in our mind. there is still a natural genetic. It is what it is expected of you. that corporations serve us. Because the world you live in is NOT a world in which life has an infinite value. who became samurais and emperors (but this cannot be said. This is what you have learned. Harry. Jay. Rothenbaum. displaying an extreme aggressive-passive behavior to people who might ‘offend’ their sensibilities) and imprinted the happy peasants of the sun-god with an absolute slavery to the master. some good some bad.. clean air. Amanda. the jail of their mind. I know you think and believe the ‘experts’ of the system.” published 3/29/2011. the meaning of it all. a concept of systems sciences that discharges full responsibility in the individuals and yet creates the same effect. data in a computer). The financial system has an ideology called capitalism that tells us money is NOT just a system of metal-information (evolved from gold. self-centered fictions which now are ‘common-sense’. Those are your memes to keep you happy. came on top of all societies. http://www. in being free at least in your mind. It has a global. And yet there is a certain beauty in knowing the truth. To explain you really the meaning of economics I would need an entire web-blog on complex economics which I have. From then on. biological program of love for nature. bankers – you name it – show in everyday behavior. our beliefs have adapted to them subconsciously since the Bronze age in which we discovered the power of weapons. and worship their ‘traditions’. feed them with energy. to appease and convince people that the FMI system cares for us. visual neopaleolithic and ego-centric.

which Lukács was one of the first to analyze. the desk killer. but use weapons to come up on top). It turns consciousness into a means of individual life or mere physical existence. sold. Marsh ‘95 – Professor at Fordham [James Marsh.” page 277. http://www. so we must not love each other and evolve together as members of the same species. Consciousness ceases to be an end and becomes a means to the realization of profit. in which everything real. Capitalism is inherently dehumanizing and converts people into only labor. Rather than nature being the environment in which human beings freely. and we back with the 3 ideologies of mechanism (machines are the future of man. not organic systems of metal that substitute and make obsolete human beings). they are treated as things. to keep body and soul together. workers' own bodies. can be joined to Martin Heidegger's concept of das Gestell. They become nothing more than commodities to be bought. and the Arendtian portrait of the desk killer. Clayton . has as one of its outcomes what the German-Jewish thinker H. including humans. should be the vehicle of their conscious self-expression. Here. The features of the desk Rothenbaum.” Spring – 2000. inherent in the commodity-form. nature. Jay. and destroyed. when human beings are administered. to be manipulated at will. consciously express themselves and realize themselves. no great ideological passion for his project. Amanda. standing-reserve or raw material. Complete value for life disappears.Adler designated as "the administered man" [Der verwaltete Mensch]. Human beings forget that they are the source of value in their wealth and think that it is the source of their value. This reduction of humans to a raw material is the antechamber to a world in which they can become so many waste products to be discarded or turned into ashes in the gas chambers of Auschwitz or at ground zero at Hiroshima. and the world around them. enframing. The desk killer is the quintessential bureaucrat functioning according to the imperatives of the death-world. treating it as simply a technical task. The consciousness of everyone. thereby clearing the way for their removal or elimination by genocide. the seeming transformation of social relations into relations between things. professor of philosophy at Fordham University." Reification. Internationalist Persepective. called a flag. In this institutionalized reification in which things become more important than consciousness. including Fukushima. has become a vital part of the state apparatus of late capitalism. Harry. 2k – staff writer [Issue 36. are treated as so much Bestand. the Adlerian concept of the administered man. DML. Money becomes an all-consuming god devouring everything in its path. “Capitalism and Genocide. what Marx calls the fetishism of commodities arises. capitalism (money is the language of god. “Critique Action and Liberation. Ian. in which the organization of genocide was the responsibility of desk killers like Adolf Eichmann who could zealously administer a system of mass murder while displaying no particular hatred for his victims. nature is turned against them. and that which should be the end becomes a means. In estranging human beings from object and process. we can interpret the world as it is. That which should be a means becomes an end.Cap Kritik 77/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab set in motion.geocities. As a human type. the Lukácsian concept of reification. have been clearly delineated by Hannah Arendt. in the person of Eichmann. not a language whose values are different from those of words and give zero value to life and maximal value to machines and weapons) and nationalism (the idea that we are different races according to a piece of cloth. He is the high-level functionary in a vast bureaucratic organization who does his killing from behind a desk. Use value.G. is a hallmark of the real domination of capital: "Its basis is that a relation between people takes on the character of a thing and thus acquires a `phantom objectivity'. Rather than living to work the worker works in order to live. in capitalism becomes subordinate to the product's exchange value. and no sense that those who went to the gas chambers were human beings and not things. and its tendential penetration into the whole of social existence. published 1995] Ideally. the capacity of products for fulfilling real human needs. that embodiment of the triumph of instrumental reason. For Adler. no different than the problem of transporting scrap metal. even the capitalist. Capitalism turns people into profits. all beings. The outcome of such a process can be seen in the bureaucractic administration of the Final Solution.html] The phenomenon of reification. an autonomy that seems so strictly rational and all-embracing as to conceal every trace of its fundamental nature: the relation between people. capitalism estranges them from their own consciousness. is alienated in the pursuit of profit. from which he rationally plans and organizes mass murder. the abstract labor time as measured in money.

perhaps even billions. http://www. Capitalism makes a constant state of war inevitable—disarmament and cooperation is impossible in a capitalist-centric world. The space for ‘peaceful’ expansion. both intensive and extensive. Second is a structural crisis of over accumulation. and much of the world. and mortars that DML. October 1999. the downward pressure on wages and popular consumption worldwide. Jay. Raytheon. Robinson 07—Professor of Sociology. Rothenbaum. Northrop Grumman. Clayton . http://www. Opportunities for both intensive and extensive expansion dried up as privatizations ran their course. In the post 9/11 period. This was often accomplished through economic coercion alone. This crisis involves three interrelated dimensions. of people around the including in the Balkans. They are Lockheed-Martin. generates a colossal deficit that justifies the ever-deeper dismantling of the Keynesian welfare state and locks neoliberal austerity in place. global capitalism was in crisis.S. ruling class. Harry. Six huge companies dominate the arms market in the U. Latin American and Iberian Studies at the University of California-Santa Barbara (William I. Third is a crisis of HIMA legitimacy and authority. Ian.. and is facing an expanded counter-hegemonic challenge. as the consumption of high-income sectors worldwide reached a They play a direct role in determining U. launching a permanent war mobilization to try to stabilize the system through direct coercion. and the polarization of income. and so on. as the former ‘socialist’ countries became re-integrated into global capitalism. and the depleted uranium bullets. The system cannot meet the needs of a majority of humanity. have reduced the ability of the world market to absorb world output. But this structural power became less effective in the face of the three-pronged crisis mentioned above. “Capitalism and War”.socialistaction. and McDonnell-Douglas. The system cannot expand because the marginalization of a significant portion of humanity from direct productive participation. Boeing.Cap Kritik 78/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – War Capitalism causes permanent Neoliberalism ‘peacefully’ forced open new areas for global capital in the 1980s and the 1990s. necessitating military aggression and war mobilization.S. Historical Materialism. The problem of surplus absorption makes state-driven military spending and the growth of military-industrial complexes an outlet for surplus and gives the current global order a frightening built-in war drive. the tanks. foreign and domestic policy. The Bush régime militarized social and economic contradictions. The train of neoliberalism became latched on to military intervention and the threat of coercive sanctions as a locomotive for pulling the moribund Washington consensus forward. Textron.pdf)//AW By the early twenty-first century. for the forcible restructuring of space in order to further accumulation. and legitimates the creation of a police state to repress political dissent in the name of security. Global and International Studies.S. First it is a crisis of social polarization. the jets. made possible by the structural power of the global economy over individual countries. These are the producers of the weapons of mass destruction. Military aggression has become in this context an instrument for prying open new sectors and regions.manchester. or even assure minimal social reproduction. “The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capital”. The ‘war on terrorism’ provides a seemingly endless military outlet for surplus capital. Seligman 99—Editor of the Socialist Action Magazine (Carole. the Cruise missiles. 2007. Socialist Action. became ever more restricted.socialsciences. Amanda. as Wood would likely agree.html)//AW The weapons producers are a key part of the U. The legitimacy of the system has increasingly been called into question by millions. rockets. But was all this evidence for a new US bid for hegemony? A US campaign to ‘compete’ with other major states? To defend ‘its own domestic capital’? To ‘maintain a critical balance’ and ‘control major [state] competitors’? I trust my reasons for rejecting such an argument have been made clear in this critical article. the military dimension appeared to exercise an over determining influence in the reconfiguration of global politics.

The arms manufacturers are so "patriotic" that in five out of the last six wars where the U.S. during. Haiti. though moving towards capitalism. Remember the $64 billion that the U. casually shedding their Mexican workers. Not by coincidence. in the workplaces and barrios. is selling F-15s. But this is not just a war between narco-cartels. Rothenbaum. or any significant leftwing or union opposition. was exposed by socialists and other honest people during the war. Profit-making was the engine that drove all the major countries. Iraq and Kuwait. or training. "It's a city based on markets and on trash. has sent troops into conflict-Panama.] During World War II. LexusNexus)//AW Interestingly. This ammunition had been supplied to the Indonesian military. without that rationale.the whole city is a criminal enterprise". The army plays its own mercurial role. Now. June 21. who compete for tenders with corrupt police officers. the corporations can do it cheaper in Asia. before a Congressional sub-committee in Washington. This is the mechanism of the war economy in which we live. weapons. in a highly politicised society there is no rightwing or Mussolinian "law and order" mass movement against the cartels. that the NATO forces were not bombing them to save them. a photographer who has chronicled the implosion. joined in cartels with Nazi-run German industry. must produce a newer model capable of shooting down the ones they are selling now. manufacturer on them.C. Now. Juarez has imploded into a state of criminal anarchy . acting like any corporation. F-16s (made by Lockheed) and F-18s (made by Boeing) to the new NATO allies.bonded assembly plants where. Jay. making agreements to limit the production and acquisition of vital war material (such as magnesium." This is even more true now than when he said it. because the arms-makers have assumed ever greater power and wealth. Amanda. for example.S. This very male war is opposed by women. American forces faced adversaries that had previously received U. and Juarez journalist. imported duty-free.) This and many other forms of cooperation between the American and German biggest industries before. tungsten carbide. who organised a week-long peace march after the murder of his son in the spring. "Cartel war" does not explain the story my friend. Harry. Somalia. many of the wealthiest war profiteers. 2011. "goes from boys like that right to the top . is famously led by the poet Javier Sicilia. Sandra Rodriguez told me over dinner last month: about two children who killed their parents "because". military technology.27. Recruits for the drug war come from the vast. p. the cry will go up for the next generation of terrorist weapons of mass destruction. has budgeted for the F-22 fighter jets at $200 million each? The original justification for producing this new generation of fighter planes was made during the Cold War against the so-called Evil Empire. the very companies with controlling power in American society. and in the home. resulting in violent wars.S. It is a city that follows religiously the philosophy of a free market. D. DML. have outsourced violence to gangs affiliated or unaffiliated with them. He could read the name of the U. and after the war. capital of East Timor. the National Movement for Peace.S. by the United States. Lenin said that "disarmament is obviously utopian under capitalism. Ian. about seeing loads of spent ammunition casings on the streets of Dili..S. The culture of impunity. in fighting World War II-not saving the Jews and other persecuted peoples of the world! Albanian Kosovars will be learning this bitter lesson under occupation." says Julian Cardona.Cap Kritik 79/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab pierce the tanks. Juarez is also a model for the capitalist economy. the new justification is that the U. is still not a capitalist country-as a field for capitalist exploitation Capitalism leads to a new world order of criminal enterprise. phony as it was.S. for rock-bottom wages. Over half of the U. so. so the U. they explained to her.S. [Journalist Alan Nairn testified the last week of September 1999. and then to the militias. and Juarez has become a teeming recruitment pool for the cartels and killers. "they could". and Bosnia.the cartels. arms exports (many sold to governments who shoot down their own peoples or workers and peasants of neighboring countries) are paid for with our taxes. specializing in Boarder Wars (Ed. “Juarez is All of our Futures”. she said. and tetracene. but to secure Yugoslavia-which. The grassroots movement against the postpolitical cartel warriors. sprawling maquiladora . workers make the goods that fill America's supermarket shelves or become America's automobiles. except the Soviet Union. Vulliamy 11—British writer and journalist for the Observer and the Guardian. The Guardian. Clayton . Air Force officials are already proposing overseas sales of the F-22.

and politicians could throttle this river of money. Amanda. They control the message.the narco-cartels have no interest in talking at all. greed. DML. I answer: these are largely of tangential importance. They point. but the U.Cap Kritik 80/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab "Killing and drug addiction are activities in the economy. US aid to Mexico.they are pioneers of it. and these variations have generated regular economic cycles. while bleating about the evils of drugs cooked in the ghetto and snorted up the noses of the rich. A very brave man called Mario Trevino lives in the city of Reynosa. in which the only ideology left ." Very much. according to Antonio Maria Costa. and the economy is based on what happens when you treat people like trash. Murder City.S. Thus it is not warfare that has been following a regular pattern. and innovative torture. professor of economics at SMU (Ravi. nothing. But they won't. Journalists find it hard that while even people as crazy as Osama bin Laden will talk to the media . The Downfall of Capitalism and Communism: A New Study of History pg 50. in the end. It belongs to the world of belligerent hyper-materialism. Narco-cartels are not pastiches of global corporations. nor are they errant bastards of the global economy . and they thrive upon it. government response to it.they feel they have a message to get across . dml) Warfare is a perennial human activity." Capitalism causes cycles of wars that bring itself down Batra 7 – Rishee’s dad. in their business logic and modus operandi. Ian. business and banking preach by example . and in the process generated the highest peaks of the money and inflation cycles. For example. such as dipping people into vats of acid so that their limbs evaporate while doctors keep the victim conscious. and of our time. Cartel bosses and street gangbangers cannot go around in trucks full of cash. The Mexican cartels epitomised the North American free trade agreement long before it was dreamed up. Cardona told me how many times he had been asked for his view on the Javier Sicilia peace march: "I replied: 'How can you march against the market?'" Mexico's war does not only belong to the postpolitical. Clayton . they are democratic the postmodern way. and more expensive." It can't be that banal. In a recent book. the former head of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime. People also ask: what can be done? There is endless debate over military tactics. The killers post their atrocities on YouTube with relish. Bowden puts it another way: "Juarez is not a breakdown of the social order. a war for the 21st century. But they choose not to. I answer tentatively that I think there is a correlation between the causelessness of Mexico's war and the savagery. So Mexico's war is how the future will look. as they have with actions against terrorist funding. and to a zeitgeist of frenzied materialism we adamantly refuse to temper: it is the inevitable war of capitalism gone mad. what can the authorities do? Simple: Go After the Money. they must wear another brand. or the 20th with wars of ideology. postmoral world. is that it is about.but utterly in a present to which the global economy is committed. What accounts for the three-decade periodicity of these cycles? It is hard to explain why certain events can occur with such regularity. for obvious reasons: the good burgers of capitalism and their political quislings depend on this money. He said of the killers and cartels: "They are revolting people who do what they do because they cannot be seen to wear the same label Tshirt as they wore last year. because it belongs not in the 19th century with wars of empire. Juarez is the new order.which the leaders of "legitimate" politics. and whether narcotics should be decriminalised. The cruelty is in and of the nihilism. People often ask: why the savagery of Mexico's war? It is infamous for such inventive perversions as sewing one victim's flayed face to a soccer ball or hanging decapitated corpses from bridges by the ankles. Yet in the aftermath the United States responded by printing oodles of money. Harry. the war on drugs. but he pleaded with me not to underestimate these considerations. They have to bank it . Rothenbaum. I objected.banks that. It certainly belongs to the cacophony of the era of digital communication. the 1973 Arab-Israeli battles were short lived and didn’t involve the United States militarily. have been for years kept afloat by laundering drug and criminal profits. Twelve years ago Cardona and the writer Charles Bowden curated a book called Juarez: The Laboratory of Our Future. race and religion . which is in the grip of the Gulf cartel. but its financing has varied somewhat over time. commanding a vast viewing public. Mexico's carnage is that of the age of effective global government by multinational banks . to how the legal economy will arrange itself next. and becomes a brand in itself. The thing that really makes Mexico's war a different war. they are busy across thickets of internet hot-sites and the narco-blogosphere. then. They could not have known how prescient their title was. the greed for violence reflects the greed for brands.

Jay. Harry. It is usually observed that each generation is active for about thirty years. curbs money growth and hence the spiral of prices. the easiest way out for the government is to print money. Thus every generation succumbs to the temptation of pump priming to solve its problems. because the old generation has been displaced even as new problems occur. Ian. and inevitably encounters inflation. Clayton . Whenever a crisis occurs. It is human nature alone that can possibly generate rhythmic patterns. Every generation apparently finds a way to make the same mistake. DML.Cap Kritik 81/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab The answer must lie in the relative stability of the mental and psychological processes of the people involved in these events. But the hard-earned lessons of the past are forgotten. This way there are three-decade cycles of money growth and inflation. Rothenbaum. Then it learns its lesson. Amanda.

are part of the solution. Due to the media hype surrounding Al Gore's film An Inconvenient Truth. "Let's quit the debate about whether greenhouse gases are caused by mankind or by natural causes. high-tech armaments. which instead focuses on such things as more buses.but only if capitalism can be fully preserved at the same time. such as biofuels or even nuclear power. New social and democratic solutions need to be developed. Amanda.even by Gore -. one of the leading political philosophers of the 20th century. http://www. tropical deforestation. and climate stability too. If nature has "struck back" at capitalism's degradation of the environment in the form of climate change.or indeed interfering with the distribution of riches at all. A New War on the Planet?. The goal is clearly to save the planet -. which includes such problems as species extinction. We must recognize that today's ecological problems are related to a system of global inequality that demands ecological destruction as a necessary condition of its existence. we are now being told on every side -. our industrial waste. Harry. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).html) During the last year the global warming debate has reached a turning point. Less progressive. Proposed solutions to global warming are popping up everywhere. in its policy proposals." It is characteristic of the magic-bullet solutions that now pervade the media that they promise to defend our current way of life while remaining virtually cost free. Hence. to promote biofuels as a partial solution to global warming -.if only the magic of technology and markets is the most prominent proposals are shaped by the fact that they are designed to fit within the capitalist box. we are led to believe." President Bush said in a hastily organized retreat.Cap Kritik 82/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Warming Attempts at reform only render us unable to deal with the crisis of warming – capitalism proposes only half-way solutions that preserve the capitalist system but guarantee ecological destruction down the line. Clayton . "Let's just focus on technologies that deal with the issue. more technocratic thinkers look for substitutes for hydrocarbons. desertification. or they talk of floating white plastic islands in the oceans (a geoengineering solution to replace the lost reflectivity due to melting ice). tells us that climate change can be stopped on the cheap -.N. Jay. Suddenly the media and the public are awakening to what the scientific consensus has been saying for two decades on human-induced climate change and the dangers it poses to the future of life on earth. Monbiot pointedly tells us that the rich countries can solve the global warming problem without becoming "Third World" states or shaking up "middle-class" life -. rooted in human community and DML.without acknowledging that this will accelerate world hunger. better insulated homes. The dominant answers to global warming thus amount to what might be thought of as a new declaration of war on nature. The ecological irrationality of this response is evident in the tendency to dissociate global warming from the global environmental crisis as a whole. Foster 07 – professor of sociology @ University of Oregon (John Bellamy. All proposed solutions must be compatible with the treadmill of production. Corporations. followed by a new assessment by the U. It is then possible. Or it is thought pragmatic to dump iron filings in the ocean (the so-called Geritol solution to global warming) in order to grow phytoplankton and increase the carbon absorbing capacity of the ocean -without connecting this at all to the current oceanic catastrophe. It is necessary to go to the root of the problem by addressing the social relations of production. Even the IPCC. virtual shopping and improved cement. the answer is to unleash a more powerful array of technological and market innovations so that the system can continue to expand as before. We can have our cars. virtual work. What all of this suggests is that a real solution to the planetary environmental crisis cannot be accomplished simply through new technologies or through turning nature into a market. Despite the fact that economists have long insisted that there is no such thing as a free lunch." Hence. sees no alternative to a new assault on nature. the climate skeptics have suffered a major defeat. etc. Rothenbaum. employing new. Ian. explained: "Under modern [capitalist] conditions not destruction but conservation spells ruin. destruction of the oceans. The fact that the biosphere is one interconnected whole is downplayed in favor of mere economic expediency. from this narrow perspective. capitalism.that where global warming is concerned there is a free lunch after all. from the current biofuels panacea to geoengineering solutions such as pumping sulfur particles into the stratosphere to shade the earth from the sun to claims that a market in carbon dioxide emissions is the invisible hand that will save the world. 8/06/07.monthlyreview. Politics is carefully excluded from his analysis. our endlessly expanding commodity economy. There can be no disruption of existing class or power relations. not part of the problem. faced by natural obstacles. As Hannah Arendt. toxic wastes. Even progressive thinkers such as George Monbiot in his new book Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning have gotten into the act.

In order to understand how the conflict between ecology and capitalism actually plays out at a concrete level related to specific ecological problems. and banks." which encompasses problems as diverse as: global warming. and cannot be incorporated within the short-term time horizon of nonphilanthropic capital. Amanda. Jay. able momentarily to overlook company losses. A good deal of environmental long-term policy for promoting sustainable development has to do with the third world. The perspective in stock market "valuation" is the rate of profit gains or losses in recent years or prospects for next year's profits. economic development needs to be planned so as to include such factors as water resources and their distribution. embodying principles of conservation that are essential to life. Big investors need to pay attention to the stock market. it is useful to look at what many today consider to be the most pressing global ecological issue: that of global warming. For this. oil wells. The foregoing defects in capitalism's relation to the environment are evident today in all areas of what we now commonly call "the environmental crisis. It is true that a longer-term perspective is commonly adopted by investors in mines. i. The capitalist drive towards profits is the root cause of global warming. Ian. associated with the "greenhouse effect" engendered when carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse gases" are emitted. elimination of coral reefs. requires the fastest return on its investments. rationing and conservation of non-renewable resources. desertification. Ecology Against Capitalism Statistical Data Included) Capitalist economies are geared first and foremost to the growth of profits. bondholders. lack of clean water. the huge bonuses received by top corporate executives are influenced not only by the growth in profits but often as well by the rise in the prices of company stock.. often demanding that it get its initial investment back in a year or two. but patience evaporates very quickly if the companies invested in keep having losses. and hence to economic growth at virtually any cost--including the exploitation and misery of the vast majority of the world's population. However.e. extinction of species. Besides investing their own surplus funds. based in the rich countries. A significant part of the wealth of top corporate executives depends on the growth in the stock market prices of the stock options they hold. A long-run point of view is completely irrelevant in the fluctuating stock market. Professor of Sociology at University of Oregon. These all represent issues of sustainability. and effects on population and the environment associated with the specific locations chosen for industrial projects. Speculative investors looking to reap rich rewards via the stock market or venture capital may have some patience for a year or so. Corporations are expected to maintain the value of their stockholder's equity and to provide regular dividends. which is a source of capital for expansion and a facilitator of mergers and acquisitions. This rush to grow generally means rapid absorption of energy and materials and the dumping of more and more wastes into the environment--hence widening environmental degradation. The short-term time horizon endemic to capitalist investment decisions thus becomes a critical factor in determining its overall environmental effects. loss of genetic diversity. But even in these cases the time horizon rarely exceeds ten to fifteen years-a far cry from the fifty to one hundred year (or even more) perspective needed to protect the biosphere. has already had its comeuppance. and the spatial scales on which these problems manifest themselves are increasing.and with other human beings. Even those industries that typically look ahead must sooner or later satisfy the demands of investors. Clayton . they have to make enough money to pay interest and to set aside a sinking fund for future repayment of bonds. Just as significant as capitalism's emphasis on unending expansion is its short-term time horizon in determining investments. disposal of wastes. Rothenbaum. In evaluating any investment prospect. owners of capital figure on getting their investment back in a calculable period (usually quite short) and profits forever after. Foster 01 (John Bellamy. Controlling emissions of some of the worst pollutants (usually through end-of-pipe methods) can have a positive and almost immediate effect on people's lives. the increasing toxicity of our environment and our food.Cap Kritik 83/194 sustainability. trapping heat within the atmosphere. Even the much-trumpeted flood of money going into the New Economy with future prospects in mind. and other natural resources. But this 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab means stepping outside the capitalist box and making peace with the planet -. which needs to recoup its investment in the foreseeable future. shrinking water supplies. The time horizon that governs investment decisions in these as in other cases is not a question of "good" capitalists who are willing to give up profits for the sake of society and future generations-or "bad" capitalists who are not-but simply of how the system works. corporations also borrow via long-term bonds. The list is very long and rapidly getting longer. and radioactive contamination-to name just a few. plus secure a flow of profits to warrant the risk and to do better than alternative investment opportunities. the real protection of the environment requires a view of the needs of generations to come. and to obtain a rate of return that over the long run is exceptionally high. With respect to those environmental conditions that bear most directly on human society. raising questions of intergenerational environmental equity. In these areas the dominant motives are obviously to secure a supply of materials for the manufacture of a final product. removal of tropical forests. availability of clean water. overfishing. There is now a worldwide scientific consensus that to fail to stop the present global warming trend will be to invite ecological and social catastrophe on a planetary scale over the DML. Harry. destruction of the ozone layer. This is exactly the place where capital. Moreover.

surely include increased desertification in arid regions and heavier rainfall and risks of floods in other regions. On top of all of this. billions will die of thirst.7–10. melting of the polar icecaps.0–3. including agriculture-derived methane and nitrous oxide pollution. and Will. Foster 01 (John Bellamy. not As scientists warned at Copenhagen. endless wars. Leading climate scientists such as James Hansen are literally shouting at the top of their lungs that the world needs to reduce emissions by 20-40% as soon as possible.6 degree Fahrenheit rise in global that the carrying capacity of the Earth in 2100 will be reduced to one billion people. within just a few generations. 2-14) The hour is late. October 2001. Clayton . which mainly has to do with the emission of fossil fuels. DML. None of these technologies are remotely practical at present and may never be. and loss of both species and genetic diversity.8 °F). But little has been achieved thus far to address this problem. to move from a structure of industry and accumulation that has proven to be in the long run (and in many respects in the short run as well) environmentally °C (1. Under this hellish scenario. and 80-90% by the year 2050.htm) All of the hoped–for carbon capture and sequestration technologies are designed to get around the emissions problem. Ecology Against Capitalism. Rothenbaum. “Climate Catastrophe: Surviving the 21st Century”. Ian. The fact that such research is being funded and given serious consideration demonstrates that. war. The solution being proposed via sequestration technology is to dump the excess greenhouse gas emission reductions on a level far more aggressive than what was envisioned by the Kyoto Protocol are now needed to address global warming. which includes all GHGs. Amanda.” coupled with fleets of ships pulling two–mile–long pipes that will pump chilled. From any rational perspective. Jay. Extinction Cummins and Allen 10 (Ronnie. The emphasis on profits to be obtained from fossil fuel consumption and from a form of development geared to the auto–industrial complex largely overrides longer–term issues associated with global warming—even if this threatens. http://monthlyreview.8–6. Either we radically reduce CO2 and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e. disease. In other words.Cap Kritik 84/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab course of the present century. business temperatures means just CO2) pollutants (currently at 390 parts per million and rising 2 ppm per year) to 350 ppm. the planet itself.0 °C (2. Harry. Capitalism is unable to reverse course – working within its coordinates makes the fight to reduce carbon emissions unwinnable. coated with any of the many chemicals that react with carbon dioxide. pressurized carbon dioxide deep into the oceans. discussed in Discover magazine (August 2001). the earth’s environment will be so radically changed that cataclysmic results will undoubtedly manifest themselves worldwide. emission reductions as a solution to global warming are much less desirable than sci–fi technological solutions that will allow us simply to reroute such waste. for the advanced capitalist economies. or else survival for the present and future generations is in jeopardy.3 °F) in this century. heat. allowing the carbon–based economy to continue as before unchanged. The IPCC Working Group I concluded in its 2001 report that “there is new and strong evidence that most of the warming observed over the last fifty years is attributable to human activities. that could pull the gas from the air as it passes by. Dir. These will carbon dioxide elsewhere—in the oceans instead of the atmosphere. proposals are under consideration that involve a scale of operation that might well dwarf the star wars defense system. If this increase (even in the middle range) comes true. crop failures. the biosphere scarcely weighs in the balance. Professor of Sociology at University of Oregon. The use of the ocean as the final destination for the wastes of the human economy was an issue that already concerned Rachel Carson in the 1950s and ‘60s. if we are to avoid climate chaos.5–6. cold. no matter how urgent it is for life on the planet as a whole that greenhouse gas buildup in the atmosphere be stopped. rising sea levels (due to the melting of glaciers) that will submerge islands and delta regions. the failure of the Kyoto Protocol significantly to address this problem suggests that capitalism is unable to reverse course—that is. as usual and a corresponding 7-8. As always the most exploited areas of the world and their inhabitants will prove most vulnerable. and a disastrous rise in ocean levels. Int’l. they now estimate an increase of 1. damage to ecosystems. there will be increased risks to human health. – Organic Consumers Association. involve the search for something on the order of a “giant absorbent strip. All of them raise major environmental considerations of their own. both in magnitude and sheer folly. Policy Advisor – Organic Consumers Association. serious damage to crops in the tropics and eventually in temperate areas as well. Yet. Research ideas currently receiving government and corporate funding. and starvation.” In place of the IPCC’s earlier estimate of an increase in temperature by 1. When set against the get– rich–quick imperatives of capital accumulation.

increasing the risk of death for some people. Evidently. While killing does not need to be physically murderous. “Foucault’s Legacy: Security. The principle underlying the tactics of battle – that one has to become capable of killing in order to go on living – has become the principle that defines the strategy of states (Foucault. when the defence of society gives sanction to very real acts of violence that are justified in terms of species necessity. 2003: 255). Biopolitically speaking. degenerate. what is at stake here is no mere sovereign affair. calculated. then. or. hence altogether more frightening: When a diagram of power abandons the model of sovereignty in favour of a disciplinary model. it is indeed life that emerges as the new object of power. 2003: 62). Rothenbaum. quite simply. that is not to suggest that we should lose sight of the very real forms of political violence that do take place in the name of species improvement.” Security Dialogue August 23. backward. political death. but also every form of indirect murder: the fact of exposing someone to death. When Foucault refers to ‘killing’. wasteful and ultimately dangerous to the social order (Bauman. Ian. 1991). Auschwitz arguably represents the most grotesque.Cap Kritik 85/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Errthang (Biopower) Biopolitics is the root of racism and genocide – their mindset is the same one that created Auschwitz Evans 10 – Lecturer in the School of Politics and International Studies @ Univ. When ‘life itself’ becomes the principal referent for political struggles. the biopolitical assay of life necessarily portrays a commitment to the supremacy of certain species types: ‘a race that is portrayed as the one true race. but on the contrary in the name of race. he is not simply referring to the vicious act of taking another life: ‘When I say “killing”. . 2003: 256). 1990: 137). when notions of security are invoked in order to preserve the destiny of a species. of Leeds (Brad Evans. 4 413-433. . for it is only through the discourse and practice of racial (dis)qualification that one is capable of introducing ‘a break in the domain of life that is under power’s control: the break between what must live and what must die’ (Foucault. entire populations are mobilized for the purpose of wholesale slaughter in the name of life necessity. Amanda. when it becomes the ‘bio-power’ or ‘bio-politics’ of populations. against those who pose a threat to the biological heritage’ (Foucault. it is within those sites that ‘eliminate radically the people that are excluded’ that the DML. As Deleuze (1999: 76) duly noted. 2002). controlling and administering life. since one of the most ‘essential characteristics’ of modern biopolitics is to constantly ‘redefine the threshold in life that distinguishes and separates what is inside from what is outside’. 2005). precious space. utilitarian. but allows itself to produce all the more hecatombs and genocides: not by returning to the old law of killing. 2003: 61). That is to say. rejection and so on’ (Foucault. shameful and hence meaningful example of necessary killing – the violence that is sanctioned in the name of species necessity (see Agamben. conditions of life and the survival of a population that believes itself to be better than its enemy. racial problems occupy a ‘permanent presence’ within the political order (Foucault. power necessarily concerns itself with those biological threats to human existence (Palladino. that is when the capacity to legitimate murderous political actions in all our names and for all our sakes becomes altogether more rational. This takes us to the heart of our concern with biopolitical rationalities. Indeed. . they are waged on behalf of the existence of everyone. a sort of ‘biological danger’. At that point law increasingly renounces that symbol of sovereign privilege. Harry. massacres have become vital. the right to put someone to death. 2008). modern societies reveal a distinct biopolitical aporia (an irresolvable political dilemma) in the sense that making life live – selecting out those ways of life that are fittest by design – inevitably writes into that very script those lives that are retarded. 41 no. 1995. the race that holds power and is entitled to define the norm. since everybody is now possibly dangerous and nobody can be exempt. War. I obviously do not mean simply murder as such. Epiphenomenal tensions aside. since life becomes the author of its own (un)making. dml) Having established that the principal task set for biopolitical practitioners is to sort and adjudicate between the species. for political modernity to function one always has to be capable of killing in order to go on living: Wars are no longer waged in the name of a sovereign who must be defended. since it is precisely through the internalization of threat – the constitution of the threat that is now from the dangerous ‘Others’ that exist within – that societies reproduce at the level of life the ontological commitment to secure the subject. Racism makes this process of elimination possible. for Agamben. and against those who deviate from that norm. 2010 vol. which it now treats not as the juridical enemy of the old sovereign but as a toxic or infectious agent. Jay. expulsion. Racism thus appears here to be a thoroughly modern phenomenon (Deleuze & Guattari. Clayton . and Violence in the 21st Century.

The field of international relations. with post-interventionary forms of violence no longer appearing to be any cause for concern. and so forth). for instance. Precluding any critical evaluation of the contemporary forms of violence that take place within the remit of humanitarian discourses and practices. 2007). Hence. 1995: 171). Violence is only rendered problematic here when it is associated with some act of unmitigated geopolitical excess (e. Kaldor. 1995: 179). Devetak. there is a categorical failure to address how necessary violence continues to be an essential feature of the liberal encounter. While lacking Agamben’s intellectual sophistry. Jay. Rothenbaum. Harry. in terms of understanding violence they are limited.Cap Kritik 86/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab biopolitical racial imperative is exposed in its most brutal form (Agamben.g. While some of the tactics deployed in the ‘Global War on Terror’ have undoubtedly lent credibility to these approaches. sovereignty as the ability to declare a state of juridical exception – has certainly gained widespread academic currency in recent times. has been awash with works that have tried to theorize the ‘exceptional times’ in which we live (see. Ian. The camp can therefore be seen to be the defining paradigm of the modern insomuch as it is a ‘space in which power confronts nothing other than pure biological life without any mediation’ (Agamben. the nature of the racial imperative that underwrites the violence of contemporary liberal occupations is removed from the analytical arena. Clayton . use of torture. such a Schmittean-inspired approach to violence – that is. the invasion of Iraq. in particular. Amanda. Guantánamo Bay. 2007. DML. This is unfortunate.

are creating new problems that are unforeseen and extremely difficult to cope with. November 2010. Clayton . genetically engineered bacteria.” or making parts of the cosmos more like earth.S. much scientific intervention today stems from the crises stemming from earlier intervention.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. observable tracked objects to around thirty thousand. under current political and social arrangements. One estimate is that if something had gone wrong while Cassini was still circling the earth. that there are now around fourteen thousand tracked objects circling around the earth. known as “space debris” or “space junk. In February 2008. Dr. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 158. it will fail and lead to war Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. But even manufactured risks may be minimal in scope. Ian. Galactic wars may therefore be the product of galactic colonialism. and plans are now afoot to launch even more satellites. the U. This is outright war. or what some social scientists have called “manufactured risk. Note. Armed conflict has long been a common feature of past colonialisms. Navy demonstrated a similar capability. Even whole satellites may collide.” China demonstrated its capabilities in January 2007 by shooting down one of its own defunct satellites. Satellites are already a means by which territories and investments on Earth are monitored and protected by governments operating on behalf of their economic interests. An arms race in outer space has already started. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. Harry. some thirty to forty million deaths could have occurred.23 Some of the wilder plans for space colonization also entail major risk. Such a project could well be made a future hegemonic project. Such a scenario was prefigured by the Star Trekscience fiction television series in which the main role of “The Federation” is the protection of capitalist mining colonies. Jay.”19 This kind of risk. and building nuclear-propelled rockets for missions to Mars. No 6. suitably packaged as a DML.21 Space colonization brings a number of other manufactured risks. and Gramsci’s notion of hegemony.” Science and technology. for which no one agency or individual is usually culpable. Current and future forms of outer space humanization are. Monthly Review Vol 62. But success is not guaranteed. one led by a dominant social and economic bloc. a plutonium-powered generator fell to earth. professor of medical physics at the University of California. This and the Cassini example further demonstrate the nature of “manufactured risk. The fifteenth-century Renaissance and the Enlightenment placed great faith in science as a means of bringing “progress. Furthermore. Yet. Berkeley. is readily recognizable in space-humanization progress. having failed to achieve orbit. for example. compared with another risk stemming from cosmic colonization. the success of a galactic colonialism is by no means guaranteed. then argued that there was probably a direct link between that crash and an increase of lung cancer on Earth. artificial dust clouds. A defunct Russian satellite crashed into an American commercial satellite. The farther space vehicles penetrate the solar system. or rule by consent. destroying a faulty U. It is not widely appreciated.” whereby the climates of other planets would be changed in such a way as to support life. This is because the very venture of space colonization brings new risks. dml) But even if it were desirable. such a collision actually happened. But on February 10.24 It is a discomforting fact that both China and the United States are now actively developing their own versions of “full spectrum dominance. Amanda. Rothenbaum. between colonizing nations as well as between the colonizers and aboriginal peoples. for example. and the redirecting of sunlight by satellite mirrors are all being advanced as means of “terraforming. Dyes. energy. rather than solar. the more likely it is that they will be powered by nuclear. designed to drag older satellites out of orbit in order to avoid collisions. satellite with a sea-based missile. far from creating Renaissance or Enlightenment-style optimism and certainty. The plan is a band-aid solution for the problems of cap Dickens and Ormrod 7 . These include proposals for “planetary engineering. as early as 1964. many of these causing potential damage. John Gofman.Cap Kritik 87/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab K Turns Case Even if they win space is good in theory.20 Space junk poses a serious threat to the whole enterprise of space colonization. no more and no less than attempts at saving capitalism.” Improved tracking systems will increase the number of smaller. But the prospect of galactic colonialisms raises the distinct possibility of hostilities in space.S. Such collisions are estimated at millions or even billions to one.” Now such progress is regularly challenged. 2009. Both President Obama and the Russian authorities are now arguing for generating electricity with plutonium in space. that the 1997 Cassini Mission to Saturn’s moons (via Jupiter and Venus) was powered by plutonium. Such ‘fixes’ would offer another promise of staving off capitalism’s tendency towards crisis formation. Whether cosmic socio-spatial fixes are profitable or necessary will depend not only on environmental degradation or social crisis on Earth but on making the resources of outer space into a series of successful primary circuits of capital. dml) This brings us back to our conceptual starting points: Harvey’s notion of ‘spatial fixes’ as solutions to capital’s continuing crises of accumulation.22 No plans were in place for such an eventuality. generating thousands of pieces of orbiting debris.

Jay. poverty and environmental degradation on Earth. there is every possibility that such interventions may make matters even worse. Needless to say. Clayton . it 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab is far from clear when and how such fixes will be seriously attempted. what forms they would take and how successful they would be. If the ‘risk society’ thesis is taken seriously. Ian.Cap Kritik 88/194 boon to the Earth’s population. there is no clear indication that they will resolve the crises of unemployment. But how is the development of space made a ‘common sense’ enterprise? DML. Rothenbaum. Amanda. Harry. At the same time.

In parts of Africa subject to civil war. Ian. the ‘fix’ represented by the several thousand satellites surrounding the Earth is unstable for a number of reasons.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. In truth. the Far East and zones where civil wars continue to threaten landlines. dml) Harvey uses the term ‘spatial fix’ to refer to the flows of capital into new areas for investment. This capital switch has. for example. Amanda. Satellites do remain the favoured medium in circumstances that are hostile to significant military or social interests. Similarly. This includes telecommunications via satellite. Still less could it bring a stable cultural and political fix. But he also uses the term ironically. Twenty years ago satellites were a central part of the global communications network as they bridged continents and allowed ubiquitous coverage of the globe. Clayton . Fibreoptics has since been further developed and used as a means to transmit signals. as we have seen. Africa. and there are social and political reasons for this. British banks with global operations use satellite links to their automated teller machines. knowing that it could never be a permanent fix in terms of guaranteed or continuing capital accumulation. capital’s switch away from satellites is only partial. DML. resulted in satellites no longer being the only favoured medium for telecommunications transmission. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 113-114. sub-sea cables bring communications to the main seaport or capital city while satellites are still used to make the networks over the remainder of the country. Jay. They are used. It is not finally fixed because of capital’s own fluctuating commitment to a particular technology.Cap Kritik 89/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab K Turns Case – Satellites The use of satellites in capitalism guarantees the continuation of war and ethnic conflict Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Returning for the moment to the economic level. to bring communications access to South America. Rothenbaum. allowing branches to communicate with their headquarters where landlines can be readily accessed or interfered with. Harry.

Ian. Clayton . Jay. Amanda.Cap Kritik 90/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **ALTS** DML. Rothenbaum. Harry.

Berkley (Ramon. Rothenbaum. The following examples can illustrate this point. etc. Our alternative is to shift our geo and body politics to a point of view outside Eurocentrism. 1(1). 2011. Protestant) church. 8) an epistemic hierarchy that privileges Western knowledge and cosmology over non-Western knowledge and DML.) are going to coexist and be organized by capital as a source of production of surplus value through the selling of commodities for a profit in the world market. Amanda. with only a few exceptions. A European/capitalist/military/Christian/patriarchal/white/heterosexual/male arrived in the Americas and established simultaneously in time and space several entangled global hierarchies that for purposes of clarity in this exposition I will list below as if they were separate from each other: 1) a particular global class formation where a diversity of forms of labor (slavery. Class analysis and economic structural transformations are privileged over other power relations. Accordingly. wage labor.Associate Professor of Ethnic Studies. Rigoberta Menchú in Guatemala or Domitila Barrios de Chungara in Bolivia? I do not pretend to speak for or represent the perspective of these indigenous women. the transformation in the relations of production produces a new class structure typical of capitalism as opposed to other social systems and other forms of domination. Harry. What I attempt to do is to shift the location from which these paradigms are thinking.” What arrived in the Americas was a broader and wider entangled power structure that an economic reductionist perspective of the world-system is unable to account for. Enloe 1990). TRANSMODERNITY: Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World. This was a crucial part of. 6) a sexual hierarchy that privileges heterosexuals over homosexuals and lesbians (it is important to remember that most indigenous peoples in the Americas did not consider sexuality among males a pathological behavior and had no homophobic ideology). 7) a spiritual hierarchy that privileges Christians over non-Christian/non-Western spiritualities institutionalized in the globalization of the Christian (Catholic and later. which let accidentally to the so-called discovery and. Ian. Jay. but was not the sole element in. 5) a global gender hierarchy that privileges males over females and European Judeo-Christian patriarchy over other forms of gender relations (Spivak 1988. Without denying the importance of the endless accumulation of capital at a world scale and the existence of a particular class structure in global capitalism. the capitalist worldsystem would be primarily an economic system that determine the behavior of the major social actors by the economic logic of making profits as manifested in the extraction of surplus value and the ceaseless accumulation of capital at a worldscale. 2000). If we analyze the European colonial expansion from a Eurocentric point of view. say. Clayton . I raise the following epistemic question: How would the world-system look like if we moved the locus of enunciation from the European man to an Indigenous women in the Americas. Grosfoguel 11 . petty-commodity production. Decolonial Thinking. Spanish and Portuguese colonization of the Americas. political-economy paradigms and world-system analysis. have not derived the epistemological and theoretical implications of the epistemic critique coming from subaltern locations in the colonial divide and expressed in academia through ethnic studies and woman studies. This has led to important problems in the way we conceptualize global capitalism and the “world-system. They still continue to produce knowledge from the Western man “point zero” god-eye view. From the structural location of an indigenous woman in the Americas. semi-serfdom. the concept of capitalism implied in this perspective privileges economic relations over other social relations. 4) a global racial/ethnic hierarchy that privileges European people over nonEuropean people (Quijano 1993. Moreover.Cap Kritik 91/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alternate 1NC Alt Global Colonialism has created the hierarchies and basis for all forms of violence – structural or otherwise – in the modern world. University of Cal. The primary motive for this expansion was to find shorter routes to the East. The first implication of shifting our geopolitics of knowledge is that what arrived in the Americas in the late fifteenth century was not only an economic system of capital and labor for the production of commodities to be sold for a profit in the world market. what arrived was a more complex world-system than what political-economy paradigms and worldsystem analysis portrait. Decolonizing Post-Colonial Studies and Paradigms of Political Economy: Transmodernity. 2) an international division of labor of core and periphery where capital organized labor in the periphery around coerced and authoritarian forms (Wallerstein 1974). and Global Coloniality) NAR Globalization studies. what we get is a picture in which the origins of the so-called capitalist worldsystem are primarily produced by the inter-imperial competition among European Empires. to.” These concepts are in need of decolonization and this can only be achieved with a decolonial epistemology that overtly assumes a decolonial geopolitics and body-politics of knowledge as points of departure to a radical critique. 3) an inter-state system of politico-military organizations controlled by European males and institutionalized in colonial administrations (Wallerstein 1979). the entangled “package. eventual. From this point of view.

or antecedent to. intersectionality (Crenshaw 1989. structures of knowledge. For example. 3) The old division between culture and political-economy as expressed in postcolonial studies and political-economy approaches is overcome (Grosfoguel 2002). However. or Tao (ecology or cosmos as subject that is an end in itself). gender. In this conceptualization. Quijano 1991). race.” the moment we use the word “capitalism. and epistemology are not additive elements to the economic and political structures of the capitalist world-system. 1998. state institutions. sexual. Ian. Post-colonial studies conceptualize the capitalist world-system as being constituted primarily by culture. Following Peruvian Sociologist Aníbal Quijano (1991. The same way as the European industrial revolution was achieved on the shoulders of the coerced forms of labor in the periphery. It is not derivative from. What is new in the “coloniality of power” perspective is how the idea of race and racism becomes the organizing principle that structures all of the multiple hierarchies of the world-system (Quijano 1993). Jay. 2) The old Marxist paradigm of infrastructure and superstructure is replaced by a historical-heterogeneous structure (Quijano 2000). or gender relations. 10) an aesthetic hierarchy of high art vs. where the older the person. and institutions of modernity such as nation-states. Art Galleries and global art markets. the new identities. “culture or the economy. entangled and constitutive part of the broad entangled “package” called the European modern/colonial capitalist/patriarchal worldsystem (Grosfoguel 2002). misleading. “capitalism” is only one of the multiple entangled constellations of colonial power matrix DML. race and racism are not superstructural or instrumental to an overarching logic of capitalist accumulation. This matrix affects all dimensions of social existence such as sexuality. spiritual. nonWestern people. We are all encompassed within a capitalist world-system that articulates different forms of labor according to the racial classification of the world’s population (Quijano 2000. laws. The global gender hierarchy is also affected by race: contrary to preEuropean patriarchies where all women were inferior to all men. epistemic. and domination/exploitation of. what comes first. It is not an accident that the conceptualization of the world-system from decolonial perspectives of the South will question its traditional conceptualizations produced by thinkers from the North. Tawhid. modernity. Taking a step further from Quijano. while political-economy places the primary determination on economic relations. 9) a linguistic hierarchy between European languages and non-European languages that privileges communication and knowledge/theoretical production in the former and subalternize the latter as sole producers of folklore or culture but not of knowledge/theory (Mignolo 2000). Harry. in which subjectivity and the social imaginary is not derivative but constitutive of the structures of the world-system (Grosfoguel 2002). to say the least. Rothenbaum. authority. in the new colonial power matrix some women (of European origin) have a higher status and access to resources than some men (of non-European origin). the different forms of labor that are articulated to capitalist accumulation at a world-scale are assigned according to this racial hierarchy. an entangled articulation of multiple hierarchies. they are constitutive of capitalist accumulation at a world-scale. a chicken-egg dilemma that obscure s the complexity of the capitalist world-system (Grosfoguel 2002). naïve or primitive art where the West is considered superior high art and the nonWest is considered as producers of inferior expressions of art institutionalized in Museums.. political. epistemology and spirituality were globalized and exported to the rest of the world through the colonial expansion as the hegemonic criteria to racialize. 14) an ecological hierarchy where the Western conceptions of “nature” (as an object that is a means towards an end) with its destruction of life (human and nonhuman) is privileged and considered superior over nonWestern conceptions of the “ecology” such as Pachamama. The idea of race organizes the world’s population into a hierarchical order of superior and inferior people that becomes an organizing principle of the international division of labor and of the global patriarchal system. 15) a spatial hierarchy that privileges the urban over the rural with the consequent destruction of rural communities. Contrary to the Eurocentric perspective.S. sexuality. or a “heterarchy” (Kontopoulos 1993). Fregoso 2003) of multiple and heterogeneous global hierarchies (“heterarchies”) of sexual. 13) an age hierarchy where the Western conception of productive life (ages between 15 and 65 years old) making disposable people above 65 years old are considered superior over non-Western forms of age classification. The “colonial power matrix” is an organizing principle involving exploitation and domination exercized in multiple dimensions of social life. 2000.” is a false dilemma. 4) Coloniality is not equivalent to colonialism. peasants and agrarian production at the worldscale. and institutionalized in the global university system (Mignolo 1995. but an integral. spirituality. Grosfoguel 2002). coercive (or cheap) labor is done by non-European people in the periphery and “free wage labor” in the core. economic. I conceptualize the coloniality of power as an entanglement or.Cap Kritik 92/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab cosmologies. to use U. classify and pathologize the rest of the world’s population in a hierarchy of superior and inferior races. Coloniality and modernity constitute two sides of a single coin. from economic. citizenship and democracy were formed in a process of colonial interaction with. Amanda. In the “coloniality of power” approach. The sixteenth century initiates a new global colonial power matrix that by the late nineteenth century came to cover the whole planet. linguistic and racial forms of domination and exploitation where the racial/ethnic hierarchy of the European/non-European divide transversally reconfigures all of the other global power structures.” people immediately think that we are talking about the “economy”. the more authority and respect he/she receives from the community. Given the hegemonic Eurocentric “common sense. 5) To call “”the present world-system “capitalist” is. rights. Clayton . which considers in its rationality the reproduction of life. This conceptualization has enormous implications that I can only briefly mention here: 1) The old Eurocentric idea that societies develop at the level of the nation-state in terms of a linear evolution of modes of production from pre-capitalist to capitalist is overcome. that is. Third World Feminist concept. 2000). European Judeo-Christian patriarchy and European notions of sexuality. we could conceptualize the present world-system as a historical-structural heterogeneous totality with a specific power matrix that he calls a “colonial power matrix” (“patrón de poder colonial”). and households (Quijano 2000). subjectivity and labor (Quijano 2000). 11) a pedagogical hierarchy where the Cartesian western forms of pedagogy are considered superior over non-Westerm concepts and practices of pedagogy. 12) a media/informational hierarchy where the West has the control over the means of global media production and information technology while the non-West do not have the means to make their points of view enter the global media networks. to political organizations.

Given its entanglement with other power relations. 7) The complex multiplicity of power hierarchies at the global scale in the present world-system we inhabit is not just a social or an economic system. political. but I am sure there are more that escaped my conceptualization. epistemic. economic. at the risk of sounding ridiculous. pedagogical and racial hierarchies of the “modern/colonial western-centric Christian-centric capitalist/patriarchal world-system. Amanda. Clayton . Rothenbaum. Above. aesthetic. “Capitalist/Patriarchal Western-centric/Christian-centric Modern/Colonial WorldSystem. acting and living to the rest of the peoples in the world. but a civilization that has conquered the world trying to colonially impose the ways of thinking. Harry. 6) Accordingly.” Capitalism is an important constellation of power. but not the sole one. destroying the capitalist aspects of the world-system would not be enough to destroy the present worldsystem. to move beyond this system the struggle cannot be just anticapitalist but an anti-systemic decolonial liberation.Cap Kritik 93/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab of what I called. spiritual. It requires a broader transformation of the sexual. linguistic.” The “coloniality of power” perspective challenges us to think about social change and social transformation in a nonreductionist way. gender. Jay. DML. Ian. To transform this world-system it is crucial to destroy the historicalstructural heterogenous totality called the “colonial power matrix” of the “worldsystem” with its multiple forms of power hierarchies. Anti-systemic decolonial struggles against the fifteen power hierarchies of the world-system are at the same time a civilization struggle for a new humanism (Fanon 1967) and a new civilization (indigenous’ conception of transformation in different parts of the world). Anti-systemic decolonization and liberation cannot be reduced to only one dimension of social life such as the economic system (capitalism) like it happened with the twentieth century Marxist left. I outlined a total of 15 global power hierarchies.

In practising sustainable consumption in the North. and including as allies progressive state actors. 168-198.” Interface 2:2. what seems adjacently possible is an ‘institutionalization of multilevel contestation’.11 To break from the hegemony of marketplacesociety is to endeavour ‘in the here and now to create in the interstices of the system a new social metabolism rooted in egalitarianism. For such generative politics to take root ‘a synergistic relation between political parties and civil society must be forged in order to ensure that the necessary institutional spaces are created and the capacity for civil society participation is developed’ (M. the autonomist politics of the Larzac plateau is exemplary. initiatives to reclaim the commons. both physical and informational. deployed in the pursuit of movement in the desired direction’ (Unger 2009:xxi. within an ethicopolitical framework. Counter-hegemony. Yet achieving the global contraction in greenhouse gas emissions and convergence in emissions per capita necessary to avert the worst ecological scenarios will require a strong ethico-political solidarity of North with South –quite DML. as Bloch put it 10 – it is unlikely that transformative politics will gain traction until consumerism as a way of life that contains its own selfreproducing end values is rejected by (or becomes unviable for) great numbers of people. In this respect. pressure for change may arise most urgently from a growing“environmental proletariat” (Foster 2010: 15) in areas of failing habitability. Williams 2008:156).Cap Kritik 94/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt extensions – Carroll Reject their complicity with capitalism – only unconditional rejection of consumerism can initiate revolts against capitalism that can become truly global Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William. a counterhegemonic historical bloc organized around a project of sustainable human development and participatory democracy. movements. that combines. globally and in national and local contexts – or else it will stumble. new media and new communicative struggles. and quotidian practices of becoming aware and acting coherently all mark a cathartic shift from protest to generative politics. The elements of the new I have sketched also illuminate the next steps. where the marketplace society and postmodern fragmentation discussed earlier are most entrenched – where the left’s marginality contributes to a doxic condition of ‘dreamlessness’. and a sustainable relation to the earth’ (Magdoff and Foster 2010). Transnational networks and campaigns. Amanda. the ‘programmatic imagination’ marks a direction and defines the next steps in taking up that trajectory (Unger 2009:xxi). registered in such notions as war of position and historical bloc. whose constituents recognize in the intersections of power and oppression an emancipatory collective interest. and leadership in counter-hegemonic globalization can be expected to emanate from the South. The movement of movements will walk on both legs. requires more than a cataloguing of what is new. emphasis added). and the problem of welding present to future. to production of sustainable agriculture. Ian. however. but also by arborescent formations such as new democratic left parties in Europe (Rao 2009 Solty 2008). of communications and culture. dialogical communicative relations. the autonomy of individuals with an abiding appreciation of the intersecting relations that implicate us in each other’s lives. These politics must be substantially rooted in local and national contexts: local self- empowerment is a requirement of democratic mobilization. The emergent themes and practices discussed above help mark a direction: toward a post-capitalist way of life that is broadly eco-socialist. community. combining rhizomic networks and ‘traditional’ trees. Indeed. Harry. Clayton . Counter-hegemonic globalization is sustained by the transnational cultural infrastructures and activist networks that shape global civil society. and winning state power is indispensable to transformation at a global level. creating new relations. These developments portend a global left. Globally. reaching from the local to the global. of collective property. toward the adjacent possible. Rothenbaum. ‘the possible that counts is not the fanciful horizon of possibilities but the adjacent possible: what is accessible with the materials at hand. As for the national and transnational. when placed in the context of the ecological race against time and the continuing hegemony of consumer capitalism. counter-hegemony: in search of the new. and autonomous governance of the commons. Jay. the intergovernmental organizations developing within the Bolivarian process and what may be an emerging Fifth International inclusive of parties and movements. This direction implies a process of democratic globalization that reaches beyond the Westphalian division of humanity into (potentially) warring factions – and well beyond the current state of the world. in ‘virtuous circles’ that strengthen both movements and initiatives by state leaders at the global level (Evans 2008). This project faces great challenges. As an instrument of alternative – but transformative politics. that subordinates the state to an empowered civil society structured around practices of participatory democracy. “Crisis. Marking a direction sketches the contours of a counter-hegemonic project – a possible it is the choice of next steps that enables motion. of new social relations and subjectivities. welding the present to the future has an indelibly programmatic aspect. practices and subjectivities both on the cultural terrain of civil society and within/against the state. dml) Our point of departure was a meditation on the new. in North America.

Amanda. might open an exit hatch from capitalism. and the treadmill of accumulation’ (Foster 2010: 15). Such a global transition would require that ecological and social revolutions in the South ‘be accompanied by. steps 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the reverse of what was on display at COP15 in Copenhagen in December 2009. or inspire. universal revolts against imperialism. and presently a distant possibility. cumulatively. Clayton . DML. taken in that direction that. the destruction of the planet. the twin exigencies of our time. Harry.Cap Kritik 95/194 nevertheless. Ian. Rothenbaum. It is. Jay. What is particularly new in this organic crisis is the entwinement of human survival with democratic socialist construction.

The USSR would go on to be the first to put a satellite into orbit. and the first to build a permanently manned outpost in space. How were such advancements possible? How did the Soviet Union go from having a population that was 90% illiterate. An alternative hegemonic project will have to be made. Nuclear Physics. Another vital component of their success was the massive expansion of education. Space Exploration and Chemistry. the ability of private companies to develop science and technology is limited by a narrow view of what is profitable. we can only conclude that massive reserves of human talent are being wasted. The soviet government immediately tore down all the barriers on science that strangle innovation within the capitalist system. This broad view allowed them to put substantial resources into all areas of study. states and pro-space activists is beginning to make outer space into an extension of Earthly society. particularly in the areas of Mathematics. Amanda. semi-feudal. a form of ‘common sense’ with investments into an infinite outer space supposedly bringing great benefits to the whole of society. Jay. Companies do not plan to advance technology. individuals in the population were able to meet their potential. The Soviets immediately recognized the importance of the overall development of science and technology and linked it to the development of the country as a whole. The alt solves space better – technological expansion is held back by commercial profit. when one considers the state the country was in when capitalism was overthrown.marxist. In a matter of decades. its history gives us valuable insight into the potential of a nationalized planned economy. Under capitalism. this time on a cosmic scale. This allowed for more collaborative research across fields and a free flow of information between institutions. it was transformed into a leading super-power. Ian. A ‘risk society’. The first step in this process was simply the recognition that science was a priority. let alone open up university education to all who are able. Under capitalism. When half of the world’s population is forced to live on less than two dollars a day. the socially.Cap Kritik 96/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt solves case Space exploration is inevitable. Paleck 9 – Former Iowa Democratic nominee for the House of Representatives (Mike. will be created.8/12/09. such a project also seems likely to make outer space in the image of the Earth itself. Under current social and political arrangements. industrialists. however. http://www. Clayton . they plan to build a marketable product and will only do what is necessary to bring that product to market. Soviet scientists pushed the frontiers of knowledge. trade secrets. If a cosmic society is to genuinely benefit the dispossessed it will have to be organized around radically different priorities. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 176. A citizen could continue their studies as long as they were capable.htm) The ultimate proof of capitalism’s hindrance of science and technology comes not from capitalism. A powerful coalition of financiers. Astronomy. but from the alternative. Rothenbaum. While the Soviet Union under Stalin was far from the ideal socialist society (something which we have explained extensively elsewhere).*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Religious prejudices that had long held back rational study were pushed aside. it’s just a question of how we approach it – the aff causes cap but the alt causes genuine society Dickens and Ormrod 7 . economically and politically powerful will continue to make themselves even more potent via the humanization of the cosmos. with all its power relations and consequent social injustices. By contrast. dml) It seems clear that society will be made increasingly ‘cosmic’. Patents. which prevent large portions of the population from reaching their potential. In 1917 the Bolsheviks took control of a backwards. even many advanced capitalist countries have been unable to eliminate illiteracy today. One only has to look at the ban on stem-cell research under the Bush regime DML. This process seems destined to be made into a hegemonic project. Many Soviet era scientists have been awarded Nobel prizes in various fields. doctors and engineers per capita than any other country on Earth in just a few decades? The superiority of the nationalized planned economy and the break from the madness of capitalism is the only explanation. Harry. the first to put a man in space. and private industry were eliminated. These successes are particularly stunning. “Capitalism Versus Science”. to having more scientists. massive financial barriers are placed in front of students. third world country that had been ruined by the First World War. By abolishing private schools and providing free education at all levels.

A lack of resources for education and research keep doors closed to young aspiring minds. With the development of computers. Levit and Nadson were executed. Science is being held back by private interests and industry. Clayton . These crimes were not crimes of socialism. is now tangible. Under a democratically planned economy. but hinders it at every step. Every aspect of human development is hindered by the erroneously-named free-market. This ban wasn’t overturned until the mid 1960s. it also hindered certain areas of study. it is the task of those interested in science and socialism to learn the lessons of history. where he died in 1943. In the most extreme cases. The only thing that stands in our way is capitalism. Humanity today is being held back by an economic system designed to enslave the majority for the benefit of a minority. DML. 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab But it wasn’t all good news under Stalinism. Just as the bureaucracy hindered the development of the economy. What was once a mystery. Nikolai Vavilov. One of the most outrageous cases was Stalin’s contempt for chromosomal genetics. What was once veiled. Potential cures for deadly diseases are tossed aside to clear the way for research into the latest drug to cure erectile dysfunction. including Agol. is now understood. but of Stalinism. one of the Soviet Union’s great geneticists was sent to a labour camp. The chains of the free- market prevent meaningful research from being done. humanity stands at the doorstep of a bright future of scientific advancement and prosperity. the internet and new technologies. certain fields of study were outlawed entirely and leading scientists were arrested and sent to labour camps in Siberia. We are learning more and more about every aspect of our existence. This is madness. Jay. Amanda.Cap Kritik 97/194 to see the negative effects religious bigotry can have on science. Private collectors hold unique and important specimens for their own personal amusement. Private companies refuse to let new technologies out of their back rooms. Today. The advancement of scientific knowledge will one day put even the farthest reaches of the universe at our fingertips. Capitalism does not drive innovation. in some cases new ones were erected as the direction of scientific study was subjugated to the needs and desires of the bureaucracy. Religious interference locks science in a cage and declares important fields of study off-limits. Harry. While the many barriers of capitalism were broken down. there would be no reason for such atrocities. The study of genetics was banned and several prominent geneticists. Rothenbaum. Ian. What was once impossible. is now in plain sight.

it exposes the ways in which these mechanisms are used by the powerful as a means of enhancing their authority over the rest of society. Contemporary forms of subjectivity which are alienated from the cosmos and dreaming about being part of it are not inevitable.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. The science of outer space is now being deployed to humanize the cosmos in ways that not only reproduce the social order.Cap Kritik 98/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Critique Merely the act of critique alone points out the flaws in space capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . forged against this particular form of humanization. But an explanatory critique hopefully also shows that there is nothing inevitable about this process. DML. Rothenbaum. dml) In this book we have aimed to go even further towards revealing ‘the worm in the apple’ of space humanization: outlining the capital processes which underpin it and in the process stripping away some of the hegemonic assumptions that serve to obscure them. Clayton . New types of common sense can be constructed. Moreover. Amanda. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 189. Social and political alliances can be. but extend this order indefinitely into the cosmos. They are the product of recent times and can certainly undergo change in a more socially progressive direction. Ian. Harry. An explanatory critique exposes the causal mechanisms and elements that underlie the complexity of the social life and of the universe. Jay. This is what Roy Bhaskar (1986) refers to as an explanatory critique: the deliberate undermining of the false beliefs created by society based on social power and coercion. and are being.

Cap Kritik 99/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Floating PIC Alt doesn’t preclude the plan but it’s a prerequisite to solving the link Dickens and Ormrod 7 . or chart changes in the environment caused by global warming. Amanda. DML. Earth imaging technology available freely to all can be used to track refugee populations. rather than being founded on the interests of capital. Jay. and individualist fantasies. the humanization of outer space could emphasize collective responsibilities on Earth and try to ensure that any gains made through space exploration were spread throughout to improve the lot of the dispossessed on Earth (as was the original aim of the United Nations Moon Agreement). ‘As we move deeper into space we should be facing Earth and allow our deprived world to set the pace’ (1964: 198). Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 190. ‘space for peace’ could also include diverting risk stemming from Earth-bound asteroids: a plan under active development by NASA and the European Space Agency (Gray 2007). dml) Alternatively. Rothenbaum. So long as it is not motivated by fear and panic. In theory.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. so long as funds are not diverted from more socially necessary projects. this is not incompatible with scientific exploration of outer space aimed at simply discovering how the universe is structured. Harry. To quote Etzioni. Clayton . Ian.

The unsatisfactory term ‘new social movements’ groups together a series of highly diverse struggles: urban. These struggles are widely seen as composed of heterogeneous actors who do not represent a particular social stratum with identifiable interests. anti-institutional. Harry. even to the extent of denying links between political identity and the material world. to abstractions such as “the public” or “humanity” ’. (Scott 1995: 3) Here Scott is describing the problem traditional Marxists have had in explaining the constituency of new social movements. Jay. The supposed separation from material politics by the new movements has inspired ‘postMarxist’ developments in social movement theory. This has been heralded by some theorists as a radical new era of post-material (Inglehart 1981) or post-emancipatory (Giddens 1991) politics. Ian. Clayton . anti-authoritarian. They have some of the characteristics ascribed to real – that is. ethnic. ecological. albeit with a less direct connection to class interests. considered as ‘class’ struggles. Beck 1992).Cap Kritik 100/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Movements/Link – K aff Class struggles must come first – any other issue can’t solve the root cause of their struggles Dickens and Ormrod 7 . But they are addressing themselves to the question of how counter-hegemony can be formed at a time when ‘the ruling class’ seems to be on the wane. Laclau and Mouffe urge us to only look around to observe what they call ‘the new antagonisms’. new social movements initially appear unconcerned with material politics at all. As Scott writes: At least in the conventional Marxist analysis. In addition. other theorists have attempted to retain an emphasis on fundamental antagonisms at the heart of the social order. regional or that of sexual minorities. these authors oppose any notion of general or ‘universal’ propositions such as the working class or class struggle being the principal generator of social change.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. The new social movements are constituted by groups often removed not just from industrial production but from its values and priorities. as he notes. for example. The common denominator of all of them would be their differentiation from workers’ struggles. turning their attention to issues such as peace. neither fish nor fowl. In this respect. (Laclau and Mouffe 2001: 159) Whereas Laclau and Mouffe respond to the emergence of new social movements by removing material struggles from their analysis. Rothenbaum. They agree that forms of consciousness and identity nowadays no longer stem primarily from the factory or the sphere of production. two of the most influential political writers on global politics in recent years have been Laclau and Mouffe (2001). this has meant explaining away new social movement identities as forms of false consciousness. racist. As a number of authors other than Habermas argue. Laclau and Mouffe agree that Gramsci offered major insights into the role of ideology and ‘common sense’ as a means of holding society together. Influenced by Michel Foucault and ‘poststructuralist’ thought. or who are more seriously affected by them. locality or even. social movements which define themselves without reference to class are a category puzzle. gender. Amanda. class – movements (for example mass mobilization) but they appeal to ‘illusory collective identities such as nation. feminist. The bond that unifies these heterogenous groups is the critique of growth’ (1981: 33). most disturbing of all. and those who are not and who are therefore ‘more sensitive to the self-destructive consequences of the growth in complexity. Often. dml) Marxist theories are generally found wanting in the era of the new social movements. the environment and sexuality. and with interests in maintaining it in its current state. economic growth and scientific rationality (see also. these theorists believed that when human material needs were satisfied they would turn their attention to ‘higher’ cultural goals. Like many other writers on contemporary social protest. Habermas argued a quarter of a century ago that new social movement conflicts are carried on between those involved in production. The diversity of people’s material positions is emphasized here. this latter group deliberately and consistently challenges modern concepts of progress. prosperity. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 180-181. Mirroring the psychologist Maslow’s (1971) ‘hierarchy of needs’. DML.

Luxemburg and many others earlier believed was capable of creating its own hegemonic worldview and overthrowing the social order. exercises and Negri argue that. DML. ‘The multitude’ in this picture is therefore envisaged as the modern version of the international proletariat which Marx. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 181-182. But resistance is now coming from what Hardt and Negri call ‘the multitude’. Clayton . despite its many deprivations. This is conceived by these authors as a great mass of people subordinated to global capital and global power. especially those who have suffered from capital investment.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James.Cap Kritik 101/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Multitude Endorsing the multitude would help break down capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Jay. Rothenbaum. Hardt and Negri argue that resistance is no longer forged in the factory. privatization and commodification disrupting their lives. It is a force that the dominant social bloc must overcome if it is to remain intact. particularly via electronic networks and channels of information flows. It is the product of the new social and technological era. Ian. a ‘global elite’ still represents the interests of financial and corporate capital and. Hardt working with political leaders. the multitude is coming to represent a powerful counter-force resisting and eventually overcoming capitalist imperialism. Like Laclau and Mouffe. Amanda. Lenin. dml) On the one hand. Harry. the diversity of the multitude is its very strength. ‘The multitude’ is the new counter-hegemonic force that will overthrow the existing social order. power throughout the whole of global society. Organizing themselves like capital itself.

Jay. Harry. Rothenbaum. dml) A third set of intellectuals in Gramsci’s scheme is that attached to the resisters themselves. In Gramsci’s time and to an extent in our day they would include people attached to the labour movement and to trade unions. 1992). may find useful alliances with them. Amanda. Clayton . DML. These are the main ‘intellectuals’ of the present day. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 186-187. Here the prospects for resistance and the making of new kinds of coalition between dominant and subordinate groups are more promising.Cap Kritik 102/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Organic Intellectuals Embracing the organic intellectual is key to catalyze class struggles Dickens and Ormrod 7 . themselves low on economic capital. ‘cultural leaders’. often including more ascetic tastes and resistances to consumerism (Savage et al. Ian.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. They have a vested interest in their elite status. but subordinate orders. They are again the people using their abilities and knowledge towards emancipating oppressed people. These are the intellectuals ‘organic’ to the subordinated or subaltern classes. creating new trends in consumption. They are more likely to endorse projects not wholly devoted to further capital accumulation. They are also people with high levels of cultural capital such as teachers and workers in the public sector.

But any project is going to be ‘human’ or ‘anthropocentric’. Harry. This is a highly human-centred project and. dml) Alternatively. humanization cosmists by spreading a could attempt to emulate the early twentieth-century Russian socialist or communist society throughout the whole of nearby outer space. DML.Cap Kritik 103/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – SPACE COMMUNISM ALT TEXT – PUT COMMUNISM IN SPACE Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Clayton . Ian. Jay. albeit communist priorities. Rothenbaum.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 190. as such. on the cosmos as a whole. Is a cosmos reproducing and expanding a socialist or communist society necessarily a problem? Perhaps the significance of the utopian cosmists is that they prefigured the possibility of alternative types of space humanization. Amanda. and much more ambitiously. can be criticized for simply imposing humanity’s priorities.

Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 104/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **ANSWERS TO** DML. Clayton . Jay. Ian. Amanda. Harry.

Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 179-180. such imperialism also opens up the possibility of wars between those powers gaining access to the Moon or other nearby parts of the cosmos. of course. Luxemburg and Lenin. Amanda. But the fact remains that this fourth stage of imperialism may in the long term simply reproduce Earthly conflicts. But. Clayton . at least. Ian.Cap Kritik 105/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – No space cap war Even if there’s no harms right now – domination and war will happen Dickens and Ormrod 7 . This form of imperialism and capital expansion may seem particularly attractive to ruling elites. cosmic imperialism is not directly dispossessing anybody of anything. Harry. Earthly sociopolitical coalitions and environmental degradation into the cosmos. dml) But this new form of imperialism is not quite ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in the classic sense outlined by Harvey and. before him. There are no people or societies out there protesting or rising up against this latest stage of domination and capital accumulation. this precludes public and private investments in probably more worthwhile projects on Earth. given the contradictions and increasingly evident social and environmental crises of Earthly society. Furthermore. At the moment.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. as and when elements of nearby outer space are legally subdivided and exploited by different private or state interests. DML. Jay. Rothenbaum.

not only does the language of freedom sustain neo-liberal capitalism. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 166. with its emphasis on the individual and delight at the survival of the fittest. Ian. Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 106/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Space grants freedom Freedom is bad! Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Harry. Again. Jay. but it also legitimizes the wants of its subjects. dml) These arguments about freedom are ultimately intricately related to the need of pro-space activists to re-experience total power centred around the self. DML.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Clayton . Amanda.

*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Clayton . To explore and develop space for them is to act according to human nature. ‘common sense’ perceptions about human nature and human behaviour. dml) Sociobiological arguments often reflect broadly accepted. for example. Indeed. Some prospace activists frame their discussion of human nature directly in relation to Dawkins’ sociobiological arguments. Sahlins 1972. to fight the exploration and development of space is to fight against human nature. Sociologists and social anthropologists tend not be persuaded by this discipline because it disregards the importance of agency. Amanda. Ian. Rothenbaum. In this way human society is not limited to one ‘ecological niche’ but can expand and grow to other niches. Lewis and Clarke and Neil Armstrong are all examples of idols worshipped by the Western culture of exploration and imperialism. biology should be seen as offering important insights into the causal powers underlying the growth and development of humans and other species. and has been discussed by Dawkins himself (1998). many of which have become popular reading in the movement. is reduced to the biological level (Pinker 1997. But these combine with other causal powers operating within society to generate biological development and forms of subjectivity. outer space represents the next ‘ecological niche’ for mankind. It is believed that. Harry. Society. including psychic structure. Lewontin 1993). Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 171-172. this being a positive attribute. To pro-space activists growing up in contemporary America. For many pro-space activists. Columbus. For some time now there have been extensive criticisms of sociobiology (see. meaning. Rose and Rose 2000). some or all humans are pre-programmed to explore their surroundings for more resources. On the other hand. An intense focus on genes means that the interaction between organisms as a whole. The argument that curiosity and exploration are an adaptive survival trait for the human species is well-rehearsed. when resources become scarce. Gene-based biology used to justify further space exploration and the increasing humanization of the universe is an excellent case in point. sociobiology forces sociology to recognize the biological foundations of human behaviour and development. the history of the world is largely understood as the history of exploration. Jay. DML.Cap Kritik 107/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Biology=exploration This is capitalist and wrong and evil and dumb Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Biology is clearly important but it is overlaid or ‘over-determined’ by social relations and social processes of many kinds (Dickens 2000). Conversely. culture and contingency in human social life. One of the key points about a critical realism is that it points to the way in which certain kinds of science are used to ideological and political ends. their relations to their environment and their development during their lifetimes goes largely missing from the sociobiology enterprise (Dickens 2000). It is easy to see how to these people exploration would appear to be human nature. The familiarity of these tales precludes the telling of alternative stories. Much of the foundation for the argument that it is in humanity’s nature to explore comes from grossly selective extrapolations from historical evidence. in line with our critical realist standpoint as outlined in Chapter 1. even hegemonic. the Pilgrim Fathers. It has characterized the whole of human history.

DML. we should note that many of the values held by pro-space activists are precisely those now informing Earthly ‘accumulation by dispossession’. The argument rests on an assertion that wars are the product of people competing for limited resources and that humans will inevitably fight for survival under such circumstances. dml) This argument exemplifies two points. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 172-173. Second. it shows how seemingly universal and apolitical values (for example ‘peace’) are articulated by a movement with other concepts and priorities central to the discourse. the discourses of social movements can change over time. this is another argument unpopular with sociologists and political scientists. Lorenz 1966). ‘economic growth’ and. Social relations have again gone largely missing. Humans. Perhaps needless to say.Cap Kritik 108/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Realism Realism isn’t the root cause of war – realist discourse is Dickens and Ormrod 7 . more space and increased resources will lead to social harmony. An emphasis on the importance of space for peace on Earth has really come to prominence post 9/11. A more critical analyst would examine the way that this argument diverts attention from the real. Finally. Clayton . Harry. These arguments stem from human ethology. Expansion into outer space is as likely to undermine peace as to bring it about. like other animals. will fight to survive. ‘peace’. especially when ‘cornered’. most paradoxically of all. ‘individualism’. Jay. revolve around power and private property.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. These. nonWestern societies are being invaded in the cause of ‘freedom’. Framing the problem in this way leads to a prognosis in which opening up outer space combined with individual freedom. underlying causes of war. Ian. one of the precursors to sociobiology and also unpopular with sociologists (Ardrey 1967. Amanda. as we have tried to argue in Chapter 2. First. At the time of writing. Rothenbaum.

There is always the danger. pg 72. Jay. capitalist views toward space propagated by the media and military Dickens and Ormrod 7 . demonstrate the awareness that activists have that issues about outer space are the result and continuation of the dynamic of a global neo-liberal capitalist economy. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. University of Essex and **James. the monopoly that the Western world is developing over outer space.*Peter. and have flagged up issues including the creation of space debris and the socio-environmental consequences of opening up space to capital. there is a danger that space technology itself disseminates a hegemonic worldview that legitimizes as inevitable the endless expansion of imperial capitalism into space. third world governments have also contested. The United Nations’ role in dictating the shape of the humanization of space looks to become increasingly central. Organic intellectuals within popular culture and activist organizations will certainly have a key role to play if this is to be resisted. Rothenbaum. Amanda. be halted. IWren) Resistances to military enterprises and to what Harvey calls ‘accumulation by dispossession’ may well be multiple. though it remains to be seen whether the US influence will continue to dominate proceedings in an era in which blocs of power in other countries such as China and India emerge as major stakeholders in outer space. Ian. that these resistances will be blown out of the water by those social alliances attempting to retain power. such as the Yorkshire CND in England. 7 DML. As mentioned above.Cap Kritik 109/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Cap Resilient Organic intellectuals are capable of resisting the decentralized and normalizing efforts of hegemonic. however. The links they have built with other organizations associated with the political left. Culture and the media have a key role to play in dulling or awakening popular consciousness about these issues. but also against the use of nuclear power in space. Harry. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. As we have already argued. however. albeit to date unsuccessfully. Social movements like the Global Network could mount such ethical opposition to the humanization of space that investment might. There is evidence that this movement is gaining in numbers and becoming increasingly militant. Clayton . for a while at least. They have been outspoken against the militarization of space.

politicians. for renewal of resources. Why not then simply raise prices? Because there are limits beyond which one cannot push their level. Together. and lower living standards Harvey 10 . These fluctuations cannot easily be controlled by public policy. The result is a growing profit squeeze. IWren) The historical geography of capitalist development is at a key inflexion point in which the geographical configurations of power are rapidly shifting at the very moment when the temporal dynamic is facing very serious constraints. Harry. http://globalization.or refuse to recognize -. After all. The last bubble will be state indebtednesses. pundits -. Ian. Culture and Politics. The real action. Jay. more and more health provisions. The latest financial crisis didn't bring down this system. Now or Ever. leading to bankruptcies. But it is wrong. as well as frantic realignments of every variety. upturns always occur after downturns. We speculate on the markets. it has moved steadily further and further from equilibrium. http://www. There are the costs incurred as producers pass on the costs of their production to the rest of us -. there has been a significant increase in taxation of all kinds. It is wrenching to accept that the historical system in which we are living is in structural crisis and will not survive. The only sure thing is that the present system cannot continue. There are good reasons to DML. they fluctuate chaotically and bifurcate. has been in existence for some 500 years and has for at least a century encompassed the entire globe. When their processes move too far from equilibrium.economic. The result is ever greater uncertainty about all kinds of short-term decision-making. The extraordinary expansion of the world-economy in the postwar years (more or less 1945 to 1970) has been followed by a long period of economic stagnation in which the basic source of gain has been rank speculation sustained by successive indebtednesses. but the idea that the system shall continue in its essential features is a deeply rooted faith. Amanda. Doubt feeds on itself as we search for ways out of the menacing uncertainty posed by terrorism. Talk given at the World Social Forum 2010. Director of The Center for Place. We "develop" our economies in whatever way we can. the system proceeds by its accepted rules. it merely exposed it as hollow. Our recent "difficulties" are merely the next-to-last bubble in a process of boom and bust the world-system has been undergoing since around 1970.gc. To meet these demands. But like all systems.David. political.9. what I call a capitalist worldeconomy. sociocultural. Three percent compound growth (generally considered the minimum satisfactory growth rate for a healthy capitalist economy) is becoming less and less feasible to sustain without resort to all manner of fictions (such as those that have characterized asset markets and financial affairs over the last two decades). Distinguished Professor at the City University of New York (CUNY). “The Global Economy Won’t Recover. Rothenbaum. not whether it should survive. for cadres. climate change. There are the personnel expenses of all kinds -. and more and more guarantees of lifetime income. including in the so-called emerging economies. poverty. environmental degradation. The choice is between a new system that replicates some of the present system's essential features of hierarchy and polarization and one that is relatively democratic and egalitarian.for detoxification. PhD in geography from Cambridge (“Organizing for the Anti-Capitalist Transition”. which is reaching a point where the game is not worth the candle. Most people do not recognize -. for infrastructure.agrees that the world has been in some kind of economic trouble since at least 2008. pandemics.” January-February 2011. for top-level management. And virtually everyone seems to believe that in the next few years the world will somehow "recover" from these difficulties.cuny. such that it is today in structural crisis.foreignpolicy.for unskilled workers. Meanwhile. For a while now. these costs have risen beyond the point that permits serious capital accumulation. We meet at G20 sessions and seek a futile consensus. The remedies recommended vary considerably.these realities. And the democratization of the world has led to demands for more and more education. it has moved too far from equilibrium. is elsewhere. It is called the elasticity of demand. Our existing system. The fundamental political struggle is over what kind of system will replace capitalism. and nuclear proliferation. All systems have lives. Cap unsustainable in the long term—propping it up in the short term leads to military repression. What we are witnessing as a result is chaotic fluctuations of all kinds -.pdf. Clayton .edu/wpcontent/uploads/2011/04/OrganizingtheAnti. It has functioned remarkably well.Cap Kritik 110/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Cap Sustainable Transition is inevitable – the underpinnings of capitalism are collapsing Wallerstein 11 – *senior research scholar at Yale (Immanuel. The problem is that the basic costs of all production have risen remarkably. All this activity simply accentuates the structural dml) Virtually everyone everywhere-economists. the struggle over what new system will be created.

Surplus capital and surplus labor exist side-by side with seemingly no way to put them back together in the midst of immense human suffering and unmet needs. police violence and militarized state control to stifle unrest. Rothenbaum. corporate and household) to its limits (particularly in the USA and the UK but also in many other countries from Latvia to Dubai). enforced part-timers or “discouraged” workers. Africa is not yet fully integrated but there is nowhere else with the capacity to absorb all this surplus capital. Jay. The corollary was to enhance the profitability of financial corporations and to find new ways to globalize and supposedly absorb risks through the creation of fictitious capital markets. The ideology rested upon the idea that free markets. In midsummer of 2009. and to suffer environmental degradations galore to say nothing of serial reductions in their living standards which means starvation for many of those already struggling to survive at rock bottom. the irrationality of capitalism becomes plain for all to see. The new rounds of primitive accumulation against indigenous and peasant populations were augmented by asset losses of the lower classes in the core economies (as witnessed by the sub-prime housing market in the US which foisted a huge asset loss particularly upon African American populations). to be in the forefront of current debate. The political forces that coalesced and mobilized behind these transitions had a distinctive class character and clothed themselves in the vestments of a distinctive ideology called neoliberal. To say that the capitalist class and capitalism can survive is not to say that they are predestined to do so nor does it say that their future character is given. then uncertainties as to outcomes are heightened at times of crisis. What new lines of production can be opened up to absorb growth? There may be no effective long-run capitalist solutions (apart from reversion to fictitious capital manipulations) to this crisis of capitalism. of course. So what will happen this time around? If we are to get back to three percent growth. the political and cultural traditions and how the balance of political-economic power was shifting.Cap Kritik 111/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab believe that there is no alternative to a new global order of governance that will eventually have to manage the transition to a zero growth economy. The difficulties were in part resolved by creation of fictitious markets where speculation in asset values could take off unhindered. Clayton . Amanda. These asset bubbles drew upon finance capital and were facilitated by extensive financial innovations such as derivatives and collateralized debt obligations. But the practice entailed that the state must stand behind the integrity of financial institutions. The state (local and national) also became increasingly committed to providing a “good business climate” to attract investments in a highly competitive environment. The current crisis offers a window of opportunity to reflect on what might be involved. The current crisis originated in the steps taken to resolve the crisis of the 1970s. This contrasts with the $0. Class inequalities will increase (as we already see happening). that no serious active oppositions to continuous capital accumulation and further consolidation of class power materialize. the World Social Forum became the center for articulating the theme “another world is possible. Harry. one third of the capital equipment in the United States stood idle. But at what cost? This question masks another. which is unlikely. even supposing. then this means finding new and profitable global investment opportunities for $1. These conditions varied considerably. Intensifying global competition translated into lower non-financial corporate profits. opening the way towards the beginnings of a hegemonic shift of power particularly but not exclusively towards East Asia. Real problems of finding adequate outlets for surplus capital began to emerge after 1980. culminating in the property bubble that burst in 2007-8. (f) Compensating for anemic rates of return in production by the construction of whole series of asset market bubbles. Can the capitalist class reproduce its power in the face of the raft of economic. Ian. therefore. Since much of this is unpredictable and since the spaces of the global economy are so variable. The interests of the people were secondary to the interests of capital and in the event of a conflict between them. even with the opening up of China and the collapse of the Soviet Bloc. South and SouthEast Asia is filling up fast. Where will all this investment go now? Leaving aside the undisputable constraints in the relation to nature (with global warming of paramount importance). At some point quantitative changes lead to qualitative shifts and we need to take seriously the idea that we may be at exactly such an inflexion point in the history of capitalism. the answer is a resounding “yes. all of which had a Ponzi character.15 trillion new investment needed in 1950 and the $0. (b) undermining previous structures of monopoly power and displacing the previous stage of (nation state) monopoly capitalism by opening up capitalism to far fiercer international competition. What spaces are left in the global economy for new spatial fixes for capital surplus absorption? China and the ex-Soviet bloc have already been integrated.42 trillion needed in 1973 (the dollar figures are inflation adjusted). the interests of the people had to be sacrificed (as became standard practice in IMF structural adjustments programs from the early 1980s onwards). (e) The augmentation of otherwise sagging effective demand by pushing the debt economy (governmental. depending upon what part of the world one inhabited. the other potential barriers of effective demand in the market place. Since the late 1990s. this meant heightened reliance on “accumulation by dispossession” as a means to augment capitalist class power. free trade. So how can the left negotiate the dynamics of this crisis? At times of crisis. while some 17 per cent of the workforce were either unemployed. Uneven geographical development and inter-territorial competition became key features in capitalist development. then there is no alternative to socialism or communism. to surrender many of their rights and their hard-won asset values (in everything from housing to pension rights). (c) utilizing and empowering the most fluid and highly mobile form of capital – money capital – to reallocate capital resources globally (eventually through electronic markets) thus sparking deindustrialization in traditional core regions and new forms of (ultra-oppressive) industrialization and natural resource and agricultural raw material extractions in emergent markets. instituting labor-saving technological changes and heightening competition. personal initiative and entrepreneurialism were the best guarantors of individual liberty and freedom and that the “nanny state” should be dismantled for the benefit of all. The system that has been created amounts to a veritable form of communism for the capitalist class. thus introducing (beginning with the Mexican and developing countries debt crisis of 1982) “moral hazard” big time into the financial system. The result has been global wage repressions (a declining share of wages in total GDP almost everywhere) and the creation of an even vaster disposable labor reserve living under marginal conditions. DML.6 trillion in 2010 rising to closer to $3 trillion by 2030. the class relations prevailing there. Questioning the future of capitalism itself as an adequate social system ought. All manner of localized possibilities arise for either nascent capitalists in some new space to seize opportunities to challenge older class and territorial hegemonies (as when Silicon Valley replaced Detroit from the mid-1970s onwards in the United States) or for radical movements to challenge the reproduction of an already destabilized class power. Crises are moments of paradox and possibilities. political and geopolitical and environmental difficulties? Again.” It must now take up the task of defining how another socialism or communism is possible and how the transition to these alternatives are to be accomplished. These steps included: (a) the successful assault upon organized labor and its political institutions while mobilizing global labor surpluses. (d) At the other end of the social scale. If that is to be done in an equitable way. social.” But the mass of the people will have to surrender the fruits of their labour to those in power. All of that may require more than a little political repression. What could be more irrational than that! Can capitalism survive the present trauma? Yes. of technologies and of geographical/ geopolitical distributions are likely to be profound.

1999. Clayton . air. sustainable development based on long distance trade will not be environmentally sustainable. and there is a degree of substitutability between nature and human-made capital. As is clear from this list.pdf) NAR There are many contradictions in the capitalist system. But of course. which manifests itself as the contradiction between production and the realization of value and surplus value.Cap Kritik 112/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Capitalism has an inherent contradiction between economic growth and environmental capacity – collapse is inevitable. Marx (1981) said that the social metabolism is “prescribed by the natural laws of life itself. provoking the struggle of social movements to force capital to internalize this destruction. capital moves energy and matter from one place to As a result of this contradiction. (p. With the introduction of trade to distant places and the concentration of population in cities. This metabolic rift may have existed and exists in other noncapitalist societies. There is the contradiction between the productive forces and the relations of production. capitalism has a contradiction between the production relations and the conditions of production. the conditions of production are not produced by capital but by nature and society. December 08. and creating this metabolic rift (Foster. and water quality). “Sustainable Development: Mainstream and Critical Perspectives”. One of the ways Marx theorized that capitalism brings about environmental destruction is by creating a metabolic rift in the relations between humans and nature. All American administrations.hec. How can it be that the Rio Earth Summit. Global Financial Crisis Shows Inherent Instability of Capitalism. According to O’Connor. In O’Connor’s account. Castro 4 .tokyofoundation.) Capital uses and destroys these conditions of production. which presided at the height of the sustainable development ideology and whose environmental record is uneven. Rothenbaum. and because it is in contradiction with environmental sustainability. which is carried by trade far beyond the bounds of a single country” (p. 754) This contradiction between capitalism and environmental sustainability expressed so clearly by Marx in the quote above is the central tenet of environmental Marxism. labor power (which includes training and degree of socialization). but capitalism has universal tendencies and makes this rift universal. at least. The leaders of the world have not been able to fulfill the agreements signed 10 years ago at the Earth Summit for this reason as well. Applying this concept to the soil. the dominant ideology of the capitalist system sees the same contradiction. 17. The scale of ecological destruction is larger under capitalism than under previous modes of production.SustainableDevelopment%28castro%29. soil. science and technology can produce some of these conditions. which has to concern itself with the whole gamut of permanent conditions of life required by the chain of human generations. Amanda. NAR DML. have understood that environmental conservation and capital accumulation are contradictory goals. sending them to other places. http://zonecours. Capitalism is unsustainable. for many people. as in most Marxist accounts. Marx (1981) himself argued that capitalism was not environmentally sustainable: But the way that the cultivation of particular crops depends on fluctuations in market prices and the constant changes in cultivation with these price fluctuations— the entire spirit of capitalist production.Instructor of sociology at Clark College (Clark.10 has called the second contradiction. 195. it is the social movements that force the state to intervene in the market in ways that do not directly benefit capital (a fact that is conveniently forgotten in mainstream approaches). Iwai 8 – Phd in Economics (Katsuhito. it seems impossible to achieve sustainability and economic growth at the same time. which ten years ago was thought to mark a decisive change in the human relation to the environment. In the case of the environmental crisis. which is oriented towards the most immediate monetary profit—stands in contradiction to agriculture. http://www. matter could have been recycled. with the exception perhaps of the Clinton administration. friend and foe alike. the capitalist system faces periodical crisis. Under this assumption. The energy requirement for this distant trade is greater than that required by the local communities. Jay. 2008. (In mainstream approaches of sustainable development. Had they stayed in their own ecosystem. (p. and the communal conditions (which include space and social environment). 2000). 949). but two of them will concern us here. the capitalist state intervenes partly in response to such movement pressure and partly to save capital from undermining its own capacity for capital accumulation. There is another contradiction that O’Connor (1996).” and that capitalism squanders “the vitality of the soil. Ian. The conditions of production are the “external physical conditions” (forests. 3) Capital accumulation is the most important feature of the capitalist system. Organization Environment 2004. one of the most prominent ecological Marxists. taking them away from the places they had evolved. has come to be seen as such a colossal failure? The answer is that it was undermined by global capital both from within and without. even when based on market levels. As Foster (2003) said.

bootstrap logic: Everybody uses money as money merely because everybody believes everybody else uses it as money. The Herald. What they assert may apply to an idyllic market where investors mediate between producers and consumers. This is the essence of the current financial crisis. Harry. we can see that money has two faces: It brings greater efficiency. Only the rational investors who buy low and sell high will survive. I do not have space to discuss this problem here. rather than examine the causes and consequences of the generation of enormous. People are willing to hold it only because they expect other people to accept it in exchange for something else. Cap collapse inevitable – laundry list The Herald 9 (Don Ferguson. There is an element of speculation in this process. April 4) reflects the current misconception that finance capital. this will cause markets to be stable. Thus. "greed" and individual defects. But when the subprime loans whose risks were concealed therein went bad. a single subprime loan by itself is unattractive as a financial product. "failure of leadership" is blamed. But money has no intrinsic value. Rothenbaum. the activity in financial markets. cowed labour and undue influence over state instruments have wrought the inevitable crisis of capital well known to students of Karl Marx. The moral and intellectual failures of the capitalist class and its political apologists are not mere personal defects. it is self-serving and erroneous to ignore the fact that the failed policies of political and economic leaders have their foundation in the very operation of capitalism itself. are irrational and will promptly fall by the wayside. Rather than critique the power and influence of the capitalist class over the state. with the people who accept it expecting that yet other people will accept it in turn. Milton Friedman and his followers in mainstream economics. the purest form of speculation. Consider carmakers. The awful and unbearable truth for capitalism's cheerleaders is that the crash of the western financial system is merely a symptom of the more profound collapse of capitalism currently under way. and casino banking. This bootstrap logic of money also underlies the present financial crisis.Cap Kritik 113/194 Why is capitalism 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab unstable? Because it is fundamentally based on speculation. The more fundamental reason I believe that capitalism as a whole is speculative and inherently unstable is that the money on which it is based is itself speculative. it is not irrational to buy or sell more and move the price further up or down. The subprime loans that set off the crisis are extremely risky loans to people with low creditworthiness. They came to be seen as being like the money in which people place supreme trust. It is professional investors and investment funds that dominate the markets and compete with each other. however. may be severely shaken. leading to speculative bubbles and panics. and faithfully manifest in the present situation. Lexis) YOUR editorial ("What banks owe us: fairness and honesty". the key currency of the international monetary system. "Capitalism itself is the cause of the worldwide economic crisis". Those investors who buy high and sell low. Nor is there any understanding of how soaring profits. and as a result of further bundling with numerous other financial instruments into big packages that were then dispersed around the globe. A major difference between this and the Asian currency crisis and other financial crises that preceded it is that the value of the US dollar. but at the same time it has the potential of causing great instability. Jay. Here again we see the workings of bootstrap logic: Everybody trusted the products as safe merely because everybody believed everybody else trusted them as safe. foreign currency and their derivatives. elites and their apologists blame its leaders and financial experts for their "incompetence". Money has made the economy much more efficient by making it possible to conduct transactions without the trouble of exchanging on a barter basis. in other words. To avoid a critique of the capitalist system.the capitalist classes' assault on workers as "costs of production" . expanding markets. are the cause and not merely one effect of the present crisis of capitalism. trust in all financial products toppled like a row of dominoes. Amanda. They build automobiles not for themselves but in the expectation that others will buy them to ride in. and trust in it is based on circular. To hold money is. for example. they began to be considered readily convertible to cash and other safe assets. Ian. cheap credit. claim that speculation leads to stability. The instability of money as a purely speculative construct—a problem that has been concealed up to now—may come to the surface henceforth in the form of the crisis in the key currency. including markets for stocks. the risks became invisible from the surface. But bundling many such loans together and securitizing them made the risks seem diluted. 2009. Rather than study real class relations . As the financial products created in this way were traded more and more steadily among numerous is the abstract "market" populated by imaginary "rational" capitalists that is cited. bonds. But. it is impossible for efficiency and stability to coexist as claimed by the neoclassical economists. When a price is expected to rise or fall. They buy and sell based not on their forecasts of long-term demand/supply conditions but on their observations of each other’s movements and readings of each other’s intentions. Because the risk of default on such loans is so high. however. unemployable surplus capital and profit. Clayton . is of entirely different nature. In this light. While holding no brief for the likes of Sir Fred Goodwin. they argue. the one described clearly in the classic formulation of Marx more DML. In a capitalist economy supported by money. it is "wilful ignorance of what markets need" that is the problem.

Ian. I believe. Rothenbaum. Bothwell. Loss of confidence is an effect. This is an opportune time to modify our political system as it has run out of control. in the words of one arch-apologist: "You ain't seen nothin' yet. Jay. Amanda.remuneration is an essential component" is. leading to crisis. Harry. The excesses of the past will be moderated and capitalism will change to fit the new circumstances. 3 Downfield Gardens. its cause is the failure of the specific mechanisms of profit creation. That can be restored by a new banking order in which fair . much in the way of the economic system. it is clear the system that created it will not be allowed to return. along with its moral authority to govern in our name DML. Your conclusion that "the lesson is that what has been lacking is confidence. Clayton . wrong.and transparent . Democracy has lost much. The link is more than coincidental. of its fundamental connection with the public. if not all. As we move towards the end of the beginning.Cap Kritik 114/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab than 150 years ago." Dr John O'Dowd. That cannot be repaired within the present paradigm. REGARDLESS of the outcome of the present economic crisis.

Adair Turner. For example. on its first birthday. to avoid dangerous climate change the fall in carbon intensity would need to improve by more than two hundredfold. The economic doctrine of growth collides headlong with the laws of physics and thermodynamics. http://www.1/25/10. it is seemingly impossible to reconcile a growing global economy with a good likelihood of limiting global temperature rise to 2C. the agreed political objective of the European Union. better direction. In this context. Having improved steadily in the late last century. Ian. it didn't stop and continued doubling each week. We are on the cusp of several others. chair of the Financial Services Authority and the Committee on Climate Change. fresh water and a healthy diversity of plants and animals. 3C or even 4C characterisation of dangerous climate change. Against this trend. Clayton . The very contrary is the truth. It's odd. Only so much energy efficiency can be squeezed from a system. “Growth is good … isn't it?”. For example. DML. The New Economics Foundation study looks at by how much growth would need to be delinked from fossil fuels – the so-called carbon intensity of the economy – to reach the mark of climate safety suggested by Nasa climate scientist James Hansen. biodiversity and the nitrogen cycle to do with farming). like a sufficiently stable "carbon intensity" changes flatlined over the last decade and even worsened in some years. So." The problem is that growth drowns out the gains from increased efficiency and technological innovation. So when those growth figures come out. a hamster doubles its weight each week. three of which had already been transgressed (climate change. productive farmland. this week. If. even with the most optimistic likely uptake of low-carbon energy. Other work by Professor Kevin Anderson of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research at Manchester University concludes that: "Economic growth in the OECD cannot be reconciled with a 2C. It's called cancer and tends to kill its host. refers to the pursuit of growth for its own sake as a "false god". On climate change. There is of course one thing in nature that grows To avoid collapse the economy has to operate within thresholds that do not critically undermine the things that we depend on on a daily basis.Cap Kritik 115/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Growth Good Infinite growth will inevitably destroy itself – not focusing on expansion will allow more stable labor sources. Jay. "It is a confusion of ideas to suppose that the economical use of fuel is equivalent to diminished" Increased efficiency tends to lower costs and perversely drives up overall resource use. the economist Herman Daly points out that full employment could be easier to achieve in an economy not addicted to growth because it would reverse "the historical trend of replacing labour with machines and inanimate energy". It shows that. from birth until around six weeks old. They're often interconnected. you may be inadvertently celebrating our acceleration toward an ecological cliff edge and an opportunity missed to find a new. a new piece of research by the New Economics Foundation thinktank looks at which rates of global economic growth are compatible with prevention of a dangerous level of warming. let's hope the government scans the results for what they really mean. Simms 10 – Policy director at new economics foundation (Andrew. Amanda. and widely considered the maximum rise to which humanity can adapt without serious difficulty. Both the desirability and possibility of never ending growth goes unquestioned in mainstream economics. Harry. The other problem is the counter-intuitive rebound effect spotted by William Stanley Jevons in 1865 when he wrote. Writing in the science journal Nature last year. if you find yourself cheering a return to growth. a multidisciplinary group of scientists identified nine key safe-use planetary resource boundaries. Rothenbaum. because the world would be a very strange place if the same was applied in nature. you would be looking after a very hungry nine billion-tonne pet hamster.

Ian. growth and expansion has often had devastating effects on the freedoms of many groups of people. Rothenbaum. Harry. Historically.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Clayton .Cap Kritik 116/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Growth/Cap kt Freedom Nope! Dickens and Ormrod 7 . dml) The pro-space movement often links growth with freedom. but pro-space activists seem blind to this possibility. Amanda. Jay. But it does not recognize that freedom is actually experienced by only some members of humanity as a result of growth. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 167. DML.

we insist here and in several other venues. is to add the third point of a theoretical triangle in an arena where it had been missing. or that state-based capitalist exploitation of outer space would more efficiently reap and distribute any riches found there. Accordingly. DML. a timely injection of realist thought may be precisely what is needed to jolt space exploration from its post-Apollo sluggishness.. http://www. in most academic and policy debates.. Dolman and Cooper 11 – Professor of Comparative Military Studies at the School of Advanced Air and Space Studies at the Air University.** Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. Amanda.Cap Kritik 117/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Space cap good Capitalist ideologies will moot resource gains in space – aff can’t claim root cause claims.html) Still. that space exploration and exploitation have been artificially stunted from what might have been. To actually advocate weaponization in space brings full condemnation. but how to ensure the spoils of space are nonappropriable and distributed fairly to all. not whether space should be developed commercially. There has been little room for the view that state interest persists as the prime motivator in international relations. then. and not along the radical axis of two of the three world-views. Harry. Ian. 2011. It is for these reasons. Jay. so as to center the debate on a true midpoint of beliefs. Chief Negotiator at the Geneva Defense and Space Talks (Everett C. Clayton .2 Hence. “Increasing the Military Uses of Space”. Those who even question the blanket prohibitions on weapons or market forces in space exploration are ostracized. the realist view has been set aside (at least rhetorically) as states jockey for international space leadership. but how best to prevent the weaponization of space. Our intent here. Henry F. the debate has not been whether space should be Rothenbaum.ndu.

There is most definitely an affective bridge between GN activists on a global as well as a local scale. dml) Sociologists should not construct themselves as detached intellectuals.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Clayton . have a strong regional or local basis. with local struggles informing those at the global scale and vice versa. Jay. but should make their political commitments clear. kinds of struggle are now a regular feature of contemporary society. however. panopticism is also being extended to the monitoring of more exceptional threats to the social order. requires regular. Resistance at the global level tends to have what Eschel and Stammers call an ‘instrumental’ form. There is a distinct danger that some fledgling projects to explore the relationship between society and the universe. global surveillance. A programme of local events constitute the Global Network’s annual ‘Keep Space for Peace’ week. Members of the Yorkshire CND have been conducting weekly protests (see Yorkshire CND 2007). with people articulating who they are. the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space is a good example of how new social movements operate on local and global levels (Eschle and Stammers 2004). Resistance by trade unions may have been weakened or sidelined by the programme of ‘accumulation by dispossession’ but new.1). these two scales interact. Ian. Institutions for global surveillance and defence such as the Echelon surveillance system and the so-called ‘star wars’ US missile defence system depend on interceptor missiles and tracking devices located in different regions throughout the globe. The interests of the movement are pursued by any possible means and particularly via rational. including programmes by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 121. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 183-184. with the internet having a central role to play in making the links between the different scales. very diverse. Africa and Latin America. what they care about and why they are challenging the institutions of power. Furthermore. Resistance to such developments can again. Struggles and coalitions are typically organized at both the regional and the global scales. As Castells (2000a) describes. Harry. stopping by state authorities in many parts of the world. Their concerns should be with revealing the suffering that results from social processes that serve the interests of those in power. Resistance to privatization and commodification. All these developments require monitoring and. covering countries as far apart as India. The rapidly growing antiglobalization movement. Resistance takes two forms – global and local – the alt is a local solution that must be kept separate from the global form of the plan in order to avoid cooption Dickens and Ormrod 7 . the new social movements are made via loose-knit global and local networks. Rothenbaum. Resistance at the local level. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 148. If we win a link it means the perm fails – have to start with a critical standpoint Dickens and Ormrod 7 . is widespread. As Eyerman and Jamison (1998) argue.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. dml) Perhaps surprisingly for such a universal movement. dml) Finally. therefore. Amanda. Psychoanalytic theory could certainly provide additional insights into the workings of this expressive dimension of movement activity. if necessary. more scientific argument. one with its own counter-hegemonic values and which regularly turns up at meetings of the World Trade Organization.Cap Kritik 118/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Perm Permutation gets coopted – the panoptic nature of space control shuts out possibilities for resistance Dickens and Ormrod 7 . though the ways in which the unconscious is implicated must be the subject of further research. such as the field of DML. is typically of a more ‘expressive’ or emotional kind. Even leading activists in the Global Network have been subjected to surveillance in recent years.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. music can have an important role in this (Box C. Certainly the movement to keep space for peace has engaged with international political arguments about the legality and desirability of legislation relating to outer space militarization.

to act with impunity. In this fascination with collapsing the boundaries of spirit and body. the state inserts its rationality through the stealthy monitoring of a robotic technology. Rothenbaum. virtuous. something that prevents those alternative social relationships from forming. as gaps in order. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. Rather than try to figure alternative social relationships. and complete. Space is the unifying concept in the expansion of the state territorially into the heavens and internally into the psyche. reflected in such statements as. Capitalism expands into outer space as a result of its inherent contradictions. do 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab little but reproduce hegemonic common sense about the benefits of space exploration and development (Ormrod 2005). it arrives at that dangerous [End Page 161] solipsism. and for the moment it is to organic intellectuals within the Global Network and similar organizations that we must look for critical new visions of our relationship with the universe. Their policies will always be tainted by militaristic global capitalism killing value to life. In so expressing rationality without the inconvenience of undisciplined flesh. Sensing its own robot impunity and limitless expansiveness. Dickens and Ormrod 7 . whether in the heavens or on earth. the concept of space becomes central to the Promethean ideology. Space technology itself plays a central role in disseminating a hegemonic Western culture in which a possessive individualism is promoted. Under the rhetoric of democracy and egalitarianism. regressed cultures. that appears to its citizens as invisible satellite eyes in outer space. The New Centennial Review 6. There is. it becomes inevitable. and their ideologues control the masses with the wand of propaganda (Laughland 2003). Invisible. University of Essex and **James. despite its rhetoric of reason and law. the maintenance of distance between the elites and the masses. "We create our own DML. It is also behind the definition of everything outside the state as a lack needing to be remedied or filled. as scanners that probe mechanically. technocrats. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics. as spy software that reads keystroke to keystroke the random fluctuations of inner space. IWren) Taken together. the Promethean state articulates the demigod. which represents the elimination of the human. the extension of the current socio-economic system into space is supported uncritically. however. Property rights are central to this process as capitalism attempts a series of outer spatial fixes. Harry. the Promethean betrays itself as romantic in its aesthetic. necessarily precluding the exploration of alternative possibilities. for to the Prometheans. populations present themselves as recalcitrant flesh to be disciplined and spiritualized through strife.Cap Kritik 119/194 ‘astrosociology’ being developed by Jim Pass (2004). Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. the state prefers a control that leaves no marks. Entrepreneurship presents itself less as a necessity of capitalism than as a spiritual ideal of initiative and strife. It is articulated through the ethos of competition and the survival of the fittest. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. Amanda. Although astrosociology may draw public attention to under-researched issues. Development and exploration of space is an uncritically capitalistic project that seeks quick fixes to structural problems. Through fear.1 (2006) 133-169. hierarchy is the reality.*Peter. Ian. that operates through fear. Clayton . as robot sensors. control remains anonymous and invisible. with probing the outermost and the innermost. The ethos of business and military blend into each other in the doctrine of perpetual war. Jay. a hierarchy in which business elites. capital being drawn from the primary circuit and invested in more speculative projects that extend the system in time and space through the secondary and tertiary circuits. Into these gaps. our two theoretical starting points lead us to argue first that the humanization of outer space is a product of economic and social crisis and second that such humanization is a means of reasserting hegemonic authority. it will offer nothing if it does not do so critically. with dynamism and flux. “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR Indeed. That this should happen is generally considered common Outer spatial fixes are part of a hegemonic solution to the world’s problems. pg 77-78. always hope for resistance. A war not merely to fatten defense budgets but to deplete the civilian. as failed states. Thus.

pdf) Leon Lipson was reportedly fond of saying that “ ‘space is a place. the geography of the future.’”131 Lipson’s remark may be understood as part of his attempt to reign in some of the especially fantastic ideations that characterized early space law. space exploration was local. This put the legal estate on the defensive. space exploration helped establish science as a center of political and normative authority. as much for the scientific culture in orbit as for the legal culture on the ground. It has taken on a secondary meaning identified with the science and technology of astronautics and expressive of the awesome responsibilities which missiles and satellites and flight beyond the earth’s atmosphere and into the mysterious reaches of outer regions have imposed upon us. Perm can’t solve – plan isn’t compatible with the alt. Clayton . Who controls space controls the world. To the extent that it was a metaphor for the scientific future. Ludwig Teller attested to this construction of space in the New York Law Forum:Space is no longer an ordinary word of the English language. outer space was also a metaphor for the profound challenges that this future presented to the status of legal knowledge. Beebe 99 – Professor at NYU School of Law Spatialis”.www. and for the scientific worldview—be it capitalist or communist—that would dominate that future. DML. and challenged the traditional prerogatives of law’s empire itself. Amanda. By the unparalleled force of its technological spectacles. The recent “spatial turn in critical thinking”132 in the law and elsewhere should help us to appreciate that outer space was also a thoroughly politicized and socially constructed realm. “ space” was a topic. a new standard of authority and competence. As the Sputnik crisis suggests. that seemed intelligible only to scientific knowledge. space functioned primarily as a metaphor for the future. As the Soviet and (Barton.133Indeed. Yet outer space was more than just a geographical concept in the 1960s. Rothenbaum." In a world thus fashioned and driven from within. external constraints become not merely ineffective but irrelevant. Ian.bartonbeebe. not a topic. Harry.1999. it opened up a new geography. At the same time.Cap Kritik 120/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab reality. The scientific frontier in outer space promoted in the popular imagination on Earth an alternative language of command. and a new force for the construction of the future. “Law’s Empire and the Final Frontier: Legalizing the Future in the Early Corpus Juris American culture industries of the time knew all too well.

Methodology must come first in order to solve cap Tumino 1 – *Professor of English at Pittsburgh (Stephen. The scientific cosmological elite of today is still maintained by others’ labour. There are important differences between Sohn-Rethel’s account and Lerner’s. perhaps more tellingly. “What is Orthodox Marxism and Why it Matters Now More than Ever”. therefore. Davidson argues. This epoch has had its own cosmic elite of not only scientists but also engineers. the introduction of coinage in Ancient Greece led to Greek philosophy and mathematics. thought. This purely abstract system of thought represented in the form of money (‘a crude approximation of the underlying principle’) leads to abstract. contrary to Lerner’s (1991) argument. knowledge first arose as part of the exchange relationship in what he calls ‘societies of appropriation’ or capitalist societies based on a high division of labour. First. from within the Marxist tradition itself. Davidson (1985) is also extremely critical of the development of objective scientific approaches to the universe that distance knowledge from people’s everyday experience of the universe. Red Critique. He goes on to argue. and its employment actively sustains capital Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Amanda. Galileo. Clayton . Like all other modes and forms of political theory. education. in which s/he comes to see his/her product in terms of an abstract exchange value. Jay. colonial capitalism based initially on practical knowledge of navigation (now satellites. University of Essex and **James. Contrary to what Lerner implies during most of the book. My main argument here is that among all contesting social theories now. only Orthodox Marxism has been able to produce an integrated knowledge of the existing social totality and provide lines of praxis that will lead to building a society free from necessity. pg 31-32. and this forms a major focus of his and Lerner’s thesis. I will argue that to know contemporary society—and to be able to act on such knowledge—one has to first of all know what makes the existing social totality. The person producing a commodity is. alienated from the exchange process. is the creation of ‘a cold mechanical world’ (ibid. Harry. But first I must clarify what I mean by Orthodox Marxism. IWren) It should be noted that. which operates independently of the needs and uses which the seller or buyer has in mind. offer a guideline for praxis. Rothenbaum. as Marx described. online) Any effective political theory will have to do at least two things: it will have to offer an integrated understanding of social practices and. housing. The development of capital in two distinct epochs has led to corresponding developments in epistemology. p. diet. I will. that the abstract form of scientific knowledge was instrumental in legitimizing the division of mental and manual labour in modern capitalism. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. The argument is that the existence of this abstract system justifies the existence of an elite of scientists capable of studying the system untainted by the practical knowledge of the worker. DML. The result of de-centring Earth through science.*Peter. Postone (1996) has argued similarly that ‘abstraction’ in general is central to capitalist societies. It is a break alleviating a lot of the problems of the division of labour by relying on artisan and serf knowledge available to all. its production is contingent on a specific separation of labor that privileges a small scientific and military elite. represents a break from the truly abstract philosophy of Plato. according to Sohn-Rethel. first say what I regard to be the distinguishing marks of Orthodox Marxism and then outline a short polemical map of contestation over Orthodox Marxism within the Marxist theories now. I will end by arguing for its effectivity in bringing about a new society based not on human rights but on freedom from necessity. Alfred SohnRethel (1975) and Frankel (2003) have argued that this more scientific mode of relating to the universe merely intensified rather than alleviated the alienation of the masses from the universe. For Lerner. remains Earth-centred (as in Tycho Brahe’s model). and the military and the governments and corporations that control them. and possibly future capitalist exploitation of space resources) has not been an age of equality or celebration of the knowledge of the manual worker.and seventeenth-century scientific revolutions. Second. based on such an interrelated knowledge. scientific.Cap Kritik 121/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Framework The affirmative’s knowledge is not value-neutral. Sohn-Rethel sees Galileo as representing a distinct break from his predecessors in instituting a new form of abstracted knowledge that severely heightens the mental/manual division of labour. for Davidson. one might say ‘objective’. Ian. The latter. like the empiricists Copernicus and Brahe before him. He points to parallels between Galileo’s law of inertial motion and the abstraction of the commodity exchange.: 4). They are given ‘the freedom to abandon the constraints of the “ordinary” world’ (Ferguson 1990: 1). Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. However. the very theoretical identity of Orthodox Marxism is itself contested—not just from non-and anti-Marxists who question the very "real" (by which they mean the "practical" as under free-market criteria) existence of any kind of Marxism now but. Sohn-Rethel’s argument is that ‘abstract’. the development of modern capitalism led to the sixteenth. Lerner does not draw out a full criticism of the relationship between capital and cosmology that replaced it. I will argue that the dominant social totality is based on inequality— not just inequality of power but inequality of economic access (which then determines access to health care.

media activism underlines the importance to counterhegemony of reclaiming or creating the means and forms of communication necessary for subaltern groups to find their voices and to organize. Harry. corporate media and lifeworld. Rothenbaum. race. The formation of organic intellectuals is substantially caught up in this struggle to break the dominant class’s monopoly within the intellectual field (Thomas 2009: 418-19). both locally and translocally. Clayton . Media now comprise a vast field of cultural struggle. wealth is produced by the human mind and is thus free from the actual objective conditions that shape the historical relations of labor and capital. . sexuality. As a political emergent. queeries. these DML. Why? Because such arguments authorize capitalism without gender. was cited by NSM theorists of the 1970s and 1980s as a criterial attribute of the emergent movements of late modernity. . or nationality. the new includes a mediatized politics of everyday life. to develop alternative media. . . capitalism is here to stay and the best that can be done is to make its cruelties more tolerable. Butler." "postmarxism. That is. ethnicity. based on cultural equality but economic inequality. Here. movements. Downing 2001 ). In Jean Cohen’s (1985) classic. the extent to which movements take up democratic communication as a general interest is a measure their catharsis from fractured subalternities (with their characteristic foci upon single issues and narrow constituencies) to an ethicopolitical collective will. 168-198. as in proliferation of alternative media (often via the internet.. This 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab systematic inequality cannot be explained by gender. “Crisis. 2006. media democrats build a new nexus among movements. yet also a politics. homogenization of media content. . disability. feminism. focused upon state and capital. Ralph Nader. This humanization (not eradication) of capitalism is the sole goal of ALL contemporary lefts (marxism. the main reason for its popularity in the culture industry—from the academy (Jameson. ). . All modes of Marxism now explain social inequalities primarily on the basis of these secondary contradictions and in doing so—and this is my main argument—legitimate capitalism. more humane. Communicative democracy comprises a social vision in which the voices of citizens and communities carry into a vibrant and diverse public sphere. Only Orthodox Marxism recognizes the historicity of labor and its primacy as the source of all human wealth. . and from overweening regulatory states. dml) Mediatization and the struggle to democratize communication Many of the issues at stake in the politics surrounding the form and content of communications media comprise a special instance of the struggle to reclaim the commons. and rather Americanized treatment.” Interface 2:2. Atton 2009) and the diffusion of culture jamming and other practices of media literacy. Harvey. . . Ian. Activists see the struggle to democratize communication as a multi-frontal war of position that needs to be waged in conjunction with other movements. All progressive-democratic movements have an stake in these struggles. that presses for limits upon corporate power and for an opening of access to the means of communication (Hackett and Carroll 2006). Such an understanding of social inequality is based on the fundamental understanding that the source of wealth is human knowledge and not human labor. to democratize media workplaces and labour processes. Such a society. The question of autonomy Autonomy from old-left parties and unions.Cap Kritik 122/194 transportation. race. Debate is the critical site of contestation against capitalism Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William. Haraway. These are all secondary contradictions and are all determined by the fundamental contradiction of capitalism which is inscribed in the relation of capital and labor. the centralization of power in media corporations. ) to daily politics (Michael Harrington. capitalist organization of communication creates a multifaceted democratic deficit. and the corporate enclosure of knowledge. evident for instance in the failure of mainstream media to create a democratic public sphere." or "radical democracy. In a media-saturated world." This is. . anti-racism. ) to. discrimination and thus accept economic inequality as an integral part of human societies. In pursuing this social vision on several fronts including those of state. and to foster more literate and critical readers of media texts. counter-hegemony: in search of the new. Jay. inequality in media access. . When we look at media activism ‘on the ground’ we find many of the rudiments of counter-hegemonic politics. the undermining of communities through commodification. Jesse Jackson. The world of the early 21st century is densely networked by virtue of an unprecedented apparatus of communications. which has opened new possibilities both for bourgeois hegemony and for oppositional politics.. ). ‘Media activism’ can be read as a critical response that takes different forms depending on location in the media field. The politics of media democratization is necessarily multi-frontal and intersectional. a place where strategies might converge across issue areas and movement identities (Hackett and Carroll. . For all. has always been the not-sohidden agenda of the bourgeois left—whether it has been called "new left. They accept a sunny capitalism—a capitalism beyond capitalism. by the way. Amanda. In this paper I argue that any emancipatory theory has to be founded on recognition of the priority of Marx's labor theory of value and not repeat the technological determinism of corporate theory ("knowledge work") that masquerades as social theory. Media democrats struggle to limit corporate power and commercial logic. .

sameness and difference’ (2009: 301). Policy. the appeal of self-limiting politics is embarrassingly limited. ‘a concept that evokes relations of simultaneous interdependence and autonomy. This stylization was never unproblematic as an empirical account. as a manifestation of knowledge. Univ. arises either in the individual or in the natural world. Analysis of discourse must precede analysis of policy – it’s key to understand both how policies are formulated and how to accurately respond to them without error replication – discourse necessarily shapes the ways policies are viewed and thought of meaning they are tied to what they said in the 1AC Adams 11 – *Lecturer in Education and Program Director. such a view shifts our relationship with policy from a means by which the individual might comprehend the significance of the policy statement in terms of truth to an understanding that the language used within the policy statements itself actively constructs the world to which it pertains. Here. The movements and interests that comprise the bloc do not dissolve completely into it. Here. we can consider the work of Kenneth Gergen (1995) and his proposal that all knowing arises in the social processes of language use and meaning-making. Amanda. “From ‘ritual’ to ‘mindfulness’: policy and pedagogic positioning. Famous since their dismantling of a McDonald’s restaurant in 1999 and for the slogan. 2000) policy as discourse does provide grounds for further consideration of the interplay between policy creation and response. predicated it on an agency-centred analysis of the working class. Harry Cleaver. Although activists can never be fully autonomous from the forms of power to which they are subject. ‘the world is not a commodity. Whilst by no means an agreed field (cf. William 2008: 63). dml) With such concerns. Autonomy informs aspects of contemporary counter-hegemonic politics at the level of everyday life. distribution and consumption of policy. Centre for Educational Studies.” Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education. Gergen’s view invites us to consider policy as having a ‘performative’ function and that that presented is neither a true representation of reality nor an accurate reflection of intent.5 Becoming aware is both an ongoing aspect of autonomous self-development and a movement-building praxis instantiated in a range of pedagogical activities – forums. obligation and freedom. Williams 2008:72-3). this perspective construes policy as a representation of the interplay between the policy text (the material embodiment of the policy document and associated forms). suggests that relations between elements of such a formation be conceptualized in terms of equivalence. Mark Purcell. Bacchi. January 2011. prefiguration is grounded in a moral imperative to ‘become aware’ and to act ‘coherently’ (2008:72) by living the ideals to which one aspires. should not be seen as an accurate portrayal of some DML. As a challenge to the view that policy.’ these activists resist the hegemony of global market society ‘by cultivating themselves as “autonomous” political subjects and organizing a movement considered to be an “autonomous” counter-power’ (G. Clayton . the struggle for autonomy is a crucial element in challenging hegemony and in bringing into existence what Gramsci (1971: 327) called a ‘new conception of the world … which manifests itself in action. Wright 2008:113). drawing on Laclau and Mouffe (1985). Put another way. information evenings and media actions – designed to provoke public debate and to persuade people join the cause (G.Cap Kritik 123/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab movements were viewed as practitioners of a ‘self-limiting’ identity politics that rejected largescale projects. policy can no longer be simply said to be understood and applied. This has meant not only maintaining independence from political parties and functioning in a ‘bottom-up’ or ‘horizontal’ manner but cultivating in themselves and others an autonomy that partly frees them from neoliberal ideology and the power of consumer society. as shown in Gwyn Williams’s (2008) ethnography of alterglobalization activism in the Larzac plateau of southern France. then. Ian. for example ‘professional’ and. or to self defined ‘leadership’ and to take the offensive in ways that shape the class struggle and define the future (Cleaver 1993). defining autonomy as the ability of workers to define their own interests and to struggle for them – to go beyond mere reaction to exploitation. Alternatively.’ 6 As a sensibility that holds both visionary and strategic implications. Rothenbaum. in the wake of neoliberalism’s global triumph and in the midst of its global crisis. 32: 1. unity and multiplicity. indeed. 57-69. Jay. it has become fashionable to describe policy in terms of discourse. and wider social practices which delineate. but they move together and lean into one another. who introduced the notion of autonomist Marxism into English-language academia in the 1970s (Cleaver 2001. and many others in mind. autonomy has roots not only in NSM theory. unbiased observations. other roles and associated activities. discursive practices involved in the production. Harry. 2003). Accordingly. and several decades later. of Hull (Paul. Yet autonomy remains a lasting legacy of the so-called NSMs. This view acknowledges the parts played by history and culture in determining specific ways of viewing the world whilst illuminating how understanding is dependent upon prevailing social and economic arguments (after Burr. but in historical materialism. rather than construe policy as the accurate expression of dispassionate. The key question is how autonomy and other emergent features of activism might figure in a counter-hegemonic historical bloc.

cultural and historical ways of viewing the world. 49). when. Further. institutional and cultural contexts . economic and social specificity. discourse presents a variety of representations from which action might be chosen: Discourses are about what can be said. where and with what authority. This social construction of policy requires an appreciation that the processes of problematisation and argumentation are the lifeblood of policy existence. . . it is through the process of argumentation that certain solutions are presented as viable alternatives. 2006. rather. Amanda. might be constructed. Discourses embody the meaning and use of propositions and words. in short. human agency occurs through the deployment of the subject’s exercise of choice from the discourses available. 52) This redistribution of voice constitutes certain voices as meaningful or authoritative (Ball. . p. those who are deemed to ‘hold’ power are portrayed as the ones making discourse. Rothenbaum. historical. ‘as much a way of knowing and a way of acting strategically as a form of description’ (Edelman. Interpretational options are thus taken to be both pre-existing and available to the subject. but rather as subjective realisations borne out of cultural.Cap Kritik 124/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab pre-existing status but is. a social construction given legitimacy through the permission it gives to speak. 2006). then. this ‘highlights the instrumentality of the process of problem construction not only to successful policy making. much has been written from this perspective. but also about who can speak. . Problem construction is. as well as associated roles and identities. [and] . culture and economics through which ‘problems’ to be solved are identified determine not only the mechanisms by which ‘reality’ might be understood but also the very ‘problems’ themselves. as Hastings (1998. Thus certain possibilities for thought are constructed. 36). Second. p. p. therefore. Bacchi notes the tendency of this perspective to: Concentrate on the ability of some groups rather than others to make discourse. and on some groups rather than others as effected or constituted in discourse. that is to say the pronouncements ‘captured’ as policy imperatives. p. Jay. through its recognition of cultural. (2000. The lenses offered by history. economic and social specificity. 2006. Clayton . In this regard. the differential power of some actors’ (Bacchi. To put the point briefly. policy as discourse establishes a number of key principles. an interplay between ‘conceptual schema attached to specific historical. p. through the act of locating oneself within a frame of predetermined potentialities. but also to sustaining systems of belief about the nature of social reality’. 1988. and thought. (Ball. whereas those who are seen as ‘lacking’ power are described as constituted in discourse. 52) to act. This view is not new. Policy as discourse attends to both the uses and effects of policy insomuch as it considers the influences pertaining to the creation of the policy text. Policy as discourse is. Crucially. policy as social construction. social. determined by the availability of dominant discourses. the subject is said to exercise agentic action. With this in mind. First. DML. Third. Harry. it articulates a view that ‘problems’ do not exist as pre-human issues to be addressed but rather that they are the products of political reasoning located in economic. In such a view. policy as discourse. p. In short. that these lenses also provide the means by which solutions. On this matter. constrains the scope of both policy construction and policy response (Ball. and most importantly. the mechanisms by which this is imported into the professional lifeworld and the prevailing social conditions which form the very language used to describe the policy itself. 48) This world-to-person fit describes the ‘subject position’. it is clear that professional actions undertaken in relation to policy appear. not as objective responses to positions of truth. Put briefly. 2000. 194) notes. Ian. historical.

1(1). Collins 1990) as well as Third World scholars inside and outside the United States (Dussel 1977) reminded us that we always speak from a particular location in the power structures. Precisely. and racial hierarchies of the “modern/colonial capitalist/patriarchal world-system“. the geo-political and body-political location of the subject that speaks.Cap Kritik 125/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Framework – Epistemology First Epistemology first—the space industry is sustained only by the knowledge and the intellectuals complicit in propagating and normalizing the hegemonic worldview that seizing space is a “natural” extension of resolving capital crises Dickens and Ormrod 7 . geographical. By delinking ethnic/racial/gender/sexual epistemic location from the subject that speaks. Ian. It also tends to be promoted by what Gramsci called ‘traditional’ intellectuals who claim to be politically unattached but who. the growth of a militarized industry. The “ego-politics of knowledge” of Western philosophy has always privilege the myth of a non-situated “Ego”. conceals who is speaking as well as the geo-political and body-political epistemic location in the structures of colonial power/knowledge from which the subject speaks. The hegemonic Eurocentric paradigms that have informed western philosophy and sciences in the “modern/colonial capitalist/patriarchal world-system” (Grosfoguel 2005. sexual. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. our knowledges are always situated. As feminist scholar Donna Haraway (1988) states.” This is not only a question about social values in knowledge production or the fact that our knowledge is always partial. It entails capital accumulation. University of Essex and **James. But an intellectual who. Decolonial Thinking. In Western philosophy and sciences the subject that speaks is always hidden.Associate Professor of Ethnic Studies. pg 69. and Global Coloniality) NAR The first point to discuss is the contribution of racial/ethnic and feminist subaltern perspectives to epistemological questions. Berkley (Ramon. spiritual.” The fact that one is socially located in the oppressed side of power relations does not automatically mean that he/she is epistemically thinking from a subaltern epistemic location. that is. perhaps unwittingly. perpetuate the social order. Chicana and black feminist scholars (Moraga and Anzaldúa 1983. objective point of view. It is promoted and engaged in by intellectuals who are ‘organic’ to the space industry and the social movement that supports it. the success of the modern/colonial worldsystem consists in making subjects that are socially located in the oppressed side of the colonial difference. linguistic. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. that is. the maintenance of class relations. Nobody has forced a particular view of ‘common sense’ but it best serves the interests of dominant social orders. concealed. erased from the analysis. Rothenbaum. Decolonizing Post-Colonial Studies and Paradigms of Political Economy: Transmodernity. University of Cal. It has been seen as ‘common sense’ that man (sic) should continue to explore and humanize the universe. Subaltern epistemic perspectives are knowledge coming DML. TRANSMODERNITY: Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the LusoHispanic World. 2006b) for the last 500 hundred years assume a universalistic. IWren) The second way in which space is involved in hegemonic struggles is that space development and settlement are widely supported as solutions to the economic and environmental contradictions of capitalism. to use Gramsci’s word.*Peter. Ethnic/racial/gender/sexual epistemic location and the subject that speaks are always decoupled. increased social inequalities. increased levels of nationalism and so on. Grosfoguel 11 . gender. Amanda. is ‘organic’ to those resisting such common sense will demonstrate the ways in which it is actually being done. Jay. Black feminist scholars called this perspective “afro-centric epistemology” (Collins 1990) (which is not equivalent to the afrocentrist perspective) while Latin American Philosopher of Liberation Enrique Dussel called it “geopolitics of knowledge” (Dussel 1977) and. the withdrawal of funds from education and welfare. Western philosophy and sciences are able to produce a myth about a Truthful universal knowledge that covers up. The main point here is the locus of enunciation. Clayton . Reject their truth claims – without escaping their Eurocentric paradigm everything they say is suspect. Bruce Gagnon and leading members of the Global Network could be seen as ‘organic’ intellectuals in this sense. neutral. It is important here to distinguish the “epistemic location” from the “social location. I will use the term “bodypolitics of knowledge. Nobody escapes the class. to think epistemically like the ones on the dominant positions. Harry. 2011. following Fanon (1967) and Anzaldúa (1987).

preliminarily. Jay. and resources for a new century’ (Project for a New American Century.’ who have had innumerable successes. Failing to question the epistemology of the aff leads to extinction. Bonta 9 . and cyber space. DML. the success and the sheer publicity of the latter’s synarchical constructive chaos is an anchoring point among the cognitive dissonances of Empire’s subjects— a bold plan that gives us some idea of the black hole of macro-fascism that is inspired. airspace. The disembodied and unlocated neutrality and objectivity of the ego-politics of knowledge is a Western myth. We could say.’ an end-state of global organization (as opposed to the ‘Body without Organs’). at least on the part of the US. forces. there is much reinvention of Cold War nemeses. one suspects. In this grand project. Rothenbaum. see Project for a New American Century. Clayton . What is new. Georgia. or perhaps wormhole. 2000 and PNAC sections on East Asia and NATO/Europe). we should emphasize the contrasts between the relative ‘mindlessness’ of capital flows and the clearly conspiratorial pouvoir of the Neocons’ militarism (not underestimating the ‘hidden hand of the market. by what the Pentagon has called Full Spectrum Dominance (Shelton. as part of the ‘Global War on Terror.’ ‘Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather. Harry. where we can understand the desired goal of Empire for a group of operators. magus John Dee’s angelicallysuggested role for Elizabethan England: French. “The Multitude and its Doppelgänger: An Exploration of Global Smooth Space”. rather than Pax Americana. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies.’ in a sense. Ian. 2000).g.’ We should certainly remain unsure whether these are also the desired goals of non-American Empire and of the global market. 8 (2). 2009. popularly referred to as ‘Neocons.) NAR We are ‘fortunate. Air Force 2025 (US Air Force. of global thermonuclear conflict. Henry Luce’s imperial peace to be enforced.Cap Kritik 126/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab from below that produces a critical perspective of hegemonic knowledge in the power relations involved. 245-277. Nevertheless. I am not claiming an epistemic populism where knowledge produced from below is automatically an epistemic subaltern knowledge. 2000.’ ‘Peacespace Dominance. 2003). for example. most notably ‘Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategy. We need to examine the evidence for this to be able to state that the multitude has not infrequently been duped (recently. the Federation of American Scientists’ website includes one of the most intriguing of these visions. land space.’ Their network of thinktanks—prime among them the Project for a New American Century and the American Enterprise Institute—have made available online numerous policy statements and grand plans.’ Start-Tek [sic]-Exploiting the Final Frontier-Counterspace Operations.’ ‘Global Battlespace Dominance. While examining the precursors below. ocean space. as FSD would have it. after a fashion. 1987) are nothing new. Complementing the thinktanks’ online literature is the US Defense Department’s wealth of reports and plans at Defense Link. 1996)—just the terms embedded in the chapter titles give some idea of this particular future: ‘Worldwide Information Control System. in the color-coded revolutions in the Ukraine.and body-politics of knowledge. could be the result (for the ‘threats’ posed by China and Russia. We will also see that the achievement of FSD appears to necessitate clashes with deep alternate centers of pouvoir such as China and Russia. Mindful of totalizing conspiracy theory. Amanda. What I am claiming is that all knowledges are epistemically located in the dominant or the subaltern side of the power relations and that this is related to the geo. henceforth ‘FSD’). and thus the black hole. eventually. and dreams of world conquest (e. outer space. to have emerged since 9-11 into a dichotomized geopolitical discourse. is the possibility of attainment of global striation at a higher level of perfection through ‘smooth’ dominance over submarine space. that FSD is the threat of the constitution of a Deleuzean ‘Full Body. perhaps. and a renewed focus on Pax Americana.’ ‘Brilliant Warrior. by more than profit and the bottom line. the US Air Force also provides numerous online reports relevant to the FSD vision (see US Air Force.Associate Professor of Geography (Mark. and elsewhere).’ however!). it is worth remembering that the (white man’s) ‘burden of civilization’ for the West is centuries old.

policy makers in Space-faring nations in particular have given scant attention to the political spatialities of the planet (2006). Harry. ‘as not just a matter of what we can do. 7 It is these spatialities that are currently in flux. 149). should Mars be claimable space. its areology. constitute Mars’s current cultural geography. and not Mars’s physical terrain. and political energy is being channelled into the possibility of transforming Mars’s physical geography. write McArthur and Boran (2004. and by whom? Martian colonization is beginning: it is time. but also what we should do’. ‘We have the opportunity to explore Mars’. DML. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. is only barely initiated. or a space of intrinsic value? Second. yet. 367) points up the importance of attending to these Martian spatialities now: ‘noosphere preceded biosphere – the layer of thought first enwrapping the silent planet from afar. Kim Stanley Robinson (1994. dml) The European imperial explorers who began excursions five centuries ago shifted expeditions to ‘the new world’ from the domain of speculation to that of physical and political practice. Jay. Rothenbaum. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. inhabiting it with stories and plans and dreams’. The task of the larger project of which this article is an early part. Mars has moved out of science fiction and onto national budgets and the agendas of international legal bodies. to attend to it critically. before we begin to build. Vigorous scientific. ‘It is clear that we should seek some ethical guidelines in advance before we repeat our sorry history elsewhere’. however. Ian. In his quasifictional study of Martian colonization. And it is political spatialities that will ultimately underpin any future activities on the planet. Clayton . Similarly.Cap Kritik 127/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Framework (Mars Affs) In the context of Mars colonization your language is not neutral – the way they frame the plan is inextricably tied to plan action. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. technical. Two specific questions emerge from this article. as Linda Billings (2006) asserts. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. as Fox (2006. What comes next is an application of lessons learned from terrestrial colonialism of the past to Martian spatiality in its current. and if so. along with fictional representations and media constructions. precolonial stage. they have to defend their reps Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. questions that are not yet answered: should Mars be regarded as a terra communis. a terra nullius. 225) writes. how can it be transformed into a possession. Political spatialities. Amanda. The task of this article has been to provide an analysis of its uneven terrain in the context of western political economic trajectories.

to the mergers booms and soaring stock prices of the ’90s. and the stock market crash of 2000. including a couple of best-sellers. In the futurist field. “Ravi is a phenomenon — the best predictive record of any economist. Ravi Batra is also shaking his head — but for different reasons. from the rise of Islam.fwweekly. he has a nearly 90 percent record of being right.Cap Kritik 128/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Batra Unqualified Rishee’s dad is a genius FW Weekly 08 (Fort Worth Weekly. about what the country should have been doing to handle it. the 65-year-old Indian-born academic has an amazing record of economic and social forecasting going back several decades. not paradigm [or] ideology. bankruptcies of major companies are a daily occurrence. empirical facts. capitalism. He wrote Greenspan’s Fraud in 2005. In fact. Amanda.S. IWren) The worst economic cycle in more than half a century has everyone from struggling homeowners to former Federal Reserve chairmen shaking their heads in disbelief. Greenspan said. he’s still trying to figure http://archive. Jobs are disappearing. which he predicted in the 1960s.asp?article=7369. Ian. a Minneapolis-based journalist who has written for Fort Worth Weekly and The Dallas Morning News. Clayton . Harry. The New Golden Age — The Coming Revolution Against Political Corruption and Economic Chaos. And in his 2006 book. a visiting scholar at Harvard University who specializes in political economy and social anthropology.” said Prof. written by Kendall Anderson. Even the iconic architect of the current economic system himself. In Dallas. told a Congressional panel several months ago that his deregulation and debt-is-OK approach was mistaken. Rajani Kannepalli Kanth. retail sales are in the toilet. former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan. Jay. The veteran Southern Methodist University economics professor saw this storm approaching years ago and has written several books.. But what exactly is causing the current worldwide financial meltdown. DML. “Prophet of Boom (and Bust): Now will they listen to Ravi Batra?”. Rothenbaum. where a 65 to 70 percent accuracy rate is acceptable. he predicted an economic depression and the rise of a charismatic leader who might help dig the country out of that hole. massive government bailout has failed thus far to unfreeze the credit system that is the lifeblood of U. past or present … and he does it all by reference to recorded. and an unprecedented.

Jay.Cap Kritik 129/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **AFF STUFF** DML. Rothenbaum. Clayton . Harry. Ian. Amanda.

positive. Ian. victorious and ascendant. classical and contemporary political economy. phallocentric. providing images of what is to be resisted and changed as well as intimations of the strategies. The representati n.9 It is therefore the ways in which capitalism is known that we wish to delegitimize and displace. upon inspection. modern historiography. representations of capitalism that can be collated within this fictive summary identify the broad outlines of our project: to discover or create a world of economic difference. dynamic. At the same time. of bringing to light images and habits of understanding that constitute "hegemonic capitalism" at the intersection of a set of representations. Changing this view is a pre-requisite to the alt. if they exist at all. popular economic and social thought.passing references. Gibson-Graham 06 – J. selfidentical. penetrating. powerful. including but not limited to organicist social conceptions.8 The argument revisited: it is the way capitalism has been "thought" that has made it so difficult for people to imagine its supersession. to the capitalist system or to global capitalism . only a few of these are examined for the ways in which they have sustained a vision of capitalism as the dominant form of economy.. tracing some of the different. heroic historical narratives. creative. or of capitalist retreats and reversals. depictions of "capitalist hegemony" deserve a particularly skeptical reading. or binary patterns of thinking. protean. evolutionary scenarios of social development. self-reproducing. but also as a brake upon. For in the vicinity of these representations. the very idea of a noncapitalist economy takes the shape of an unlikelihood or even an impossibility. or even the only. If it were possible to inhabit a heterogeneous and open-ended economic space whose identity was not fixed or singular (the space potentially to be vacated by a capitalism that is necessarily and naturally hegemonic) then a vision of noncapitalist economic practices as existing and widespread might be able to be born. Clayton . what shadowy economic forms might come forward? In these questions we can discursive artifact we call "capitalist hegemony" is a complex effect of a wide variety of discursive and nondiscursive conditions. or have contributed to the possibility or durability of such a vision. But the point should emerge none the less clearly: the virtually unquestioned dominance of capitalism can be seen as a complex product of a variety of discursive commitments. It is through these discursive figurings and alignments that capitalism is constituted as large. even incompatible. disciplining. progressive. transformative. in an endless array of texts.7 In this book we focus on the practices and preoccupations of discourse. and possibilities of changing it.4 Scrutinizing what might be seen as throwaway uses of the term . rational. systemic. self-rectifying. centered and centering.K. persistent. or of daily or partial replacements of capitalism by noncapitalist economic practices. organized and organizing. lawful. embracing. western philosophy and metaphysics. Harry. The process is one of unearthing. self-expressive. active. must inhabit the social margins. a new anticapitalist DML. IWren) The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It) problematizes "capitalism" as an economic and social descriptor. colonizing. as a corollary. constraining. This we see as a first step toward theorizing capitalism without representing dominance as a natural and inevitable feature of its being. originating. and in the context of such a vision. quite local and familiar (not to mention familiar beings that are not what they seem). Amanda.Cap Kritik 130/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Gibson-Graham You’re doing it wrong—representations of capitalism as hegemonically dominant preclude the realization of actual social change. the book selectively traces the discursive origins of a widespread understanding: that capitalism is the hegemonic. that deliberate attempts to develop noncapitalist economic practices and institutions must take place in the social interstices. traditions and infrastructures of meaning. in the realm of experiment. techniques. and essentialist. the anticapitalist imagination. present form of economy and that it will continue to be so in the proximate future. and. It follows from this prevalent though not ubiquitous view that noncapitalist economic sites. Jay. and to populate that world with exotic creatures that become. well as systematic and deliberate attempts to represent capitalism as a central and organizing feature of modern social experience. academic social science. Representations of capitalism are a potent constituent of the anticapitalist imagination. For this reason. and capable of conferring identity and meaning. full. In this sense. or in a visionary space of revolutionary social replacement. "capitalist hegemony" operates not only as a constituent of. real. Rothenbaum.5 What difference might it make to release that brake and allow an anticapitalist economic imaginary to develop unrestricted?6 If we were to dissolve the image that looms in the economic foreground. definite. expansive. These depictions have their origins in the diverse traditions of Marxism. we hope to foster conditions under which the economy might become less subject to definitional closure. pen name shared by feminist economic geographers Julie Graham and Katherine Gibson (“The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy”. It becomes difficult to entertain a vision of the prevalence and vitality of noncapitalist economic forms. pg 2-5. for example. In the chapters that follow.

36 Through the lens of overdetermination. proletarianization. and discrete (constituted by the exclusion of their outsides). then noncapitalism/woman is released from its singular and subordinate status. internationalization . bounded.34 If capitalism/man can be understood as multiple and specific. identities (like capitalism) can become visible as entirely constituted by their "external" conditions. discovering the surplus and contradictory meanings of the term. decenter and open the economy. to oppose and contradict). 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab politics might emerge. noncapitalism can only be subordinated or rendered invisible (like traditional or domestic economic forms). Operating under an "imperative of unity" (Hazel 1994: 4) western conceptions of identity entail both the unity of an object with itself (its selfresemblance) and its one-to one relation with the sign by which it is known: one word with one meaning. But that process. To such an essentialist reading of identity "capitalism" designates an underlying commonality in the objects to which it refers. One can also say. Just as postmodernism obtains its power from modernism (its power to undermine and destabilize. while repositioning capitalism itself as an effect. DML. One can say that representations of the capitalist economy as an independent entity informed by logics and exclusive of its exteriors have allowed capitalism to hegemonize both the economic and the social field. a noncapitalist politics of class (whatever that may mean) might take root and flourish. ordered or selfconstituting.) By virtue of their identification as capitalist settings. that overdetermination is a discursive strategy that can potentially empty. if it is always becoming what it is not. It is also a reassertion of the hegemonic conceptions of language and determination that overdetermination is uniquely positioned to contradict. far from being over or even well on its way. That the capitalist economy often escapes reconceptualization and so continues to function as an organizing moment. centered. To the extent that we conceptualize entities as autonomous. To conceptualize capitalism/man as multiple and different is thus a condition of theorizing noncapitalism/woman as a set of specific.Cap Kritik 131/194 perhaps but one worth pursuing. corresponding to one thing. where it escapes the logic of sameness and is unable to maintain its ostensible self-identity (see chapter 10). Rothenbaum. Complex processes of social development . the places where capitalism is inhabited and constituted by noncapitalism. not a sameness but a difference. if it is not a unity but a heterogeneity. Harry. to that extent does the strategy of thinking overdetermination have the power to destabilize theoretical discourse and reposition the concepts within it. and that therefore is not capitalism's exclusive domain.K.35 so can an overdeterminist approach realize its power and strategic capacity by virtue of its oppositional relation to the preeminent modes of understanding both language categories and identity/being. Taken together these strategies have the potential to undermine capitalism's discursive "hegemony" and to reconceptualize its role in social determination.. Thus we are not surprised to encounter a capitalism that is essentially the same in different times and places (despite the fact that sameness as the precondition of meaning is exactly what various structuralist and poststructuralist traditions have sought to undermine. With an overdeterminist strategy we may empty capitalism of its universal attributes and evacuate the essential and invariant logics that allow it to hegemonize the economic and social terrain. There is no singularity of Form to constitute noncapitalism/woman as a simple negation or as the recessive ground against which the positive figure of capitalism/man is defined. But overdetermination can be used as an additional anti-essentialist theoretical strategy to complement and supplement the strategy of deconstruction. different societies become the sites of a resemblance or a replication. capitalocentric modes of thought Gibson-Graham 06 – J. monistic entity precludes noncapital alternatives and furthers hegemonic.37 But it testifies to the resilience of the dominant conceptual context (it should perhaps be called a mode of thought) in which the objects of thought exist independently of thought and of each other that an autonomous economy still exists and operates in social representation. It is a testimony to the power of overdetermination that it has allowed certain post-Althusserian theorists to envision an "economy" that is not singular. A long shot Representing capitalism as a bounded. none of which can definitively be said to be less or more significant. definite forms of being. liberating discourses of economy and society from capitalism's embrace. pg 43-45. fragment. And what may account for the economic monism or hegemonism that accompanies most representations of capitalist society and development? Here a partial answer may be found in the metaphysics of identity that Althusser sought to undermine. Ian. and as the unique referents that give each sign a stable and singular meaning.become legible as the signatures of capitalism rather than as unique and decentered determinations. and that obtains its shifting and contradictory identity from the always changing exteriors that overdetermine it. has hardly begun. When capitalism exists as a sameness. Overdetermination enables us to read the causality that is capitalism as coexisting with an infinity of other determinants. Representations of society and economy cannot themselves be centered on a decentered and formless entity that is itself always different from itself. IWren) What interests me most here is the question of why the economism of which capitalism is the bearer is so difficult to moderate or excise. Amanda. Clayton . if it incorporates difference within its decentered being.commodification. It is easy to appreciate the strategic effectiveness of reading the texts of capitalism deconstructively. pen name shared by feminist economic geographers Julie Graham and Katherine Gibson (“The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy”. and an origin of meaning and causation in social theory. however. industrialization. cannot be understood as a simple theoretical omission. Noncapitalism is to capitalism as woman to man: an insufficiency until and unless it is released from the binary metaphysics of identity (where A is a unified self-identical being that excludes what it is not). Jay.

Jay. Amanda.Cap Kritik 132/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab DML. Clayton . Rothenbaum. Ian. Harry.

But the "failure" to theorize the economy is inevitably associated with certain problematic effects. Its internal imperatives of growth and expansion are manifest in history as its external form. this is not a fatal "omission" or a necessary source of theoretical deformations. and by extension the economy.Cap Kritik 133/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Gibson-Graham Link – Cap as Subject Their representation of capitalism as a subject that acts on the social field denies the true situational and external factors that create capitalism in individual contexts. IWren) This representation of capitalism in Hegemony and Socialist Strategy is notable not only for the extraordinary transformative capacity with which capitalism is endowed . Unless the economy is explicitly written out. and unfixing society from its economic base.26 While undoing the closed and singular social totality. Its definition and operations are independent of articulatory practices and discursive fixings. it is not equivalently "subjected. It remains positive and homogeneous. is a remnant or borrowing (from other parts of the Marxian tradition) rather than a product of their own theoretical elaborations. including the "retreat" from economism inspired by Althusser. the economy has a fixed (if atheoretically specified) identity and capitalism itself has a fixed and transparent (or generic) meaning. But the capitalism they describe. inhabited by a set of logics that increasingly define the character of the social landscape (Diskin and Sandier 1993). capitalism inhabits the present as a concrete embodiment of its abstract description. No "exteriors" (discourses in which it has other meanings) operate to subvert its unity and self-resemblance. in familiar and powerful ways. since it would be impossible to problematize every social dimension and practice. This gives capitalism. In this sense it exists outside overdetermination.28 DML. it is now the case that post-Marxist and cultural theorists often avoid constituting the economy as a theoretical object (perhaps theoretical avoidance is anti-economism's highest form. In a diverse array of texts and traditions. Clayton .27 Laclau and Mouffe's capitalism is the protagonist of a unified narrative of development that sets the political stage. an agent that makes history but is not correspondingly "made. or until it is deconstructively or positively rewritten. it can therefore be seen as "an abstraction with concrete effects" (in Laclau and Mouffe's wonderful critical phrase) rather than as a discursive moment that is relationally defined. Rothenbaum. pg 38-39. Harry. Until it’s retheorized as the object of social relations it will always recreate itself dominantly in social discourse—that turns their advocacy Gibson-Graham 06 – J. Unlike other social practices and processes in Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. For various reasons. a disproportionate effectivity. and the heroic role they assign to it. The language of social instances that divides society into economy. for example. it defines itself as capitalism because it lacks another name. Ian. polity. Laclau and Mouffe leave the economy theoretically untouched. When it is not overtly theorized. capitalism both has and is an essence. Jay." Instead it claims the terrain of the social as the arena of its self-realization. In the rendition of recent economic and social history quoted above.." If it is affected and shaped by its social contexts. capitalism is rendered as the "subject" of history.) By itself. The immutable logics at the core of its being are independent of its social contexts (they always operate and are not fully susceptible to being abridged). and culture (or some other such partition) continues to function as the general conceptual frame within which particular social discourses are inscribed.but also for the familiarity and unremarkability of the depiction. As the inadvertent result of their theoretical is given sole responsibility for a thoroughgoing historical transformation . pen name shared by feminist economic geographers Julie Graham and Katherine Gibson (“The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy”. It is a cause without being to the same extent an effect. Amanda. it will write itself into every text of social theory.

Amanda. well-intentioned practices of solidarity reproduced a paternalism that failed to inspire local collective action. In the former case. however. Ian. illustrates the limits of transnational activism that radiates from advanced capitalism to exert external pressure on behalf of subalterns in the global South. As I have suggested elsewhere (Carroll 2007). with external support. ‘left to themselves … are easily dominated by the power of capital to coordinate accumulation across universal but fragmented space’ (Harvey 1996: 32). dml) Just as hegemony has been increasingly organized on a transnational basis – through the globalization of Americanism. and in the growth of transnational movement organizations and of a ‘democratic globalization network’. ‘the more such solidarity work involves grassroots initiatives and participation. Yet the same group. the greater is the likelihood that workers from different countries will learn from each other’. transcending traditional national boundaries’ (Butko 2006: 101).Cap Kritik 134/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Perm Critique alone fails – integration of actual solutions key Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Jay. workers taking direct action on their own behalf. in initiatives such as the World Social Forum. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 190. Harry. the mainland-based migrant workers’ association. Much of the energy of anti-capitalist politics is centred within what Raymond Williams (1989) called militant particularisms – localized struggles that. Philosophy and sociology are only tools for uncovering how reality is structured and for freeing up the discussion of feasible alternatives. ‘we are witnessing the emergence and re-making of political imaginaries…. movements. the origin point is national. Indeed. The alt alone is coopted – you need a multitude of standpoints means the perm solves Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William. DML. 168-198. As a rule. counter-hegemony: in search of the new. must be grounded in local conditions and aspirations. The ultimate aim of this must be a relationship with the universe that does not further empower the already powerful. Eli Friedman’s (2009) case study of two affiliated movement organizations in Hong Kong and mainland China. which often lead to valuable localized actions as well as greater transborder solidarity’ (2009: 424). dml) Explanatory critique can only go so far. as Marie-Josée Massicotte suggests.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. the construction of global governance institutions. led to ‘psychological empowerment’ and movement mobilization (Friedman 2009: 212). Catharsis. through its support for its ally. in this context. has helped facilitate self-organization on the shop floor. takes on a spatial character. an incipient war of position is at work here – a bloc of oppositional forces to neoliberal globalization encompassing a wide range of movements and identities and that is ‘global in nature. Clayton . What Sousa Santos (2006) terms the rise of a global left is evident in specific movementbased campaigns. Friedman recounts how a campaign by the Hong Kong-based group of Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehavior to empower Chinese mainland workers producing goods for Hong Kong Disneyland failed due to the lack of local mobilization by workers themselves. in the latter. “Crisis. that address issues of North-South solidarity and coordination (Smith 2008:24). Rather. such as the successful international effort in 1998 to defeat the Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI). Rothenbaum. Carroll 2010) – counter-hegemony has also taken on transnational features that go beyond the classic organization of left parties into internationals. Perm solves—only combining both hard science and social insight can reveal the link between the two. enabling transnational counter-hegemony to gain a foothold (Rahmon and Langford 2010: 63). still has currency. counter-hegemonic ideologies and space projects that benefit oppressed populations. Such alliances. These moments of resistance and transborder activism do not yet combine to form a coherent historical bloc around a counter-hegemonic project. counterpoised to neoliberalism’s transnational historical bloc. Gramsci’s adage that while the line of development is international. The scaling up of militant particularisms requires ‘alliances across interrelated scales to unite a diverse range of social groupings and thereby spatialize a Gramscian war of position to the global scale’ (Karriem 2009: 324). It will take much hard work and politics on a mass scale to forge new social alliances.” Interface 2:2. the emergence of a transnational capitalist class and so on (Soederberg 2006. Reducing everything to social constructionism is counterproductive. to contest the terrain of global civil society. respectively.

involving not merely Rifondazione but also smaller parties of the radical left such as the LCR and the Socialist Workers Party as well as more radical elements of Italy’s centre-left Left Democrats. The ideal of science is of an objective discipline that is value-free and guided by its own criteria of progress. in the social sciences in the last few decades there has often been a suggestion that our understandings of the physical and natural worlds are mere social constructions. all social structures to discourse’ (Latour 1993: 64). We recognize that causal mechanisms operate on a number of different levels within the universe. The same is true at a global level. http://www.1). Clayton .org. The truth is that cooperation between the two actually strengthens both. Likewise. infused as it was by both a strong anti-imperialist consciousness and the movements of India’s vast poor. The social influences on the theories and methods of science are therefore ignored. IWren) The physical and natural sciences have often historically denied that their attempts to know the realities with which they are concerned are in any way dependent on the social world. helped mobilize thousands in protests in Genoa (“At an impasse? Anti-capitalism and the social forums today”. However much retrospect is coloured by Bertinotti’s subsequent right turn. 1997. in the International Journal of Socialism. This was proved by the success of last year’s “polycentric” WSF in Caracas. Saying this does not mean returning to the tedious and sterile argument— either the war or the “social question”. Unfortunately. 2 July 07. combining that with sociological understanding. Director of the Centre for European Studies at King’s College London. pg 41. Venezuela. President Hugo Chávez echoed many others when he spoke there of the importance of the movement against the Iraq war in weakening the US’s ability to act in what it regards traditionally as its own backyard. to launch a very high DML. whilst explaining the importance of material reality. Harry. Editor of International Socialism AND ** Chris Nineham. the high points of the European movement at Genoa and Florence were informed by this cooperation. 1998) (see Box 1. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Ian. Yet the Caracas forum also showed up the limitations of the WSF process. The peak so far reached by the WSF took place. in order to understand the dialectic between social and physical worlds.isj. but in Mumbai in January 2004. The two most successful forums—Florence and Mumbai—were ones where opposition to the “war on terror” was a dominant theme. Archer et al. But the two key organisations of the Indian left—the Communist Party (Marxist) and the Communist Party of India—alongside various Maoist organisations. the physics of subatomic particles to a text.Cap Kritik 135/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Rothenbaum. Venezuela and Ecuador. But as Bruno Latour says. not at any of the Porto Alegre Forums. an ontology is necessary that explains how insights from both the social and physical sciences can be combined. the ongoing attempt by scientists to construct a theory of everything runs counter to this kind of ontology. played a critical role both in making the forum possible and in restraining themselves from trying to dominate the forum or competing too openly among themselves. IWren) This understanding has to involve an open break with the ideology of autonomous social movements. An honest reappraisal of the relationship between parties and movements would allow the social forums to play to their strengths. thus privileging the kind of knowledge held by the social sciences over that of other disciplines. founding member of the UK Stop the War Coalition. Amanda. Jay.*Peter. The result of this should be a theory that reduces the universe to neither the merely physical nor the purely social. It should have been possible. We maintain that.*Alex Callinicos. Opposition to both neoliberalism and war are constitutive themes of the anti-capitalist movement. whether for tactical reasons or from principled agreement. University of Essex and **James. But a break is required by an honest appreciation of the interplay between political parties and social movements. Too often the left has taken its stand within the framework of that ideology. and argue that the job of the social scientist is to work with the knowledge produced by physicists and the like. But recognition of both the principled significance and the mobilising power of anti-imperialism needs to be built into how the social forums operate. Autonomous anti-capital movements fail—only combining social mobilization with political action can unite large populations and create a political driving force Callinicos and Nineham 07 .uk/?id=337. ‘it is hard to reduce the entire cosmos to a grand narrative. for example. These points are related to the fundamental tenets of critical realism as outlined by Roy Bhaskar and others (Bhaskar 1986. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. It was taken for granted among the tens of thousands of mainly Latin American activists assembled there that the US poses a real and present threat to the gains being made by movements in Bolivia. former drummer for the indie pop band The June Brides. 1998. a product of the society in which they were created. subway systems to rhetorical devices.

But we can reach constructive agreement on the many issues—opposition to neoliberalism and war—that unite a large spectrum of forces. This is no simple matter. shows a similar approach in his calls for “deglobalisation”. We believe that the concept of the united front. But fighting neoliberalism and war is necessarily a highly political affair. But it needs to be accompanied by open debate about the nature of the enemy that we are confronted with and of the alternatives that we should be seeking.27 Another important figure on the left of the movement. these forces will have disagreements about political programme. Such cooperation is essential. But so long as they come together round limited and relatively specific aims. DML. The sorry record of Rifondazione has already been discussed. There is unlikely to be agreement between the different tendencies in the movement in the short or medium term over general political alternatives. because of its acceptance of a version of the ideology of autonomous social movements (although individual LCR members such as Christophe Aguiton. the left within the movement. Rothenbaum. But because of the autonomist principles so jealously guarded by the WSF leadership. Jay. Through the experience of such campaigning. None of this should prevent cooperation among different forces on the left seeking to give the anti-capitalist movement a more coherent and strategically focused direction. Constructing such united fronts is not easy: it requires initiative and clear leadership on the one hand. the LCR. In breaking out of this impasse.26 Amin’s pronouncements are sometimes redolent of nostalgia for the high tide of Third World nationalism between the 1950s and 1970s: “The reconstruction of a ‘front of the countries and peoples of the South’ is one of the fundamental conditions for the emergence of ‘another world’ not based on imperialist domination”. The development of the movements necessarily generates political disagreements that cannot be kept separate from party organisations. should working together in order to fight to give the movement a more strategic and focused direction. and nowhere is free of the antagonisms of wider capitalist society. This ideology conceives social movements as a neutral space somehow beyond politics.28 Such formulations do not sufficiently address the reality that confronting imperialism as a system will require global social transformation based on the collective power and organisation of the oppressed and exploited in the North as well as the South. It is precisely this kind of unity in action that many people are looking for in the current situation. “For a multipolar world founded on peace. Documents of the left within the movement tend to espouse versions of radical reformism. dynamic movements than does the model that has prevailed so far. it seems to us that the anti-capitalist left needs urgently to try such methods if it is to reach out and connect with its potential audience. they may also differ over how to pursue the common actions that have brought them together. A united front involves the coming together of different forces around a common but limited platform of action. it will be necessary to define precisely what the radical left is within the movement. Respect in Britain—shows the extent to which activists recognise the need for a political voice as part of the development of opposition to neoliberalism and war. so providing a framework in which political debate and practical organising can fruitfully interplay. no such centralised initiative was taken. such alliances can be politically inclusive and maximise the chances of practical campaigning agreement. A much more principled organisation. Moreover. new political coalitions can emerge. The Bamako Appeal’s first plank is. Pierre Rousset and Sophie Zafari have played important roles in the movement at global and/or European levels). high powered campaign from the forum calling on all the movements round the world to pledge defence of the gains of the Chavista experience so far. Because they are focused round action.29 Striking the right balance between disagreement and cooperation once again requires a break with the ideology of autonomous social movements. The big Indian Communist parties. This is the way to break movements away from abstract position taking or sectarian point scoring. Precisely because they are different. Harry. Clayton . they can be a testing ground for different tactics and strategies. LAW and negotiation”. despite the very positive role they played in the Mumbai WSF. developed by the revolutionary Marxist tradition. The emergence of new anti-capitalist political formations that are at least partly the product of movements of resistance—Portugal’s Left Bloc. and openness and humility on the other. provides a better guide to building democratic. Ian. participate in neoliberal coalitions at the all-India and state levels: the Left Front government in West Bengal has violently clashed with workers and peasants in recent months. Walden Bello of Focus on the Global South. Amanda. whether revolutionary or reformist. has kept aloof from the anti-capitalist movement as an organisation. Many present were suggesting it. the Left Party in Germany. But at a time when the anger against neoliberalism is growing everywhere and so many people are reassessing their political loyalties.Cap Kritik 136/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab profile.

a little more questioning of our assumptions. what are we really doing to foster solidarity.” is in my opinion. At the same time. the state. and rationales. and goals differ from our own. we need to recognize that the language we use. or could care less about the U. even if we have a pessimism of mind. Now consider contemporary struggles: amnesty for undocumented immigrants. the mannerisms. building a popular base. In other words. Amanda. A non-reformist reform is determined not in terms of what can be. As Gramsci pointed out we need to maintain an optimism of will. Reforms are not all created equal. It doesn’t imply that we should refrain from criticism of Cuba’s economic system from a socialist and working-class perspective. but what should be. And we shouldn't misinterpret these efforts as simply meliorative incrementalism. we need to start by asking such questions. factory committees. or avoid direct action. we need to strike a balance between hope and reality—something that is absolutely necessary. Pre-existing structures and worker organizations made possible a workers’ takeover of much of the Spanish economy (especially in Catalonia). and more concerned about our own political relevance.Cap Kritik 137/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Perm – Reformism Good Reformism from with-in solves Dixon 1 – Activist and founding member of Direct Action Network Summer. We need to ask ourselves “What are we really doing to create a welcoming movement. Ian. Solidarity is NOT about supporting those who share your precise politics. “Reflections on Privilege. Ultimately. Instead of saying everyone else isn’t revolutionary enough (while we sit on our ass waiting for the Revolution. progressive. the Old Left needs to recognize that all the same criticisms apply equally to themselves. Of course. and more importantly. just because they’re relatively non-existent compared to the rest of Latin America (or Canada for that matter). because the Cuban revolution is “Statist” and “authoritarian. It was the culmination of almost 70 years of organizing.S. making 'adjustments' to a fundamentally flawed system. this isn't to say that every so-called 'progressive' ballot initiative or organizing campaign is necessarily radical or strategic. “pure” but alone).) he critically cites one of the examples in my essay: demanding authentic contends. if our efforts are to be sustained beyond youthful idealism into the rest of our lives. The entire Left. Yet they all struck at the foundations of power (in these cases.' for instance. The struggle of the Spanish anarchists and communists offers many lessons—not the least of which is that revolution is a long-term agenda. http://www. when was the last time I actually had an impact on someone?” Instead of saying “those young anarchists don’t know how to build institutions” (and then calling them “reformist” or “parochial” or “bourgeois” when they do). The Spanish Revolution of 1936-39 didn’t just happen because the Spanish were more “radical” or “committed” than we are. Talk minus action is zero. hard struggles. Harry. and believing that revolution is a long-term agenda. politics. we need to recognize that no revolution begins with the overthrow of the State. making mistakes. refers to these as "non-reformist" or "structural" reforms. methods. a little less quick with our judgements and dismissals. Jay. is not an excuse to stuff our nests. In addition to saying “talk minus action equals zero. and by articulating them in a language that’s real. style. But some can fundamentally shake systems of power.html I think that if we want to build a popular movement. everyday struggles and demands to long-term radical objectives. Instead of saying “Anything short of complete ‘Revolution’ is reformist” (and then going home to watch TV).newcolonist. and none were endpoints. is at least as important as the substance of our message." Look to history for examples: the end of slavery.” Get real!) From an organizing perspective alone. It’s about supporting those who struggle against injustice—even if their assumptions. but it’s also true that action minus well-thought-out ideas and principles can be less than zero. Participation in radical unions. but each has the potential to escalate struggles and sharpen social contradictions. and tone we adopt. and collectives for decades. a sense of their own competence. think that militancy alone (regardless of popular support) will bring about a fast demise of capitalism. community and workplace level. Clayton . we need to be less concerned about the alleged failings and ignorance of others. None will single-handedly dismantle capitalism or other systems of power. a culture of resistance. indigenous sovereignty. activist community (young and old. without sacrificing either. expansive environmental protections. and capitalism). socialist or not) needs to build or expand upon its own institutions. He To bolster his critique of 'reformism. The dismantling or seizure of the State is usually a reflection of a deep revolution already occurring at the grassroots.” younger activists need to simultaneously pay more attention to history. Anti-reformism dooms any movement away from capitalism Burrows 1 – author and publisher from the SMAC lecture series New Colonist Paul. "a struggle for non-reformist reforms--for anti-capitalist reforms--is one which does not base its validity and its right to exist on capitalist needs. We need to have a little humility — we need to be a little less attached to our conclusions. Rothenbaum. Any anarchist who says they won’t support Cuban solidarity efforts. because they tend to Unrealistic expectations are a fast road to burnout and despair. full of shit. (Not many people are interested in the subtleties of the “dialectical relationship between base and superstructure. All were born from long. the alternatives we create must embody the values we profess to hold. we need to look in the bloody mirror. when was the last time I reached out to someone who didn’t already share my politics. and gave them direct experience with collective organizational principles. embargo. theory. and create an alternative to capitalism. they created new prospects for revolutionary change. Younger activists especially need to take this seriously. It can be damaging to individual people. We need to think hard about the meaning of solidarity. simply because we’re worried about the declining number of post-capitalist experiments to support. Online we need revolutionary strategy that links diverse. Chris. white supremacy. and in the process. in his seminal book Strategy for Labor. Andre Gorz. criteria. observing that the state-capitalist system is powerful. socialized health care. and it can hinder the growth of a radical movement. (But this doesn’t imply that we should turn a blind eye to human rights violations in Cuba. desegregation. and the experiences of veteran activists. leading to enlarged gains and greater space for further advances. the eight-hour workday. These and many more are arguably non-reformist reforms as well. Reformism. however. enabled Spanish workers to develop knowledge of their enterprises. and Activism”.

Rothenbaum. Ian. Clayton .Cap Kritik 138/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab DML. Amanda. Harry. Jay.

if lacking the material force of. JSTOR)//AW The late twentieth century has witnessed extensive globalization of economic activities. relatively little has been said about the underlying logic(s) and tendencies of globalization as an ongoing process. Harry. Vol. Reich 1991. Blackwell Publishing. Sassen 1996a. The convergent effects of globalization and cross-border organizational learning have rapidly outpaced the divergent effects of cultures. Clayton . Dicken 1998. the nation state ceases to be a political institution capable of exerting influences on the activities of capital. it is now fashionable among business gurus. To them. Dicken 1998. firms. MNEs [multinational enterprises] remain in a class of their own.ever. Julius 1990. Instead. instead. While not denying some of the broader empirical global trends identified by Ohmae4 and other ultraglobalists. Hirst and Thompson 1996. It is defined as an economy in which there is close economic inter. Because of this increasing convergence of production. DML. Although the neoliberal 'end-state' view of globalization has been critically refuted in recent literature (Boyer and Drache 1996. Mittelman 1996a. State and Space: Contesting the Borderless World”. 1995b. These tendencies towards homogenization and differentiation reflect continuous tensions between capital and the state in the (re)production of space. reinforcing the interconnectedness of the Henry Waichung Yeung local and the global. the geopolitics of capitalism have become irrelevant in an allegedly 'borderless' world. Jay. No. they claim. it is worthwhile to pause for a moment and re-examine critically the analytical constructs in these theses. “Capital. 3. constituted by the relativization of scale. circulation and consumption over space. The end result is the demise of geography and national boundaries. (Dunning 1995.dependence of national economies at a global scale. 1995a. Olds et al forthcoming. international economists and liberal politicians to assert that the world is 'borderless' (Ohmae 1990. Dunning (1993. how. cf Hirst and Thompson 1996). the dialectical response to this has been the affirmation of difference. new forms of local resistance and local expression emerge.viding evidence to show that the world is not yet globalized. goods or services.Cap Kritik 139/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Link Turn Link Turn: Exploring space leads to the building of a global economy and the eventual destruction of capitalism. Brown 1997. 23. O'Brien 1992. Scott 1997.2 In such a 'borderless' world. however.dependence among and between the leading nations in trade. which is equally present as. Globalization can therefore be seen as a dialectical process of homogenization and differentiation. Cox 1997). industries and even nation states are so intertwined with ongoing events in the global economy that it becomes almost impossible to define the nation state without reference to the broader economy (Baylis and Smith 1997. As a vehicle for housing and controlling the organization and location of these resources and competencies. Globalization is conceptualized as a complex process of interrelated tendencies (Dicken et al 1997). however. much counterglobalization literature has focused on pro. Horsman and Marshall 1994. Amidst such 'globalization fervour'. socially and culturally homogenized world. the apparently dominant homogenizing tendencies (Cox 1996). 129) observes that one of the most distinctive features of the world economy of the early 1990s is the ease with which the kinds of assets and intermediate products that determine a nation's prosperity and growth are able to move across national boundaries. Though it invades local contexts of action. national institutions and social systems (Mueller 1994). and cooperative commercial relationships. assets. globalization does not destroy them.3 Such 'borderless world' and 'end of geography' theses may seem inevitably valid in today's globalizing world. Ian. Amanda. and the multiplicity and hybridization of social life at every spatial scale (Amin 1997. Dunning 1997). The global economy today has become more functionally integrated and interdependent than ever (Perraton et al 1997. typically through cross-border investments and trade spearheaded by transnational banks and transnational corporations (TNCs). Cox 1997. and in which there are relatively few artificial restrictions on the cross-border movement of people. The end-state of globalization is often perceived as an economically. the fortunes of individuals. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. Keller et al forthcoming). investment. this paper aims to analyze the underlying logic(s) of globalization and to show that globalization tendencies neither result in a 'borderless' world nor lead to the end of geography. Levy 1995). which no longer make a difference in the 'borderless' world. Rothenbaum. 135)1 Because of this increasing integration and inter. Yeung 98—Professor of Economic Geography at the National University of Singapore (Henry Wai-chung. which has also become increasingly 'placeless'. Such tensions. Weiss 1998.

Amanda. Rothenbaum. Clayton . Harry. There seems to be a continuous transformation of global flows and local embedding through the relativization of scale. Jay.5 DML. Ian. Rather. when what appears to be a local phenomenon can simultaneously be a regional or global event elsewhere. they transcend the global-local scale and are problematized by the relativization of scale.Cap Kritik 140/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab are not materialized at the polar scale of the global and the local. much to the disappointment of global-local dialecticians.

Facism.” ] Jay (1)We use “biopower” [in the sense defined by Foucault. fairness. has historically been a cornerstone of some strategies of social management. there is a deeper connection between the two.” and democracy. However. and in a democratic system there is therefore a bias toward pragmatic. Control functions through the modulation of these conditions. fluid fields of networks. Democracy. biopolitical production would describe the production of forms of life [technical. and later detailed by Deleuze. is simply to provide a rising standard of living. Third. but it does mean that it was “one among other possible outcomes of the crisis of modern civilization.” published 1/28/2011. and confrontational with capitalism Democracy limits the effects of biopower – ensures it can’t cause violence. and hence the imperative of individual rights as the political mechanism for getting them met. but it rather deals with the production of the real. The diagram of power technologies in the industral society is the panopticon. It was deployed in the so called insitutions of enclosement. Amanda. Another is the provision of a rising standard of DML. “On Biopower and Biopolitics. but rather through the modulation of subjectivities and behaviors in the open. I would argue that there is also a causal fit between cultures of expertise. Jay. and the visible and astonishing success of that project has been crucial to all Western democracies since 1945. democratic social and political orders are also implicitly and often explicitly expected to do something positive and tangible to enhance the well-being of their citizens. Hackitectura Workshop. Scientific “fact” is democracy’s substitute for revealed truth. Democratic citizens have the freedom to ask “why”. as in the sense addressed by the Greek term “biomechania”. Negri. (2) The main aim of biopower. “Biopolitics. coined by writer William Burroughs and commented upon by Gilles Deleuze [1990]. too [by Hardt. with which any citizen has a right to differ. 37. and governance are three of the main families of power technologies in the society of control. First. biopolitical production is used. technological and social protocols. but they do so. (3) We can better understand the technologies of contemporary biopower by comparing them to the technologies of [bio]power in the industrial society. schools. expertise its substitute for authority. Harry. It also in a sense replaced them. again. it is deployed through technics or technologies. Clayton . and those values are part of their strength. as we already mentioned. of technocracy. They are often described by the term society of control. also the age of biopolitics and democracy? How should we theorize this relationship? I would like to offer five propositions as food for thought.Cap Kritik 141/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Biopower Good Biopolitics is necessary to solve capitalism. http://mappingthecommons. has to be understood as a strategy and as a relation.wordpress. (5) Production of subjectivity. Hardt and Negri] to describe the form of power in contemporary networked society. laws and norms. not through the tayloristic organization of time and space. One of those things. To borrow a phrase from Detlev Peukert. Lazzarato and others]. professor at the University of Cincinnati. In the networked society. Technologies of biopower in the age of networks are different from those of the industrial era. people become productive when they are able to operate autonomously. but to make populations productive. subjective ecologies] alternative to. the rule of law). of course. is not to repress people. this is not merely a matter of historical coincidence. to describe the kind of politics and political actions that oppose capitalist biopower. it aims to produce the totality of social life. social. “objective” or naturalized answers— since values are often regarded as matters of opinion. 1 2004] Why was Europe’s twentieth century. Biopolitical production would refer to the production of forms of life. the vulnerability of explicitly moral values in democratic societies creates a problem of legitimation. In this sense. being part of capitalism. But as people’s states. flexibly and creatively. Rothenbaum. such as factories. Biopower is not aimed at prohibiting and punishing. Of course. in addition to being the age of biopolitics and totalitarianism. where bodies and minds were disciplined in space and time. as any kind of power. ’11 – [The Hackitectura Workshop in Athens. The age of democracy is the age of professionalization. historical ideological underpinnings of authoritarian polities in Europe in the nineteenth century. led by Pablo de Soto and Jose Perez de Lama. Of course there are moral values that all democratic societies must in some degree uphold (individual autonomy and freedom. human dignity. Vol. the concept of the essential legitimacy and social value of individual needs. (6) Biopolitics would describe on one end the technologies of power that relate to biopower. Biopower. “scientism” subverted the real. (4) Society of control technologies aim to make people productive. No. The Greek term “biomechania” describes effectively the biopolitical dimension of industrial society.” published in Central European History. or “scientism. Central European History. Ian. Dickinson ‘4 – professor at UCincinnati [Edward Dickenson. this does not mean that democracy was the “absolutely inevitable” outcome of the development of biopolitics. offices and homes.

1 2004] This understanding of the democratic and totalitarian potentials of biopolitics at the level of the state needs to be underpinned by a reassessment of how biopolitical discourse operates in society at large. premodern elites were constantly triumphing over the democratic opposition. Democracy. to insist on considering the fact that modern biopolitics has “worked” phenomenally well. No. then. Rothenbaum. Jay. The political “subject” (or citizen — as opposed to the political subject.” published in Central European History. more or less socially competent. Everywhere biopolitics is intrusive.who is an object of state action) is also a moral subject. and more on the different ways that biopolitical thinking circulated within German society more broadly. and by 1929 (when average real purchasing power was not significantly higher than it 1913) it was only 9. Even in the late 1920s. top-down. infant mortality in Germany in 1900 was just over 20 percent. many social engineers could and did look with reat satisfaction on the changes they genuinely had the power to accomplish. and in the long run. as did the expected level of her effective influence in all these spheres. The citizen’s capacity for moral reasoning is the legitimating postulate of all democratic politics. The regulation of sexual and reproductive life has long been understood in European societies to be among the most fundamental issues of morality. and economic life rose steadily. at the most simple-minded level.” not only an authoritarian one. it seems to me that an assessment of the potentials of modernity that ignores the ways in which biopolitics has made life tangibly better is somehow deeply flawed. Clayton . therefore. 37. it is not really accurate to call it a “Wahn” (delusion. Central European History. and extraordinary ways. In this sense. in other words.Cap Kritik 142/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab health. DML. medicalizing. after all. It would be bizarre to write a history of biopolitical modernity that ruled out an appreciation for how absolutely wonderful and astonishing this achievement – and any number of things like it – really was. there is virtually a biopolitical consensus. in the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the expected level of the average citizen’s active participation in European political. and the sexual and reproductive autonomy implied in the individual control that is a central element of the modern biopolitical complex. Of course. Again. at the “prepolitical” level. a connection between political citizenship on the one hand. which in fact embodied the historical movement of modern-ization. There was a reason for the “Machbarkeitswahn” of the early twentieth century: many marvelous things were in fact becoming machbar. one that focuses less on the machinations of technocrats and experts. In that older model. Dickinson ‘4 – professor at UCincinnati [Edward Dickenson. measurable. one in five children died before reaching the age of one year. Harry. time was on the side of that opposition. and here again. And modern social reform — “biopolitics” defined very broadly—seemed to offer the possibility of creating the human foundation for a society ordered by autonomous participation. cultural. social. more or less healthy and physically capable. Amanda. Fifth. By 1913 it was 15 percent. but this was potentially a democratic “Wahn. There is. oppressive thing. I would like to try to offer here the beginnings of a reconceptualization of biopolitical modernity. as empowering them. it may not be so simpleminded. In the new model. that the new model of German modernity is even more relentlessly negative than the old Sonderweg model. It is striking. Facism. Fourth. or indeed as doing anything positive for them at all. on the other. technocratic. To give just one example.7 percent. 92 And that consenus is almost always fundamentally a nasty. one that partakes in crucial ways of the essential quality of National Socialism. Biopolitics is almost never conceived of – or at least discussed in any detail – as creating possibilities for people. rather than by obedience. In that sense. “Biopolitics. Ian. 93 The expansion of infant health programs – an enormously ambitious. constraining. it was precisely the democratizing dynamic of modern societies that made the question of the “quality” of the mass of the population seem— and not only in the eyes of the dominant classes — increasingly important. craziness) at all. more or less moral and self-disciplined. bureaucratic. This made it a matter of increasing importance whether the average person was more or less educated and informed. as expanding the range of their choices. But at least there was an opposition. nor is it accurate to focus only on the “inevitable” frustration of “deleusions” of power. Biopower enables the modern methods of survival we have now. This too was part of the Machbarkeitswahn of modernity. professor at the University of Cincinnati. social engineering project – had a great deal to do with that change. limiting. or. the democratic welfare state has “delivered the goods” in concrete. Vol. historically there has been a clear connection between the concept of political citizenship and the idea of moral autonomy. and sometimes intrusive.

Amanda. Clayton . Ian. Harry. Jay. Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 143/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab DML.

dml) Most obviously. Satellites have even been commissioned by the United Nations to track the progress of refugees in Africa and elsewhere DML. Satellites. First. can also be useful for monitoring climate change and other forms of environmental crisis such as deforestation and imminent hurricanes. Harry. for example. Amanda. Clayton . including satellites manufactured by capitalist companies. There are many serious crises down here on Earth that have urgent priority when considering the humanization of outer space. however. Jay. it should be addressed toward ameliorating the many crises that face global society. They have proved useful in coordinating humanitarian efforts after natural disasters. especially those not yet connected by cable. have helped open up phone and Internet communications for marginalized people. Is $2 billion and upwards to help the private sector find new forms of space vehicles really a priority for public funding. November 2010. No 6. especially at a time when relative social inequalities and environmental conditions are rapidly worsening? The military-industrial complex might well benefit. Rather.Cap Kritik 144/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Satellites Good Even if there are problems with satellites – they help the disempowered Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. there is the obvious fact of social inequalities and resources. the technology allowing a human presence in the cosmos would be focused mainly on earthly society. Monthly Review Vol 62. but it hardly represents society as a whole. that public spending on space should be stopped. Ian. Satellites. This is not to say. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. Rothenbaum.

first published in 1932. 70-71) DML. Rothenbaum.pdf) Reinhold Niebuhr. pg. There is. operationalizes. Clayton . whether races. 75-76) The central issue here is what causes states to behave as offensive realists predict. among whom a common mind and purpose is always more or less inchoate and transitory and who depend therefore upon a common impulse to bind them together. “The proportion of reason to impulse becomes increasingly negative. http://guweb2. Niebuhr argued.empirically proven Thayer 2004 – Thayer has been a Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and has taught at Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota (Bradley. they will strive to maximize their power. whether an individual is a captain of industry or a conquistador. This environment produced the behaviors examined here: egoism. Niebuhr argued that there is a “basic difference between the morality of individuals and the morality of collectives. The fact that there is no world government compels the leaders of states to take steps to ensure their security. Ian. groups have a power to repress dissent and. aggressing when forced to do so.”10 The voluminous psychological literature on group dynamics certainly affirms that groups can develop characteristics that create a potential for extraordinary evil. a clear distinction between the character of people acting in large social groups as opposed to their character as individual people. Darwin and International Relations: On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict. Moral constraints are less powerful in groups than in individuals. 2004. classes or nations. but it is the mechanism of group experience that potentiates. or other resources). This is what neorealists call a self-help system: leaders of states arc forced to take these steps because nothing else can guarantee their security in the anarchic world of international relations. Thayer 2004 – Thayer has been a Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and has taught at Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota (Bradley.” 2001/02. Harry. domination. in the proper circumstances. encourage the abandonment of the individual self. These specific traits arc sufficient to explain why leaders will behave. not particularly strong or swift—survived and evolved to become what we consider human. defined as either control over others (for example. My argument is that anarchy is even more important than most scholars of international relations recognize. was another vocal proponent of individual regression in groups. As Israel Charny writes: “It is a human being who operates through the mechanisms of group behavior to do what he does to fellow human beings.Cap Kritik 145/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Competition Inevitable Realism and the self-help theory are rooted in human nature – anarchic worlds from the dawn of time to today created an impetus for realist thought. Evolutionary theory explains why individuals are motivated to act as offensive realism expects. and the in-group/out-group distinction.”11 Humans are biologically selfish. legitimates. through wealth or leadership) or control over ecological circumstances (such as meeting their own and their family's or tribes need for food. thus.gonzaga. I argue that evolutionary theory also offers a fundamental cause for offensive realist behavior. as offensive realists expect them to behave. “Perpetrators of Genocide: An Explanatory Model of Extraordinary Human Evil. shelter. Darwin and International Relations: On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict. Even if individuals aren’t biologically selfish. Mearsheimer advances a powerful argument that anarchy is the fundamental cause of such behavior. such as striving to have a powerful military. our ancestors lived in a state of nature in which resources were poor and dangers from other humans and the environment were great—so great that it is truly remarkable that a mammal standing three feet high—without claws or strong teeth. In addition. There is a diffusion of responsibility within groups that can make evildoing a relatively simple matter. although individuals are capable of goodness and morality. Humans endured because natural selection gave them the right behaviors to last in those conditions.groups inevitably trend toward selfishness and self-interest Waller 1. and narcotizes the emergence of man’s various and often unsavory selves. groups are inherently selfish and uncaring. who taught for many years at Union Theological Seminary in New York City. even if they must hurt other humans or risk injury to themselves. 2004. “when we proceed from the life of individuals to that of social groups. and forging and maintaining alliances.”9 What is this basic difference? In short. In his provocatively titled Moral Man and Immoral Society. pg.Professor and Chair of psychology at Whitworth College (James. The human environment of evolutionary adaptation was Jay.” he writes. That is. Amanda.

egoistic behavior contributes to fitness." For these reasons. rational choice theorists also do not expect individuals or states to show this type of behavior beyond their own self-interest. that aids survival. these "survival machines" became more sophisticated due to evolution. as we will see below. Albert Somit and Steven Peterson. conformity helps keep groups together!' If group conformity becomes too weak. Wilson. DML. and so the behavior spreads.O. Over time. or to ideologies like liberalism or communism.O. in parent-offspring and sibling relationships." The gene could also spread. Genes did not want to create or inhabit people. albeit more slowly. As I discussed in chapter 1. Second."72 Three factors cause this ease of indoctrination. survival in an anarchic and dangerous world dictates membership in a group and produces a fear of ostracism from it. These understandings have great consequences for the study of politics. This is because close relatives share at least fifty percent of their genotype—one-half for siblings and parents. Dawkins. but the process continued nonetheless. complex social behavior among unrelated individuals can be seen as the interaction of selfish individuals. the pack. suggest that humans readily give allegiance or submit to the state. for most primates. above that of other members of the social group. as I stressed in the previous chapter. since the cousin shares an average of one-eighth of his genes. cooperation. or altruism beyond what is in the interests of the animals. Clayton . if the child were a first cousin. that egoism is more complex than Darwin envisioned. as a result of William Hamilton's idea of inclusive fitness. and these contributed to fitness. shelter. and Hamilton. The gene creates an instinctual or genetic basis for egoism because it is concerned only with satisfying its wants. because evolution has produced a need to belong to a dominance hierarchy!' An overview of human history provides context: much of it is a record of threats of force or wars to gain territory and resources. the group could fall apart and then die out because of predation from its or another species. Similarly. Some cells became specialized. and leaders such as Julius Caesar. such as humans. Evolutionary theorists now recognize. typify dominance hierarchies—as do the modern state and its many institutions. Darwin and International Relations: On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict.54 They made mistakes. could flourish as long as the child were his offspring or sibling. The concern for survival in a hostile environment also requires that in a time of danger or great stress an individual organism usually places its life. Dawkins focuses his analysis on the gene. evolutionary theory can explain egoism and suggests why cooperation between unrelated individuals is very often difficult and remarkably unlike the behavior one encounters within the family.74 Thus. such as the formation of a thin membrane that held the contents of the molecule together to become a primitive cell. belonging to the group is better—it increases chances of survival— than existing alone. the gene that inclines a man to jump into a river to save a drowning child.S. but less so in their behavior toward genetic relatives. Louis XIV." different types of molecules started forming. But again. or Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid. whether monarchies or aristocracies. there is no intentionality in this process. and in time efficient copy makers emerged. and grandparents. such as government bureaucracies and the military.research proves Thayer 2004 – Thayer has been a Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and has taught at Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota (Bradley. E. Jay. Egoism thus becomes a trait or adaptation in animals. even if belonging requires subordination. and in a similar manner egoism evolves through a population. Irendus Eibl-Eibesfeldt. herd.Cap Kritik 146/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Evolutionary theory offers two sufficient explanations for the trait of egoism. Beginning with chemicals in a primordial "soup. Hamilton recognized that individuals are egoistic. and most evolutionary theorists expect no tendency toward solidarity. among others. The fundamental point here is that "selfishness" of the gene increases its fitness. creating organs and ultimately animal bodies. As a result of the ideas of Darwin. First. not the organism. 2004) One result of the evolution of our mental architecture is the ability to indoctrinate humans. As the great evolutionary theorist J. evolutionary theory provides an explanation for what is commonly known. Thus. an acceptance of or conformity to a particular status quo lowers the risk of conflict in a dominance hierarchy. Amanda. Third. It has to ensure that its physiological needs—for food. onequarter for aunts. realists and.77 Biology makes us inherently self-interested-disproves all other theories. Haldane captured this point well when he wrote that he would give his life to save two of his brothers (each sharing half of his genotype) or eight of his cousins (each sharing one-eighth of his genotype). Rothenbaum. Harry. principally reproduction and food consumption. The organism evolved largely to satisfy the wants of the gene. Haldane wrote in 1955. Ian.B. Consequently. Indeed. and one-eighth for cousins. uncles. and psychologist Donald Campbell. that individuals favor those who are close genetic relatives. and so on— are satisfied so that it can continue to survive. The selfish gene theory of evolutionary theorist Richard Dawkins pro vides the second sufficient explanation for egoism. As E. its survival. or to religion. The first is a classic Darwinian argument: Darwin argued that an individual organism is concerned for its own survival in an environment where resources are scarce. Wilson writes: "human beings are absurdly easy to indoctrinate—they seek it. and thus to take a one-in-ten chance of dying. or tribe. Humans are inherently selfish.76 Political institutions. however.

Alexander calls this 'the Balance-of-Power hypothesis'. JSTOR) As alternative. a hunt in which people were treated as prey . in any event. were worth it in the biological sense of enabling them to enhance their reproductive success. Amanda. Harry. say. shelter and other resources necessary to survival and differential reproduction.was protection from the predatory effects of other groups'.28 Early life was. individuals would have joined groups which. A makes an alliance with C in order to conquer B and succeeds. The guiding thought here. on this view. Clayton . Those societies in the past which learned how to engage successfully in balance of power politics would have been naturally selected for and have expanded from smaller groups to larger groups. a brand of warfare.peting human units. B and C. Rothenbaum.the significance for their individual members . 29 DML.. Jay. “Political realism in international theory” p. Ian. groups or institutions . Then if.Cap Kritik 147/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Spegele 96.deceived. For suppose we have three non-kin related societies A. provides biological content to Martin Wight's incisive observation: 'The idea of balance arises naturally in considering any relationship between com. And suppose two societies A and B are in competition with one another for food.Associate Professor of Politics at Monash University (Robert D. 161. it will have significantly expanded its relative resource base. despite their costs. To protect themselves. and it is easy to see why a term from the lexicon of international relations is appropriate in accounting for the rise of large states. Alexander advances the idea that 'at some early point in our history the actual function of human groups . ensnared and forcibly run to ground just as in a chase.

Rothenbaum. Jay. It depends on which interests are doing the humanizing. Privatizing outer space would only enhance the power of the already powerful. even though this would be at odds with the deep ecological principle of non-interference. Amanda. Individuals and institutions are straightforwardly attempting to protect their investments. Crucially. At first glance McKay notes that the former position would seem to advocate planetary engineering on the basis that we have a duty to maximize Mars’s ‘biological potential’. As in Naess’s (1989) ‘deep ecology’. The rocks of Mars would have a right to remain unchanged. Clayton . socially and politically made. Yet. we cannot identify cosmic need in a disinterested. The deep ecology-type position does not demand that life be spread to Mars. This is not to say that the humanization of outer space is an inherently bad thing. this can mean attaching value to human and non-human life for its own sake. And more often than not they are an expression of power relations. The latter position would appear to reject planetary engineering as ‘life has no precedence over non-life’ (1990: 192). It does not necessarily entail a view that humans are masters of the universe. The values are all inevitably human. Or it can mean a ‘cosmocentric’ ethic in which value is extended to inanimate objects like dead planets and asteroids. Perhaps there are some lessons here from Earth to outer space. both positions raise important dilemmas. as McKay notes. An anthropocentric standpoint is. inescapable. This is abundantly clear when we consider the legal rights being demanded by those attempting to own part of the Moon or Mars. These values are. were we to take the cosmocentric ethic seriously. asocial way. in the end.Cap Kritik 148/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Link turn – Deep Eco Affs Deep ecology resists privatization that allows for space control Dickens and Ormrod 7 .*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. if the universe is treated with care and respect rather than as a resource to be exploited. would we not be morally obliged to try to prevent asteroid collisions in space? And what if the survival of life on Earth really did depend on changing the climate on other planets? Surely upholding the rights of lifeless planets is absurd? Ultimately. Like this movement. we should return to the Earthly world of political economy if we are to get a more accurate picture of what lies behind the privatization and colonization of outer space. The universe has no ‘value’ except that ascribed to it by society. as Val Plumwood (2001) recognizes in relation to Earthly environmental ethics. however. Harry. Tarnas (2006) disagrees strongly with this position. These values are contested by social movements such as the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space. for values are social constructs. is perfectly clear where its priorities lie. as its name implies. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 157-158. Ian. dml) The other perspectives McKay forwards hinge around ‘intrinsic worth’ being attached to non-human nature. arguing that it only leads to further human self-aggrandizement and a continuing denial of humanity’s spiritual links with the cosmos. there is every hope that the benefits of space exploration and development may be made available to everyone. How is populating Mars to be weighed against human lives that could be saved on Earth with the money involved in reaching the planet? What if spreading life to Mars destroys what little life may be there already? Similarly. which. DML.

Cap Kritik 149/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Alt Fails – Mars A postcolonialist analysis of Mars fails – it’s different from historical conditions Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. A survey of leading postcolonial journals demonstrates this refusal: of the hundreds of articles in these publications. postcolonialism is inherently Eurocentric because it focuses almost entirely on European empires. 3 And while there are clear similarities between past and present colonialisms. Yet frustratingly. the discursive production of its spatiality. despite the fact that Australia has laid contentious claim to 42 per cent of Antarctica since 1933 – a claim solely based on acts of imperial exploration and flagraising. despite the proliferation of postcolonial analyses of past colonial spatialities. when it comes to new colonialisms. Rothenbaum. European epistemologies. viii) argues. and not one addresses Space. For example. But this does not automatically eliminate Mars from the field of colonial spatiality. postcolonialism tends to figure imperialism and colonialism and their associated spatialities as historical European phenomena from whose ruins nations such as Australia. As Ferro (1997. Or as Dodds (2006. dml) Postcolonial spatial theory is an analytical lens through which to view Martian spatiality in its historical character: it allows for a useful view on the cultural construction of the planet. To generalize. 60) points out in his discussion of the difficulty of accommodating contemporary Antarctic colonialisms within existing postcolonial theoretical frameworks. ‘post-colonial studies are too preoccupied with a linear account of liberation in certain countries’. and the ways in which established power groups work to prefigure the planet as an object of capitalist commodification and strategic managerialism. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. Ian. Jay. Amanda. the planned colonization. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. Clayton . Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. exploration. there is a curious critical silence. Harry. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. and European spaces of the past. and spatial production of Mars are decidedly unlike British practices of the last few centuries. and Canada have emerged. and ongoing colonization – the voluminous field of Australian postcolonial studies has refused or failed to acknowledge this situation. Indonesia. not one deals with Antarctica. DML.

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Aff – AT – Patriarchy
Spread of capitalism is key to women’s equality Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO
Johan Norberg, In Defense of Global Capitalism, pg. 23

Growing prosperity gives women more opportunity to become independent and provide for themselves. Experience from Africa and elsewhere shows that women are often leading entrepreneurs for various kinds of small-scale production and exchange in the informal sector, which suggests that, absent discrimination and regulation by the government, the market is their oyster. And indeed, the worldwide spread of freer conditions of service and freer markets has made it increasingly difficult for women to be kept out. Women today constitute 42 percent of the world's work force, compared with 36 percent 20 years ago. Capitalism doesn't care whether the best producer is a man or a woman. On the contrary, discrimination is expensive because it involves the rejection of certain people's goods and labor. All studies have shown that respect for women's rights and their ability to exert influence in the home are closely bound up with their ability to find employment outside the home and earn an independent income.

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Aff – AT – Invisible Committee
They have it backwards, revolutions aren’t a threat to global empire, they sustain it. Bonta 9 - Associate Professor of Geography (Mark, “The Multitude and its Doppelgänger: An Exploration of Global Smooth Space”, ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 2009, 8 (2), 245-277.) NAR In the postmodern era (1945-present), two spectral networks—International Communism and International Terrorism (Sageman, 2004)—have had life breathed into them and have served, in concert with the ‘Evil Empire’ and certain ‘rogue states,’ to instill microfascisms in many a democraticand freedom-loving body in the USA, while in realpolitik advancing the spread and penetrations of Empire. The grand International Communist Conspiracy, with roots in the late 1800s, was the earlier of the two, and it served its purpose well all the way up to the end of the 1980s. To keep the Reds at bay, the secret state infiltrated the Left as successfully as the Right (Quigley, 1966), coming to saturate the media, academe, and public relations (Saunders, 2000), though often passing itself off as inept, inefficient, and even relatively powerless. During this time, subversive revolutionary movements both domestic and foreign were not necessarily decapitated as often as they were made safe, channelled into ‘more productive’ operations; or, if need be, as described above, swung in the other direction, steered and tricked into spectacular false flag operations that gave excuses for jailtime, invasion, toppling of regimes, or at least sanctions or discrediting. Authoritarian/communist/police states with eyes everywhere became necessities not only because of
internal paranoia and the ‘nature of totalitarian State power’ but also because of the myriad sabotages practiced by the ‘free world’— the experience of Gladio (Blum, 2004) is extremely instructive here, and the case of Castro’s Cuba comes to mind as well. Terrible questions are suggested, such as if some political prisoners really are plotting to violently overthrow the regime, then should the regime, to prove its ‘commitment to democracy,’ let them go? The newer menace of international Islamic

terrorism is built on the premise of a network that arose out of two secretive groups— Wahabism, based in Saudi Arabia, and the Muslim Brotherhood, engendered in Egypt—that coalesced in the 1980s

through resistance to the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Emboldened by the withdrawal of the USSR, the foreign mujahedin returned to their countries and were rebuffed, if not detained and tortured, by the regimes in power, who did the bidding of the US. Thence, led by Osama bin Laden, they turned on the West (Esposito, 2002; Scheuer, 2003; Sageman, 2004). But

the very existence of a selfnamed and cohesive ‘Al Qa’eda’ network, which was named at the behest of FBI agent John O’Neill (Frontline, 2002), has been questioned, most notably and effectively in the BBC documentary ‘Power of Nightmares’ (Curtis, 2005), which argues that International Terrorism is the ultimate bugaboo narrative that serves to bolster the power of governments that no longer provide us with comfort and positive achievement (capitalism does that) and so have refashioned themselves as our protectors from nightmares. ‘Al Qaeda’ has, nevertheless, taken on a monstrous existence, just as the International Communist Conspiracy did in the days of McCarthy—perpetrating devastating crimes such as 9-11-2001 and 3-11-2003 and 7-7-2005 (intriguingly, the only person to ever be convicted of 9-11 plotting was released in early 2006 in Germany—the US government was unwilling to provide prosecutors with requested evidence: Agence France-Presse, 2006). Ahmed (2006) provides a solid argument for Al Qa’eda as intricately interwoven with what we are calling Empire. The evidence for the perpetrators behind 9-11, as well as other terror events, points back to Empire’s networks (conservatively put, ‘rogue elements of X’), and particularly,
as gagged whistleblower Sibel Edmonds has it (; see Rose, 2005, and other literature on her case), to networks of far-right mercenaries (which of course Osama bin Laden always was in any case) duping other cells of mercenary-terrorists connected not to ‘rogue states’ like Iraq, Iran, and North Korea but to major Western powers and allied states, to NGOs and drug trafficking, money-laundering, influence-peddling, and other P2/IranContra/BCCI/Gladio-type operations. Needless to say,

massive funds are poured into the US’s ‘black budget’ and its open budget to better fight this terrorist menace, possibly by infiltrating its cells and pushing its operatives to carry out acts they might not otherwise choose to, horrendous crimes that give Empire an excuse to further its agenda (Hess, 2002).

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Aff – AT – Epistemology
Prefer our evidence – their evidence is futile intellectual pride Saunders 7

Peter, Adjunct Professor at the Australian Graduate School of Management, Why Capitalism is Good for the Soul, Andrew Norton notes that disaffected intellectuals since Rousseau have been attacking capitalism for

its failure to meet ‘true human needs.’(26) The claim is unfounded, so what is it about capitalism that so upsets them?Joseph Schumpeter offered part of the answer. He observed that capitalism has brought into being an educated class that has no responsibility for practical affairs, and that this class can only make a mark by criticising the system that feeds them.(27) Intellectuals attack capitalism because that is how they sell books and build careers. More recently, Robert Nozick has noted that intellectuals spend their childhoods excelling at school, where they occupy the top positions in the hierarchy, only to find later in life that their market value is much lower than they believe they are worth. Seeing
‘mere traders’ enjoying higher pay than them is unbearable, and it generates irreconcilable disaffection with the market system.(28) But the best explanation for the intellectuals’ distaste for capitalism was offered by Friedrich Hayek in The Fatal Conceit.(29) Hayek understood that capitalism

offends intellectual pride, while socialism flatters it. Humans like to believe they can design better systems than those that tradition or evolution have bequeathed. We distrust evolved systems, like markets, which seem to work without intelligent direction according to laws and dynamics that no one fully understands. Nobody planned the global capitalist system, nobody runs it, and nobody really comprehends it. This particularly offends intellectuals, for capitalism renders them redundant. It gets on perfectly well without them. It does not need them to make it run, to coordinate it, or to redesign it. The intellectual critics of capitalism believe they know what is good for us, but millions of people interacting in the marketplace keep rebuffing them. This, ultimately, is why they believe capitalism is ‘bad for the soul’: it fulfils human needs without first seeking their moral approval. Their attempt to blame corporate exploitation on capitalism is misinformed and continues false teachings that result in corporate bureaucrats. Vance 5 – adjunct instructor in accounting at Pensacola Junior College, Mises
Laurence M. Vance,

The all-too familiar circle of the government regulating an industry, creating a "crisis," and then intervening even more to solve the crisis, thus making things worse, is no where more apparent than DiLorenzo's examples from the energy industry. The book concludes with a look at "the never-ending war on capitalism" by government intervention, regulations, agencies, and bureaucrats. DiLorenzo also includes university professors, politicians, and lawyers in his indictment. "American universities devote an inordinate amount of time and resources to teach potential business leaders not how to be capitalists but how to be corporate bureaucrats." Politicians "view businesses as cash cows to be plundered for the benefit of their own political careers." "Lawyers now have incentives to spend their lives digging up cases and evidence against corporations because some consumers stupidly misused their products." DiLorenzo also briefly reviews three anticapitalist but best-selling books: Eric
Schlosser's Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, Barbara Ehrenreich's Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, and Michael Moore's Stupid White Men and Downsize This! He finds that the capitalism attacked in these books

is not capitalism at all, it is socialism, mercantilism, interventionism, and assorted anticapitalist myths. Although these "reviews" are an added bonus to the book, they would be even better if they were lengthened and made into
a series of appendices.

Their authors scapegoat capitalism – hold them to a high standard of causal evidence Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO
Johan Norberg, In Defense of Global Capitalism, pg. 290-291

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sometimes justifiably so. Rothenbaum. rather than their own decisions. It contains all the anonymous forces that have served this purpose throughout history: other countries. Then there are plenty of people willing to accept full responsibility for the course of events. Globalization makes an excellent scapegoat.Cap Kritik 153/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab All change arouses suspicion and anxiety. other races and ethnic groups. even positive changes can have troublesome consequences in the short term. the economy runs at high speed and poverty diminishes. or raise their own salaries. Decisionmakers are unwilling to shoulder responsibility for failures and problems. Globalization does not speak up for itself when politicians blame it for overturning economies. Amanda. the uncaring market. It is preferable to be able to blame someone else. Jay. Globalization does not defend itself. Harry. DML. increasing poverty. Ian. and enriching a tiny minority. Clayton . an ideological defense will be needed for freedom from borders and controls. cut jobs. is forcing them to pollute the environment. or when entrepreneurs say that globalization. So if the trend toward greater globalization is to continue. And globalization doesn't usually get any credit when good things happen— when the environment improves.

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Imperialism Good
Spreading American values is good – allowing for a plurality of cultures causes genocide Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia
(David, “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”, Foreign Policy no. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53, JSTOR, dml)

Culture is not static; it grows out of a systematically encouraged reverence for selected customs and
habits. Indeed, Webster's Third New International Dictionary defines culture as the "total pattern of human behavior and its products embodied in speech, action, and artifacts and dependent upon man's capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations." Language, religion, political and legal systems, and social customs are the legacies of victors and marketers and reflect the judgment of the marketplace of ideas throughout popular his- tory. They might also rightly be seen as living artifacts, bits and pieces carried forward through the years on currents of indoctrination, popular acceptance, and unthinking adherence to old ways. Culture is used by the organizers of society politicians, theologians, academics, and families to impose and ensure order, the rudiments of which change over time as need dictates. It is

less often acknowledged as the means of justifying inhumanity and warfare. Nonetheless, even a casual examination of the history of conflict explains well why Samuel Huntington, in his The Clash of Civilizations, expects conflict along cultural fault lines, which is precisely where conflict so often erupts. Even worse is that cultural differences are often sanctified by their links to the mystical roots of culture, be they spiritual or historical. Consequently, a threat to one's culture becomes a threat to one's God or one's ancestors and, therefore, to one's core identity. This inflammatory formula has been used to justify many of humanity's worst acts. Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia
Many observers

(David, “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”, Foreign Policy no. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53, JSTOR, dml)

contend that it is distasteful to use the opportunities created by the global information revolution to promote American culture over others, but that kind of relativism is as dangerous as it is wrong. American culture is fundamentally different from indigenous cultures in so many other locales. American culture is an amalgam of influences and approaches from around the world. It is melded-consciously in many cases into a social medium that allows individual freedoms and cultures to thrive. Recognizing this, Americans should not shy away from doing that which is so clearly in their economic, political, and security interests and so clearly in the interests of the world at large. The United States should not hesitate to promote its values. In an effort to be polite or politic, Americans should not deny the fact that of all the nations in the history of the world, theirs is the most just, the most tolerant, the most willing to constantly reassess and improve itself, and the best model for the future. At the same time, Americans should not fall under the spell of those like Singapore's Lee Kuan Yew and
Malaysia's Mahathir bin-Mohamad, who argue that there is "an Asian way," one that non-Asians should not judge and that should be allowed to dictate the course of events for all those operating in that corner of the world. This argument amounts to selfinterested political rhetoric. Good and evil, better and worse coexist in this world. There are absolutes,

and there are political, economic, and moral costs associated with failing to recognize this fact. Repression is not defensible whether the tradition from which it springs is Confucian, Judeo-Christian, or Zoroastrian. The repressed individual still suffers, as does society, and there are consequences for the global community. Real costs accrue in terms of constrained human creativity, delayed market development, the diversion of assets to
enforce repression, the failure of repressive societies to adapt well to the rapidly changing global environment, and the dislocations, struggles, and instability that result from these and other factors. Americans should promote their vision for the

world, because failing to do so or taking a "live and let live" stance is ceding the process to the not always-beneficial actions of others. Using the tools of the Information Age to do so is perhaps the most peaceful

and powerful means of advancing American interest. If Americans now live in a world in which ideas can be effectively exported and media delivery systems are powerful, they must recognize that the nature of those ideas and the control of those systems are matters with which they should be deeply concerned. Is it a threat to U.S. interests, to regional peace, to American markets, and

to the United States's ability to lead if foreign leaders adopt models that promote separatism and the cultural fault lines that threaten stability? It certainly is. Relativism is a veil behind which those who shun scrutiny can hide. Whether Americans accept all the arguments of Huntington or not, they must recognize that the greater the cultural value gaps in the world, the more likely it is that conflict

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will ensue. The critical prerequisite for gaining the optimum benefits of global integration is to understand which cultural
attributes can and should be tolerated-and, indeed, promoted-and which are the fissures that will become fault lines.

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business is the primary engine driving globalization. the recognition that sometimes there are inter ests greater than national interests is a crucial step on the path to a more peaceful. and crisis management. Istanbul. Foreign Policy no. Ian. Clayton . Johannesburg. wear the same suits. In politics. JSTOR. and almost half of the people of Guangzhou have access to satellite-delivered programming. they have realized that to compete in the global marketplace they must conform to the culture of that marketplace. Amanda. stay in the same hotels. Santiago. Seoul. Foreign Policy no. and. dml) France and Canada have both passed laws to prohibit the satellite dissemination of foreign meaning American-content across their borders and into the homes of their citizens. Frankfurt. as it is called in some parts of the Middle East. eat the same food. They are concerned that it implies a sense of superiority on Americans' part or that it DML. and redress transparent. Los Angeles. New York. These players are as comfortable operating in the international environment as they would be at home. These governments are the heirs of King Canute. Harry. The global marketplace is being institutionalized through the creation of a series of multilateral entities that establish common rules for international commerce. and the organizations that they represent in effect establish glob al standards and expectationsfacilitating the progress of globalization. as international organizations arise to coordinate policy among many nations on global issues such as trade. Moscow. disclosure rules must be the same. These countries will fare no better. for example." In these countries. and listen to the same music. Singapore. If goods are also to move unimpeded. development. Cap is awesome and key to make sure we don’t fall behind in the world Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia (David. Singapore. Tel Aviv. The community of nations increasingly accepts that such supranational entities are demanded by the exigencies of the times. with that acceptance also comes a recognition that the principal symbol of national identity – namely sovereignty-must be partially ceded to those entities. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53. Business leaders in Buenos Aires. “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”. the environment. Hong Kong. drive the same cars. the control of new media that give previously closed or controlled societies virtually unlimited access to the outside world is a high priority. In China. settlement procedures consistent. mores. In many ways. “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”. and product safety and labeling standards brought into line. is a hub in a global network of business centers in which the lives of the elites are virtually identical. For example. Singapore has sought to filter out certain things that are available over the Internet essentially processing all information to eliminate pornography. the United States was involved in creat ing the World Trade Organization and now undermines its effectiveness by arbitrarily withdrawing from its efforts to blunt the effects of the Helms-Burton act. Not surprisingly} in many other countries . approximately one in five citizens of Beijing has access to television programming via a dish. tariff laws must be consistent. air transport agreements need to be established. "news pollution. and Tokyo all read the same newspapers.Cap Kritik 157/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Imperialism Good – Satellites Oppressive governments are trying to limit out satellite access – we should increase it to spread the awesomeness of capitalism Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia (David. Rothenbaum. JSTOR. and commercial laws harmonized. Still. China has set up a "Central Leading Group" under the State Planning Commission and the direct supervision of a vice premier to establish a similar system that will exclude more than just what might be considered obscene. but it would be a mistake conclude that the implications of globalization will be limited primarily to the commercial arena. dml) Some find the idea that Americans would systematically seek to pro mote their culture to be unattractive. the leading entrepot of Southeast Asia. New Delhi. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53. customs standards harmonized. And if people are to move easily from deal to deal. Jay. Rome. While the people of their countries remain divided by culture. Mexico City. Paris. and the closely managed society of Singapore-central governments have aggressively sought to restrict the software and programming that reach their citizens Their explicit objective is to keep out American and other alien political views. the infamous monarch who set his throne at the sea's edge and commanded the waves to go backward. The United States in particular seems to have problems with this trend. If capital is to flow freely. fly the same airlines. health. prosperous world. a community of international bureaucrats is emerging. while satellite dishes are technically against the law. immigration controls standardized. The Soviet Union fell in part because a closed society cannot compete in the Information Age.fundamentalist Iran communist China. They need look no further than their own elites to know this.

and leading in the related development of the global trade in services are as essential to the well-being of any would-be leader as once were the resources needed to support empire or industry. Ian. Rothenbaum. Amanda. Harry. Clayton . defining software standards. producing the most popular information products. Jay.Cap Kritik 158/194 makes an uncomfortable value judgment. DML. But the 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab realpolitik of the Information Age is that setting technological standards.

Harry. in which trusts and monopolies prevent the economy from running naturally and efficiently. Successful capitalists are smart enough to plan for long-term profits in addition to the short-term. Marx died waiting for this revolution to come about. The final stage of capitalism. the consequences are disastrous. Like anyone else. The capitalist that Marx evokes in his work is only a caricature of the behavior of capitalists and does not reflect reality as history has shown it to be. There is a Darwinian process to capitalism. capitalism thrives and shows no major signs of strain. such as cable television or computers. capitalism is perfectly capable of inventing new markets to replace saturated ones. While Rosa Luxemberg wrote that while the capitalism will inevitably consume itself and that socialism is a possible option .Cap Kritik 159/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Resilient Capitalism is too adaptive to be overcome Serwetman 97 – JD Suffolk Law Will. http://www. Marx also never took into account the effect government regulation and welfare would have on the capitalist system.html Marx utilizes the Hegelian dialectic in his attempt to prove that capitalism will inevitably collapse from the crisis of overproduction and the class conflict caused by enmiseration and alienation. DML. If stereo manufacturers can no longer find a market for their goods. nor can they be seen as socialist states because they retain post-revolution ary class structures and are not radical democracies. and those unable to account for factors beyond their short-term profits will be replaced by those who can. How many buffalo-fur coat business es do we see? Despite the various crises of the past century. Any business naturally desires monopolies over its markets. but when that is achieved. and it never has. The crisis of overproduction will never happen because capitalism is flexible and will sacrifice it's short t rm goals to achieve its long term ones. Despite Marx's predictions. they close down and invest their money in a new industry. I go so far as to question the Marxist logic that capitalism is doomed to collapse. Ian. Even the Russian and Chinese revolutions cannot be viewed as results of capitalism collapsing. None of the problems Marx predicted are unavoidable as long as we do not sink to the level of sharks. would inevitably be replaced by socialism. has been prevented by legislation and unionization.ninjalawyer. Jay. they will make mistakes and learn from them. Amanda. Capitalism. Clayton . he felt.

Evolutionary psychology can help us to understand that property rights are not created simply by strokes of the legislator's pen. suggests that the human mind evolved specialized modules for making judgments about moral transgressions. and transgressions against property in particular. the accounting of costs and benefits. and the detection of people who have cheated on agreements. New scientific research provides even stronger evidence for the existence of such property "instincts." Cosmides and Tooby point out that. Property rights are prefigured in nature by the way animals mark out territories for their exclusive use in foraging. 1 Property Rights are Natural The problem of distributing scarce resources can be handled in part by implicitly coercive allocative hierarchies. Allocative hierarchies. XXVII No. Productive hierarchies are those that organize cooperative efforts to achieve otherwise unattainable mutually advantageous gains. We may hope only to channel it to non-harmful uses. An alternative solution to the problem of distribution is the recognition and enforcement of property rights. Recognition of such rudimentary claims to control and exclude minimizes costly conflict. which by itself provides a strong evolutionary reason to look for innate tendencies to recognize and respect norms of property. Rothenbaum. 1 Emory professor of economics and law Paul Rubin usefully distinguishes between "productive" and "allocative" hierarchies. Jay. Capitalism’s products (property. which helps us to guard against the concentration of power in too few hands. and mating. Although the nation-state can perform productive functions. Business organizations are a prime example." The archeological and ethnographic evidence shows that hunter-gatherers were involved in numerous forms of trade and exchange. XXVII No. Rubin warns that our natural wariness of zero-sum allocative hierarchies. on the other hand. exchange. as is the division of labor. "Cognitive Adaptations for Social Exchange. Mutually Beneficial Exchange is Natural Trade and mutually beneficial exchange are human universals. Cato Policy Report Vol. Ian. and Christine Prehn. Most impressive. contrary to widespread belief. exist mainly to transfer resources to the top. There is no way to stop dominance-seeking behavior. they argue.) aren’t mere legislative creations – they are intrinsic to human nature -recognizing inevitability prevents escalating wars Wilkinson 5 – Academic Coordinator of the Social Change Project and the Global Prosperity Initiative at The Mercatus Center at George Mason University Will. whether the local Star Trek fan club or the city council.Cap Kritik 160/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Inevitable Resistance to capital is futile and dangerous – natural hierarchies of power are inevitable and sustain peace Wilkinson 5 – Academic Coordinator of the Social Change Project and the Global Prosperity Initiative at The Mercatus Center at George Mason University Will. A free society therefore requires that positions of dominance and status be widely available in a multitude of productive hierarchies. Amanda. points to the DML. thereby threatening the viability of enterprises that tend to make everyone better off. a legal theorist. That. there is the constant risk that it becomes dominated by allocative hierarchies. etc. but to no one's serious detriment. Cato Policy Report Vol. thereby somewhat satisfying the human taste for hierarchical status. hunting. A flourishing civil society permits almost everyone to be the leader of something. Some forms of hunter-gatherer trading can involve quite complex specialization and the interaction of supply and demand. egalitarian cooperation and sharing. However. Capitalism and Human Nature. Harry. recent experimental work by Oliver Goodenough. like corporations. Aristocracies and dictatorships are extreme examples. is often directed at modern positive-sum productive hierarchies. hunter-gatherer life is not "a kind of retro-utopia" of "indiscriminate. we are unable to solve formally identical puzzles that do not deal with questions of social exchange." For example. and that opportunities for greater status and dominance through predation are limited by the constant vigilance of "the people"—the ultimate reverse dominance hierarchy. Cosmides and Tooby have shown through a series of experiments that human beings are able easily to solve complex logical puzzles involving reciprocity. a neuroscientist. In their groundbreaking paper. Capitalism and Human Nature. Clayton .

we are free and can develop any way we choose. Ludwig Fuerbach. http://www. That starting point is our subconscious and our base instincts. Ian. then most of what Marx wrote will be consistent. there must be a starting point. At this point. but what he learns. human beings respond at a very basic level. If human nature can be changed. humans acquire the ability to learn and make their own decisions. since it ignores the role of individuals and looks only at groups. We will never be able to adjust to life in a Marxist society. Natural selection weeds out people who cannot live wit h others. Even Marx acknowledges the human will in "Alienated Labor. his ideal reflects the same mistakes. it would not progress. or committing suicide when we're upset. without which life could not exist. so the existence of a will to power is hard to ignore. Nietzsche's most sensible argument was that conscious thought coupled with our survival instinct generates what he called a "will to power. which precede capitalism. Harry. While the species might survive. Their survival instinct won't let them. We are separated from other living things. but it there is no reason to believe tha t any given individual would embrace it. Clayton . Marx believed that man could acquire compassion and genuine concern for his comrades simply by making it important in post-capitalist society. When Marx argued that there is no single nature of man because we're simply products of our society. It allows us to formulate strategies for survival and act upon them. however. Man is a product of evolution. the human mind is "built" to trade. He bases his materialist conception of human nature on that of B. Jeffery Dahmer and Martin Luther King were products of the same society. by our ability to reason." The individuals responsible for these achievements were generally not DML. any of whi ch would make the continuation of our species impossible. Both men believed that a [hu]man[s are] is a product of his society. As long as our nature remains unchangeable. Jay. The genius of a few individuals is all that has kept mankind raised from the life in nature that Hobbes called "brutish. No theory of human nature is plausible unless it has definitive survival value. without a survival instinct there would be nothing to prevent us from starving ourselves out of negligence. and the viability of a communist society. Which experiences influences us most and the degree of their influence is dependent upon our choices. and ambitious natures. money. Amanda. I refer to our general distaste for watching other human beings suffer--those that enjoy suffering cannot function in society. hurling ourselves off of cliffs. and it cannot be inhe rent to man unless it's in our genes. Natural survival instince makes capitalism unovercomable and desirable – sex edited Serwetman 97 – JD Suffolk Law Will. Every individual's beliefs. Because Marx's materialist view on humanity does not acknowledge our nature. and we can live better. but the basic underlying assumptions of his work. attitudes. By compassion. the forces that drove it would lead to its inevitable collapse and replacement wi th communism. nasty and short. and control in order to competition for the things we need. When we face danger or discomfort. and takes a more Nietzschean view. Competition isn't just good for men--it's necessary. Those choices are the only thing that separates the Dahmers and Martin Luther Kings of the world. Our will to power drives us to accumulate food. content-dependent cognitive adaptations for social exchange. Fear and desire are perfectly natural to us. and ideas a re absorbed at an early age by exposure to those of the world around him. However far into the childhood or the womb you take back our chain of experiences. All living organisms possess a survival instinct. humans will not motivate themselves to do anything unless there is a reward. Marx's economic theory is flawed as well. though.Cap Kritik 161/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab existence of "functionally specialized. greedy. This argument makes some sense but it ignores two things: the infinite and contradictory variety of experiences any society will produce and the evidence that [h]man's behavior will always be guided by certain instincts. as he feels it can simply by changing our society that we live in. He analyzed capitalism and concluded that while it was productive. we can't prove that it exists in all men.html Karl Marx's work laid the foundation for the theories that redefined the left in the nineteenth century. seem to conflict with reality. not accounted for by the will to power. Survival instinct and conscious thought can be proven. This would not only take generations to instill in society. why should we live with the inequities of capitalism? The problem is that his assumptions are backed by no credible arguments. a human being has bi llions of experiences. Some of the details have been addressed by modern Communists and Socialists.ninjalawyer. the self-consuming nature of capitalist society. In a single day. Humans are no exception. If there were no do more than just sit there and exist. If it's not known to be in our DNA. If one disagrees with the way Marx sees manki nd. the Marxist ideal is a prescription for disaster. we would just take them and copulate and nothing else. and so do not reproduce as often. we can empirically observe a sense of compassion in men that helps us build the great societies that we have. If one accepts the materialist conception of the world at face value. that we have not yet found in our DNA. his theories are inherently flawed. Man not only chooses which experiences to learn from. Competing for resources forces us to establish our identities and maximize our chances of survival and reproduction. Marx's first set of assumptions regards the nature of [hu]man[s]." although it plays no role in his theory. Rothenbaum. It is possible that there are other elements of human nature." "Will to power" is the application of conscious thought to our survival instinct. and he will learn from many of them. Due to our naturally distrustful. he seemed to be overlooking the forces that made man what he is today." In other words. Looking at human history. While Marx gave the world a great deal to think about and has influenced billions. At some age. when subjected to These assumptions lead me to question his conclusions regarding the forces that drive history.

Capitalism encourages individuals to make their contributions and spread them throughout the world. animal-lik e existence. they spent their lives working humbly under the "patronage" of feudal lords.Cap Kritik 162/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab rewarded until the advent of capitalism and is industrial revolution. Clayton . raising all of mankind higher and higher from our natural. Ian. If these few contributors weren't punished for their differences . Rothenbaum. which has increased our rates of progress exponentially. DML. Harry. Amanda. Jay.

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Cap Sustainable
Capitalism is progressive, self-correcting, and wealth-generating – ensures sustainability Goklany 7 – Julian Simon Fellow at the Political Economy Research Center
Indur, Now For the Good News, Environmentalists and globalization

foes are united in their fear that greater population and consumption of energy, materials, and chemicals accompanying economic growth, technological change and free trade—the mainstays of globalization—degrade human and environmental well-being. Indeed, the 20th century saw the United States’ population multiply by four, income by seven, carbon dioxide emissions by nine, use of materials by 27, and use of chemicals by more than 100. Yet life expectancy increased from 47 years to 77 years. Onset of major disease such as cancer, heart, and respiratory disease has been postponed between eight and eleven years in the past
century. Heart disease and cancer rates have been in rapid decline over the last two decades, and total cancer deaths have actually declined the last two years, despite increases in population. Among the very

These improvements haven’t been restricted to the United States. It’s a global phenomenon. Worldwide, life expectancy has more than doubled,
young, infant mortality has declined from 100 deaths per 1,000 births in 1913 to just seven per 1,000 today. from 31 years in 1900 to 67 years today. India’s and China’s infant mortalities exceeded 190 per 1,000 births in the early 1950s; today they are 62 and 26, respectively. In the developing world, the proportion of the population suffering from chronic hunger declined from 37 percent to 17 percent between 1970 and 2001 despite a 83 percent increase in population. Globally average annual incomes in real dollars have tripled

poverty has halved since 1981, from 40 percent to 20 labor in low income countries declined from 30 percent to 18 percent between 1960 and 2003. Equally important, the world is more literate and better educated than ever. People are freer politically, economically, and socially to pursue their well-being as they see fit. More people choose their own rulers, and have freedom of expression. They are more likely to live under rule of law, and less likely to be arbitrarily deprived of life, limb, and property. Social and professional mobility have also never been greater. It’s easier than ever for people across the world to transcend the bonds of caste, place, gender, and other accidents of birth. People today
since 1950. Consequently, the proportion of the planet's developing-world population living in absolute

percent. Child

work fewer hours and have more money and better health to enjoy their leisure time than their ancestors. Man’s environmental record is more complex. The early stages of development can indeed cause some environmental

deterioration as societies pursue first-order problems affecting human well-being. These include hunger, malnutrition,
illiteracy, and lack of education, basic public health services, safe water, sanitation, mobility, and ready sources of energy. Because greater wealth alleviates these problems while providing basic creature comforts, individuals and societies initially focus on economic development, often neglecting other aspects of environmental quality. In

time, however, they recognize that environmental deterioration reduces their quality of life. Accordingly, they put more of their recently acquired wealth and human capital into developing and implementing cleaner technologies. This brings about an environmental transition via the twin forces of economic development and technological progress, which begin to provide solutions to environmental problems instead of creating those problems. All of which is why we today find that the richest countries are also the cleanest. And while many developing countries
have yet to get past the “green ceiling,” they are nevertheless ahead of where today’s developed countries used to be when they were equally wealthy. The point of transition from "industrial period" to "environmental conscious" continues to fall. For example, the US introduced unleaded gasoline only after its GDP per capita exceeded $16,000. India and China did the same before they reached $3,000 per capita. This progress is a testament to the power of globalization and the transfer of ideas

and knowledge (that lead is harmful, for example). It's also testament to the importance of trade in transferring technology from developed to developing countries—in this case, the technology needed to
remove lead from gasoline. This hints at the answer to the question of why some parts of the world have been left behind while the rest of the world has thrived. Why have improvements in well-being stalled in areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab world? The proximate cause of improvements in well-being is a “cycle of progress” composed of the

mutually reinforcing forces of economic development and technological progress. But that cycle itself is propelled
by a web of essential institutions, particularly property rights, free markets, and rule of law. Other important institutions would include science- and technology-based problem-solving founded on skepticism and

free and open societies prosper. Isolation, intolerance, and hostility to the free exchange of knowledge, technology, people, and goods breed stagnation or regression.
experimentation; receptiveness to new technologies and ideas; and freer trade in goods, services—most importantly in knowledge and ideas. In short,

Capitalism can modify into a mixed economy – ensures it’s sustainability Noble 3 – chair of the department of Political Science and director of the international studies program at the California State
University Charles, Why Capitalism Needs the Left,

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In combination,

7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab

free market and capitalism have also helped usher in and sustain fundamental political changes, widening the scope both of personal freedom and political democracy. Because of this system, more people get to choose where to work, what to consume, and what to make than ever before, while ancient inequalities of rank and status are overturned. The spread of market capitalism has also laid the foundation for the expansion of democratic decisionmarket capitalism is not a

making. With the establishment of private property and free exchange, political movements demanding other freedoms, including wider access to government, have proliferated. To be sure, capitalism cannot guarantee personal liberty or political democracy. It has produced it share of dictatorships too. But, to date, no society has been able to establish and maintain political democracy without first establishing and securing a market capitalist system. The large corporations that stand at the heart of contemporary capitalism have proven indispensable in this transformation. They are the essential intermediaries in the modern economy, linking financial capital, expertise, technology, managerial skill, labor and leadership. They are spreading everywhere in the world not only because they are powerful, but also because they work. But

machine that can run on its own. It , limits, and above all else stewardship. Partly because the system feeds off of people's darker instincts, partly because it is a machine, and therefore indifferent to human values, and partly because there is no central planner to assure that everything works out in the end, there must be some conscious effort to bring order to this chaos, however creative it might be. Left to its own devices, unfettered capitalism produces great inequities, great suffering, and great instability. In fact, these in-built tendencies are enough to destroy the system itself. Karl Marx figured this out in the mid-19th century and built his revolutionary system on the

needs rules

Marx underestimated our ability to use politics to impose limits on the economic system itself. At one time, and still in other places, even conservatives knew this to be true, and offered themselves up as responsible social stewards. Whether out of a sense of noblesse oblige or enlightened self interest, they volunteered to lead a collective effort to reform the system so that capitalism could survive and continue to serve human interests. From the 1930s through the 1970s, American corporate leaders and a fair number of Republicans seemed to understand this too. They made their piece with "big" government, seeing in the New Deal and even the Great Society a way to forge both social peace and political stability through the creation of a "mixed" economy.
expectation that these dark forces would prevail. But

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Space Cap Sustainable
Space makes cap more sustainable. Autino et. al., ’11 – Chairman of the Greater Earth Initiative

[Adriano Autino, member of the International Astronautic Federation and Chairman of the Greater Earth Initiative; Patrick Collins; Alberto Cavallo; Michael Martin-Smith; Charles Radley; authors for the Space Renaissance Initiative; “Call for a World Space Renaissance Forum;” accessed 6/21/2011; ] Jay

The global economy is entering a deep crisis, the worst since 1929. This is the second act of the "Crisis of
Closed-World Ideologies", which has been developing throughout the XX Century. In 1989, the fall of the Berlin wall was the Crisis of Collectivist Ideology. The recent massive failure of the financial system is the Crisis of Neo-Liberal

Ideology. Both these ideologies failed because they are based upon a closed-world, terro-centric philosophy. There are now almost 7 billion humans making massive demands on planet Earth: we urgently need to open the frontier, and move to a wider vision of our world, so as to access geo-lunar system resources and energy. In short, we need a new "Open World Philosophy". The alternative would be the implosion and collapse of our civilization. The most promising event of the current time, the emerging
countries' industrial revolution, will very soon have to face the dramatic insufficiency of the energy and other resources of the Earth. Because of this they are destined to fail if they remain locked within our planetary boundaries. There are some encouraging signs, pointing the way out of such confinement: in 2004, Scaled Composites proved that low-cost space travel is feasible - as it has been for 50 years. And both China and India have the Moon in their sights: they seem to understand clearly that space offers an alternative to a darkening future. This is because it is now evident that any closed-world strategy will result in

tragedy, as the 1930s depression ended with World War II. Today, since the energy and resources of planet Earth are not enough, it is far too likely that this crisis will end with a terrible holocaust, if we do not reach outside our world to obtain new resources and energy. Consequently if
G20 discussions are to solve the economic crisis, they must include plans for geolunar system industrialization, as the only sustainable direction for development, since this will make non-terrestrial resources and energy available. If governments are to give out financial aid, it should not be to obsolete industrial segments! Help should be given to the most promising industrial revolution of our age: the ignition of the space economy, which can only be based on low-cost space travel. This means, initially, rapidly developing low-cost space travel, industrialization of the Moon, space solar power supply, and accessing extra-terrestrial resources from asteroids and cometoids! There need be no depression if we aim high! If we want our civilization to continue, and to reach a higher ethical level, a new Renaissance is necessary and urgent - a Space Renaissance, the industrial and cultural revolution of our age! Stock exchanges are burning billions each week, but what are they burning? Only bits of information in bank accounts. Real

wealth is not money, but technologies and the potential for work: with 7 billion intelligences, Humanity has
never been so rich! The above is clearly evident to all astronautic humanists, but not to our political leaders!

DML, Ian, Harry, Jay, Amanda, Rothenbaum, Clayton

emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii Rudolph. as in the defeat of Hitler in World War II. including World Wars I and II. Such things do happen. at this most bloody cost in lives? Nothing positive. as in a real war. The irony is that in practice. it’s short-sighted to reject the free market without a specific and viable solution Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. It also disregards the calm and steady progress that is the basic rule of a society with a market economy. and the Thirty Years War between Catholics and Protestants. this greatest of human social experiments. fatal deportations. the goal of a communist utopia was enough to justify all the deaths. By that method water or fire can be proved to be bad things. a wage that has been reduced. achieve for its poor citizens. millions might die. It left in its wake an economic. That is. that of Marxism has been by far the bloodiest – bloodier than the Catholic Inquisition. even after decades of total DML. either in history or in the world around us. and then totally rebuild a communist society. but by concentrating solely on individual instances. bourgeoisie. To the ruling Marxists. tyrants.Cap Kritik 166/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab 2AC Cap Good Frontline Of course capitalism has its problems – however. religions. But someone who condemns the system as such is obligated to answer this question: What political and economic system could manage things better? Never before in human history has prosperity grown so rapidly and poverty declined so heavily. A myopic focus on capitalism's imperfections ignores the freedom and independence that it confers on people who have never experienced anything but oppression. extrajudicial executions and fraudulent show trials. when Marxists control states. exploitation. cultural norms. they had to mercilessly tear down the old feudal or capitalist order and Buddhist culture. but this isn't the full picture. Nothing could be allowed to stand in the way of this achievement. Problems are found in every political and economic system. "wreckers. Online Of all religions. Marxist regimes murdered nearly 110 million people from 1917 to 1987. imperialism and inequality – and." intellectuals. Marxism is more deadly then all the wars of the 20th century. to suggest that another system could do as well? Alternatives to Capitalism end in war and genocide Rummel 4 – prof. the various Catholic crusades. social and cultural disaster. Ian. man-made famines. because some people drown and some get burned to death. noncombatants would unfortunately get caught in the battle. As in a war. one may miss the larger reality of how a political or economic system generally works and what fantastic values it confers on the great majority compared with other alternatives. Marxism has meant bloody terrorism. The Khmer Rouge – (Cambodian communists) who ruled Cambodia for four years – provide insight into why Marxists believed it necessary and moral to massacre so many of their fellow humans. 98 Capitalism is not a perfect system. environmental. outright mass murder and genocide. The Killing Machine that is Marxism. secular and otherwise. deadly purges. pg. and the Korean and Vietnam Wars. There would be necessary enemy casualties: the clergy. but these deaths would be justified by the end. rightists. Rothenbaum. capitalists. that they would bring about the greatest human welfare and happiness. the rich and landlords. In total. And what did Marxism. but rejecting all systems is not an option. Hunting down negative examples of what can happen in a market economy is easy enough. Harry. traditions and sentiments were expendable. There is nothing wrong with identifying problems and mishaps in a predominantly successful system if one does so with the constructive intent of rectifying or alleviating them. Jay. and that to realize this utopia. and it is not good for everyone all the time. They believed without a shred of doubt that they knew the truth. Their Marxism was married to absolute power. Is there any evidence. counterrevolutionaries. Amanda. lethal prison camps and murderous forced labor. For perspective on this incredible toll. The Marxists saw the construction of this utopia as a war on poverty. In practice. Critics of globalization are good at pointing out individual harms—a factory that has closed down. note that all domestic and foreign wars during the 20th century killed around 35 million. Clayton . Government – the Communist Party – was above any law. In Defense of Global Capitalism. All other institutions.

There is a supremely important lesson for human life and welfare to be learned from this horrendous sacrifice to one ideology: No one can be trusted with unlimited power. and the rest died as an unintended result of Marxist collectivization and agricultural policies. but millions of deaths. Marxism did not improve the lot of the average person. Overall. And that around 35 million people escaped Marxist countries as refugees was an unequaled vote against Marxist utopian pretensions. but usually made living conditions worse than before the revolution. Rothenbaum. or California and Texas. Jay. the more likely human lives and welfare will be sacrificed. including 2 million outside Ukraine) and communist China (about 30 million dead from 1959-61).Cap Kritik 167/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab control. As a government's power is more unrestrained. Ian. What is astonishing is that this "currency" of death by Marxism is not thousands or even hundreds of thousands. Harry. in the last century almost 55 million people died in various Marxist famines and associated epidemics – a little over 10 million of them were intentionally starved to death. had been wiped out. DML. the more likely it is to kill its own citizens. emptying it of all human beings. or decree the whims of a dictator. Amanda. The more power a government has to impose the beliefs of an ideological or religious elite. This is almost incomprehensible – it is as though the whole population of the American New England and Middle Atlantic States. Clayton . as its power reaches into all corners of culture and society. Its equivalent would be everyone fleeing California. It is not by chance that the world's greatest famines have happened within the Soviet Union (about 5 million dead from 1921-23 and 7 million from 1932-3.

PhD. Still. rather than for adding to the risks or costs of fighting (Gartzke and Li 2003. It also produces a subsample of capitalist dyads that is about 6.045). to exaggerate capabilities or resolve. one can signal by “burning money. there are no wars in the capitalist dyads either. Amanda. “The Capitalist Peace. Second. Contests inform by being costly. Third. while tactics such as burning money only harm the initiator.” 1/5/07. since market integration combines mechanisms for revelation and coercion. Gartzke.a record high. A leader’s threats against another state become costly when threats spark market repercussions. those nations have more to lose should war break out. but also ruptured trade and investment ties that impose lasting damage on the economy. Pr=0.Cap Kritik 168/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – War Capitalism prevents conflict through information Gartzke 7.cato. This is the closest ordinal value on the scale to a value at least two standard deviations above the mean (3. Studies prove.0.OPEN.1%).26). determining more about these relationships. http://dss. not much different from that for democratic dyads (R = and their relative impact on war. more contact with people in other countries. Of course. Markets are arguably most relevant as mechanisms for revealing information. Li. requires that we move beyond cross tabs. Participants learn from watching the reactions of leaders to the differential incentives of economic cost and political reward._2=4. Two economically integrated states can more often avoid military violence. Anarchy makes it difficult for states to compel honest answers from one another except through the threat or imposition of harm. trade and globalization have reinforced the trend toward democracy. Ian.627)=6. Still.associate professor of political science at UC San Diego (Erik. but a nonintegrated initiator cannot make its threats credible or informative. IMFFIN.pdf) While policy differences or resource competition can generate conflict. Let me arbitrarily define capitalist dyads as those where the lower IMF FIN.” 12/28/05.php?pub_id=5344) An economically integrated target can be coerced by the threat of losing valuable exchange. Clayton . Jay. Thanks in part to globalization. as national economies become more integrated with each other. almost two thirds of the world's countries today are democracies -. globalization allows nations to acquire wealth through production and trade rather than DML. Harry. the capitalist dyads again contain no wars and the relationship is highly significant (0.pdf) How many wars occur between “capitalist” countries? It is not obvious how to condense the bundle of factors discussed above into a single variable. Freedom to trade nurtures democracy by expanding the middle class in globalizing countries and equipping people with tools of communication such as cell phones. In short. satellite TV. but such acts create a relative as well as absolute loss. (LOW) is probably the best candidate for such a test.006+2×(1.Director of the Cato institute center for trade policy studies (Daniel. With trade comes more travel.9% of the available sample of observations. Interestingly. http://dss. OPEN score is at least six. Liberal theory emphasizes the pacifying effect of cross-border economic and Boehmer 2001). they need not produce contests if states can resolve differences diplomatically. War in a globalized world not only means human casualties and bigger government. and more exposure to new ideas.1491 for the two dummy variables). Rothenbaum. The expansion of capitalism makes war less likely Griswold 5. Thus.associate professor of political science at UC San Diego (Erik. When I do this.ucsd. “Peace on earth? Try free trade among men. Tactics that impart costs only as a byproduct of imposing costs on an opponent can produce relative gains. a globalized initiator can signal but has little incentive to hamper its own markets when a nonintegrated target does not suffer (Gartzke 2006b).PhD. though the smaller sample of cases for which data on financial openness are available means that only about a quarter of the wars are accounted for in the sample (54 wars.To extend this very crude test a bit further. I add zeros to round out missing observations so that the capitalist and democracy samples are the same size and all 222 wars appear in the sample. “The Capitalist Peace. and democracies don't pick fights with each other. globalization has dramatically raised the economic cost of war. however. http://www.” 1/5/07.” expending valuable resources autonomously. forcing actors to choose between bearing the burden of competition and backing down. Competition creates incentives to bluff.capitalism prevents war Gartzke 7. and the Internet. both democracies and capitalist dyads appear never to fight wars.ucsd. States with economies integrated into global markets face autonomous investors with incentives to reallocate capital away from risk. Conversely.

php?pub_id=5193/) But Gartzke argues that "the 'democratic peace' is a mirage created by the overlap between economic and political freedom. and regional differences. have no impact on whether states fight. while nations with very low levels of economic freedom are 14 times more prone to conflict than those with very high levels. for instance. but need not result in violence if the stakes are literally “not worth fighting over” or when bargains preempt fighting. Territorial aggrandizement no longer provides the best path to riches. a mutual preference for peace requires that the value of winning be small relative to the cost of fighting (Morrow 1989. either. Contends Gartzke.Former assistant to president Regan. noting that he relied on the same data as most democratic peace theorists.” 1/5/07." Capitalism is by far the more important factor. Rothenbaum. To believe is does is dangerous: There's no panacea for creating a conflict-free world." Gartzke considers other variables. In this framework. Markets generate economic opportunities that make war less desirable. democracy alone doesn't yield peace." In particular.precludes the impacts of the kritik Bandow 5. Jay. claimed optimistically that “Should war break out between two great nations I have no DML.” 11/10/05. But promoting open international markets . Ian.Former assistant to president Regan. created by the Fraser Institute.PhD. Powell 1999). and other Western European nations to form a common market that has become the European Union. they can acquire them peacefully by trading away what they can produce best at home.cato. democracies typically have freer economies than do authoritarian states. Capitalism prevents war and disincentivises conflict. “Spreading Capitalism is good for Peace.J.ucsd. His conclusion hasn't gone unchallenged. just usually not each other. sanctions. financial assets.cato.empirically proven Gartzke 7. say oil or timber or farm products. Comparison of available allocations is zero-sum." That is. a general war in Europe is now unthinkable. Those are assets that cannot be seized by armies. then it also is true that "states with advanced free market economies never go to war with each other. Hot-blooded nationalism and ideological fervor can overwhelm cold economic calculations. challenges Gartzke's methodology and worries that it "may well lead intelligent and policy-wise analysts and commentators to draw the wrong conclusions about the importance of democratization. “Spreading Capitalism is good for Peace." Gartzke responds in detail. In large part because of their intertwined economies.php?pub_id=5193/) Positive economic trends are not enough to prevent war. but then. wealth is measured in terms of intellectual property. Free political systems naturally entail free elections and are more likely to protect other forms of liberty . an avid proponent of the democratic peace theory. exacerbated global tensions. neither is democracy. Imagine two countries attempting to divide up a bundle of goods (resources. Author R. “The Capitalist Peace. Cobden. http://dss. Amanda.associate professor of political science at UC San Diego (Erik. the relationship between economic liberty and peace remains. The spread of capitalism alone solves wars and conflicts Bandow 5. Out of the ashes of that experience.Cap Kritik 169/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab conquest of territory and resources. http://www. spreading capitalism .civil and economic. Senior fellow @ the Cato institute (Doug. France. Moreover." The point is not that democracy is valueless. any shift from one allocation to another benefits one country only at the expense of the other country. including alliance memberships. Senior fellow @ the Cato institute (Doug.pdf) Conflict is inherent in the allocation of resources among two or more parties. It long has been obvious that democracies are willing to the best means to encourage peace as well as prosperity. territory). But deep trade and investment ties among nations make war less attractive. in and of themselves. for example. which interfere with economic Clayton . He explains: "Democracy does not have a measurable impact. That doesn't mean that nothing can be done. free trade and globalization do not guarantee peace. Of course. Although the causes of conflict and helped to usher in a world war. nuclear deterrence. Trade wars in the 1930s deepened the economic depression. Rummel. provides a coercive step short of war to achieve foreign policy ends. The shift from statist mercantilism to high-tech capitalism has transformed the economics behind war. "liberal political systems. Peace advocates have long championed factors thought to make war prohibitively expensive. "representative governments are unlikely to contribute directly to international is. while "democracy is desirable for many reasons. poorer democracies perform like non-democracies. If people need resources outside their national borders. If it is true that democratic states don't go to war. Increasingly. Harry. the United States urged Germany." he notes in a chapter in the latest volume of Economic Freedom in the World. http://www. and human capital. Thus. However. Free-flowing capital markets and other aspects of globalization simultaneously draw nations together and raise the economic price of military conflict. Capitalism prevents conflict escalation.” 11/10/05.

on the other hand. War costs are also endogenous. Clayton . and subdue foreign populations. If soldiers are expensive. the value of resources in dispute is small or varies with ownership. Harry. and power. if fighting is prohibitive. and rooted labor in favor of intellectual and financial capital (Brooks 1999. if war is a process where competitors inflict costs on one another. but not whether a contest occurs (Levy andMorgan 1984). If the rents from conquest decline. If. Rothenbaum. invasion of Iraq illustrates.S. 2005. then nations can be better off “outsourcing occupation” to local leaders and obtaining needed goods through trade. even as occupation costs increase.32 DML. occupying a reluctant foreign power is extremely labor intensive.Cap Kritik 170/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab doubt that the immense consumption of material and the rapid destruction of property would have the effect of very soon bringing the combatants to reason or exhausting their resources” ([1867] 1903.”30 Increasing the cost of fighting. and which after. Development can alter these incentives if modern production processes de-emphasize land. but do not tell us which bargains are forged before warfare. making war more expensive will affect who wins. then states can be disinclined to fight. War or treaties that shifted control of territory changed the balance of resources. Ian. 355). then states can prefer to buy goods rather than steal them. minerals. Jay. Sovereigns. or how long fighting lasts.31 As the U. Yet. Even the prospect of nuclear annihilation did not deter disputes during the cold war (Schelling 1960). prospered as the state extended its domain. and to a lesser extent citizens. Amanda. Nations have historically used force to acquire land and resources. or alternately increasing the benefits of peace—even when possible— shape what each actor will accept in lieu of fighting. Rosecrance 1996). countries will make themselves a “nice little war.

Dehumanization leads to Genocide and multiple wars Maiese." July 2003 24 May 2008 http://www. in so doing. “inhumane treatment deepens the antagonism and the desire to continue the struggle and even to seek revenge.” 1/6/04. trade promotes political freedom indirectly by creating an economically independent and political aware middle class. Jay. Those that are closed are nine times more likely to completely suppress civil and political freedoms as those that are open.” “vermin.. Such was the case in Rwanda in 1994. and pursue an overwhelming victory that will cause one's opponent to simply disappear. Rwanda’s history of social tensions. and democracy. and long-standing human rights abuses fueled the genocidal massacres of the 1990s. (Julie and Jeffrey W. “Introduction: Exploring the Intersection between Human Rights. http://www.php?pub_id=3630) The reality of the world today broadly reflects those theoretical links between trade. Memoirs can likewise evoke violent responses. political reform. And by promoting faster growth. Deputy Director for Education at the United States Institute of Peace. and political and civil freedom.” or “evil incarnate” and thereby setting the stage for future human rights abuses.associate director of Cato's Center for Trade Policy Studies (Dan. create cycles of dehumanization based on fear. Politicians and militaries can use that fear to stoke their campaigns and further their agendas. As trade and globalization have spread to more and more countries in the last 30 years. Human rights abuses. This sort of into-the-sea framing can cause DML. Capitalism empirically leads to increased freedom and democracy Griswold 4. 03 ( Michelle. Harry. Leaders who emphasize ends over means are not likely to hesitate before violating human rights in pursuit of their goals. threaten the security of individuals and social groups and. and civil society. as Tutsis in exile violated the rights of Hutu leaders even as Hutus in power dehumanized and slaughtered Tutsis at home. free markets.empirically proven Griswold 4. Nations that have followed a path of trade reform in recent decades by progressively opening themselves to the global economy are significantly more likely to have expanded their citizens' political and civil freedoms. Clayton .” pg.associate director of Cato's Center for Trade Policy Studies (Dan. Not only do human rights abuses lead to the onset of conflict. Human needs theory is closely identified with the seminal work of John Burton. but also. For example. since old resentments and distrust can keep tensions higher between groups or countries. prolonging a struggle and making an enduring peace more difficult to attain. “Trading Tyranny for Freedom: How open markets till the soil for democracy. so too have democracy and political and civil freedoms. like unmet human needs. Amanda. Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and Political Problems that unsatisfied human needs are the root cause of many of the most violent conflicts.cato. "Dehumanization. 3-4) The notion that deprivation of human rights contributes to protracted social conflict draws from the theory of basic human needs.” 1/6/04. Rothenbaum. intended to intimidate and suppress the enemy.cato. “Trading Tyranny for Freedom: How open markets till the soil for democracy. is frequently counterproductive. The callous and indiscriminate use of violence. who theorized in Deviance. the most economically open countries today are more than three times as likely to enjoy full political and civil freedoms as those that are relatively Protecting freedom is key to prevent dehumanization Mertus 6-Associate Professor of International Relations at American University.Cap Kritik 171/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – Freedom Capitalism promotes democracy. Ian.beyondintractability. and Helsing. describing other peoples as “animals. freedom. and democratic ideas. communications. http://www. Increased trade and economic integration promote civil and political freedoms directly by opening a society to new technology.” Some ideologies use dehumanizing imagery to exclude “enemy” groups. Economic liberalization provides a counterweight to governmental power and creates space for civil In particular.php?pub_id=3630) Political scientists have long noted the connection between economic Parties may come to believe that destruction of the other side is necessary. widespread killings. as Louis Kreisberg notes.

because these weapons make “the costs of war obvious. the establishment of personal relationships between conflicting parties. 2005. One irrational leader with DML. Cambodia. and concludes “that all states are rational. and concluding that so far it looked so good that others should try it.” But if this is a peace worthy of the name. 480) However. Ian. it certainly is not one on which to risk the future of civilization.” Actually. venal. such as those in Korea. and Sudan—are all run by dictators. Democracy prevents WMD proliferation Halperin 5 .” He asks us to trust that rationality will always prevail when there is a risk of nuclear retaliation. and noting that he had already fallen for 64 floors without anything bad happening to him.” Tepperman shares this world with Kenneth Waltz. war crimes. Proliferation risks global nuclear war and extinction Krieger ‘9 .” provides a novel but frivolous argument that nuclear weapons “may not. a University of California professor emeritus of political science. Jay. who Tepperman describes as “the leading ‘nuclear optimist.Cap Kritik 172/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab lasting damage to relationships between the conflicting parties. then every invasion of freedom must be emphatically identified and resisted with undying spirit. Ask Milovan Djilas. Syria.php?krieger) Jonathan Tepperman’s article in the September 7. In sum. Harry. 99) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. and unacceptable.wagingpeace. It is thought that the psychological process of dehumanization might be mitigated or reversed through humanization efforts. For example. https://www. “Still Loving the Bomb After All These Years”. Clayton . the most notable being the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. the development of empathy. Waltz’s logic is akin to observing a man falling from a high rise building. Dangerous logic! Tepperman builds upon Waltz’s logic. Pakistan. and some near disasters. and nuclear weapons programs—North Korea. That road leads to chaos. and genocide. making it more difficult to solve their underlying problems and leading to the loss of more innocent lives.Senior Vice President of the Center for American Progress and Director of the Open Society Policy Center. The countries that have been the most active proliferators of materials for chemical. and the end of all human aspiration. which it isn’t.” Actually. petty. p. Vietnam and Afghanistan." Thus. (Morton Halperin et al. Ask Solzhenstyn. “The Democracy Advantage”. tyranny. if one believes in freedom as a supreme value and proper ordering principle for any society aiming to maximize spiritual and material welfare. Toledo Law Review. Russia has a long way to go in esA similar pattern is at work 33 tablishing democratic institutions that can assure transparency in government behavior and hold government officials accountable for their actions. 2009 issue of Newsweek. one may still insist on echoing Ernest Hemingway – "I believe in only one thing: liberty. and the pursuit of common goals. Russia is also on the list. Although not classified as an autocracy. dehumanization often paves the way for human rights violations.Pres. even evil…. Protecting rights is a priori – it cannot be sacrificed for anything Petro 74 -. and the former Yugoslavia. despotism. 9-4. he is asking us to do more than trust in the rationality of leaders. in WWII." And it is always well to bear in mind David Hume's observation: "It is seldom that liberty of any kind is lost all at once. inevitable. “it’s led to what’s known as the nuclear peace….” even though their leaders may have a lot of bad qualities. It’s striking and against all historical precedent that for that substantial period. it is unacceptable to say that the invasion of one aspect of freedom is of no import because there have been invasions of so many other aspects. there were a number of proxy wars between nuclear weapons states. in Tepperman’s world. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and Councilor – World Future Council (David. make the world more dangerous…. Amanda. the dehumanization of the Jews ultimately led to the destruction of millions of people. Belarus. p. Spring 1974.[9] Similar atrocities have occurred in Rwanda. “The bomb may actually make us safer. “Why Obama Should Learn to Love the Bomb. he is asking us to gamble the future on this proposition. there has not been any war among nuclear states. “The iron logic of deterrence and mutually assured destruction is so compelling. biological. including being “stupid. and adherence to established international regulations in closed political systems allow them greater leeway in pursuing programs to acquire them. Indeed. in fact. The lack of” Rather. independent scrutiny.’” Waltz expresses his optimism in this way: “We’ve now had 64 years of experience since Hiroshima.professor of law at Wake Forest (Sylvester Petro. Libya. Rothenbaum.” Tepperman argues. Iran.

As an ultimate celebration of the faulty logic of deterrence. it is only an unproven supposition that nuclear weapons have prevented wars. “Should International Law Be Part of Our Law?”. The longer that nuclear weapons are not used. he not only favors nuclear weapons. Leaders of Country A with nuclear weapons must communicate to other countries (B. or would do so in the future. that leaders enact policies that serve the interests of their people.” Those who oppose Tepperman’s favorable disposition toward the bomb. resulting in a global Hiroshima.” “Nuclear peace.” These would be the people. has ever had a mass famine within its borders. These countries joined together in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. We have certainly come far too close to the precipice of catastrophic nuclear war. and the International Court of Justice interpreted this to mean complete nuclear disarmament in all its aspects. Harry. Tepperman calls for providing any nuclear weapons state with a “survivable second strike option. he concludes that wouldn’t be so bad “given the way that bombs tend to mellow behavior. If some additional states. democratic accountability also plays a crucial role in preventing major public policy disasters. Tepperman celebrates “the iron logic of deterrence. at least to some extent.” It is a theory based upon threats that must be effectively communicated and believed. UK.” Thus. “nuclear weapons start to seem a lot less frightening. The leaders of the other countries must understand and believe the threat from Country A will. For example. Presumably he would have President Obama providing new and secure nuclear weapons to North Korea. the prospects of conventional war would increase dramatically. developed nuclear arsenals. including Iran. Ian. Russia. Yes. and I would certainly be one of them.” but deterrence is a theory that is far from rooted in “iron logic. since elected leaders know that a highly visible catastrophic failure is likely to lead to punishment at the polls.” he tells us. and that nuclear weapons. who see nuclear weapons as presenting an urgent danger to our security. that would be serious.Cap Kritik 173/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab control over a nuclear arsenal could start a nuclear conflagration. it is striking that no democratic nation. our species and our future. Tepperman seems to be arguing that seeking to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons is bad policy. Amanda. make efforts at non-proliferation unnecessary and even unwise. Most of the countries in the world reject the argument. because of their threat. etc. (96) whereas such events are common in authoritarian and totalitarian states. made most prominently by Kenneth Waltz. the greater the incentive for these countries to develop their own nuclear arsenals. Pakistan and any other nuclear weapons states that come along so that they will feel secure enough not to use their weapons in a first-strike attack. but finds the security of these weapons to trump human security. “rests on a scary bargain: you accept a small chance that something extremely bad will happen in exchange for a much bigger chance that something very bad – conventional war – won’t happen. He also doesn’t make the case that in a world without nuclear weapons. France and China) to engage in good faith negotiations for nuclear disarmament. Stanford Law Review.” But the “extremely bad” thing he asks us to accept is the end of the human species. Tepperman? Democracy acts as a backstop against all of their impacts – no democratically elected leader will allow policy disasters McGinnis and Somin 7 – Professor of Law @ NU and Georgetown Respectively (John and Ilya. The principal bargain of the NPT requires the five NPT nuclear weapons states (US. democracy serves as a check on self-dealing by political elites and helps ensure. that the spread of nuclear weapons makes the world safer. Deterrence is unstable and therefore precarious. the more other countries may come to believe that they can challenge Country A with impunity from nuclear retaliation. Jay. Do we really want to bet the human future that Kim Jong-Il and his successors are more rational than Mr. in fact.) the conditions under which A will retaliate with nuclear weapons. C. After all. no matter how poor. but they never agreed to maintain indefinitely a system of nuclear apartheid in which some states possess nuclear weapons and others are prohibited from doing so. (97) More generally. be carried out. Tepperman finds that when viewed from his “nuclear optimist” perspective. he refers to as “nuclear pessimists. Clayton . The more that Country A bullies other countries. DML. Questia) Finally. Rothenbaum.

liberty for the individual is simply impossible. his employees). It must control the worker along with the work.. he goes bankrupt.self "not free to become a professor" but the fact is simply thatothers choose not to avail themselves of his services.." Thus. so that his product will outvote that of his competitors in the economic plebiscite of the consumers."I believe in only one thing: liberty. despotism. he may call him. Toledo Law Review.. in fact. and the end of all human aspiration.wise or short-sighted. not as the power to do something.vides the manufacturer. is not necessarily unfree. and no one will stop him. p. because of the power of unlimited government. the worker must ultimately lose his freedom to choose his own line of work. does all the planning and assigns and controls all the jobs. They can in fact usually earn their living by attacking the existing state of affairs. it is unacceptable to say that the invasion of one aspect of freedom is of no importance because there have been invasions of so many other aspects. can still find employment. Ask That road leads to chaos. where the state owns all the means of production. If nobody is will. as absence of coercion. Someone who wants to be a college professor and isn't. Libertarianism: A Political Philosophy for Tomorrow. The worker voluntarily chooses to work for him. one may still insist.ism the state would eventually wither choose to buy his product (if they don't. Jay. but only by paying them at least as much as the going wage for the type of work in question. 480. but with socialism the political leader has the power to shut up the opposition. but he is still free because he is uncoecced. and his plan is un. In a centrally planned economy. When we discuss "freedom to choose one's job" we mean freedom in its primary sense. For " . 1974 – Prof.html] However. This to buy his services because he is ignorant. people who disagree with the government can easily be disposed of. all this is different. No one forces him to start the business. In Russia what happens is that an economic demand is "created" for a worker in the salt-mines of Siberia. if someone plans to start a business. then every invasion of freedom must be emphatically identified and resisted with undying spirit. He may not get the job he wants. "4 In a free-enterprise economy. with a natural motive for providing the best possible product at the lowest possible price. even those who disagree with the whole system.ciety.. In a socialist so. Harry. In sum. DML. and consumers voluntari. the consumer determines the economic fate of the manufacturer (and with him. Under complete socialism. it is above all under socialism. There.. if no one wants to go to a certain area for a certain type of job and the government determines the wages. It is precisely under a socialist state that the least liberty can exist. be in a position where his income is independent of the government. if one believed in freedom as a supreme value and the proper ordering principle for any society aiming to maximize spiritual and material welfare. the government must force him to go there. Published Originally in 1971. Nor can he coerce employees into working for him: he cannot command their services by edict. Only in a free- enterprise economy can the individu. he goes broke). Ask Milovan Dijas. But in a socialist system all such choices would be coerced. Ian. of course. pg. people who disagree with the government. tyranny. For. PETRO 74 Petro. Rothenbaum. Clayton . echoing Ernest Hemingway . In a free economy. of course. 249-250 In a free-enterprise society. that the state is and must be closest to omnipo.tence . In both systems there will always be people who disagree." And it is always well to bear in mind David Hume's observation: "It is seldom that liberty of any kind is lost all at once.ndtceda. The manufacturer of the product cannot coerce the consumer.Cap Kritik 174/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – Alt=Coercion Strong state economics ensures totalitarianism and unlimited government coercion Hospers 7 – Professor Emeritus of Philosophy @ USC John. Spring. Perhaps the most foolish thing that Marx ever said was that under social. Law @ NYU [Sylvester. Amanda.

dml) In all three surveys the venture capitalists expressed concerns about commercializing outer space. and war. asteroids and in man-made space structures. Environmental high insurance expenses. These horrors include both man-made disasters such as nuclear war. It also solves every impact ever Collins and Autino 09—*PhD.” http://www. microgravity projects. Success of such extra-terrestrial settlements will have the additional benefit of reducing the danger of human extinction due to planet-wide or cosmic accidents [27]. 2009. Ian. published in 1998. actually help make the case for humans in space. Amanda. communications. Clayton . of which the inhabitants will add to the wealth of different cultures which humans have created in the many different environments in which they live. and natural DML. Rothenbaum. This could have a powerful positive impact on our world. Environmental Policy Dept. bringing its people together and forming partnerships from former enemies as space remains outside the framework of human violence.spacefuture.shtml. long development times. development of new regulatory infrastructure in various Earth orbits. author of the Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution. individuals in space experience the well-documented effect known as the overview effect. in turn. real estate. high risks of funding with the requirement for equally high returns.shtml. **Space Future Representative and Editor (Patrick and Adriano. “$pace: The Final Financial Frontier.spacefuture. The most frequent follow-up comment was that because of the various risks associated with commercial space ventures. 2001. dml) The horrific events of September 11. perhaps even more so than it was prior to September 11. and complex legal issues. plagues or growing pollution.Cap Kritik 175/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Space Tourism Cap expansion in space causes space tourism Livingston 2K – adjunct professor in the Graduate School of Business at Golden Gate University (David. space tourism. Harry. policing and other services will enable the population living in Earth orbits to grow very large. The most likely commercial opportunities cited have remained constant over the years and include launch services. As trade spreads through near-Earth space. When astronauts return to Earth. http://www. these opportunities may encounter problems in financing and implementation. share this experience with others. they all typically share the same transformational experience. Mars. Second Edition. Economic Growth. and what may still come. “Space Tourism After Dennis Tito. In the first phase.spacefuture. Space tourism is key to the overview effect – solves all violence Livingston 2 – adjunct professor in the Graduate School of Business at Golden Gate University (David. This publication describes the transformational experience that commonly follows observation of Earth from space-Earth free of borders and Space tourism is as important as ever. “What the Growth of a Space Tourism Industry Could Contribute to Employment.shtml)//AW Investment in low-cost orbital access and other space infrastructure will facilitate the establishment of settlements on the Moon. market uncertainties. restrictive government policies. and extraterrestrial resources. Space Future. Its importance goes beyond its potential economic value as a new industry when it can facilitate a new view of our omic_growth_environmental_protection_education _culture_and_world_peace. Education. including property/usufruct rights. hostilities. Such activities aimed at making near-Earth space habitable are the logical extension of humans' historical spread over the surface of the Earth. Their concerns centered around the high cost of getting into space. successful space-tourism industry could bring perhaps millions to space who would. mortgage financing and insurance. A growing. pilotage. Economic Environment Research Lab. infrastructure. traffic management. Culture and World”. a term coined by Frank White. As mentioned earlier. remote sensing. inexperienced space company management. settlements are likely to follow.” http://www. Jay. All those who completed the survey recognized that commercial opportunities are possible in outer space.

away from the path which would have been followed if capitalism and democracy operated as intended.Cap Kritik 176/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab disasters such as super-volcanoes or asteroid impact. Clayton . reducing the incentive to use these weapons by rapidly developing the ability to use space-based resources on a large scale is surely equally important [11.16]. Summary As discussed above. Hence.It is hard to think of any objective that is more important than preserving peace. long-term sideeffects that their use should be discouraged as strongly as possible by the international community. Ian. Harry. the space industry would be enormously more developed than it is today. and have such horrific. Technological know-how which could have been used to supply services which are known to be very popular with a large proportion of the population has not been used for that purpose. Hence the failure to develop passenger space travel has seriously distorted the path taken by humans' technological and economic development since WW2. at the present time. appear to be achievable only through the development of a vigorous space tourism industry. 8. Rothenbaum. DML. while waste and suffering due to the unemployment and environmental damage caused by the resulting lack of new industrial opportunities have increased. Amanda. The achievement of this depends on low space travel costs which. if space travel services had started during the 1950s. Jay. Weapons developed in recent decades are so destructive.

OPS-Alaska. As with the latent functions of the Space Race of the Cold War that produced the post Cold War transformation. Clayton . working in a collective way toward large-scale mutual goals. Their large populations. which we have seen only a few times before in history. drive them forward. When Americans hear Chinese and Indian space authorities claim they will send humans to the Moon or launch space stations. where the world system of societies is interdependent. For.astrosociology. rather than hold them back. dml) The context of the reshaping world order is re-organizing the space exploration endeavor and empowering those who risk to explore. Harry. DML. AIAA member AND **Executive Director. Ian. India. Jay. OPS-Alaska. http://www. AIAA Member (Marilyn and Thomas. these societies are quantum-leaping into a state of advanced industrialization on a world stage where capitalism is globalizing. the latent functions of the negotiation of this new world order will open the Cosmos to China. They see still-highly agrarian economies with their Cold War Era eyes.pdf. Sustainability Public Policy Challenges of Long-Duration Space Exploration.Cap Kritik 177/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – World Peace Space globalization key to move away from cold war mentality and achieve space peace Dudley-Rowley and Gangale 6 – *CEO and Founding Researcher. and others with whom they collaborate. Amanda. they tend to hear with the ears of the Cold War world . A key feature of the post Cold War world that makes their progress possible is an interdependence among the world system of societies that requires a level of international cooperation. and where they can wheel and deal and buy any resource to get them where they want to go.

At the same time. making humans the dominant species on the planet. Ian. The strain this puts on ecosystems and resources in developing countries is compounded by demands from industrialised nations keen to exploit everything from timber and tropical fruits to metals and petroleum. 90 ) Zero population growth proponents consistently fret that a rampant population increase will eventually lead to global overcrowding. Professor of Management at Montclair State University in Upper Montclair.2 billion in the industrialized world. Unemployed. Dissatisfaction is inevitable where populations of mostly young people face high unemployment. Clayton . where large numbers of illegal immigrants enter the country in search of work. which also poses a threat to successful development. Unless we act now. The future looks grim. disaffected young men provide both public support and cannon fodder for terrorism. unless patterns of consumption change . If the 5 billion-plus people in developing nations matched the consumption patterns of the 1. While human beings have had an effect for the last 50. Here too illegal immigration is increasingly a problem. the complaint may arise that we simply have too few people to populate these new worlds and staff the jobs in interstellar cities. it has only been since the industrial revolution that the impact has been global rather than regional. Revolutions and political unrest most often occur in developing nations with growing populations. numbers of young working-age people are rising by up to 3 per cent per year. And global wars Ehrlich and Ehrlich 6 Paul Ehrlich and Anne Ehrlich. they contend. Ironically. Jay. This global impact is taking place through five primary processes: over harvesting. sparking tension both within and between nations as increasing numbers of young people migrate to cities and to wealthier countries looking for a better life. for instance. and outright habit destruction. Politicians and the public seem utterly oblivious to what will be required to maintain crucial ecosystem services and an adequate food supply in the face of rapid climate change and an accelerated loss of biodiversity. with unevenly distributed resources and a ravaged environment. at least two more Earths would be needed to support everyone. eventually the species will have to confront the possibility that we will simply run out of room for comfortable habitation. This destruction of species by humans will eventually lead to a destruction of the human species through natural selection. Pg. Rising oil prices may now be signalling the end of cheap energy. 9-30-2006.000 years. as thousands of people flee overcrowded labour markets in poor African and Asian countries in search of jobs. Imagine a well-armed world. Capitalism solves overpopulation DML. The exploration and colonization of other spheres potentially offers limitless possibilities for the numerical growth of the human species. In the US. The majority of terrorists behind 9/11 and attacks in Europe.. 2000-2001. opinions on immigration are already sharply divided. biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction will be in the hands of most nations and many subnational groups. energy and materials. poverty. Expanding populations also create rising demands for food. cleanest and most efficient technologies for energy use and production of goods and services. Second Edition. Shortages of fresh water are increasingly common. Although this does not appear to be an immediate danger. pollution. alien species introduction.with rich nations causing less environmental damage and poor ones consuming more. inequity and repressive government. have been young adult men. It seems likely that by 2050 nuclear.. poor healthcare. In many developing countries. New Scientist Much of today's population growth is occurring in rural regions in the developing world. as the species begins to migrate and establish settlements. Extinction Otten 1 Edward Otten. This is also the demographic group responsible for most crime globally.” 1998. Rothenbaum. faculty at Stanford University. future generations will not have to imagine.html The exponential growth of the human population. Professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics at the University of Cincinnati. http://www. habitat still split between rich and poor. “Seizing the Future: The Dawn of the Macroindustrial Era. NJ (Michael G.Executive director of the expansionary institute. Western European nations have tended to accept limited immigration from developing countries as a way to augment their workforce. mounting evidence of global warming makes reducing fossil-fuel use imperative. jeopardising food production among many other problems. but adopting the newest. is having a grave impact on biodiversity. Amanda. Harry.Cap Kritik 178/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Overpop Expanding Capitalism to space solves population growth Zey 98.ecology. limited education.

access resources into private property. Harry.Theodore Panayotou (1994.sive harvest."Yet this could "become devas. Clayton . Ian. pg. pastures. They have an incentive to appropriate resources at the fastest rate possible.tating for the resource. these institutions indirectly affect fertility. makes "the number of children the decisive instrument in the hands of the household: The household's share of open-access property depends on the number of hands it employs to convert open. often leading to exces.Cap Kritik 179/194 Norton 4 – Professor of Business at Wheaton College Seth. and other forest products. When fuel wood and fodder are not owned and formal laws of possession do not govern their harvest and use. fish. Amanda. people do not hear the full cost of their consumption. Many developing countries have poorly specified or poorly enforced property rights. and eventually the individual household. fuel wood."This." DML. fodder. 159-160 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab The relationship is a powerful one. and clearing open-access land for cultivation." The link between these institutions and fertility partly reflects the impact of economic growth-by encouraging economic growth." What better way to capture open-access resources than to have as many gatherers as possible? Higher fertility is a way to do this. the community. Fertility rates are more than twice as high in countries with low levels of economic freedom and rule of law compared with countries that have high levels of those measures. Jay. But there also is evidence that these growth-enhancing institutions affect fertility for other reasons. You Have to Admit It’s Getting Better. he continues. Formal analysis of the data indicates that these differences are not merely random. Rothenbaum. 151) observes that "most contributions by children consist of capturing and appropriating open-access natural resources such as water. This condition is generally labeled the "tragedy of the commons.

D.” Space dwellers will become aware that “we are one.”27 With a renewed commitment to space. This diversity would serve as a tool of survival. its hereditary predispositions. . energy. but unfortunately absent on Earth. the Sultan said. They will start at a place we have labored to attain over several millennia. http://www. cultural differences would be cherished and exaggerated.” White also suggests that “the multiplier effect means that sending a limited number of people into space can lead to a broad-based social transformation.A.Cap Kritik 180/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Overview Effect Space exploration allows for universal peace. Clayton . the troubles all over DML. Sagan writes that “the unexpected final gift of Apollo” was “the inescapable recognition of the unity and fragility of the Earth. to set up their own colonies . in Business (David.davidlivingston.” science author T. .com/T. http://taylordark. With Apollo. September 19th 2006. "I think the minute I saw the view for the first time was really one of the most memorable moments in my entire life. . They seem the squabbles of mites on a plum. Livingston 2 – M. and buffalo. Ian. It inspired an optimism about technology. that what appears to be ‘the world’ to people on Earth is merely a small planet in space. the psychological and cultural health of America and humanity in general would surely improve."8 When asked by the interviewer how it changed his understanding of God. and breadth of vision that did capture the imagination of the world . its planetary engineering. argues for the existence of what he calls an “overview effect” in which humans who are launched into space achieve a veritable breakthrough in human consciousness. Looking at it from here. Space migration will also enlarge the pool of positive images of the future available to humanity – images that space advocates consider essential to motivate and guide purposeful activity. . . “The Ethical Commercialization of Outer Space”. . Harry. serving as fuel for social evolution. in the original settlement of the New World and the American frontier. we are all in this together. Rothenbaum. Many space advocates complain that optimistic images of the future have been displaced in recent decades by far more negative views.” In a burst of multicultural enthusiasm. it's an opportunity to prove that there is no conflict being a Muslim. the United States touched greatness. Frank White. Often their commentaries show a world that is united in space. . Jay. The experiences of the few become new information for the many. “But in space it will become easy for ethnic or religious groups. Those who wish to found experimental communities.pdf) Most astronauts claim to view Earth differently after having been in space.” Sagan continues: “I’m struck again by the irony that spaceflight – conceived in the cauldron of nationalist rivalries and hatreds – brings with it a stunning transnational vision. Heppenheimer observed. people to form new nations or regions for themselves.”26 Zubrin likewise claims that Mars colonization will promote cultural diversity in a world where it is increasingly threatened by proximity and overcrowding. or any other religion. “RECLAIMING THE FUTURE: SPACE ADVOCACY AND THE IDEA OF PROGRESS”. Space advocates also foresee a new era of peace and mutual understanding arising as a result of space travel. Sagan writes: “Where are dreams that motivate and inspire? Where are the visions of hopeful futures. an enthusiasm for the future .”29 The overview effect solves all war.”28 Another space enthusiast. Those living in space “will be able to see how everything is related. of technology as a tool for human betterment and not a gun on a hair trigger pointed at our heads?” A rare exception to the spread of gloomy visions. . People who live in space will take for granted philosophical insights that have taken those on Earth thousands of years to formulate. opportunities that were last seen. Dark the Third 6 – Associate Professor in Political Science ( horse. to try new social forms and practices. When the Saudi-Arabian Prince Sultan Bin Salman al-Saud went into orbit in June 1985 he said. . they suggest. according to Sagan. . Heppenheimer even suggests that “we may see the return of the Cherokee or Arapaho nation — not necessarily with a revival of the culture of prairie.%20Dark%20--%20NASA%20conference%20paper. "It really strengthens your convictions. “On Earth it is difficult for . but in the founding of self-governing communities which reflect the Arapaho or Cherokee customs . To me. You spend even a little time contemplating the Earth from orbit and the most deeply ingrained nationalisms begin to erode. its social conventions. and what appears to be ‘the present’ is merely a limited viewpoint to one looking from a higher level. Amanda.pdf) Others have argued that the diffusion of human beings off the planetary surface will open up new opportunities for social experimentation. war and strife solve nothing. Necessarily. and for many others as well. will have the opportunity to strike out into the wilderness and establish their ideals in cities in space. ”25 Carl Sagan also sees more cultural diversity as humanity establishes new civilizations on different planets and other celestial bodies: “Each society would tend to be proud of the virtues of its world. was the space program of the 1960s: “Apollo conveyed a confidence.

You have to have some harmony.11 DML. while at the same time this century we compare that against the path of our technological advancements.”10 Such space-based perspectives and their spillover effects on those of us unable to experience space firsthand may ultimately have a greater influence on our commercial space business practices than anything we do or say on Earth. I think in order to be a member of a species that is a space-faring species that other species shouldn't fear. When asked during his interview if his cruise liner would have defenses onboard in case of a meeting with a hostile ET. Ian. look very strange as you see the boundaries and border lines disappearing.S. I think the jury is still out on whether or not it’s the human race. I think you have some type of meeting where your technological maturity is met to some degree with spiritual maturity. Congressman Bill Nelson. Amanda. Robert Bigelow of Bigelow Aerospace of Las Vegas was recently interviewed about his announcement to invest $500 million of his own money over the next several years to build a space cruise liner for Earth to moon tourism. Rothenbaum. I think we have a huge divergence between our paths of improvement on spiritual maturity. Bigelow replied: I'm not so sure exactly who the Klingons are. and not just the Middle East. who went to space in January 1986.Cap Kritik 181/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the world. said upon his return: "If the superpower leaders could be given the opportunity to see the Earth from the perspective from which I saw it—perhaps at a summit meeting in space in the context of the next century—they might realize that we're all in this with a common denominator. Clayton ."9 U. Jay. It would have a positive effect on their future decisions concerning war and peace. especially since we have technology that enables us to do so much. Bigelow understands the limitations of our perceptions and the way we do things. Harry.

Amanda. Space therefore remains integral to the (re)production of capital and capital accumulation. Harry. four dimensions of spatial practice by capital are suggested (Gottdiener 1987. in which capital becomes 'state. No. capitalists can increasingly free themselves from particular geographical constraints. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. Vol. JSTOR)//AW Second. This 'consumption' of space by capital is manifested in the spheres of circulation (transport and communication) and production (factors of production). Rothenbaum. “Capital. Blackwell Publishing. Obama's end-state of a 'borderless' world is achieved. Jay. Swyngedouw 1992. Harvey 1989. Yeung 98—Professor of Economic Geography at the National University of Singapore (Henry Wai-chung.Cap Kritik 182/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Overview Effect – Extensions Capitalism in space creates a “borderless world” in which people can free themselves from geographical constraints. State and Space: Contesting the Borderless World”. Clayton . Yeung 1998a): accessibility and distanciation. and (re)production of space. Lefebvre 1991. In the radical literature. 23. appropriation and use of space. domination and control of space. 145) notes that. a proper theorization of the spatial dynamics of globalization should address the fundamental relationship between capital and space. Harvey (1985.less' and 'placeless'. 3. Ian. [b]y increasing the range of possible substitutions within a given production process. when space is seemingly commanded and 'consumed' by capital (represented by TNCs) for further accumulation. When this 'consumption' of space by capital is completed. DML. This is particularly true during the internationalization of capital.

South Korea and Japan. U. In that they are dead wrong and need to be reminded of one of history's most significant lessons: Appalling things happen when international orders sang: "You don't know what you've got (until you lose it). leadership reduced friction among many states that were historical antagonists . Amanda. the new superlightweight materials now used in wheelchair construction are a derivative of NASA’s advanced material research. Duluth (Bradley A. Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota. American primacy helps keep a number of complicated relationships aligned --between Greece and Turkey. Domestic economic innovation is a prerequisite to attaining world economic and political leadership. Importantly. a finding that supports the Modelski and Thompson (1996) twin peak idea and one that speaks against the generic war/postwar economic contraction assertion that some analysts have posited over the years.” 1998. Britain or the United States today.” National Interest. Nov/Dec2006 Issue 86. 77) The results establish that the United States has exhibited positive economic and political inertia as historical values exert significant effects on their own contemporary values. Economic innovation is key to maintaining US hegemony.Executive director of the expansionary institute. Heg collapse causes global nuclear war Thayer 6. Scholars and statesmen have long recognized the irenic effect of power on the anarchic world of international politics. More importantly. a robust monetary regime. growing democratization--is directly linked to U. Israel and Egypt. power. increasing respect for human rights.. Building global reach capabilities constrains economic innovation in the short run but contributes to its expansion in a longer run. p. India and Pakistan. power behind it. Ian.S.S.*Professor of Public and Environmental Affairs and **Professor of Political Science (Rafael and William. particularly war's worst form: great power wars.. Wars still occur where Washington's interests are not seriously threatened. Rothenbaum. During the Cold War. most notably France and West Germany. but a Pax Americana does reduce war's likelihood. such as in Darfur. Second Edition.Cap Kritik 183/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Economic Innovation Expanding Capitalism to space will foster economic innovation Zey 98. Harry. “In Defense of Primacy. Indonesia and Australia. Professor of Management at Montclair State University in Upper Montclair. Growth. Without U. In addition to ensuring the security of the United States and its allies.Professor of Defense and Strategic Studies @ Missouri State University. Trade. Retrenchment proponents seem to think collapse. it is important to note what those good things are. Reuveny and Thompson 4. The first has been a more peaceful world. “Seizing the Future: The Dawn of the Macroindustrial Era. Clayton . American primacy within the international system causes many positive outcomes for Washington and the world. 89) Various products for consumer and industrial application are spun off from the research and development activities of the space program. For instance. Hitler succeeded the order established at Versailles. The communications industry as we know it could not exist without the species’ achievements in space satellite technology. This is not to say it fulfills Woodrow Wilson's vision of ending all war. NJ (Michael G. peace and stability have been great benefits of an era where there was a dominant power--Rome. DML. Every space environment makes possible the growing of crystals that may help in the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other deadly diseases. p. World economic leadership is a prerequisite to attaining political leadership in the form of global reach capabilities. military mobilization increases leading sector growth rates and shares.. Pg. there is every reason to believe that the Moon and probably Mars will themselves become sources of energy and material that will serve humanity on Earth. 32-37. power. Lexis) THROUGHOUT HISTORY. Jay. Everything we think of when we consider the current international order--free trade. Both at Indiana University.S." Consequently. Today. and Systemic Leadership. The Dark Ages followed Rome's collapse. As country and western great Ral Donner that the current system can be maintained without the current amount of U. the liberal order created by the United States will end just as assuredly.S.

DML.) It is a considerable comfort and undoubtedly a key to our survival that. with 1. Since its recognized appearance in 1981. while old diseases mutate and adapt. ASP. including nearly one-quarter of Western Europe's population at the time. Throughout history. Rothenbaum. changing conditions have enhanced the potential for widespread contagion. and cholera . But evolution is a sword that cuts both ways: New diseases emerge. NJ (Michael G. The threat of infectious pathogens is not just an issue of public health. As we enter the twenty-first century. More importantly. Professor of Management at Montclair State University in Upper Montclair.once thought to be under control . Second Edition. An infectious agent believed to have been the plague bacterium killed an estimated 20 million people over a four-year period in the fourteenth century. Ian.4 million worldwide. the main lines of defense against this threat have not depended on explicit policies or organized efforts. Winter 1997/1998. so far. Clayton . Disease causes extinction Stienbruer 98 – Senior fellow at the Brookings institute (John D. there have been epidemics during which human immunity has broken down on an epic scale. the human body has developed physical barriers and a biochemical immune system whose sophistication and effectiveness exceed anything we could design or as yet even fully understand. the new superlightweight materials now used in wheelchair construction are a derivative of NASA’s advanced material research. pp.are now making a comeback.Executive director of the expansionary institute. but a fundamental security problem for the species as a whole. In the long course of evolution. and scientific advances that expand the capability for the deliberate manipulation of pathogens are all cause for worry that the problem might be greater in the future than it has ever been in the past. the unprecedented freedom of movement across international borders. The rapid growth rate of the total world population. The communications industry as we know it could not exist without the species’ achievements in space satellite technology..5 million people currently dying of AIDS each year. “Biological Weapons: A Plague Upon All Houses. there is every reason to believe that the Moon and probably Mars will themselves become sources of energy and material that will serve humanity on Earth. For instance. Harry.Cap Kritik 184/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Disease Expanding capitalism into space solves disease Zey 98. Every space environment makes possible the growing of crystals that may help in the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other deadly diseases. Amanda. Jay. some 20 variations of the HIV virus have infected an estimated 29. 85-96.. Steinbruner. 109. tuberculosis. 89) Various products for consumer and industrial application are spun off from the research and development activities of the space program.” FOREIGN POLICY n. Pg. “Seizing the Future: The Dawn of the Macroindustrial Era.” 1998. Malaria.

This means. but capitalism is not to blame for it. and depression. As a result those states have now rid themselves almost completely of a parasite that formerly affected something like a million people. 186 One common objection to the market economy is that it causes people and enterprises to produce for profit.ever.nomic development. far fewer would do so than is now the case. such as malaria and tuberculosis. In Defense of Global Capitalism. Without capitalism and the lure of profit.~) 1. sometimes paying nothing for it. pg. which include free markets. pg. might be increasingly unaffordable. Capitalism is not the cause of misplaced disease research – rather. freer trade. Harry.ier and if existing-but-underusedsafe_water. 76 Notably. Clayton . the rule of law. and agricultural technologies are more widely spread (Lomhorg 200 I. Ian. pharmaceutical companies devoting huge resources to research and medicines to do with obesity. 22 The Monsanto Corporation allows researchers and companies free use of their technique for developing “golden rice. In fact. being expensive. solutions to remuining pro hi ems (such as AIDS and the diseases of affluence). If wealthy people in the West demand help for their problems. In Defense of Global Capitalism. The Merck Corporation gave free medicine to a project to combat onchocerciasis (river blindness) in 11 African states. On the contrary. which are not necessarily trivial to the people afflicted with them. sanitation. This is not money that would otherwise have gone to researching tropical diseases—the pharmaceutical companies simply would not have had these resources otherwise. Thus. for example. pg. things that westerners can afford to worry about and pay for. How. baldness. excess profit is used for philanthropy Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. their resources can be used to research and eventually solve those problems.cractes. and transparent government and bureau. Rothenbaum. that is something that has proved to be a benefit. The unfairness exists.oping country. Substantial additional improvements in infant mortulitv and life expectancy are possible in developing countries if they become wealth. Further improvements in human well-being will depend largely on the development of human and capital resources and encouraging the development and deployment of new risk-reduction technol. once the easy and relatively cheap improvements in health and life expectancy have been captured. individual property rights. the Third World can inexpensively share in the research financed by wealthy Western customers. Capitalism gives companies economic incentives to help us by developing medicines and vaccines.” a strain of rice enriched with DML. as free trade and the market economy promote greater prosperity in poorer countries.Cap Kritik 185/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Disease Capitalism solves disease – free trade and IPR encourage tech transfer that lowers cost of solutions Goklany 4 – Julian Simon Fellow at the Political Economy Research Center Indur. economic growth purported by capitalism is key to preventing disease Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. whereas only a fraction is devoted to attempting to cure tropical diseases afflicting the poorest of the world's inhabitants. and not just because a wealthier world can devote more resources to helping the poor. In many fields. whether one lives in <J developed or devel. their needs and desires will play a larger role in dictating the purposes of research and production. it is critical to focus on strengthening the domestic and international institutions that will boost technological change and eco. You have to Admit It’s Getting Better. we shouldn't imagine that everyone would have obtained cures for their illnesses. not for needs. 334-. improvements in well-being have not yet run their full course. And. That westerners spend money this way does not make things worse for anyone. Empirically. Jay. blinding thousands every year. This criticism is understandable. Amanda.ogies. 187 It is not a problem for the Third World that more and more diseases have been made curable in the Western world.

Amanda. which could save a million people annually in the Third World who are dying of vitamin A deficiency diseases. Clayton . Rothenbaum. Jay.Cap Kritik 186/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab iron and beta carotene (pro-vitamin A). A number of pharmaceutical companies are lowering the prices of inhibitors for HIV/AIDS in poor countries by up to 95 percent. Harry. Ian. DML. on condition that the patents are preserved so that they can maintain full prices in wealthier countries.

Progress of this kind. But instead the opposite happened: other states gradually tightened up their environmental stipulations. When they grow richer. not least because they have brand images and reputations to protect. in a compilation of essays on DML. the better control they gain over air pollution. Amanda. Incipient signs of the California effect's race to the top are present all over the world. Brazil. otherwise. 21 Sometimes one hears it said that. for environmental reasons. easy compliance. it can develop environmentally friendly technologies—wastewater and exhaust emission control. they could more Anti-globalists usually claim that the profit motive and free trade together cause businesses to entrap politicians in a race for the bottom. and so it is in the developing countries today. if the governments of the world were to phase out the incomprehensible tariffs on environmentally friendly technology. positive association between our [environmental] indicators and the level of economic development. Clayton . Four researchers who studied these connections found “a very strong. Jay. they start to regulate effluent emissions. economic progress and growth are moving hand in hand with intensified environmental protection. 19 A number of factors cause environment protection to increase with wealth and development. trade. pg. however. whereas no fewer than 80 percent of the multinationals do so. Production in those countries generated almost 20 percent less emissions than the same production in closed countries. But it is the fact of prosperity no less than a sense of responsibility that makes environmental protection easier in a wealthy society. were stringent emissions regulations that made rigorous demands on car manufacturers. what we might call a “California effect. their preferences will have no impact. in particular. the poor countries of the South must not be allowed to grow as affluent as our countries in the North. Because car companies easily comply with the exacting requirements of other states. Such was the case earlier in western Europe. for example— and begin to rectify past mistakes. Ian. This process is being driven by multinational corporations because they have a lot to gain from uniform production with uniform technology. Rothenbaum. Harry. tech development. In Defense of Global Capitalism. When our standard of living rises we start attaching importance to the environment and obtaining resources to improve it. The worst forms of air pollution have diminished in their cities during the period of globalization. whereupon those states again ratcheted up their requirements. requires that people live in democracies where they are able and allowed to mobilize opinion. Abating misery and subduing the pangs of hunger takes precedence over conservation. and when they have still more resources they also begin regulating air quality. 225-237 All over the world. A wealthier country can afford to tackle environmental problems. What firms are primarily after is a good business environment—a liberal economy and a skilled workforce— not a bad natural environment. and China—the three biggest recipients of foreign investment—have followed a very clear pattern: the more investments they get. Because they are restructured more rapidly.” The state of California's Clean Air Acts. A review of research in this field shows that there are no clear indications of national environmental rules leading to a diminution of exports or to fewer companies locating in the countries that pass the rules. market adjusting to scarcity. and California would soon be obliged to repeal its regulations. 20 This finding undermines both the arguments put forward by companies against environmental regulations and those advanced by environmentalists maintaining that globalization has to be restrained for environmental reasons. when environmental regulations are tightened up.” A country that is very poor is too preoccupied with lifting itself out of poverty to bother about the environment at all. Environmental destruction is worst in dictatorships. and the new techniques are generally far gentler on the environment. Environmental quality is unlikely to be a top priority for people who barely know where their next meal is coming from. This phenomenon occurs because compliance with environmental rules accounts for a very small proportion of most companies' expenditures. regulation of externalities. Countries usually begin protecting their natural resources when they can afford to do so. Mexico. When Western companies start up in developing countries. needed the wealthy California market. because globalization has caused different countries to absorb new techniques more rapidly.Cap Kritik 187/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Environment Capitalism empirically shields the environment – eight reasons – wealth. For example. first introduced in the 1970s and tightened since. This development would go faster if economies were more open and. Many prophets of doom predicted that firms and factories would move to other states. Having done so. they have more modern machinery. their production is considerably more environment-friendly than the native production. at great expense. Researchers have investigated steel manufacturing in 50 different countries and concluded that countries with more open economies took the lead in introducing cleaner technology. One out of every 10 foreign companies maintained a standard clearly superior to that of the regulations. democracy. Global environmental development resembles not so much a race for the bottom as a race to the top. The California effect implies the opposite: free trade enables politicians to pull profit-hungry corporations along with them in a race to the top. And they prefer assimilating the latest. and they are more willing to comply with environmental legislation. private property Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. most environmentally friendly technology immediately to retrofitting it. manufacturers all over the United States were forced to develop new techniques for reducing emissions. Only 30 percent of Indonesian companies comply with the country's environmental regulations.

consulting firms. dung. dirty industry is to a great extent superseded by service enterprises. Clearly. as with resources running out if everyone were to live as we do in the affluent world. natural resources today are half as expensive as they were 50 years ago and one-fifth as expensive as they were a hundred years ago. of which about 95 percent are insects. Some years ago. such as ameliorating hunger and sparing people the prosperity beyond a certain critical point can improve the environment. 23 That is roughly the level of prosperity of Argentina. salt. In our affluent part of the world. But that information is just about as interesting as if a Raw material consumption is not static. and emissions may be disastrous. and agricultural waste in their homes as heating and cooking fuel. and E. heavy. the computer. and it prosperous Stone Age man were to say that. As for the problem of garbage. more people are eating their fill. Mexico City. a few decades ago. even without recycling. waste. and in trying to find substitutes for it. Heavy metal emissions have been heavily reduced. phosphorus emissions into the seas have declined drastically. This result is already “disastrous” and far more destructive than atmospheric pollution and It is not true that pollution in the modern sense increases with growth. the environment has consistently improved since the 1970s. and today it is one of our prime resources. more and more people are mindful of environmental problems such as endangered green areas.04 million square kilometers between 1950 and 1994. this is also due to the economic structure changing from raw-material-intensive to knowledge-intensive production.Cap Kritik 188/194 Environmentally Significant Consumption published by the National Academy of Sciences. Banks. the price of DML. Lomborg gathered publicly available data from as many fields as he could find and published them in the book The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World. In addition. the world's forest acreage increased from 40. Here as well. the turning point generally comes before a country's per capita GDP has reached $8. and Greenpeace member Bjørn Lomborg.4 percent of the Sahara Desert. Today it is unhealthy for fewer than 10 days a year. In the form of silicon—which makes up a quarter of the earth's crust— it is a key component in computer which suggests that demand does not exceed supply. environmental problems. that is. Clayton . certain of the raw materials we use today. doomsayers believed that oxygen masks would in the future have to be worn all around the city because of the bad air. powered by solar cells and occupying 0. The trend over the last few decades of falling raw material prices is clear. But our interest in finding better energy sources led to methods being devised for using oil. In the United States. 24 The same trend is noticeable in the rest of the affluent world—for example. 22 But studies show this to be colossal misapprehension. the Danish statistician horror of watching their children die. Lomborg shows that. Apart from its other positive effects on the developing countries. but even that represents a 50 percent reduction in 10 years. In relation to wages. its price goes up. South Korea. A century There is a simple market mechanism that averts shortages. This improvement has coincided with uniquely rapid growth. in Tokyo. this turning point is now occurring progressively earlier in the developing countries. What is more. with the exception of Los Angeles. which are the most heavily polluted in the world. there would not be enough stone. and possibly a bit more than that. He finds that there has never been any large-scale tree death caused by acid rain. or Slovenia. is concerned. per capita GDP is about $36. the environment suffers. to believe that growth automatically ruins the environment. Instead. and Zürich. most harmful industrial emissions.24 million to 43. the steady deterioration of the global environment. In 1900 the price of electricity was eight times higher. has steadied since the mid-1980s and in several cases has slowly improved. then. On the contrary. There. Rothenbaum. Prices are falling. and information technology corporations do not have the same environmental impact as old factories. where. in presentday quantities. If a certain raw material comes to be in short supply. In a modern economy. we start looking for ways of using other raw materials. the figure is roughly 80 days. He found instead that air pollution is diminishing. and New Delhi. The oft-quoted. But when prosperity has risen high enough. The documented cases of extinction during the past 400 years total just over a thousand species. and viruses. It is a mistake. but at every level of growth annual particle density has diminished by 2 percent in only 14 years. coli bacteria concentrations in coastal waters have plummeted. instead of large-scale deforestation. With more and more people achieving a high level of prosperity. The cities with the worst problems are not Stockholm. enabling closed swimming areas to reopen.000. and air and water show progressively lower concentrations of pollutants. it is in the developing countries that we find the gravest. and furs to go around. New York. not so much with emissions and pollution. more than 6.000 people die from air pollution when using wood. we 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab find anthropologist Richard Wilk fretting that: If everyone develops a desire for the Western high-consumption lifestyle. but erroneous statement about 40. Sand has never been all that exciting or precious. air quality in the enormous cities of China.000.2 million people die every year from polluted indoor air. The picture that emerges there is an important corrective to the general prophesies of doom that can so easily be imbibed from newspaper headlines. When growth in a very poor country gathers speed and the chimneys begin belching smoke. pollution follows an inverted Ucurve. did not agree at all with official empirical data. oil was just something black and sticky that people preferred not to step in and definitely did not want to find beneath their land. but rather Beijing. but today it is a vital raw material in the most powerful technology of our age. For example. nitrogen oxides have diminished by almost 30 percent and sulfur emissions by about 80 percent. quite contrary to the picture one gets from the media. This makes everyone more interested in economizing on that resource. Pollution and emission problems are still growing in the poor developing countries. All the fresh water consumed in the world today could be produced by a single desalination plant. At $10. Lomborg illustrates how increased prosperity and improved technology can solve the problems that lie ahead of us. and people are living longer. Tying people down to that level of development means condemning millions to premature death every year.000 species going extinct every year is traced by Lomborg to its source—a 20-year-old estimate that has been circulating in environmentalist circles ever since. New innovations make it possible for old raw materials to be put to better use and for garbage to be turned into new raw materials. energy use. Such a claim is usually made by environmentalists. Humanity is constantly improving technology so as to get at raw materials that were previously inaccessible. and rightly so: the air was judged to be unhealthy for 100–300 days a year. chips.300. with about 10 of his students. UNDP estimates that no fewer than 2. the relentless growth in consumption. the researchers found a positive connection between increased growth and better air and water quality. Every day in the developing countries. Amanda. Ian. In addition to the factors already mentioned. Lomborg thinks it is closer to 1.500 species a year. in reusing it. bacteria. and we are attaining a level of prosperity that makes this possible. Lomborg shows that air pollution and emissions have been declining in the developed world during recent decades. he found that what he himself had regarded as self-evident. To his astonishment. resources are not running out. refuse problems are diminishing. because they can learn from more affluent countries' mistakes and use their superior technology. In the 1970s there was constant reference to smog in American cities. compiled statistics and facts about the world's environmental problems. would not suffice for the whole world if everyone consumed the same things. the next hundred years worth of Danish refuse could be accommodated in a 33-meter-deep pit with an area of three square kilometers. Jay. in terms of how long we must work to earn the price of a raw material. in finding more of it. In the developed world. Metals have never been as cheap as they are today. if everyone attained his level of consumption. And claims that we would need this or that number of planets for the whole world to attain a Western standard of consumption— those “ecological footprint” calculations—are equally untruthful. and a half ago. According to one survey of available environmental data. Harry. the environmental indicators show an improvement instead: emissions are reduced.

not open. soil. The latest model. Owners have incentives to use resources productively and to conserve where possible.Such incentives were absent in the Eastern bloc under socialism. It is more environmentally friendly for a cold northern country to import meat from temperate countries than to waste resources on concentrated feed and the construction and heating of cattle pens for the purpose of native meat production. and air from destruction. it is important to realize that efforts in this quarter will be facilitated by a freer. and was essentially unchanged 25 years later. So few automobiles were available that DML. after nomads had overexploited the common lands and then moved on. But on the few occasions when this has happened. Then it was declared that nationwide telephony for China was physically impossible because all the world's copper wouldn't suffice for installing heavy gauge telephone lines all over the country. If shortages do occur. Owners can obtain financial rewards from using resources productively and they have a strong incentive to reduce costs by conserving on their use of each resource. A car today contains only half as much metal as a car of 30 years ago. no income later on. where all ownership was collective.The Trabant was so bad partly because its design was basically the same as it had been when the car was first manufactured in 1959. With modern production processes. with all the consumption of resources that would entail. When the magazine Car and Driver brought one to the United States. it has generally affected isolated. Many environmental issues also require international regulations and agreements.Manufacturers could not reap a profit from making a better car. is being reused already. The biggest environmental problems are associated with production and consumption. cleaner technology that would give better performance. An Environment Without Property Rights. and wrong. it is better for production to take place where the technology exists. One-third of the world's steel production. has fallen continuously and is now only about a tenth of what it was 200 years ago. for example. 26 Trade and freight are sometimes criticized for the general effect it has on growth. environmental improvements are due to the very capitalism so often blamed for the problems.independent.Cap Kritik 189/194 coal seven times higher. The exhaust was so noxious that West Germans were not allowed to own Trabants. a satellite image was taken of the borders of the Sahara. If the property is collective or government-owned. Not many years ago. destroying the environment. it Richard and Jane. there was little incentive to produce any cars at all in East Germany. the land was parched yellow. the people’s car produced in East Germany between 1959 and 1989. but the problem can be rectified with more efficient transport and purification techniques. partly because of the use of lighter aluminum. That is why the amount of raw materials needed to make a given product keeps diminishing as productive efficiency improves. 25 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab The risk of shortage is declining all the time. a 1 percent annual increase in demand. of Economics @ Montana State University AND **Senior Associate at the Political Economy Research Center To understand why. There are several:3 1. By simple Technological advance can outstrip the depletion of resources mathematics. had been introduced in 1964. even aside from Trade leads to a country's resources being used as efficiently as possible. the 601. and the price of oil five times higher than today. then. and there trade can make a positive contribution. it spewed a plume of oil and gray exhaust smoke. Harry. (Production stopped shortly after the Berlin Wall came down. Private property is key to environmental protection – government has zero incentive to protect public lands Stroup and Shaw 9 – *Prof. affluent ones. from both a natural and a human viewpoint. But the supply of manpower did not run out. The price of copper. The introduction of private property creates owners with long-term interests. Very often. Landowners must see to it that there is good soil or forest there tomorrow as well. and a 2 percent increase in recycling and/or efficiency. because factories were government-owned. Indeed. 97 percent less metal is needed for a soft drink can than 30 years ago. http://www. and it didn’t have a gas gauge. Before that had time to become a problem. In order to meet those challenges. Everywhere. must not be The environmental question will not resolve itself. In a world where technology never stops developing. so they had no incentive to adopt new. no one has any such long-term interest. even though in practice Indians possess and inhabit large parts of them. To claim that people in Africa. poor places. Consider the Trabant. On the contrary. everyone then has an interest in using up the resources quickly before someone else does. This proved to be an area of privately owned land where the owners of the farm prevented overexploitation and engaged in cattle farming that was profitable in the long term. Goods are produced in the places where production entails least expense and least wear and tear on the environment. who are dying by the thousand every day from supremely real shortages. growing economy capable of using the best solutions. Only about a 10th of forests are recognized by the governments as privately owned. then with the right technology most substances can be recycled. Proper rules are needed for the protection of water. where the desert was spreading. that resource will never be exhausted. No wonder. In the pursuit of profits. fiber optics and satellites began to supersede copper wire. tend to increase rather than diminish when a country grows more affluent. But it was slow (top speed 66 mph). But in the midst of this desert environment could be seen a small patch of green.) The Trabant provided basic transportation and was easy to fix. which confront us with entirely new challenges. People in most ages have worried about important raw materials becoming exhausted.asp?id=196 is helpful to look at the reasons why private property rights protect the environment. whether they continue using the land or intend to sell it. for example. Systems of emissions fees are needed to give polluters an interest in not damaging the environment for others. instead of each country trying to have production of its own. it had no discernible handling. technology developed instead. Amanda. Rothenbaum. It is the absence of definite fishing rights that causes (heavily subsidized) fishing fleets to try to vacuum the oceans of fish before someone else does. static calculations are uninteresting. Ian. because otherwise they will have allowed to become as prosperous as we in the West because we can find theoretical risks of shortages occurring is both stupid and unjust. a commodity that people believed would run out. It was because they were common lands that the rain forests of the Amazon began to be rapidly exploited in the 1960s and 1970s and are still being rapidly exploited today. because that would require several hundred million telephone operators. it is better to have resources and advanced science than not to have them. that the most large-scale destruction of environment in history has occurred in the communist dictatorships. everyone was convinced of the impossibility of the whole Chinese population having telephones. the EPA refused to let it be driven on public streets. Therefore. business firms have a strongincentive to implement new resourcesaving technologies. noisy. as well as emissions fees to make the cost of pollution visible through pricing. Carbon dioxide emissions. When talking about the market and the environment. A few years ago. Clayton . because new finds and more efficient use keep augmenting the available reserves. Lomborg establishes that if we have a raw material with a hundred years' use remaining. .

7 4. even for owners whose personal outlook is short-term.In a society of private ownership. For example. Central planners often measured the use of inputs to determine whether a factory or other entity was carrying out the central plan. Jay. the emphasis was on using up resources. not on producing them—for a good reason. Rothenbaum. and lawsuits can be used to protect those rights. Once known for its purity.But in the Eastern bloc.Lake Baikal is the largest and deepest freshwater lake on Earth. Property rights provide long-term incentives for maximizing the value of a resource. The fuel was assigned to a nearby Soviet military station to be used for flying practice missions. DML. the owner of lake property would envision a place that would attract tourists and homebuyers. Ian. the military superiors monitored the amount of fuel the pilots used.6 mentioned above. Harry. Peter J. resources were routinely wasted. its value falls today. To make sure that the pilots had flown the required number of hours.Cap Kritik 190/194 people waited an average of 13 years to get their Trabant 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab . To evade detection. says Hill.the value of the lake and its surrounding land has been seriously diminished by pollution. Such an owner would have a strong incentive to maintain the value of this property by preventing its deterioration. they falsified their reports. If a resource is well cared for.8 Clearly.Throughout the Soviet Union under Communism. The private owner of a resource has more than just the incentive to preserve the value of that resource. The private owner of a forest or a farm will not sit idly by if someone is cutting down trees without permission or invading the property with hazardous pollutants. Clayton . The industrial sources of the metals were known. Amanda. he or she personally bears the cost of that negligence in the form of a decline in the value of the resource. That happens because land’s current worth reflects the net present value of its future services—the revenue from production or services received directly from the land. But government planners had no incentive to protect it. In fact. A story is told about a part of Estonia where the underground water is flammable because vast quantities of aviation fuel were dumped into the ground and they seeped into the water. If using a tract of land for the construction of a toxic waste dump reduces its future productivity. it will be more valuable and add more to the personal wealth of its owner. Ann-Mari Satre Ahlander reports that despite the low per capita production of agricultural crops. they got rid of the fuel by dumping it onto the 3. the farmers had no actionable claim against those causing the problems. even though excessive use of these chemicals could have harmful effects. A resource owner has legal rights against anyone who would harm the resource.5 That is because using them was a sign that work was being done. but the farmers had no recourse.2. the use of fertilizers and herbicides was high. Without a system of redress through the courts. minus the costs required to generate the revenues (and both discounted to present value terms). If the owner allows the resource to deteriorate or be harmed by pollution. reducing the owner’s wealth. Private ownership of property provides an incentive for good care that is lacking under government control. When the pilots did not want to fly the required hours. A private owner could probably have stopped the dumping of aviation fuel on the Estonian farmland ground. such protection was absent. According to one source. the effluent is discharged directly into the lake and has created a polluted area 23 miles wide. it is now heavily polluted because Soviet planners decided to build paper mills at its edge and failed to reduce the emission of pollutants into the water. Private property rights also provide the owner with legal rights against anyone (usually including a government agency) who invades—physically or by pollution—and harms the resource. Hill reports that in Bulgaria heavy metals in irrigation water lowered crop yields on Bulgarian farms.

pg. The poor never have a chance. “The more laws are promulgated.” If the goal is to have impartial rules and incorruptible officials. all people with ideas and willpower are at liberty to try their luck. for investments. Many firms will use their resources— resources that could otherwise have been used for investment— to coax politicians into adapting the rules to their needs. thereby depriving themselves of legal protection for their business dealings. Those who have the right contacts can afford to pay bribes. It is in the regulated economies. 90 That economic freedom is not an enemy of equality comes as a surprise to everyone who has been told that capitalism is the ideology of the rich and the privileged. especially in poor countries where salaries are low and regulatory systems more or less chaotic. In a market economy. even if they are not the favorites of the rulers. As the Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu declared more than two and a half millennia ago. DML. the more numerous thieves and bandits become. The free market is the antithesis of societies of privilege. The easiest way of corrupting a nation through and through is to demand that citizens get bureaucratic permission for production. that privilege can become entrenched. the only way of holding on to a good economic position is by improving your production and offering people good products or services. 70 -We still get offense because resources devoted to buying off bureaucrats are inefficiently wasted and won’t produce innovations or products Such rules are also harmful in another way.Cap Kritik 191/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Corruption No risk of offense – strong-state systems will be bought off by the same corporations that are allowed to control the system in capitalism* Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. Jay. Amanda. pg. 2 Only capitalism ensures a fair shot for all – strong-state will be hindered by corruption Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. a large portion of a firm's time—time that could otherwise be devoted to production— ends up being spent either complying with or circumventing the rules. with their distribution of privileges and monopolies to favored groups. Those who have the time and knowledge to plow through bulky volumes of regulations can start up business enterprises and engage in trade. When regulation raises barriers to necessary activity. In fact. In Defense of Global Capitalism. and bureaucrats will oblige in return for generous bribes. Harry. Amartya Sen argues that the struggle against corruption would be a perfectly good reason for developing countries to deregulate their economies even if no other economic benefits would accrue from doing so. there is no better means than substantial deregulation. Clayton . In Defense of Global Capitalism. In a capitalistic society. Ian. this is precisely backward. Rothenbaum. Many will be tempted to take shortcuts. for imports. people join the informal economy instead. If this proves too burdensome. for exports. not even of starting small businesses like bakeries or corner shops.

Smith certainly succeeded in the first task but was less successful in the second. Ian." I mean that production is chiefly organized on the basis of privately owned enterprises. it only remains vulnerable on cultural and moral grounds. To liberals. capitalist. everyone works and almost everyone acquires the essentials of human sustenance. Between unconstrained market inequality and the lesser inequality achieved by some redistribution. and so the welfare-state debate proceeds. it is striking that in 1970 . one must count as benefits the tendency of an economic system to produce beliefs and actions that support a prudent concern for mitigating the unreasonable costs of the system. (By "capitalist. at least to judge by the number of people who believe that inequality can be eliminated without sacrificing prosperity. Similarly with respect to the environment: Only rich (that is. Clayton . because capitalism is mere power. one must reckon up not simply the costs but the costs set against the benefits.) And. rejecting the possibility of textual meaning. Capitalism and morality” Public Interest.denying the existence of any foundation for morality. the failure of capitalism lies in its production of unjustifiable inequalities of wealth and its reckless destruction of the natural environment. an elaborate black market. (I stress "feasible" because I tire of hearing critics compare capitalist reality to socialist . Amanda. are not radicals. practical alternatives to capitalism do not seem very appealing. Korea.) If capitalism is an economic success and the necessary (but not sufficient) precondition for democracy. but they have done so only by creating non-market inequalities . many people do not work at all and many more live lives of great luxury. that. Liberal critics recognize. the argument goes. Inequality is a feature of every modern society. That is. The attack takes various forms . Capitalism and public policy By these tests. why today's radical intellectuals have embraced the more extreme forms of multiculturalism and postmodernism. Jay. by contrast. if you are going to offer a moral criticism of capitalism.Cap Kritik 192/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Ethics/Morals Capitalism is comparatively the most ethical system – sparks democracy and opportunity Wilson 95 – Professor of Public Policy @ Pepperdine James. Capitalism may produce material abundance. when books were being written explaining how Fidel Castro could achieve by the use of moral incentives" what other nations achieved by employing material ones-kristol and Bell saw that the great test of capitalism would not be economic but moral. contemporary radicalism ends with a rejection of the moral claims of capitalism. (It was a defender of capitalism. in evaluating consequences. as postmodernists pretend not to. a ruling military elite. of course. In every case. when certain American economists (and the CIA!) were suggesting that the Soviet economy was growing faster than the American. Most critics of capitalism. Harry. Several nations-china. In addition. capitalism is arbitrary. but every nation that is democratic is. By whatever route it travels. the capitalist part out-produced. oppressive. and exchange takes place primarily through voluntary markets. the question is not whether capitalism has consequences but whether its consequences are better or worse than those of some feasible economic alternative. there is much to discuss and decide. every human activity has them. Moreover. Indeed. Many nations have claimed to eliminate market-based inequalities. asserting the incommensurability of cultural forms. Not every nation with something approximating capitalism is democratic. Time has proved them right. No. capitalist societies. When ideals are converted into reality.were sawed in two. to some significant degree. Germany. Rothenbaum. after all. Among prosperous nations. yet the general level of prosperity is so high that even the poorest people are better off than the richest person in a primitive society. capitalist) nations can afford DML. to killing babies and abandoning the elderly and the infirm. it has become clear during the last half century that democratic regimes only flourish in capitalist societies. of course. Participants in this debate sometimes forget that the only societies in which such a debate can have much meaning are those that have produced wealth that can be redistributed and that have acquired a government that will do so democratically in short.) For people worried about inequality or environmental degradation.or communitarian or cooperative . A series of natural experiments were conducted on a scale that every social scientist must envy. everyone here and abroad now recognizes that capitalism produces greater material abundance for more people than any other economic system ever invented. or because markets and corporations destroy culture. Fall However one judges that debate. 121. but at too high a price in human suffering and social injustice. The evidence is not in dispute. by a vast margin.a Soviet nomenklatura. but they tend to be "so miserably poor" that they are a time when socialism still had many defenders. I do not deny that capitalism has costs. and Vietnam . or corrupting. on occasion. who reminded us that there is no such thing as a free lunch. or elevating the claims of non-western (or non-white or non-Anglo) traditions. you had better believe that moral judgments are possible and can be made persuasive. the non-capitalist one. It was this. Because morality is meaningless. Except for a handful of American professors. His book was an effort to explain why "the system of natural liberty" would produce both prosperity and inequality and to defend as tolerable the inequality that was the inevitable (and perhaps necessary) corollary of prosperity. Adam Smith expected that it would be a particular feature of what we call capitalism. These doctrines are an attack on the hegemony of bourgeois society and the legitimacy of bourgeois values. he began The Wealth of Nations by setting forth a puzzle that he hoped to solve. they tend not to look so ideal. in "the savage nations of hunters and fishers" (what we later learned to call euphemistically "native cultures" or "less-developed nations").ideals. and capitalism was installed in one part and "socialism" in the other. or a set of non-cash perks.

Lacking either a truly private sector or a truly democratic regime.but they will scarcely exist in non-capitalist ones. but. in the routine aspects of ordinary morality. they were surely convinced when the Iron Curtain was torn down in 1989. They Show people the road to wealth. the making of desirable public policies but reject the idea that this is because there is anything moral about it. An "invisible hand" leads him to promote the public good. and Mexico City. socialism creates privilege.from the inconsequential through the prudent to the loony . but not all. Hardly anyone regards it as moral. They will recall the famous passage in which Smith points out that it is from the "interest. environmental action arises out of the demands of journalists. or the baker that we expect our dinner. either socialist or mercantilist. Ian. being non-capitalist. Capitalism. capitalist) nations have governments that will listen to environmentalists. induce action among people who do not want to act. they operate through market competition. To compel people engaged in production and exchange to internalize all of the costs of production and exchange without destroying production and exchange. Americans who rightly think that high rates of crime are characteristic of big cities. Rio de Janeiro. and create hierarchies. Karl Marx. capitalism offers the best possibility for checking some. Jay. the brewer. Vaclav Havel explained why: A government that commands the economy will inevitably command the polity. And. The division of labor can be furthered and large industrial enterprises created by statist regimes as well as by free ones. none of these was located in a nation that could be fairly described as capitalist. Capitalism and the good life Many readers may accept the view that capitalism permits. At worst. they may not operate well enough. government regulation. had these passages in mind (and. Amanda. Because he wrote long before the advent of modern technology. and only democratic (that is. And capitalism permits (but does not require) the emergence of democratic institutions that can (but may not) respond to such proposals. Clayton . Capitalism creates what are often called "post-material values" that lead some private parties to make environment-protecting proposals. and monitor performance by people who do not like monitors. he can be forgiven for not having foreseen the tendency of free markets to substitute capital for labor in ways that relieve many workers of precisely those mindlessly repetitive tasks that Smith supposed would destroy the human spirit. occasionally makes possible popular government and pays the bills of some publicinterest lobbies that can get on with the business of doing good. a government will distort or destroy the former and corrupt or oppress the latter. the rise of mass markets. The average worker employed in repetitive tasks will become "stupid and ignorant. he thought that only public education could provide a remedy. Among the feasible systems of political economy.and modernity may have non-capitalist as well as capitalist sources. it is amoral. indeed. and capitalism.that is. but wrongly suppose that this is especially true of capitalist cities. or possibly even facilitates. the advent of large-scale enterprise. Eastern Europe had been turned into a vast toxic waste dump. though this is "no part of his intention." of the butcher. or power." Should they study the book more carefully. If anyone doubted this. environmental policies in capitalist systems will vary greatly . mercantilism creates privilege. until quite recently (and still quite uncertainly). Rothenbaum. one must be able to make proposals to people who do not want to hear such proposals." not the "benevolence. for the most part. it is more likely than its alternatives to sustain challenges to privilege. Harry. and democratically elected power-holders. given a commanding position. legal action. of these tendencies toward degradation and depravity.Cap Kritik 193/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab to worry much about the environment. because it requires private property. reformist and meliorist tendencies designed to counteract the adverse consequences of massive urbanization were not much in evidence. in some careless passages. would not exist in a non-capitalist regime. and moral suasion. Men and women everywhere will seek advantage. Sao Paulo. foundation executives. the incessant seeking after monopoly benefits and political privilege that will follow from the expansion of manufacturing. and private-sector activists who. by happy accident. Mexico City. People with these views can find much support in The Wealth of Nations. No regime will make this result certain. and Smith would have had no use for any of them. of the weakening of village ties. grasp power. and do all of this only to the extent that the gains in human welfare are purchased at acceptable costs. sustains a distinction between the public and the private sphere and thereby provides a protected place for people to stand who wish to make controversial proposals. but only democratic capitalist regimes make it at all possible. primitivism creates privilege. need to spend some time in Moscow. a profligate and self-serving elite will spring up to seize the benefits supplied by aristocratic or socialist or authoritarian or free-market systems. people will flock to cities to seek opportunities conferred by socialist as well as capitalist economies. giving the West its first real look at what had been hidden behind the Berlin Wall. and Moscow have long been among the dozen largest cities in the world. When Smith suggested that the increased division of labor would turn most workers into unhappy copies of Charlie Chaplin in Modern Times. and the "low profligacy and vice" that will attend upon the growth of large cities. But to the extent that a society is capitalist. a close student of Smith's writings. As with inequality. Urbanization is the result of modernity . But Marx (and. But they operate clumsily and imperfectly. they will come across passages predicting the degradation of the human spirit that is likely to occur from the division of labor. professors. Or to put it simply. and they will rush down that road. of industrialization and urbanization) with the consequences of capitalism. DML. it is an immoral system that glorifies greed but. and an improvement in transportation . referred to them) when he drew his picture of the alienation man would suffer as a consequence of private property had confused the consequences of modernization (that is. and. even Smith) had made an error. a tool for the achievement of human wants that is neither good nor bad. status. They were state-dominated economies. privately financed voluntary associations." the successful merchant living in a big city will become personally licentious and politically advantaged. At best. many will do some rather unattractive things along the way. most of these states were barely democratic (the USSR not at all). Rio. These arise from economic rivals. Capitalism creates privilege.

Amanda. capitalism is practical because it relies on the inexhaustible motive-power of self-interest. Under The reward for these virtues—and for the political system that protects and encourages them—is an ever-increasing wealth and prosperity. yet this is the same quality enshrined by our nation's founders when they proclaimed the individual's right to "the pursuit of happiness. But this is also a crucial moral principle: the principle that each man is an end in himself. Most of today's intellectuals reflexively condemn self-interest." It is only capitalism that recognizes this right. Jay. Clayton . http://www. They are driven by the idea that one's own life is an irreplaceable value not to be sacrificed or wasted. Rothenbaum. The answer is that capitalism is a system of virtue—the virtues of rational thought.moraldefense. The fundamental characteristics that make capitalism practical—its respect for the freedom of the mind and for the sanctity of the individual—are also profound moral ideals. not a mere cog in the collective machine to be exploited for the ends of others. Ian. This is the answer to the dilemma of the moral vs. people are driven by loyalty to their own goals and by the ambition to improve their lives.Cap Kritik 194/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – V2L Capitalism best ensures value to life – don’t endorse sexist language Tracinski 8 – editor of the Intellectual Activist Robert. productive work. Harry. and pride in the value of one's own person. the practical.htm Stated in more fundamental terms. DML. The Moral and the Practical.

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