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**THE CAPITALISM CRITICISM**

DML, Ian, Harry, Jay, Amanda, Rothenbaum, Clayton

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1NC
Space exploration is merely an outlet for the state to expand its capitalist grip – infinite wars will be fought over new resources – also their advantages are made up and/or inevitable in capitalism Dickens 9 – Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex
(Peter, “The Cosmos as Capitalism’s Outside,” The Sociological Review, 57: 66–82, dml)

The imminent conquest of outer space raises the question of ‘outside’ and ‘inside’ yet again. Capitalism now has the cosmos in its sights, an outside which can be privately or publicly owned, made into a commodity, an entity for which nations and private companies can compete. As such the cosmos is a possible site of armed hostilities. This means, contra Hardt and Negri, that there is an outside after all, one into which the competitive market can now expand indefinitely. A new kind of imperialism is therefore underway,
albeit not one attempting to conquer and exploit people ‘outside’ since there are no consumers or labour power to exploit in other parts of the solar system. Ferrying wealthy tourists into the cosmos is a first and perhaps most spectacular part of this process of capital's cosmic expansion. Especially important in the longer term is making outer space into a source

of resources and materials. These will in due course be incorporated into production-processes, most of which will be still firmly lodged on earth. Access to outer space is, potentially at least, access to an infinite outside array of resources. These apparently have the distinct advantage of not being owned or used by any preexisting society and not requiring military force by an imperializing power gaining access to these resources. Bringing this outside zone into capitalism may at first seem beneficial to everyone. But this scenario is almost certainly not so trouble-free as may at first seem. On the one hand, the investment of capital into outer space would be a huge diversion from the investments needed to address many urgent inequalities and crises on Earth. On the other hand, this same access is in practice likely to be conducted by a range of competing imperial powers.

Hardt and Negri (2000) tell us that the history of imperializing wars is over. This may or may not be the case as regards imperialism on earth. But old-style imperialist, more particularly inter-imperialist, wars seem more likely than ever,

as growing and competing power-blocs (the USA and China are currently amongst the most likely protagonists) compete for resources on earth and outer space. Such, in rather general terms, is the prospect for a future, galactic, imperialism between competing powers. But what are the relations, processes and mechanisms underlying this new phenomenon? How should we understand the regional rivalries and ideologies involved and the likely implications of competing empires attempting to incorporate not only their share of resources on earth but on global
society's ‘outside’? Social crises, outer spatial fixes and galactic imperialism Explanatory primacy is given here to economic mechanisms driving this humanization of the universe. In the same way that they have driven imperializing societies in the past to expand their economic bases into their ‘outsides’, the social relations of capitalism and the processes of

capital-accumulation are driving the new kind of outer space imperialisms. Such is the starting-point of

this paper (See alsoDickens and Ormrod, 2007). It is a position based on the work of the contemporary Marxist geographer David Harvey (2003) and his notion of ‘spatial fixes’. Capitalism continually constructs what he calls ‘outer transformations.’ In the context of the over-accumulation of capital in the primary circuit of industrial capital, fresh geographic zones are constantly

sought out which have not yet been fully invested in or, in the case of outer space, not yet been invested in at all. ‘Outer spatial fixes’ are investments in outer space intended to solve capitalism's many crises. At
one level they may be simply described as crises of economic profitability. But ‘economic’ can cover a wide array of issues such as crises of resource-availability and potential social and political upheavals resulting from resource-shortages. Furthermore, there

is certainly no guarantee that these investments will actually ‘fix’ these underlying economic, political and social crises. The ‘fix’ may well be of a temporary, sticking-plaster, variety. Cap causes endless genocide and spurs violent resistance that kills millions in the name of resource expansion. Jalata 11 – Professor of Sociology & Global Studies
(Asafa, January 24th 2011, “Terrorism from Above and Below in the Age of Globalization”, p.1-4) NAR

As capitalism developed in Western Europe, the need for raw materials, minerals such as gold and silver, markets, and free or cheap labor expanded due to the desire to minimize the cost of production and to increase the accumulation of capital or wealth. “The treasures captured outside of Europe by undis-guised looting, enslavement, and murder,” Karl Marx (1967: 753-754) writes, “floated back to the mother-country and were there

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turned to capital.” Most liberal and leftist scholars have failed to identify and explain the role of state-sponsored or state
terrorism that colonial officials, European companies, and ex-peditionary forces used during the expansion of the racialized capitalist world system to transfer the economic resources of the indigenous peoples to European colonial forces or settlers and their collaborators. The development of the nation-state and the capitalist world system occurred through

war making, violence and organized crime (Tilly, 1985: 170). We cannot clearly understand the essence and meaning
of global terrorism without comprehending the essence and characteristics of state terrorism since states were born and consolidated through vi-olence. Under the guises of “free markets,” “civilization,” and Chris-tianity, forces of European states

or state-sponsored companies committed acts of terrorism and genocide that were, more or less, ignored. In fact, the issue of terrorism only started to be addressed when, after World War I, colonized peoples in Africa and Asia began their liberation struggles against European co-lonial states. The terrorist attack on the life and liberty of American indigenous peoples by European colonial powers and their collaborators destroyed existing institutions and econo-mies and exposed the conquered peoples to poverty and fa-mineinduced “holocausts” (Davis, 2001). Discussing how the cultural destruction of indigenous peoples resulted in massive
deaths, Karl Polanyi (1944: 159-160) argues, “The catastrophe of the native community is a direct result of the rapid and vio-lent disruption of the basic institutions of the victim. These institutions are disrupted by the very fact that a market econo-my is foisted upon an entirely differently organized community; labor and land are made into a commodity, which, again, is only a short formula for the liquidation of every … cultural institution in an organic society.” The capitalist world economy that in the 19th century was permanently eliminating famine from Western Europe was

simultaneously accelerating famine and famine-induced deaths in the rest of the world: “Millions died, not outside the „modern world system,‟ but in the very process of being forcibly incor-porated into its economic and political structures. They died
in the golden age of Liberal Capitalism; indeed, many were mur-dered by the theological application of the sacred principles of [Adam] Smith” (Davis, 2001: 9). Today, mainstream Eu-ro-American scholars gloss over such crimes and

refer to them as actions of “discovery” and “civilization.” State terrorism, genocide, and the destruction of indigenous institutions and the devastating consequences of famine have been closely inter-connected in the global capitalist world system. In addition, the international community rarely
holds accountable its members that engage in state terrorism and genocide. Kurt Jonassohn (1998: 24) recently noted that terrorist state leaders in develop-ing countries “not only go unpunished, they are even rewarded. On the international scene they are accorded all the respect and courtesies due to government officials. They are treated in ac-cordance with diplomatic protocol in negotiations and are treated in the General Assembly of the United Nations. When they are finally ousted from their offices, they are offered asylum by countries that lack respect for international law, but have a great deal of respect for the ill-gotten wealth that such perpetra-tors bring with them.” Despite the fact that some government elites claim that the state provides protection from domestic and external violence, “governments organize and, wherever possible, monopolize the concentrated

means of violence. The distinction between „legi-timate‟ and „illegitimate‟ force makes no difference” (Tilly, 1985: 171). Political violence has always been involved in producing and maintaining structures, institutions, and organi-zations of privileged hierarchy and domination in society. Those who have state power, which incorporates the power to define terrorism, deny their involvement in political violence or terrorism and confuse abstract theories about the state with reality. Based on an idealized relationship between the state and
society, philosophers and thinkers such as Hobbes, Hegel, Rousseau, and Plato have identified three functions of the state that would earn it legitimacy. According to state theories, the state protects and maintains internal peace and order in society; it organizes and protects national economic activities; it de-fends national sovereignty and national interests (Bushnell, et al., 1991: 6). In reality, most states violate most of these theo-retical principles by engaging in political repression and state terrorism

in order to defend the interests of a few powerful elites. Furthermore, the revolutionary theories of the state by
Karl Marx and V. I. Lenin (1971) remain a dream because states failed to introduce revolutionary social transformations that would eliminate oppression, repression, state terrorism, and the exploitation of people (Maguire, 1978). The occurrence of political repression, oppression, state ter-rorism, and dictatorship in the former Soviet Union, China and other former revolutionary countries demonstrate that the state has remained the site of violence despite its legitimating dis-course. As Charles Tilly (985: 1819) puts it, political violence is closely related to the art of statecraft, and most of the time, “the state, like an unchained beast, ferociously [attacks] those who claim to be its master, its own citizens” (Tilly, 1985: 7). Annamarie Oliverio (1998) criticizes scholars who produce definitions of terrorism on behalf of the state and promote outmoded concepts, analyses, and theories in state bureaucracy, the media, and in academia. The motivations of those who hold state power and

engage in state terrorism are to maintain the global economy, structures of politics, and hierarchies of cultures and peoples in order to extract economic resources. The main objective of those who engage in nonstate terrorism is mainly to politically respond to economic, political, and cultural inequalities. One common denominator of the theories of non-state terrorism is that it is mainly caused by grievances of one kind or another. These grievances involve national/religious/cultural oppression,

eco-nomic exploitation, political repression, massive human rights violations, attacks on life and liberty, state terrorism, and vari-ous forms of social injustices. Yet, whilst it is acknowledged that revolutions, social movements, and non-state terrorism generally involve grievances, all grievances do not result in revolutionary or social movements, nor do they all cause sub-versive

DML, Ian, Harry, Jay, Amanda, Rothenbaum, Clayton

’ Yet it is from existing practices and relations that the new is fabricated. the question of counter-hegemony evokes the dialectic of bringing the new into existence. which is to say that the future is already contained as potential within the present. new relationships and kinds of relationships’ that Williams (1977: 123) identified with cultural emergence. Desai and Tuğal 2009: 216. are laboratories for social invention. precisely because they are structurally reproductive. such practices. there currently is a wide gap in establishing a common understanding of terrorism among scholars of terrorism studies. as in the incorporation of indigenous ways as alternatives to neoliberal practices that have grown decidedly old (cf. so that while satisfying the urgent necessities of the one we may work effectively to create and ‘anticipate’ the other (1977: 65)? The new is no mere ‘fashion’.” Interface 2:2. “Crisis.Cap Kritik 4/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab terrorism. only transformative practices have that capacity (Bhaskar 1989. the development of extreme ideologies in the form of religion or another ideology. DML. 168-198. movements. Bahn 2009). ‘emergent publics’ that create possibilities for a more democratic way of life (Angus 2001). conjunctural. in short which ‘new combinations’ (Dyer-Witheford 2001) might already carry the new – and under what contemporary conditions might they have efficacy? These are more concrete questions of counter-hegemony. social. do not produce much that is new. the latter being a preferred trope of modernity (Blumer 1969). closely integrated with consumer-capitalist accumulation strategies. as distinct from defensive forms of subaltern resistance. strives to shape those ‘anticipating elements’. new practices. Movements succeed in creating change when political and cultural opportunity structures open up (Tarrow 1998). economic. ‘Fermenting in the process of the real itself’ is what Ernst Bloch called ‘the concrete forward dream: anticipating elements are a component of reality itself’ (1986:197). and the emergence of leaders. the continued oppressive and exploitative policies of state elites. Amanda. Ian. and cadres in aggrieved populations can facilitate the emergence of subversive terrorism. Theorists of agency and structure note that. Often the new reworks the old. dml) In the most general terms and at the highest level of abstraction. Gramsci captured this dialectic with the metaphor of welding the present to the future: How can the present be welded to the future. There must therefore be some intervening structural. ideologues. the new preserves yet transforms extant reality. Rothenbaum. and behavioral factors particularly that act to transform some grievances into non-state terrorism through some agencies of the aggrieved population. as Melucci (1989) has emphasized. against the sedimented practices and relations that. Viewed dialectically. with radical effects. Most experts on the subject look at this issue from a narrow perspective by ignoring what I argue to be the reality: that terrorism is a social cancer for all human groups affected by it. the refusal of state actors to address longstanding grievances peacefully and fairly. Indeed. Clayton . agentic consent of subalterns to their subordination (De Leon. We cannot adequately grasp the essence and characteristics of modern terrorism without understanding the larger cultural. Since terrorism has been conceptualized. a well-established hegemonic structure naturalizes social cleavages and contradictions. For counter-hegemony. Harry. the challenge is to seek out in the present the preconditions for a post-capitalist future and to develop political strategy based on an analysis of those immanent possibilities (Ollman 2003). although social structures are sustained solely through the practices that reproduce them. Fraser 1995). as Marx (1852) wrote. counter-hegemony: in search of the new. defined. and theorized by those who have contradictory interests and objectives and since the subject matter of terrorism is complex and elusive. which practices and which alignments of movements and practices. Alt – vote negative to reject the flawed capitalist nature of the affirmative. The alternative is the only way out – we need to analyze the flaws in the system to find the preconditions for movements away from capitalism and its inevitable collapse – this is key to develop a real political strategy Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William. weigh ‘like a nightmare on the brains of the living. so that they may become lasting features of social life. and political contexts in which it takes place. The combination of factors such as collective grievances. Movements. and thus with reproducing the status quo. This dialectic between what already exists and what might be constructed out of that is integral to any project of purposeful socio-political change. Counter-hegemony. They are carriers of the ‘new means and values. securing the active. Joseph 2002). Jay. But which movements.

Cap Kritik 5/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **LINKS** DML. Amanda. Harry. Clayton . Jay. Rothenbaum. Ian.

The reproduction of material life is wholly dependent on the production and reproduction of surplus value. Neil Smith’s characterization of capital’s relations to nature is useful at this point. however.” again in response to economic.10 Rather. allowing an increasing number of people to become integral to the further expansion of global capitalism. an outside is needed as a zone into which surplus capital can be invested. space stations. the geological substratum or the biological superstratum are immune from transformation by capital. dml) Instead of indulging in over-optimistic and fantastic visions. harder. capital is being physically invested in new regions. the moon. there are. In the early twentieth century. We can then begin taking a more measured view of space humanization.Cap Kritik 6/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Generic Their explotative project is a band-aid solution for Earthly problems that simply serves to buttress capitalist structures Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter.”11 Capitalism is everywhere. Although the humanization of the cosmos is clearly a new and exotic development. Luxemburg’s second reason for imperial expansion is the search for cheap supplies of labor and raw materials. No 6. the humanization of the cosmos seriously questions these assertions. But. The word “fix” is used here both literally and figuratively. But during the next twenty years or so. particularly those of declining economic profitability. Clayton . November 2010. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. At first. At this point. of course. Jay. Amanda.7 As outlined earlier. resistance to capitalism is either everywhere or nowhere. the atmosphere. On the one hand. these being located mainly on earth. At best. capital stalks the Earth in search of material resources. social.” DML. Harry. expansion into the cosmos offers no benefits to capital in the form of fresh sources of labor power. making. we should take a longer.9 Capital is now also “stalking” outer space in the search for new resources and raw materials. nature becomes a universal means of production in the sense that it not only provides the subjects.” i. such as the moon and Mars. Nature on a cosmic scale now seems likely to be incorporated into production processes. objects and instruments of production. Economic and social crisis stems less from the problem of finding new consumers. Some influential commentators argue that the current problem for capitalism is that there is now no “outside. The kind of theory mentioned above also has clear implications for the humanization of the cosmos. the oceans. but is also in its totality an appendage to the production process…no part of the Earth’s surface. they are short-term solutions. To this end. with new parts of the cosmos being invested in by competing nations and companies.8 But expansion into the cosmos does offer prospects for exploiting new materials such as those in asteroids. and more from that of finding. Outer space will be “globalized. and exploiting zones of profitability for surplus capital. Rothenbaum. Projects for the colonization of outer space should be seen as the attempt to make new types of “spatial fix. and which are generating this demand for expansion into outer space. Clearly. underlying processes which are at the heart of the capitalist economy and society. the social relationships and mechanisms underlying space-humanization are very familiar. Regarding the latter. will begin attracting investments. an increasing number of political economists have argued that the importance of a capitalist “outside” is not so much that of creating a new pool of customers or of finding new resources. we must return to the deeper. these will include artificial fixes such as satellites. Military power will inevitably be made an integral part of this process. First. Ian. Monthly Review Vol 62. New “spatial fixes” are due to be opened up in the cosmos. governments protecting the zones for which they are responsible. and more critical look at what is happening and what is likely to happen. and start developing more progressive alternatives. space fiction fantasies about aliens aside. and space hotels. On the other hand. space technology has extended and deepened this process. no absolute guarantees that such fixes will really correct an essentially unstable social and economic system. Since Luxemburg wrote. The stage would then be set for wars in outer space between nations and companies attempting to make their own cosmic “fixes. Rosa Luxemburg argued that an “outside” to capitalism is important for two main reasons. as suggested above. capitalism’s emergent outside. Similarly. and environmental crises on earth. These crises are followed by attempted “fixes” in distinct geographic regions.. Developing “outsides” in this way is also a product of recurring crises. appended to Earth.e. existing outsides. it is needed as a means of creating massive numbers of new customers who would buy the goods made in the capitalist countries. the attempt is to fix capitalism’s crises. and perhaps other cosmic entities such as Mars.

The process now continues with the privatization and commodification of assets such as welfare provisions and services previously held and operated by states. Hulstroj (2002) makes the important observation that the UN declaration that space should be ‘free for exploration and use by all states’ assumed that space was an infinite resource and that there would be enough space for everybody. . if they ever are commodified. The Arctic and Antarctic are the closest Earthly equivalents to the nearest outer spatial assets. Law and property rights are. . IWren) The outer spatial fix. the geological substratum or the biological superstratum are immune from transformation by capital. dml) DML. The circuits of capital pull progressively more materials into their midst. in critical realist terms. etc. These new types of ‘spatial fix’ are. capital stalks the Earth in search of material resources. we can envisage capital ‘stalking’ the nearby cosmos in search of the resources needed for production. One of capitalism’s main attempts at crisis resolution has been via commodification and privatization on Earth. Amanda. Clayton . nearby resources on the Moon. first served’ has been endorsed by the International Telecommunications Union. (Smith 1984: 49. Rothenbaum. No part of the Earth’s surface. however. Space control=capitalist Dickens and Ormrod 7 . pg 59-60. The object is to make the universe into ‘an appendage to the production process’. This is what Harvey (2003) calls ‘accumulation by dispossession’. University of Essex and **James. when populations began to be removed from their means of subsistence. Attempts are already under way to legally subdivide. But gaining access to outer space assets is a rather different kind of accumulation. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. whilst choosing to overlook their social position.Cap Kritik 7/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space development is simply an extension of the capitalistic drive to secure and appropriate external resources as appendages to a system dominated by the wealthy power-elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Since the 1980s. those on the Moon. Jay. encountering strong opposition from environmentalists and others (Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition 2004. the oceans. Harry. Oil companies are drilling in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge as their response to the energy crisis and political upheavals in the Middle East. near-Earth asteroids. nature becomes a universal means of production in the sense that it not only provides the subjects. commodification and space law Neil Smith.*Peter. The principle of ‘first come. a number of books have examined the commercialization of outer space from a business or legal perspective. just over a decade later. Ian. with ‘primitive accumulation’. It extends and proliferates a process started. Commodifying outer space But this is part of a bigger pattern. mechanisms operating in virtue of the necessary underlying relationships of capitalism. To this end. 56) Now. outer space law is another instance of how a ruling class rules. Ownership and commodification are the ways in which this appendage are made. Tokar 1999). but is also in its totality an appendage to the production process . They operate on the illusion that property rights are available to all citizens. allowing them to be developed throughout the globe and outer space. But both such kinds of potential ‘fix’ remain fair game for future capital investment. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. They do so by apparently working to the same ‘universal’ rules as subordinated classes. Seen in this way. They help guarantee such relations. own and control these regions as a first step towards their privatization and commodification as part of a process of humanization. Commodification and space law The contemporary development of space law (dividing outer space into items where property rights apply and over which contracts and individual juridical rights can be drawn up) is therefore an obvious harbinger of the forthcoming commodification of the nearby universe and the extension of the secondary and tertiary circuits into outer space. space is not uniform in its usefulness. objects and instruments of production. as he rightly says. Similarly.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. will be controlled by those already in possession of the capacity to do so. one not dispossessing anyone already using these resources. particularly the land. the atmosphere. leaving no room for satellites launched by developing countries who might in future want to do so. but in reality they will be available only to the wealthy and to large corporations. The Antarctic is proving attractive to pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries searching for new compounds and genetic resources. However. . The geostationary orbit for satellites (an orbit that keeps satellites directly above the Earth’s equator) is already overcrowded. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 179. has argued that: The reproduction of material life is wholly dependent on the production and reproduction of surplus value. a close collaborator of Harvey. he argues. The Antarctic Treaty and the Law of the Sea Treaty were both used as models for the legal treaties governing outer space appropriation. In theory they are. and Hulstroj notes that speed settles these disputes rather than value judgements (2002: 110).

. Who owns the orbital paths that are now occu. with an additional problematic issue that the original users have been gov. Ian. The result is the further development of narcissism. But Chapters 7 and 8 suggest that the cosmos is also integral to an imminent fourth stage: capitalism being extended by the most powerful. economic and cultural means. those orbits would be treated the same way as gov. Meszaros. attempting to ‘fix’ it by military.pied by government satellites? Presumably. technology which itself forms part of capitalism’s hegemonic resolution to its own inherent crises. wrote ‘we have entered the most dangerous phase of imperialism in all history’ (2001: 37). the increasing use of the cosmos for military and surveillance purposes increases their distance from it.Cap Kritik 8/194 The main theme running through the later chapters of this book is that imperialism 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab is now entering into a new phase.pg26. Global society is in social.cho-capitalism. even to the point of what Ernest Jones (1913) describes as the ‘God complex’. DML. culture and military adventures on Earth. Holcombe 5 -DeVoe Moore Professor of Economics at Florida State University (Randall G. amongst those with access to the heavens. so that area of the moon would be government property? In anarcho-capitalism. subaltern. elites and nations into outer space. Here again. The emergent form of cosmic society makes sense only when placed in this context of Earthly chaos. when Neil Armstrong landed on the moon in 1969 and combined his labor with a section of the moon’s land area.org/journals/jls/19_2/19_2_1. “COMMON PROPERTY IN ANARCHO-CAPITALISM”. Harry. The global market is proving increasingly unable to contain the many contradictions of capitalism. populations. Clayton .ernments. the universe is conceived as an object that those with political and economic power can utilize to retain and extend social power. Rothenbaum. writing of the growth of armaments in the late twentieth century. in a devolution to anar. 5 and 6. including the economic and military demands of competing geopolitical powers. was he acting as an individual homesteading that area of the moon. Jay. These ‘fixes’ may be organized by dominant economic and military powers such as the US. This danger is now being increased by its spread into outer space. A number of interesting questions present themselves once it is recognized that common property could exist in anarcho-capitalism. Capitalism is the root cause of territory expansionism in space. and that the humanized cosmos is central to this transition. JOURNAL OF LIBERTARIAN STUDIES 329. For other. mises. further crisis and risk are being generated. but they are almost certainly making the world more dangerous.Spring 2005.pdf) Similar questions arise about ownership in outer space. the cosmos is being increasingly used to regulate social relations.ment property would revert to common ownership. On the one hand. economic and environmental upheaval. For example. gathering valuable moon rocks and undertaking other activities. At the same time. On the one hand. as we have outlined in Chapters 4. as with roads and parks on Earth. the most powerful classes of modern society are using the cosmos as a means of managing and controlling this chaos. It is being used to manage the ‘third stage’ of imperialism. or was he acting as an employee and an agent of the United States government. But in the meantime. The humanization of outer space is therefore being used to control or manage an earlier phase of imperialist expansion while ushering in a new one.ernment-owned roads. presumably such celestial govern. again competing. Amanda. hegemonic messages are being asserted by this technology. political.

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Link – Aerospace
Keynes got it wrong—aerospace industry funding doesn’t boost the economy, it just sustains the expansion of capitalism and exploitative class relations. Dickens and Ormrod 7 - *Peter, Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of
(Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe, pg 86-87, IWren) Capital, ‘spatial fixes’ and government in absentia Governments Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology, University of Essex and **James, Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton

do not channel funds into the military merely as a form of industrial welfare – they do so to ensure the geographic expansion of their capitalist economies. ‘The new imperialism’ consisted, and still consists, of ‘accumulation by dispossession’. It was above all a reassertion of class power, with trade unions being marginalized, the creation

of ‘flexible’ labour markets and financial capital having a key role in allocating funds on a global scale. Keynesianism was largely rejected as flows of capital were now injected into newly commodified and privatized public goods and services. Investments started to flow into the other parts of the capitalist economy that looked promising sources of accumulation. ‘Structural Adjustment Programs’ were imposed by the International Monetary Fund on developing countries, opening up global markets and reducing state welfare spending. But new investments included, and still very much include, the Far East, particularly India and China. It is the

necessity of overseeing capital’s geographic expansion and monitoring its social and political implications that gives space a revived significance over and above the demands of the military– industrial–space complex. This is where we can usefully return to Lenin’s understanding of monopoly capitalism as
outlined in the previous chapter. Not only do regional monopolies represent a threat to global ‘free trade’, they represent a threat to peace. A militarized outer space becomes a medium through which some such monopolies can be

protected. But for global capitalism outer space is a medium through which regional monopolies can be regulated and, if necessary, destroyed. Lefebvre (1976) refers to the creation of ‘super regions’, which are
now expanding themselves into space.

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Link – Asteroids/Helium-3
Resource mining is supa cap Dickens and Ormrod 7 - *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton
(Peter and James, Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 144-145, dml)

Outer space is now increasingly envisaged as providing inputs to the Earthly production process. It is, for example, seen as an unlimited source of metals for human use. Private companies have also been established working on the research and design for asteroidal and lunar mines. This is
discussed in a number of books elaborating the commercial potential of outer space (e.g. Lewis 1996; Zubrin 1999; Hudgins 2002). The expansion of industry into space has been referred to by Harry G. Stine (1975) as the ‘third industrial revolution’ and by Krafft Ehricke (1972) as ‘the benign industrial revolution’ (as there were supposedly no environmental issues associated with it). Asteroids are receiving special attention (Lewis 1996). The Moon might seem an obvious first target

for the acquisition and mining of resources, but asteroids are currently seen as a better bet thanks to their metallic density. They have three hundred times as much free metal as an equal mass taken from the
Moon. Metals found on the Moon are just the dispersed debris from asteroids. In the mid-1990s the market value of metals in the smallest known asteroid, known as 3554 Amun, was about $20 trillion. This included $8 trillion worth of iron and nickel, $6 trillion worth of cobalt, and about $6 trillion in platinum-group metals (ibid.). As and when it is possible to launch

thousands of people into orbit and build giant solar power satellites, Lewis argues, it should be possible to retrieve this and mine other asteroids to supply Earth with all the metals society will ever need. Extracting valuable helium-3 from the Moon is another possibility. One metric ton of helium-3
is worth $3 million, and one million tons could be obtained from the Moon. This has led Lawrence Joseph to question in a New York Times article whether the Moon could become the Persian Gulf of the twenty-first century (cited in Gagnon 2006). Needless to say, we

need to remain cautious in accepting these highly optimistic forecasts. Even the most enthusiastic pro-space activists see materials in space as useful only for building in space. The cost of returning materials to Earth would add so much to the cost of extracting them that this would never be financially viable.

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Link – Astronauts/Desire to Space Travel
Astronauts become the new social elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 - *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton
(Peter and James, Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 162, dml) In the previous chapter, we outlined the form of ‘cosmic narcissism’ present in the fantasies of pro-space activists about taking trips into Earth orbit. However, this narcissism is also manifest in grandiose fantasies about omnipotence

being exercised through the conquest and colonization of space. Previous research (Ormrod 2007) revealed
activists with fantasies about bouncing up and down on the Moon, playing a round of golf there, mining asteroids or creating their own small colonies on Mars. These particular human beings, far from being oppressed by or subjected to forces in the heavens, are now being

reconstituted as all-powerful individuals expressing a control over the external world, which might be likened to that experienced in the earliest years of childhood. The fantasy of life in a spacefaring civilization protects the narcissistic idea that the whole universe revolves around him/her and that the whole cosmos is there to be consumed. It is a universe that promises that the power and limitless freedom of the Western individual can be guaranteed. Reality of course dictates
that pursuit of such a relationship with the universe will necessarily result in conflict with others and between the different needs of the individual.

DML, Ian, Harry, Jay, Amanda, Rothenbaum, Clayton

George W. the surveillance of society and broadcasting information and propaganda. DML.Cap Kritik 12/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Colonization/ISS The humanizing mission of space is championed by the ISS Dickens and Ormrod 7 . with outer space being envisaged as a source of energy and materials. Ian. It now seems clear that this process is to be extended. Clayton . Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 148. Amanda. Jay. Bush’s Space Exploration Initiative includes plans for a permanent lunar base manned in six-month shifts. And here experiments are being conducted on the effects of gravity loss on human beings and other species. may be possible. Here are living quarters for human beings. Harry. We have already encountered humanization in the form of militarization and. making them into environments suitable for human beings. dml) But it is little appreciated that the colonization of outer space has already started with the International Space Station.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. via satellites. Other still less exotic forms of humanization are already well in place. Rothenbaum. In the longer term the ‘terraforming’ of nearby planets.

DML. or “Star Wars” program. Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. A version of the program is still being developed. Satellites have also been made central to modern warfare. it is easy to forget that outer space is already being increasingly humanized. the global economy in its present form would grind to a halt.4 Using surveillance and military equipment located in outer space is now seen as the prime means of protecting U. November 2010)NAR Yet among these plans and proposals. Defense Policy. Combined with pilotless Predator drones. economic and military assets both on Earth and in outer space. with the citizens of the Czech Republic and Poland now under pressure to accept parts of a U. Teleworking is the best known example. Nevada. they are now being used to observe and attack Taliban and Al-Qaida operatives in Afghanistan and elsewhere.” This is part of a wider strategy of “Full Spectrum Dominance. aimed to intercept incoming missiles while facilitating devastating attacks on supposed enemies. Without satellite-based communications. Rothenbaum. The 1980s Strategic Defense Initiative. Satellites. Jay. These have enabled an increasing number of people to become part of the labor market.S. No 6.” which has for some time been official U. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. Satellite-based communications have also facilitated new forms of consumption such as teleshopping. Harry. are extremely important elements of contemporary communications systems.-designed “missile defense shield. Amanda.S. Monthly Review Vol 62. for example.Cap Kritik 13/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Communications Communication technologies are used to protect and further capitalist exploitation. Ian. This action is done by remote control from Creech Air Force Base at Indian Springs.S. Clayton . It has now been made an integral part of the way global capitalist society is organized and extended.

This oft-reinvented tradition of a toughened individual forged by making a new frontier has its roots in Frederick Jackson Turner’s 1893 The Significance of the Frontier in American History (see Turner 1962). the spirit that gave rise to the progressive humanistic culture that America has offered to the world for the past several centuries is fading’ (Zubrin and Wagner 1996: 297). present and future.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. There is. Amanda. Modern space advocates have adopted this understanding of the frontier. Without such a frontier. he believed. stagnate. These are key values of the libertarian right. a well-established counter-hegemonic critique of the frontier. in order to justify the colonization of space. This in turn leads. The frontier is a transposable myth and ideological rendering of the past. it is believed. Pro-space activists are frequently reflexive about the fact that the needs of capitalism drive the frontier but they simply do not apply critical apparatus to their thinking about the necessity and desirability of capitalist development. Clayton . DML. American culture will. Jay. Rothenbaum. to American democracy and the American entrepreneurial spirit. along with the imagery. in which the destruction caused by the American Western expansion is highlighted (Launius 2003: 345). of course. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 164. Zubrin and Wagner cite Turner and argue that ‘without a frontier from which to breathe life. Ian.Cap Kritik 14/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Frontier The frontier mentality frames space as a place to be exploited Dickens and Ormrod 7 . character types and settings it evokes. Harry. He argued that the challenges of the frontier fostered an individualist survivalism based on risk-taking and hostility towards centralized power. dml) This imagined past has long been associated with making an essential American national character.

used largely to monitor climatic and environmental change. Harry. may come off much worse than others as a result of such humanization. the pessimism of the second contradiction thesis can easily be adopted not just by socialists but by the promoters of capitalism who would use the possibility of the Earth’s ‘demise’ as an excuse to continue privatizing the cosmos. But this is a long way from saying that capitalism and nature will come to an end as a result of commodification and environmental degradation. and working this into a fundamental critique of Marx’s political economy (Thomas-Pellicer 2004). dml) On the other hand. Whatever happens to the Earth and the cosmos there will still be some form of a nature there (Harvey 1996). Rothenbaum.5 billion in 2007 for Earth observation data and services. some sociologists have started mirroring the arguments of pro-space advocates and are considering the development of space resources as a permanent resolution of the second contradiction. This raises some of the debates surrounding the second contradiction thesis. O’Connor (1996) is the leading contemporary Marxist proponent of the second contradiction and he argues that it is most likely to be addressed by state intervention and limited state ownership of the means of production. Like the proponents of capitalism’s infinite expansion into an infinite outer space. specifically the poor. But. the second contradiction thesis can be seen as depending on a form of catastrophism: the idea that society and nature are doomed. it is not clear that this is an accurate account of the Left version of the second contradiction. Harris and Olby (2000) projected a market of $6. Humanizing nature on Earth or in the cosmos need be neither a complete disaster nor a complete triumph. particular sectors of the population and particular species and ecological systems. DML.Cap Kritik 15/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Get Off the Rock The rock isn’t gonna die – but only the elite will be able to get off it Dickens and Ormrod 7 . first. The priority for historical materialism is to consider the implications of outer space humanization for particular societies. Certainly some people. As pro-space activists show. whether propounded by Left or Right. But the picture of catastrophism. is quite misleading. Developing the rest of the cosmos entails what Enzensberger (1996) might call the next stage of the eco-industrial complex: providing economic opportunities for those in the business of rectifying the degradation caused by capitalism in the first instance.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Clayton . Jay. Ian. Amanda. One example is the revenue generated by Earth-imaging satellites. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 156-157.

are ways of saving capitalism from its declining rates of profit. . At the same time. a US company that sells photographs from its Ikonos satellite. for example.) This is a process now very much caught up in ‘the war on terror’. Rothenbaum. Yet this does not stop the powerful from using it as a means towards their particular ends.*Peter. Clayton . are being made. ‘Ownership’ of an objective reality via observing a photograph is more apparent than real. with the media and the internet active in promoting all kinds of conspiracy. again. We talk more about the effects of surveillance from space in the next chapter. Important elements of Harvey’s ‘tertiary circuit’ are therefore being transferred to the ‘primary circuit’ in which commodities. IWren) There is now every sign that the power of the military–industrial–space complex will continue to be enhanced. see Burrows 1988. This entails not only further weaponization of outer space but its use for military surveillance. which could penetrate clouds and storms. Surveillance rapidly increases levels of paranoia. infra-red sensors. being conducted by the private sector. Ian. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. at a cost of over $2million a month. It now seems likely. finished.com. Using outer space for military surveillance has taken a great leap forward in recent years. On the one hand. ‘treacherous’. In February 2003 Colin Powell (United States Secretary of State) presented US intelligence satellite images that purported to show evidence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. that these images dated from an earlier period before the installations were removed. The whole experience is reminiscent of Susan Sontag’s (2001) analysis of photography.Cap Kritik 16/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Images Photographs and surveillance do not represent an objective medium of communication. in Sontag’s word. representation of an objective reality. As in the case of the internet. the provision of these resources for war is being infiltrated by capital. in large part at least. in this case public or state means of exercising authority and control. pg 93-94. Perhaps the most famous example was during the lead-up to the second Iraq war. these were the best available pictures on the commercial market. Military planners are said by Newsweek. (For a historical account of America’s surveillance satellites. were provided by a private sector company called MapQuest. however. Mean and Wilsdon report that: During the Afghanistan war in 2001 the Pentagon signed an exclusive deal with Space Imaging. But photographs are ‘aggressive’. earlier military applications set the original pace for making technologies that use outer space in the exercise of power. This illusion of “ownership” culminates in paranoia and unilateral war waged by the military-industrial-complex. University of Essex and **James. intrusions on selected aspects of the world. Surveillance previously conducted by military and other state authorities are now. the satellite was out of action at the time and place the pictures were supposed to have been taken. sold and profited from. For the duration of the war. Jay. are. A photograph may look very much like a neutral. (Mean and Wilsdon 2004: 31–2) DML. These images were part of an attempt to justify unilateral war against Iraq. Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Harry. a medium that has largely replaced print as a form of communication in modern society. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. photographs seem to offer a way of appropriating the objective reality of the world and understanding it. enabled individual soldiers to be detected walking around on the ground (Fleming 2001). During the Vietnam War. Such. but rather an intrusion granted to the military by powerful corporations. the Pentagon paid Space Imaging for control of all high-quality images of Afghanistan [. But photographs. Furthermore.] This blanket control also meant that humanitarian groups were denied access to information that could have helped them locate the large number of refugees created by the war. . At a resolution of one metre. to be working on new devices able to ‘peer through the skull and see the brain at work’ (cited in Fleming 2001). Amanda. for example. Colin Powell’s famous 2003 pictures shown to the UN. at least according to some websites.

1 (2006) 133-169. in 2004 the United States was spending more than $40 billion on intelligence. a 50 percent increase over 1998. This was followed in some states by the floating of the crime-fighting computer database known as MATRIX (Robinson 2004). and surveillance becomes an end in itself through which the corporate state jealously seeks to provoke rather than deter enemies. For this reason. satellites are already involved in force enhancement. leaked to the media and dubbed PATRIOT II. and militarized work gangs of the imperial state (Jamail 2004). described America as frighteningly vulnerable to space attacks and concluded that the United States was "an attractive candidate for a space Pearl Harbor" (Stoullig 2001). It demonstrates that what drives espionage and interrogation in Iraq is not some extreme ticking bomb contingency but the state's own inexorable drive to totality. providing coordinates of targets. Afghanistan. The most crucial point of these spy programs is [End Page 137] that access to some of this data may be given to the CIA. Ian. mapping. why have interrogations and torture the most comprehensive surveillance project ever conceived until. Ultimately. Step by step.4 The afferent network extends to the new American frontier in outer space. Harry. while in the Iraq. Rothenbaum. Otherwise.d. warning of attacks.). before he was [End Page 138] Secretary of Defense.). a panel that included Donald Rumsfeld. which ordinarily is not supposed to spy on citizens. These were originally part of an extension of the controversial PATRIOT Act. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. There is a real and grim parallel between the gray future of perpetually monitored American citizens and the luckless present of the inhabitants of Fallujah. and psychological elements—in the polity the Prometheans imagine. Military Space Programs n. it is not from the framework of the so-called War on Terror but from this expansion that continued in Iraq even thought it was already well-known by early 2004 that the prisons there were peopled by petty criminals and innocent bystanders? (International Committee of the Red Cross 2004). warrant-less surveillance. such as provisions to loosen standards for FBI surveillance warrants and to allow the detention of suspects without bail. which. it enables simultaneous surveillance of everything from credit reports to insurance claims (ACLU 2004). espionage and propaganda have become central. disseminating intelligence. dozens were spying.d. and Kosovo wars. moral. Some officials even suspect that terrorists will not be the only subjects. national defense recedes as a plausible motive. According to the Intelligence Resource Program. " says Senator Patrick Leahy. In 2001. state. and more than what is spent today on NASA ($16 billion) or Homeland Security ($31 billion) (Tracing the Rise n. and both operate in a manner essentially invisible to the public. Congress canceled funding (Manjoo 2003). Afferent The expansion of afferent functions recently has been stupendous. “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR The centrality of information networks. When such sleepless watch is being kept.Cap Kritik 17/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Information Expansion of information services under the guise of national security leads to biopolitical domination over populations and war between nation states. and indefinite detentions. both in their afferent (intelligence-gathering) and efferent (intelligencedisseminating) aspects. subjected to the retinal scans. when Congress approved an intelligence reform package with little-noticed changes. Clayton .d. Thus. more than the GDP of several nations. The New Centennial Review 6. The National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004 lays the foundation for a de facto national identification card and links hundreds of federal. the government and its private sector partners have been quietly building more and more databases to learn and store more information about the American people.5 Today. the first harbingers of a police state. D-Vermont (Senate Passes Feingold-Leahy 2004). in reaction to public outrage. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics. 2004. the logic of the spy state unfolds: Admiral Poindexter's controversial Total Information Awareness program was we have to understand Abu Ghraib. Now reintroduced as standalone legislation. and local as well as commercial databases including critical infrastructure like telecommunications and computers. That suspicion became concrete on December 10. the new provisions speed the journey to secret arrests. DML. at the same time that the administration has been making it harder and harder for the public to learn what government agencies are up to. Jay. about double in real terms what was spent on intelligence at the height of the Cold War. underscores the importance of the spiritual—the mental.3 "Ironically. ID badges. was never introduced as a bill (PATRIOT Act II 2004). Amanda. and intercepting messages at all times of day and in all weather over the entire globe in keeping with the motto of the National Reconnaissance Office that "we own the night" (Short n..

Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. Ian. Rather than being seen or experienced as an expression of accumulated history. We use the term ‘spatiality’ to refer to the composite nature of any geographical space: it works as a shorthand for the combination of physical. and if so. marketing. Rothenbaum. 1 As such. Harry. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. and pronouncements. Martian colonialism does not begin with the launch of the first exploration ships or at the moment the first rocket touches down on Mars. the DML. whether on the part of traders (as profits) or workers (as wages). latterly. and epistemological spaces that together comprise a single place. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. imagined. it refers to the creation of distant land as the property of a metropolitan state. an organizing of the world in a legal. Seen at its most abstract and general level. dml) In order to understand the politics of Martian spatiality. George W. China and Russia announced in March 2007 that they would send a joint mission to Mars by 2009. from actual to potential. the propertied classes of Europe and. a more universalized managerial class. and local knowledge. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. It begins with ideas. There are political. The first motivation driving this study is a straightforward concern with spatial accountancy: what kind of a space is Mars at this moment? What kind of a place is Mars before the work of its physical colonization begins? Can Mars be legally owned. logical. Jay. by whom and through which processes? And are any of the numerous lessons learned from European colonialisms of the past relevant to Mars? And is the future of Mars necessarily colonial? The second motivation is a curiosity about the ways in which geographies are produced as artefacts of systemic trends in political economic terms. We attend to Martian spatiality for two key reasons. with many millions of dollars already invested in its success. In his 2004 announcement of the USA’s new space policy. The trajectory of western political economies has unquestionably been towards the monetization and commodification of everything imaginable. with teachers being trained in how best to bring Mars into the classroom (Middle 2006). children design Martian colonies as part of their homework. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. claimed. from a network of mutual obligations to motives of future personal gain (Graham 2001). expectations. Behind this drive has been. dml) ‘Colonialism’ has a specific meaning here: rather than a vague pejorative portmanteau used to house a myriad of power relations. it is also necessary to briefly contextualize them within capitalism. and managerial framework that demands colonization. Mars presents a unique case for postcolonial spatial analysis: it is precolonial. 2 The European Space Agency. What was to be owned. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. It represents an opportunity for postcolonial studies to refocus on the present – and future – tense. Space colonialism has featured on US Space policy agendas. strategic. first. epistemologies. is investing heavily in robotic probes that will scour the Martian surface for optimal colonization sites (BBC 2006). “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. Since the 1986 US National Commission on Space’s declaration of its aim to settle on Mars and the Moon. And in schools around the world. similarly. generally for the economic benefit of the colonizer. colonialism incorporates expansionist capitalism. and operational plans at work. Amanda. a space at the threshold of a significant spatial change. Clayton . Bush’s Martian vision was not a new development in the USA. tradition. discourses. Framing Mars through terms of colonization and resources guarantees capitalist exploitation Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. Bush (2004) stated that Mars would be the next body on which the USA’s human presence would be felt. and on colonialisms other than those of the European past. By the late 20th century. The dominant tense of work thereby moved from past to future. The shape of future capitalist commodification strategies became further evident in moves by early traders to ‘gather up’ and concentrate the efforts of Europe’s traditional craft workers in a piecework system that de-localized the character of work (Weber 1930).Cap Kritik 18/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Mars The colonization of Mars is an expansion of capitalism – their discourse of colonization being “necessary” is misguided and justifies intervention Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. the full expression of this movement came in the form of a massive debt bubble. Martian colonialism is therefore not science fiction fantasy: it has begun in earnest. and companies offering schools ready-made Martian exploration simulation programs (Space Explorers 2007). labour became oriented towards the future realization of a price. and commodified under capitalism was prefigured in the enclosures movement that began in the late 14th century.

and control are investigated. Jay. DML. and controlling future environmental and factoral contingencies based on expectations of profit and personal gain. We concentrate on two important aspects of discourse about Mars that encapsulate the political and the economic. all of which is to be achieved through increased control and ‘efficiencies’. National governments. Space agencies and societies. and ideas. the Past – to the commodification of all future social relation s (Graham 2002). Amanda. It is an important object of contemporary political economy. ‘Political’ here does not refer solely to geopolitics. we use ‘political’ to describe motivated relationships between organizations. that ‘what is at stake – politically and geopolitically – in the contemporary struggle over outer space is too serious to pass without critical comment’ (MacDonald 2007. shaping. Ian. territories. we agree that ‘it is naïve to imagine that Apollo and the rest have been free from such earthly entanglements’ (Parker 2009). ownership. Mars has also become an object of strategic planning. provides for management systems rigor and discipline. Harry. This becomes most clear when the politics of Martian exploration. NASA Management Systems Policy. a systemic expression of colonialist capitalist commodification processes. species. Mars can therefore be seen in discourse as a synecdoche of capitalist value relations – a distant and seemingly small ‘part’ of the system in which the pattern and trajectory of the whole can be seen. Our approach is grounded in cultural geography set within a postcolonial framework. Here is NASA on the matter of management: On April 24. It therefore focuses on Martian spatiality as a political object. and private companies are investing intense energy in Mars’s exploration and future colonization. which today begins all approaches to reality with a ‘strategic plan’: a technical device for defining. Thus the arc of capitalist commodification can be seen to stretch from heritage. and in which we can see the synechdocal aspects of Martian colonization in respect of capitalism’s historical development: (1) the debate about whether Mars is legally terra nullius or terra communis (politico-legal concerns) and (2) the debate about whether Mars should be terraformed to accommodate human occupation or preserved to respect the innate value of an alien planet (economic and environmental concerns). while accommodating and providing flexibility to. and Parker’s (2009) analysis of Space capitalism.1. and. with McDonald. and capitalist commodification processes. although geopolitics is included in its meaning. To support this government-wide initiative and achieve management excellence. the Administrator established a new policy. NASA Policy Directive 1280. the full range of mission risk managed at HQ and Centers. 2002. and an exemplar of historical trends in political economy. In what follows. Clayton . the NASA Administrator directed the Agency to support the President’s Freedom to Manage Initiative with the principal goal of removing barriers to more efficient management. with the expectations of improved accountability and performance. we attend to debates around the meaning of Mars as an artifact of managerial discourses of control and exploitation. Like Dickens and Ormond’s (2007) exploration of capitalism’s expansion into Space. As NASA is one of the primary agencies conducting missions to the planet. Rothenbaum. managerial control.We see this as an inherent and inevitable function of contemporary managerial discourse. culture. and tradition – broadly speaking.Cap Kritik 19/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab current global financial crisis is nothing less than the commodification of future human life and energies. (NASA 2009a) NASA has situated itself firmly within strategic management discourse. 593).

ideological orientation underpins debates about legal spatiality: at stake is the question of whether or not planets should be the possession of states and or corporations. McKay (1990) similarly biologizes Martian colonialism. Antarctica. arguing that humans are the natural ‘pollinators of the universe’ whose instinctive task it is to fertilize the galaxy. The next step in the process is terraforming: this is the more ambitions plan of ‘creating an uncontained planetary biosphere emulating all the functions of the biosphere of earth’ (Fogg 1995. Chief among the various proposed methods for Martian ecopoiesis are the focusing of giant mirrors on Mars’s surface. and the detonation of nuclear explosives on the planet to release subsurface water (Fogg 1995. Robert Haynes coined the term ‘ecopoiesis’ to describe the possibility of modifying terrestrial biota for implantation on Mars (Haynes 1990): this process would first involve manipulation of the Martian environment in order to render it habitable (Fogg 1995). thus falling squarely within the positive side of utilitarian ethics (an intellectual pet of the 19th-century propertied classes): Zubrin. At present. there is no ethical or political crisis [in terraforming] except whatever we choose to impose on ourselves’. which holds that ‘as long as life or other cultures are not present. beautiful. Shayler et al. Clayton . In 1990. which is whether or not to terraform Mars. Uluru. and Alaska under similar premises. Manipulation in the case of chilly Mars entails the heating and thickening of the atmosphere. As the debate about whether Mars should be legally terra communis or terra nullius demonstrates. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. they insist. Cockell and Horneck (2004) propose a series of Martian Planetary Parks that preserve key areas of Martian space in their current form. Its current dimensions are being shaped in the corporate and policy domains and will therefore DML. as Pyne (2003) writes. and whether planetary resource extraction should benefit few or many. they ask? Fogg (2000. It similarly informs another important dimension of Martian spatiality. To preservationists. Is keeping a lifeless planet lifeless more important than allowing for the continuation of human life. argues that as an entirely lifeless space. mutely awaiting its activation by human terraformers. the planet. Mars is a resource for humans to use and colonize (Zubrin 1996a). Mars’s political spatiality is currently dominated by anthropocentrism. as beautiful. 210) states that terraforming is natural because humans are essentially expansionist. as a place that is marked by early visits to the planet. a tablua rasa dumbly awaiting human animation. The argument is primarily an environmental one: terraformers argue that terrestrial overcrowding and resource depletion mean that a failure to colonize Mars would eventually result in the decline of humanity. but the terraforming debate began in earnest in 1990 when NASA published the proceedings of a major terraforming workshop (see Committee on Human Exploration of Space 1990). and interesting: this position demands very limited human impact on. the position. They argue that Martian space is valuable on several fronts: intrinsically. Martian space is inert and dead. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. considering Martian terraforming means working out the relationship between humans and Martian space. Two distinct versions of Martian spatiality emerge from the terraforming debate. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. Rothenbaum. and icecaps – from any human intervention. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. in that it may contain material of future scientific benefit. dml) Clearly. and the freeing up of some of the planet’s currently frozen water supplies. and historical. Jay. 2005). Terraformers position Mars as instrumental. volcanoes. From a terraforming perspective. or alteration of. 90). each seeking a toehold in policy and in practice. Amanda. this perspective remains a muted one in western thinking. despite the establishment of National conservation parks in places such as Death Valley. Parks should be created. Harry. Zubrin is far from alone in championing this version of Martian spatiality. then. As in the schism between NASA and the Mars Society – the former advocating gradual colonization led by scientists. utilitarian. Two divergent spatialities – terraforming and preservationist – now hover over Martian space.Cap Kritik 20/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Mars Terraforming Y’all are cap Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. Martian space is autonomously valuable. Ian. Zubrin’s (1996a) spatiality is committedly anthropocentric and utilitarian: in his vision. and the latter arguing for large-scale private colonization as quickly as possible (Lambright and VanNijnatten 2003) – the spatiality of Mars as a passive resource for human use and possession remains largely unchallenged. This preservationist view sees Martian space as intrinsically valuable rather than valuable only as a resource for humans. Karl Sagan published the first scientific study advocating terraforming in 1961. The preservationist version of Martian spatiality arises in response to terraforming. Lee (1994) argues that current environmental management frameworks must be expanded beyond the biocentric so that they encompass abiotic or inanimate environments such as Mars. As Paul York (2005) writes. the founder of the assertively pro-terraforming Mars Society. Mars is a dead space of no intrinsic value. Mars’ political spatiality is thus far from settled. to protect and preserve key Martian sites – deserts.

Jay. Clayton . Rothenbaum. 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab be shaped in the image of past and present political economic trends where new spaces are concerned: DML. expropriation. Ian. and privatisation. Harry. Amanda.Cap Kritik 21/194 enclosure.

but these notions are advocated without a full theoretical foundation to rationalize the need for and consequences of space preeminence. and result in undesirable if not irreparable consequences. space hegemony should be expected.71 Proper space strategy objectives must be congruent with these notions of peaceful international coexistence under the rule of law. space superiority. could permanently fracture important international relationships. Jay. http://www.pdf&AD=ADA469671) Taken together. Thus. which does.Cap Kritik 22/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Militaristic Rhetoric Reject the militaristic language of the aff – furthers imperialism Farnsworth 7. its inculcation of defense policy and doctrine language. and reflect the preference for collective security arrangements to protect common space interests while adhering to the Just War tradition. space control. DML.Lt.” 3/30/07. Rothenbaum. Harry. Different paradigms are needed to formulate more appropriate objectives and temper cultural tendencies toward unilateralist space dominance objectives. Further. proportionality and legitimacy considerations of the Just War tradition.S.mil/cgibin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. Amanda. Colonel at US army war college (Jeffrey. is problematic. and force application should be expected. Ian. balance and separation of power. It is to say that adopting current language from defense policy and doctrine into space strategy is probably not acceptable. suggests that space dominance by any nation is antithetical to fundamental national beliefs and values.S.70 Just as the specter of space weapons and Soviet space domination sparked the space race and the strong U. right intent. while the new space policy does not advocate space superiority as an objective. Clayton . This is not to say that objectives to establish some form of a controlled and stable space operating environment or the capacity to protect and defend space interests are not needed. constitutional formula that separates and balances power to protect liberty and tranquility from tyranny.S. the U.dtic. space superiority would likely exacerbate perceptions of American imperialism. these considerations pose a moral challenge in adhering to the just cause. response in the Cold War.S. the same or worse reaction against U. “SPACEPOWER: A STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT AND WAY FORWARD.72 DoD policy and doctrine advocating U.S. Pursuit of unilateral U.

DML. The military clearly requires the materials made by private defence contractors whereas the contractors are highly dependent on military spending as a steady revenue stream. Ian. such as welfare and military expenditure. Governments are again making investments siphoned off from the primary circuit in the form of taxes and ploughed into further primary circuits which. pg 58. and in parallel with other forms of military spending. is channelled into other ‘tertiary circuit’ elements. These include social expenditures. the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space has displayed posters campaigning to ‘end aerospace corporation welfare’: contracts given to major weapons and space manufacturers to keep them in business. have now been made highly profitable. in which immediate prospects of profitability for capitalism may again not be clear. The close working relations between the economy and the military are sometimes known as ‘the military industrial complex’. Jay.Cap Kritik 23/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Military Funding Military elites ensure that funding is siphoned off to sustain the monitoring of civilian populations and the growth of the military-industrial complex Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Investments of this kind can be also be made in somewhat less sinister directions. Military expenditures. Amanda. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. We now discuss each of these processes in turn. Similarly. IWren) Surplus capital. These include the channelling of capital into satellites designed to monitor weather conditions or to assist refugees in their attempt to make a better life. and the increasing compression of time and space by new technology. they are directed by military and industrial elites into expenditures that. These existing and proposed outer spatial fixes all rely intrinsically on two processes: the increasing commodification and privatization of the commons. they are being channelled into surveillance: monitoring subaltern populations deemed socially or militarily problematic. Most importantly for our subject. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. combined with taxes on consumers.*Peter. leading some to use the term ‘warfare state’ (Edgerton 2005). Clayton . Indeed. as we later discuss. the American economy now deeply depends on military spending. will become profitable. Indeed. especially for the industries of ‘developed’ countries. make increasing use of outer space. Rothenbaum. University of Essex and **James. though they contribute to ensuring the reproduction of the social system. Harry. it is hoped. originally siphoned off from the primary circuit.

Another source of experience might be the transitions from martial law to civilian law that have taken place over the years. The “c-word” is supposed to invoke all the terrible aspects of old-fashioned imperialism. in practical terms. None of these have involved any change in sovereignty. Rothenbaum. nations will find themselves exerting control over parts of that body which. One question that advocates for space colonization have to consider is: how can the transition from a quasi-military lifestyle to a civilian one be handled? The experience that many communities in the US have had when a nearby military base closed down might be relevant. Yet. “Independent space colonization: questions and implications.com/article/784/1) The term “space colonization” has been declared off-limits in polite society. there was a major debate in France last year over whether the “positive aspects of colonialism” should be taught in schools. Within a moonbase. then so are “conquest”. forwarding the cycle of domination and exploitation Dinerman 7. “settlement”. it mean that states will have to exercise control over the inhabitants of a colony no matter how long ago their ancestors left Earth. Clayton . http://www. Harry.author and journalist (Taylor. even one occupied by only a couple of astronauts. Jay.” 1/15/07. The Outer Space Treaty has theoretically forbidden any nation from claiming sovereignty over any “celestial body”. including the one that happened in Hawaii at the end of the Second World War. If colonization is a dirty word. The ship itself is considered the sovereign territory of the state that owns it while the waters through which it passes may be international or belong to another sovereign state that is obliged to respect the right of innocent passage The ship’s crew lacks anything like the ability to function as free citizens and to buy sell and trade in a free marketplace. the government that sent them there will regulate their lives in more or less the same way a government regulates the lives of the crew of a warship.Cap Kritik 24/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Moon Moon activity in space beyond exploration is controlling and imperialist. “exploitation”. if the provision in the Outer Space Treaty (OST) regarding their extended responsibility of launching states for whatever they put into space means anything. Once one or more bases are established on the Moon. If fact. Even in Europe. One notes that neither the Japanese nor the Turks nor the Russians feel particularly guilty about their now-defunct empires. Post World War Two decolonization involved such a change. Within a couple of decades we will see if this approach can pass the reality test.thespacereview. the epicenter of the guilt trip questions are now being asked. Ian. Amanda. anything that goes beyond simple exploration is problematic. particularly European imperialism. will amount to sovereignty. DML. and “industrialization”.

The New Centennial Review 6. the godfather of neo-conservatism and his wife. a prominent hawk. Typical of the revolutionary style of functioning. and the Daily Telegraph. Podhoretz is also the director of Near Eastern affairs at the National Security Council. and institutions supposedly serving the national interest have come to be dominated by their private and transnational networks of business. Harry. in spite of a flood of reports.Cap Kritik 25/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Their appeal to the neoconservative mainstream should be rejected – it is all propaganda that leads to violence. Bill Kristol. but only in May 2004 after the corporate media—CBS—took it up on the heels of an expose by investigative journalist Seymour Hersh. The tone is set and the issues framed. a Post columnist.[End Page 147] Take. a neo-conservative historian at Chicago University. Both were also part of Team B. Ian. Dov Zakheim. Clayton . the think tank that in a notorious paper in 2000 proposed American world domination. is a veteran of the old anti-Communist group. rather than in the grassroots fashion of other ethnic constituencies. in which front groups for business lobby government or other organizations through mass mailings that imitate the activism of genuine citizen groups (Lind 2002). for instance. like Fox Television and the New York Post. The End of History. Especially powerful are two organizations. former editor of the neo-conservative Commentary. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. AIPAC makes use of a kind of top-down "astroturf" lobbying. family. Amanda. and ideology. the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) and the Center for Strategic Policy (CSP). Also at PNAC is Francis Fukuyama. Jay. Government has been effectively captured by such private lobbyists as JINSA and the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) and such think tanks as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI). Consider the manner in which the prison abuse story broke. even Trotskyites. they carried over their revolutionary roots in the cadres and networks through which they operated. certain stories. Kristol is the son of Irving Kristol. many of these proIsraeli lobbies work in the top-down manner of business lobbies. sacrificing their professional integrity to support their bias (M. is owned by the stridently pro-war newspaper magnate Rupert Murdoch. Hollinger itself is run by Conrad Black. the bias lying as much in what it omitted as what it stated. In the Bush first term. when the Post first published a revelatory piece on torture in Afghanistan (Priest and Gellman 2002). Eliot Cohen was a member of Rumsfeld's Defense Policy Board and the NSC. “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR The similarity of the social agenda and Weltanschauung of the neo-conservatives to liberalism should thus not be surprising. not in October 2003. for which Decter writes. author of the most influential book of democratic triumphalism. The neo-conservatives see themselves as a revolutionary vanguard. such as the one on child abuse. is a friend of Wolfowitz. Gertrude Himmelfarb. which are driven by transnational business interests rather than strictly national interests (Vest 2002). With the clout of the lobbying. whose members have come to occupy innumerable influential government posts from where they press the same agenda as their ideological fellow travelers in the think tanks and media outlets. Lind 2004). and then vanish simultaneously. Wolfowitz was deputy defense secretary. The interlocking system orchestrates media reports and opinions to frame issues in particular ways so that certain themes appear in tandem. media. Members of the PNAC now control the commanding heights of policymaking. neoconservatives have replaced career civil servants with political [End Page 149] appointees and nullified DML. Stephen Cambone was undersecretary for intelligence and also influential in [End Page 148] pro-nuclear circles. is the father-in-law of Elliott Abrams. and policy networks behind them. who was convicted in the Iran-Contra affair. when AP ran a story about torture at Abu Ghraib itself (Hanley 2003). It also goes hand in hand with unquestioning support for the Israeli right. Hollinger's board also includes the columnist George Will. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics. It is run by the editor of the neo-conservative Weekly Standard. Even then. and his wife. Libby was Cheney's chief of staff. Committee on the Present Danger. undersecretary of defense under Reagan.1 (2006) 133-169. in a few cases. John Bolton was undersecretary of state for arms control and international security. a right-wing media conglomerate that includes the Jerusalem Post. and preemption. For instance. was defense comptroller until his resignation. Norman Podhoretz. have remained stubbornly hidden while others. abrogation of arms control treaties. they originated on the left as social democrats and. is a fellow at the American Enterprise Institute and on the board of Hollinger International. the intelligence advisory group responsible for grossly exaggerating the Soviet threat in the 1970s and 1980s in order to get massive budget appropriations for defense. such as the formulation of the torture memos. So are Wolfowitz and Feith. Midge Decter. which Black partly subsidizes through the Nixon Center. The hard-line position they advocate rests on national missile defense. the chairman of the editorial board of Podhoretz's National Interest. When they did. only in the services of Link – Neocon Think Tanks capital rather than labor. although the neo-conservatives strongly support American military strength and corporate interests. The Weekly Standard. who only moved to the right on foreign policy in response to the Vietnam War (Raimondo 1993). have received sustained coverage. Krauthammer. not in December 2002. Rothenbaum. Project for the New American Century (PNAC). Richard Perle. are repeated until they have the required effect. This network of neo-conservative idealogues in the press and in policy team up incessantly to write their vehement tracts. second at the Pentagon.

Clayton . Now those checks have vanished entirely. thus effectively overturning any constraints placed by law against a consolidation of power within the executive branch. That was precisely what happened when lawyers from the Judge Advocate General's office were marginalized in 2003 by Pentagon appointees determined to implement policies that involved military dogs. and the expertise of career civil servants. is often bypassed (Editorial 2005). Amanda. policies that shredded the Geneva Conventions and the Uniform Code of Justice (Silverstein 2004). mandated since Nixon. extreme sensory deprivation. Jay. Rothenbaum. Whoever has the ear of the president has nearly limitless power to overthrow law. nonetheless. and psychological torture. They 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab have unified all intelligence-gathering and propaganda functions under defense (Eland 2004) and have then usurped those functions through personal networks. DML. precedent. Ian.Cap Kritik 26/194 the traditional checks and balances between branches of government. leaving the executive unrestrained. but an independent intelligence agency. Harry. is supposed to be part of the checks against an imperial and secretive executive. Congressional oversight of intelligence.

he acknowledges the power of the myth of the heavens as the dwelling place of God. Clayton . DML.1). Amanda. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 134. It was ‘like ants making laws for humans!’ (White 1987: 3). White talks about the trip being like a death and rebirth. Jay. Clearly he envisages the overview effect as aggrandizing the self. Arguably they have been made the new intermediaries in the Great Chain of Being. White seems more than well aware of the ways in which visiting outer space provides a sense of empowerment. this clearly being more a part of Space Adventures’ advertising campaign than is humility (see Box 5. Harry. dml) On the other hand. Ian. Although rejecting the idea that space travel is inherently a spiritual experience. His desire to write the book came from his own feelings when flying over Washington DC and thinking how preposterous it was that the tiny beings down there were making decisions for him.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. White most definitely sees space travel as a positive thing for the self and for society. marking a transition of the self. and refers to the ‘demi-god’ status of astronauts and cosmonauts based on their ability to travel to the heavens.Cap Kritik 27/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – The Overview Effect White’s Overview Effect is a product of selfish empowerment and capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . but in order to understand what is going on we need to reconcile these two very different elements. Rothenbaum.

Ian. making planets into zones appropriated for the further expansion of capitalism. Harnessing the Sun’s rays with solar panels in space and beaming the energy to electricity grids via Earth-bound receivers is another kind of outer spatial fix under discussion. Amanda. Using outer space as a source of raw materials is one suggestion under very active consideration. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 144.Cap Kritik 28/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Privatization Like actually how capitalist can you get Dickens and Ormrod 7 . but there is a trend towards increasing private sector participation. This process is part of a much more general trend that has been experienced by almost all societies since the 1980s. space activities are now being envisaged as profitable in themselves. This is another stage of Luxemburg’s restless search for further profits or of what Harvey (2003) calls ‘accumulation by dispossession’. especially through new competition schemes. Now. DML. Previously state-run activities are being contracted out to the private sector. dml) Private corporations have always been used to make and maintain space activities funded by the US government. Rothenbaum. though it is not seen as profitable within the next twenty years. furthermore. it is being extended to the military and to surveillance. Clayton . and so space activity is now becoming increasingly commercialized as well as privatized. But. as we have seen. Jay. In the more distant future humanization will further encroach on its ‘outside’.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Harry.

Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. The 1980s Strategic Defense Initiative.S. Without satellite-based communications. professor at the University of Brighton and Cambridge. But the prospect of galactic colonialisms raises the distinct possibility of hostilities in space.24 Satellites are the means by which western culture imposes cultural imperialism on global scale and monitors falsely constructed “deviant” populations to sustain dominant. No 6. This is the 30 km-wide strip 35. published in the Monthly Review. Is it owned by the equatorial countries such as Colombia. Satellites serve as a medium for the transmission of hegemonic worldviews.org/2010/11/01/thehumanization-of-the-cosmos-to-what-end ] Jay Yet among these plans and proposals. Nevada. for example. Such a scenario was prefigured by the Star Trek science fiction television series in which the main role of “The Federation” is the protection of capitalist mining colonies. Satellite-based communications have also facilitated new forms of consumption such as teleshopping.-designed “missile defense shield. dml) The issue is now being highlighted by an argument over the geostationary orbit (GEO).Cap Kritik 29/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Satellites Satellites are the lifeblood of modern capitalism. they are now being used to observe and attack Taliban and Al-Qaida operatives in Afghanistan and elsewhere.”15 This raises the urgent question. and Kenya under this strip? Or is it jointly owned and managed by all states? But even manufactured risks may be minimal in scope. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – to What End?”.S. ’10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex [Peter Dickens. Defense Policy. The first is that space technology has become central to the process of promoting dominant cultural forms throughout the global society. Galactic wars may therefore be the product of galactic colonialism. Monthly Review Vol 62.” This is part of a wider strategy of “Full Spectrum Dominance. Satellites are already a means by which territories and investments on Earth are monitored and protected by governments operating on behalf of their economic interests.S. Satellites. authoritarian power relations Dickens and Ormrod 7 . economic and military assets both on Earth and in outer Satellites are the best opportunity for capitalist actors to gain control Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. or “Star Wars” program. Ian. It has now been made an integral part of the way global capitalist society is organized and extended. Harry. of who actually owns this area of outer space. November 2010. or a government surveillance agency can cover the whole world. Satellites have also been made central to modern warfare. DML. Issue 6. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. a media conglomerate. Rothenbaum. November 2010. Combined with pilotless Predator drones. a communications company.*Peter.786 km above the equator. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Using space. compared with another risk stemming from cosmic colonization. This is outright war. This action is done by remote control from Creech Air Force Base at Indian Springs. No wonder it has been called “space’s most valuable real estate. 26. Vol. a form of electronic cultural imperialism. University of Essex and **James. are extremely important elements of contemporary communications systems. A version of the program is still being developed. between colonizing nations as well as between the colonizers and aboriginal peoples. IWren) There are two quite distinct ways in which the humanization of outer space is implicated in the maintenance of hegemony. These have enabled an increasing number of people to become part of the labor market. one still not adequately resolved. Clayton . With only three satellites in the GEO. pg 68-69.” which has for some time been official U. Dickens. Armed conflict has long been a common feature of past colonialisms. Indonesia. surveillance and military equipment located in outer space is now seen as the prime means of protecting U. http://monthlyreview. the global economy in its present form would grind to a halt. Jay. aimed to intercept incoming missiles while facilitating devastating attacks on supposed enemies. it is easy to forget that outer space is already being increasingly humanized. and for the surveillance of the population. with the citizens of the Czech Republic and Poland now under pressure to accept parts of a U. one in which satellites can orbit at the same speed as the ground below them. Teleworking is the best known example. Amanda.

nation. home and duty with the neo-liberal values of possessive individualism. Jay. as discussed in Chapter 4. It needs constant renegotiation and has no guarantee of success. Muslims and. Hegemonic settlements made in the postwar period have been socially and spatially uneven. In the British case a series of ‘moral panics’ was created by politicians such as Margaret Thatcher and sections of the media. Rothenbaum. like those in the dominant bloc. include consumerism. despite the illusion of consumer choice.Cap Kritik 30/194 As explored in Chapter 4. capitalism. Harry. As Mowlana has argued with specific reference to satellites: The Western-fuelled system of ‘communications. The focus was on supposedly lawless and hedonistic groups of young people breaking the boundaries of respectable society and hence wrecking the entire social order (Hall et al. Amanda. it is one way in which capitalism is able to spread an increasingly global culture. but Mowlana’s argument is that. the acquisition of property and a dedication to hard work. Satellite technology is again central to this hegemonic project of surveillance. consumerism and continuous change’ contains seeds of a new form of conquest. This now surging e-sphere of information. Moral panics over ‘youth’ have been supplemented by panics over immigrants. Ian. satellites 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab help communicate hegemonic worldviews to living rooms around the world. communications. But dominant blocs and alliances can remain dominant only if subordinated classes actually adopt and internalize such values themselves. DML. Its forms are again unevenly developed but in most advanced Western societies it is a combination of appeals to ‘old values’ such as religion. ‘terrorists’. and capitalism seems to be seeking to conquer the culture and diverse human capacities of the world. Subaltern groups are under pressure to accept as inevitable new forms of authoritarianism. Subordinates therefore not only must be reconstituted but must reconstitute themselves as atomized individuals whose pressing priorities. 1978). Restoring class hegemony is a difficult and ongoing enterprise. (Mowlana 2004: 300) This e-sphere is certainly not imposed on audiences. and even deviant states. Closely allied with these panics has been the increased surveillance of ‘deviant’ populations. latterly. and this is despite the massively increased social inequalities stemming from the neo-liberal experiment. who voluntarily wire themselves into it. Authoritarian populism has been retained in the twenty-first century. Clayton .

dml) But even if it were desirable. for example. that there are now around fourteen thousand tracked objects circling around the earth. is readily recognizable in space-humanization progress.” Improved tracking systems will increase the number of smaller. The fifteenth-century Renaissance and the Enlightenment placed great faith in science as a means of bringing “progress. known as “space debris” or “space junk. But on February 10. This is because the very venture of space colonization brings new risks. Note. No 6. A defunct Russian satellite crashed into an American commercial satellite. and plans are now afoot to launch even more satellites.20 Space junk poses a serious threat to the whole enterprise of space colonization.21 DML. Ian. Amanda.” Now such progress is regularly challenged. many of these causing potential damage. Clayton . Furthermore. Rothenbaum. generating thousands of pieces of orbiting debris. observable tracked objects to around thirty thousand. or what some social scientists have called “manufactured risk. designed to drag older satellites out of orbit in order to avoid collisions. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. Monthly Review Vol 62. 2009. Jay. November 2010. for which no one agency or individual is usually culpable.Cap Kritik 31/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Satellites/Space Debris Cleaning up space debris is a capitalist fix for a capitalist problem – the mindset they uphold recreates their impacts Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. such a collision actually happened. the success of a galactic colonialism is by no means guaranteed. Harry.”19 This kind of risk. Such collisions are estimated at millions or even billions to one. much scientific intervention today stems from the crises stemming from earlier intervention. Even whole satellites may collide.

] This [speculative] impulse has produced a strand of futurist thought that seeks an eternal extension of contemporary political and economic arrangements. there is probably some truth to DeWitt Douglas Kilgore’s assessment of the scope of science fiction and science writing about space (what he calls ‘astrofuturism’): Astrofuturist speculation on space-based exploration. but this requires engagement in praxis. like Kilgore. Yet it should also be noted that there are those who emphasize the way in which science fiction explores the conflicts of Western society. IWren) Some commentators on science fiction have also argued that the stories told there about human exploration and settlement of space are distinctly hegemonic. Goulding’s position has been attacked by writers like Jenkins (Jenkins 1992. 4) However. Rothenbaum. Science fiction is the fiction of mortgaged futures. In one episode. Science fiction as resistance fails—it’s appropriated by capital to project social issues far into the future. who has argued that the science fiction audience is highly creative and reflexive. possessive individualism and the ‘Darwinian ethic’ of the survival of the fittest. glossing over war and crises to fragment contemporary resistance. Goulding (1985) has argued that science fiction shows like Star Trek ‘preserve a “halo of free choice” within rigid rules and structured inequalities’. Clayton . pg 69-71. Jay. [. there is clearly some hope that critical science fiction writing and the critical reading of science fiction can contribute to the exploration of alterative futures to the extension of global capitalism into space. it is hard to deny that science fiction. 1996) trilogy of books on a Martian mining colony explore the ethics of exporting capitalism to the rest of the cosmos. and highlights the problems with imperialism and capitalism. Amanda. However. exploitation.*Peter. some writers influenced by the critical theory of the Frankfurt School have been much more outspoken against the duping effect that science fiction has on an audience that is encouraged to accept social relations as inevitable through witnessing them projected in time and space. Our imagination as regards possible human futures in space is the product of hegemonic relations. . more importantly. If this is so. This is a point made eloquently by Sardar and Cubbitt: Science fiction shows us not the plasticity but the paucity of the human imagination that has become quagmired in the scientist industrial technological. the narratives of the show are stories about the crew of the Enterprise teaching the various space colonies which they visit to be American. As Goulding argues.Cap Kritik 32/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Science Fiction Science fiction is both the product of and the sustainment for hegemonic. albeit stripped of unpleasant resonances and rendered innocent. It can imagine space frontiers predicated on experimental arrangements and the production of relationships uncommon or unknown in the old world. groups of Martian settlers break away from the capitalist mining operations to establish their own social order based on socialist. However. Some science fiction clearly goes even further with narratives that attack the legitimacy of contemporary social relations through telling dystopian stories about how a human future in space might look. Not only is the imagined spacefaring civilization one that continues to operate on neo-liberal principles. In the trilogy. retreat from this altogether critical position to discuss the ways in which science fiction can play out the conundrums of civilization. he reports. capitalism (through military and diplomatic protection of mining colonies). astrofuturism also carries within it an idealism. DML. As such. is often supportive of existing social practices. Ian. a liberal or utopian commitment that seeks alternatives and solutions to these problems and conflicts characterizing contemporary American life. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. but. (Sardar and Cubbitt 2002: 1) Sardar and Cubbitt. University of Essex and **James. (Kilgore 2003: 1. This obvious transgression against the protestant ethic had to be redressed by the Enterprise crew. 1994. Kim Stanley Robinson’s (1993. environmentalist and even nudist principles. for example. alternative Earthly solutions to our social and environmental problems are ignored entirely in favour of exporting them to space. socialist hopes. capitalist ambitions and utopian. capitalist power relations by normalizing dystopian futures and depicting economic tension as inevitable Dickens and Ormrod 7 . the crew are disturbed upon visiting a planet on which people worked the minimum amount of time possible and spent all their free time high on drugs. Tulloch and Jenkins 1995). and especially popular science fiction. and colonization is capacious enough to contain imperialist. Harry. cultural-socio-psycho babble of a single civilizational paradigm. The Federation to which the Enterprise belongs promulgates male authority (preserved through the notion of the chain of command). Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Whether or not the readers of science fiction have the ability to critically dissect the messages of the shows they watch and the books they read has been hotly debated. The futures imagined by most science fiction writers reflect a hegemonic worldview simply through their demonstrated inability to imagine anything other than an extension of contemporary social relations. .

despite what is potentially a powerful critique of a contemporary American society gone wrong. and undermining. as consumers bought into the Star Wars brand. aggressiveness. it is an attack on greedy corporations whose interests are served by war. an account of an alien invasion from Mars.*Peter. which turns its back on democracy to become the Empire. The Republic. And it will not do so indefinitely. Wells classic novel The War of the Worlds. This is a great example of the one-dimensionality of capitalism identified by Herbert Marcuse (1991). Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 33/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Dickens and Ormrod 7 . The alien races in Star Trek have been read as representations of a number of threats to the US from cultural ‘others’. It offers hope that good will win out at some point in the future through the fantastic powers of an extraordinary group of activists. The natural parallel with American society is made clearer in the second-made trilogy (which are actually prequels to the first trilogy). however. represented by the Republic. far away However. In 1938. such messages are always up for revision. Science fiction studies is a massive field. One way in which films might do this is by projecting contemporary political issues far away from today’s material reality. in relation to the Star Wars series of films. Even if the message of the plot contains the potential for critical thought. in which we witness the formation of the Empire. The programme was broadcast at precisely the time when America was jittery about the threat of fascism and Nazi Germany. The Day the Earth Stood Still. the films’ director. Furthermore. hatred and fear underlying war (Lancashire 2002). The images of the movies abstract away from particular capitalist interests or particular parts of the political class. Orson Welles caused widespread panic with his radio version of the 1898 H. it is not impossible to imagine a film offering a critical commentary on society that actually contributes to hegemony. All its moral messages are worthwhile. Here Lucas is deliberately critical of American society. the Borg as communists as well as Asians (Wertheim 2002). This is how Lucas presents the cycle of empire (Lancashire 2002). but not here and not just yet. The ideological dimensions of wars being conducted in space are most obviously discussed. Still less will it halt an anti-war movement in its tracks. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Clayton . far away’. George Lucas. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. for example. Separatists work a deal with corporations (the Trade Federation) to destroy the Republic. pg 96-97. Harry. Still more acutely. IWren) Fear of Soviet domination of space was also reflected in contemporary science fiction films. DML. Furthermore. for example. the Star Wars films can also be interpreted in a less subversive light. Ian. But the widespread and constant projection of such messages and images must have its effect. and one that has much to contribute to a sociology of the universe. This is just one instance of public suspicion and paranoia being reflected and amplified by the producers of popular movies. the Star Wars films are entrenched in an American movie culture intimately bound to capital. They also shore up the notion of a pure war by using laser weapons. here we can only offer a few examples. In the case of Star Wars it all takes place in a distant future and a galaxy ‘far. G. Capitalism is capable of making even our most revolutionary impulses part of its own system of social power. Amanda. In our own time Steven Spielberg’s 2005 version of War of the Worlds deliberately played on fears stemming from the attacks on 11 September 2001. One relevant to our present discussion is the 1951 Robert Wise movie. In this case. Star Wars merchandise was worth billions of dollars to Lucas. University of Essex and **James. Hegemony works not by suppressing the truth – it is not propaganda in that sense – but by dissipating resistance to the social order (Lee Harvey (1990) uses the terms ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ ideology to make this distinction). is an anti-war propagandist and the films can be read as a commentary on the greed. then the franchise’s marketing operations subsume it in another ‘Disneyized’ consumption spectacle (to use a term from Bryman 2004). This had a flying saucer landing in Washington DC and its captain ordering world leaders to abandon the nuclear arms race or face annihilation from aliens (McCurdy 1997). unfortunately. the fundamental social and economic institutions and processes involved. Jay. However. is manipulated by greedy and ambitious rulers into investing in the development of immense military power. or the Klingons as Vietnamese (Goulding 1985). Of course. In the later films the empire will be defeated by distinctly American rebels seeking freedom. bringing ‘profits beyond your wildest imagination’. no single movie is going to exert ideological hegemony on its own. motivated by fear. Continuing concessions and possible solutions are made without clarifying. A war far. allowing a contemporary weakening of resistance. faster-thanlight travel and other technological developments that remove the picture of war away from its brutal realities.

the US decided. War is the handmaiden of property relations and economic imperialism: The primary goals of US imperialism have always been to open up investment opportunities to US corporations and to allow such corporations to gain preferential access to crucial natural resources. If the values of Western cultures and ways of life come under question they must be enforced. Rothenbaum. one in which the US government actively enforces a monopoly over outer space as well as air. (Foster 2006: 145) But. perhaps historically rather surprisingly. one that would ensure that access to space was vetoed by American interests. This entails attempting to control and subject societies deemed to be weaker. Fortunately. either from Earth-based weapons or from weapons mounted on other satellites.Cap Kritik 34/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Militarization The militarization of space is the new strategy for colonial domination Dickens and Ormrod 7 . it does have something in common with earlier forms of imperialism. Military Space Forces: The Next 50 Years (Collins 1989). In 1989 a congressional study. combining with key sectors of the economy. Forget heg—militarization and weaponization of space is only a precursor to the exploitation and imperialist appropriation of the entire cosmos Dickens and Ormrod 7 . parliamentary democracy and markets will not necessarily be widely shared. If more people are going to be encouraged to invest in space technology. At the same time US imperialism promotes the interests of the other core states and of capitalism as a whole insofar as these are in accord with US requirements. and for that reason an American Space Station was proposed. colonization has been DML. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. to make ‘fixes’ in absentia.*Peter. The societies and peoples deemed ‘weaker’ do not necessarily see themselves in that way and are likely to fight back. Harry. As Foster argues. Jay. And its aim in militarizing outer space is to achieve what the US Joint Chiefs of Staff call ‘full-spectrum domination’. Accumulation by dispossession continues to generate its own antagonisms and social movements. As we go on to argue in Chapter 4. argued along similar lines that whoever held the Moon would control access to space. by remote control. The militarization and weaponization of outer space is recognition that global hegemony based on a Western model can no longer be assumed. present and future. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. and appears to be a possible motive for the recent initiative to establish an inhabited Moon base by 2024. land and sea. With a system of property rights already being drawn up for space resources. The new kinds of space-based war and surveillance which have emerged since the Second World War are a central part of the attempt by American governments. IWren) The United States government is by far the dominant military force in outer space. but also to secure economic interests actually in space. It is recognition that the values of individualism. a military presence in space to ensure these rights is becoming an increasing priority. Inasmuch as such expansion promotes US hegemony it tends to increase the international competitiveness of US firms and the profits they enjoy. they will need guarantees from their governments that their investments will be protected. The purpose of this monopoly is not simply to control the use of force on Earth. satellites have become so crucial to the functioning of the world economy that there has been increasing tension amongst the cosmic superpowers over their vulnerability to attack. seen in the context of Gramsci’s analysis of power. increasing militarization is itself a sign of weakness. This echoed an older 1959 study. dml) Harvey can also help us understand how the militarization of space helps establish new empires on Earth via imperialism at a distance or ‘at arm’s length’. Resorting to warfare is an indication that domination by consent has broken down. and so the American Space Station became the International Space Station. as many pro-space advocates point out. The US has historically been anxious about other nations attempting to control Earth orbit. But the success of such military and economic governance at arm’s length is also by no means guaranteed. that in the post-Cold War climate cooperation with other countries in the project would be more beneficial than a unilateral solution. Amanda. Clayton . Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 88-89. Historically. University of Essex and **James. pg 94-95. Star wars systems are conceived in part to protect space assets from perceived threats. Ian. We return to this point in summary.

This process is developing within the ‘advanced’ societies. DML. There are those who are against it per se. Harry. and as a possible step in the eventual settlement of space. such as the US. but even fewer see it as a positive use of space. Amanda. There are. Pro-space activists have generally been divided over the issue of weapons in space (Michaud 1986). Rothenbaum. Ian. even more important. But. It is unlike that typically pursued until the late nineteenth century. it entails societies (and particularly the US with its enormous fusion of capital and political power) privatizing and commodifying resources previously owned by the public sector or held in common in other ways.Cap Kritik 35/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab established through the military. Rather. it is a strategy that is being spread throughout the cosmos. however. Clayton . It does not entail one society invading another with a view to permanently occupying that society and using its resources. Harvey’s analysis of the new form of imperialism is again useful in understanding these military developments. some who see it as a necessary evil in order to protect space assets and operations. Jay.

the ownership of land is as inconceivable as the ownership of air would be in the northern hemisphere. DML. We are entering an age of totalitarian capitalism.On Saturday I met a campaigner from Kerala. None of these presumptions is any more absurd than the claim to possess exclusive control over part of our own planet. who told me that. almost everything which once belonged to all of us is being seized.won the UN 500 award for outstanding environmental achievement. east London. fellowship/professorship holder at oxford.” 6/20/00. to the tribal people he works with. Companies are now claiming they own asteroids and landing spaces on the moon.(Guardian Leader Pages). destitutes everyone it excludes. The attempt to grab the genome is just one of many symptoms of a far graver disease. Clayton . Ian. a political and economic system which. There have been a number of legal disputes over the ownership of clouds. Amanda. I told him the bad news. But.Cap Kritik 36/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Property Attempts to develop space lead to leadership claims that expand the totalitarian capitalist regime Monibot 2k. and other colleges (George. Harry. In several American cities. Jay. “ Comment & Analysis: This is a war of all worlds: Fuss about the human genome just hides the brutality of global capitalism. blocks of air. Lexis) Terrifying as the impending capture of the essence of humanity is. as property rights proliferate. bestselling author and columnist for the guardian. change hands for tens of millions of dollars. Rothenbaum. as firms battle for the right to make them drop their rain where they want it. by seizing absolute control of fundamental resources. which (once legally transferred to a suitable site) allow their owners to build skyscrapers. in southern India. it is far from unprecedented.

these will include artificial fixes such as satellites. Some influential commentators argue that the current problem for capitalism is that there is now no “outside.”11 Capitalism is everywhere. On the one hand. New “spatial fixes” are due to be opened up in the cosmos. expansion into the cosmos offers no benefits to capital in the form of fresh sources of labor power. the attempt is to fix capitalism’s crises. and space hotels. research fellow at the Center for Development and the Environment at University of Oslo. Nature on a cosmic scale now seems likely to be incorporated into production processes. an outside is needed as a zone into which surplus capital can be invested. Military power will inevitably be made an integral part of this process. Similarly. space stations. of course.. Norway. these being located mainly on earth. capital stalks the Earth in search of material resources.7 As outlined earlier. Volume 62. To this end. social. At best.PhD in history of science from Harvard. Issue 6. Monthly Review. particularly those of declining economic profitability. nature becomes a universal means of production in the sense that it not only provides the subjects. Economic and social crisis stems less from the problem of finding new consumers. no absolute guarantees that such fixes will really correct an essentially unstable social and economic system. will begin attracting investments. Harry. resistance to capitalism is either everywhere or nowhere. Amanda. First. Since Luxemburg wrote. the geological substratum or the biological superstratum are immune from transformation by capital. the atmosphere. Outer space will be “globalized. Ian.10 Rather.8 But expansion into the cosmos does offer prospects for exploiting new materials such as those in asteroids. and exploiting zones of profitability for surplus capital. (Peder. On the other hand. such as the moon and Mars.” Attempting to resolve terrestrial resource needs through space is unethical and fuels capitalism Anker 5. as suggested above. however. Regarding the latter. Luxemburg’s second reason for imperial expansion is the search for cheap supplies of labor and raw materials. The reproduction of material life is wholly dependent on the production and reproduction of surplus value. But during the next twenty years or so. space fiction fantasies about aliens aside. JSTOR) DML.9 Capital is now also “stalking” outer space in the search for new resources and raw materials. The stage would then be set for wars in outer space between nations and companies attempting to make their own cosmic “fixes. an increasing number of political economists have argued that the importance of a capitalist “outside” is not so much that of creating a new pool of customers or of finding new resources. it is needed as a means of creating massive numbers of new customers who would buy the goods made in the capitalist countries. the humanization of the cosmos seriously questions these assertions. they are short-term solutions. Developing “outsides” in this way is also a product of recurring crises.” again in response to economic. the oceans. there are.” April 2005.e. Rosa Luxemburg argued that an “outside” to capitalism is important for two main reasons. The Humanization of the Cosmos—To What End?)NAR In the early twentieth century. Jay. The kind of theory mentioned above also has clear implications for the humanization of the cosmos. and environmental crises on earth. Clayton . UK. Neil Smith’s characterization of capital’s relations to nature is useful at this point. and more from that of finding. At first. space technology has extended and deepened this process. objects and instruments of production. and perhaps other cosmic entities such as Mars. Clearly.Cap Kritik 37/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Resources Expansion into space to sustain Capitalism is a short term solution that causes global wars. making. but is also in its totality an appendage to the production process…no part of the Earth’s surface. governments protecting the zones for which they are responsible. “The Ecological colonization of space. Projects for the colonization of outer space should be seen as the attempt to make new types of “spatial fix. appended to Earth. allowing an increasing number of people to become integral to the further expansion of global capitalism.” i. These crises are followed by attempted “fixes” in distinct geographic regions. with new parts of the cosmos being invested in by competing nations and companies. existing outsides. The word “fix” is used here both literally and figuratively. But. the moon. capitalism’s emergent outside. Dickens 10 – Visiting Professor of Sociology (Peter. Rothenbaum. November 2010. capital is being physically invested in new regions.

This ‘outside’ takes two main forms. This means that capital must find yet another source to satisfy its demand for infinite expansion. As Marx himself put it. one of Harvey’s antecedents. it could be said that it requires limits. The connection between ecological colonization of outer and earthly space has largely been ignored. But zones outside capitalism can also be used as just a source of materials. and worth. but have not placed this methodology in the context of ecological colonization of space. a leading defender of space colonization. As discussed in Chapter 3. Clayton . as this article argues. into capitalist forms. First. political. Hardt and Negri 2000). The very commodities it needs (whether it be labour power or just materials) are now brought within its ambit. the European Union and in due course other societies such as China and India) are beginning to scramble for outer space in much the same way as the European societies competed for African territory in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. so can the materials of the Arctic or of the Moon and Mars be incorporated into capitalist production processes. Assuming that the cost of reaching the Moon and the nearby planets is sufficiently low. To supporters. dignity. But capital. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 154-155. The skeptical minority argued that space colonization was unrealizable or unethical. In the same way that gold and diamonds were taken from Peru and South Africa or sugar cane was taken from Jamaica and Java in eighteenth. The establishment of property rights is central. as indeed it was when the African continent was subdivided by rival powers. Though hardly novel in other areas of historical research. the overwhelming majority thought space colonies could provide well-functioning environments for astronauts seeking to push human evolutionary expansion into new territories. postcolonial analysis has yet to be applied to the history of ecology. resistances and barriers of different kinds. orderly. in line with Marx. The Whole Earth Catalog. yet nevertheless adopted terminology. space colonies came to represent rational. this makes the Moon and nearby planets an attractive prospect for the further expansion of capital. and historical space were invaded by ecological science aimed at reordering ill-treated human environments according to the managerial ideals of the astronaut’s life in the space colony. Harry. This is where outer space is becoming significant. its constant restructuring and reorganization.6 Capitalism needs an outside to obtain resources from in order to survive – space will become that outside Dickens and Ormrod 7 . which holds that every human being has intrinsic and unique capacities. In the debate that followed. all human beings became “Space natives” colonized by ecological reasoning: Social. when royalties from the counterculture sourcebook. But. disorderly.Cap Kritik 38/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space colonization caused hardly any controversy until 1975. Rothenbaum.”2 Yet. making feudal or aboriginal societies. for example. argued in developing her theory of imperialism. Indeed. since these are the basis for capital’s ‘dynamism’. in order to continue reproducing and expanding. The use of colonial terminology was deliberate and in line with the imperial tradition from which ecology as a science emerged.5 This article holds that advocates of the Martian ecological perspective sought to create on Earth what one proponent described as a “neo-biological civilization” at the expense of the humanist legacy. Luxemburg also went on to argue that by incorporating a non-capitalist society in either way. and ill-managed Earth.4 Scholars have rightly emphasized the significance of modeling closed ecosystems. Regions such as the DML. moral. The colonialist agenda of space research invites the use of postcolonial theory. capital creates yet another barrier. and methodology from space research in their efforts to reshape the social and ecological matrix onboard Spaceship Earth. while also saving a Noah’s Ark of earthly species from industrial destruction and possible atomic apocalypse on Earth. and wise management. necessarily encounters limits. As Rosa Luxemburg.and nineteenth-century forms of imperialism. capital needs an ‘outside’ beyond its boundaries. Ian. in contrast to the irrational. capitalism expands by making other kinds of society in its own image. Every limit appears as a barrier to be overcome’ (1973: 408).3 The few historical analyses of space ecology that do exist have hardly paid attention to its importance to ecologists’ understanding of Earth. were used to finance space-colonization research. As regards materials.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Amanda. off which it feeds (Luxemburg 1968. when space colonies became the model for Spaceship Earth. Jay. it will in due course use them up or make them prohibitively expensive to extract. today’s main power blocs (the United States. ‘The tendency to create the world market is directly given in the concept of capital itself. technology. According to Stewart Brand. dml) Capitalism is necessarily an expanding and crisis-making type of society. Some of them built Biosphere 2 in Arizona to prepare for colonization of Mars and to create a model for how life on Earth should be organized. the term “space colony” (instead of “space settlement”) was unproblematic since “no Space natives [were] being colonized.

Amanda. United Nations legislation and the most optimistic proponents of space exploitation assume that space resources are infinite and there will be enough for everyone to own plenty of space. and about $6 trillion in platinum-group metals (ibid. Lewis argues. with projects supposedly beneficial to society actually generating considerable potential for disaster. into the production of fuel for further humanization from space materials (Zubrin and Wagner 1996). In the more distant future. $6 trillion worth of cobalt. Asteroids are receiving special attention (Lewis 1996). It is. The attempt to colonize and exploit space is the new front of capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . As and when it is possible to launch thousands of people into orbit and build giant solar power satellites. Research is also being conducted. Jay.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James.g. ‘The Risk Society’ is being made cosmic. Zubrin 1999. Metals found on the Moon are just the dispersed debris from asteroids. But it is overlooked that the nearer parts of space are those which are most profitable and viable to exploit. Extracting valuable helium-3 from the Moon is another possibility.Cap Kritik 39/194 Arctic or outer space are good examples. this is of course true. for example.). So. and one million tons could be obtained from the Moon. This included $8 trillion worth of iron and nickel. Lewis 1996. indications of how society’s relations with the cosmos are changing. This is discussed in a number of books elaborating the commercial potential of outer space (e. Stine (1975) as the ‘third industrial revolution’ and by Krafft Ehricke (1972) as ‘the benign industrial revolution’ (as there were supposedly no environmental issues associated with it). seen as an unlimited source of metals for human use. we need to remain cautious in accepting these highly optimistic forecasts. investments may be made in outer space colonies. there are some important straws in the wind. Some DML. the part of space that is not yet owned and exploited will always become further and further from the Earth. but asteroids are currently seen as a better bet thanks to their metallic density. dml) Outer space is now increasingly envisaged as providing inputs to the Earthly production process. Ian. Needless to say. for example. One metric ton of helium-3 is worth $3 million. It may well be used. for example. This has led Lawrence Joseph to question in a New York Times article whether the Moon could become the Persian Gulf of the twenty-first century (cited in Gagnon 2006). They have three hundred times as much free metal as an equal mass taken from the Moon. It is also increasingly envisaged as a source of materials for investment in new circuits of capital. displacing governments and using outer space for commercial purposes. The Moon might seem an obvious first target for the acquisition and mining of resources. capital will be seeking more resources on Mars. On the other hand. as a means of harvesting energy for the Earth. In the mid-1990s the market value of metals in the smallest known asteroid. Even the most enthusiastic pro-space activists see materials in space as useful only for building in space. 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab as soon as the Moon is exhausted. Clayton . Science fiction shows. it should be possible to retrieve this and mine other asteroids to supply Earth with all the metals society will ever need. but there is also a sense in which the proposals for humanizing the universe are in themselves interesting illustrations of the way in which humanity imagines its future. NASA has recently given the chemical engineer Jonathan Whitlow a grant of nearly $50. The cost of returning materials to Earth would add so much to the cost of extracting them that this would never be financially viable. The expansion of industry into space has been referred to by Harry G. The issue of ownership of means of production is again vitally important here. To an increasing extent capital is setting the pace. known as 3554 Amun. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 143.000 to develop computer models that could lead to the production of propellant from the lunar regolith or rock mantle (SPX 2004). was about $20 trillion. But a number of sociological theories offer better insights into the future humanization of the cosmos. dml) The humanization of outer space is at an early stage and attempts by social scientists to predict the future have almost always ended in failure. Private companies have also been established working on the research and design for asteroidal and lunar mines. and so on. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 144-145. Harry. outer space being used as a refuge from disasters. In reality. Science fiction and forward-looking space scientists give some indication of the nature of these developments.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. and as this happens investors will need to be increasingly wealthy to afford to exploit it. Rothenbaum. This chapter is in part speculative. Considering the immensity of space as a whole. Space is seen solely as an area of resources for capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . or alien life confirming the superiority of Western democracy. however. Hudgins 2002).

Once made. companies and investors are realizing that everything we hold of value—metals. in the case of state and social expenditures. Ian. reproducing labour power or successfully managing social relations. but ‘devaluation is avoided by successive and ever grander ‘outer transformations’.: 427). IWren) Importantly for Harvey and other Marxist geographers. Clearly there is no question of importing labour power from outer space to help out a failing region on Earth but. We therefore argue that Earthly fixes may be expanded to incorporate even more ‘outer transformations’. This process can presumably continue until all external possibilities are exhausted or because other regions resist being treated as mere convenient appendages’ (ibid. Whether these fixes are (at least temporarily) effective depends on whether they are seen as profitable or. The tendency towards overaccumulation within the original region remains unchecked. Spatial fixes are only ever provisional and therefore offer only short-term resolutions to the contradictions inherent in capitalism. DML. The drive to accumulate space resources is an extension of the capitalistic project of seizing areas and sucking them dry Dickens and Ormrod 7 . this chapter raises the possibility of a ‘cosmic consciousness’ taking the form of an individualism which envisages the whole of the cosmos as within its reach. at Harvard Medical School. it will become a central feature of a ‘cosmic society’. Honorary Doctorate at International Space University. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe.*Peter. Diamandis 10—. these fixes commonly take on a ‘spatial’ nature. unprofitable or containing people resisting their appendage status. 2010. What right does humanity have to model the cosmos in its own image? Finally. But. however. This time the fixes are in the cosmos. And. What was once affordable only by nations can now be lucrative. Rothenbaum. But in a new plan unveiled in President Barack Obama's 2011 budget earlier this month. They involve the geographic expansion of the circuits of capital as new territories. as we will discuss in Chapter 6. Co-Founder and Managing Director of Space Adventures (Peter. “Space: The Final Frontier of Profit?” Wall Street Journal. Two fundamental realities now exist that will drive space exploration forward. pg 54-55. private capital is seeing space as a good investment. outer space is being used to manage flows of capital and information and to regulate social relations (including the social relations of production) on Earth. The two further circuits of capital are involved in the making of these new outer spatial fixes. the raw materials of outer space are increasingly envisaged as a means of developing Earthly production processes. a new player has taken center stage: American capitalism and entrepreneurship. For purposes of exposition. Amanda. Chairman and CEO of X Prize Foundation. for adventure as well as profit. commodities or productive capacities of fresh labour powers from other regions’ (ibid. Jay. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. one offering new possibilities for capital accumulation. First. as discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. Cisco and Apple of space to be born. a spatial ‘fix’ is likely to be destroyed or devalued in order to make way for a new spatial fix. We therefore term them ‘outer spatial fixes’. We cannot overexaggerate the fact that success for Earthly or cosmic spatial fixes is by no means guaranteed. Harry. Signs of this subjectivity are already in evidence and we predict that. Mineral mining in space drives capitalist agendas forward. Second. whether they fulfil their purpose of.com/) Government agencies have dominated space exploration for three decades. for example. The plan lays the foundation for the future Google. The spread of society into an external nature far beyond the Earth also raises ethical issues which already form part of a wider debate.: 427). willing to fund individuals who are passionate about exploring space. ‘the frontiers of the region can be rolled back or relief gained by exports of money capital. Clayton . public-private partnerships. drive job creation and open the cosmos for the rest of us.D. http://online. workforces and markets are drawn into the capitalist system.wsj. raw materials. with capital despoiling the natural environment to such an extent that it searches for new materials ‘off-planet’. But even Earthly spatial fixes may now be proving relatively ‘exhausted’.Cap Kritik 40/194 authors borrowing from Marx might 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab interpret the colonization of outer space as an attempted resolution of ‘the second contradiction of capitalism’. unless tempered. February 13. Harvey (2007) initially assumes a single and closed region in which production and realization of surplus values take place. M. he argues. University of Essex and **James.

The language used by intellectual elites of the day was Latin. The general point is that the vision of the Space Renaissance Initiative. For example. humanization of the cosmos. Why should a galactic capitalism do otherwise? The Space Renaissance Initiative argues that space-humanization is necessarily a good thing for the environment by introducing new space-based technologies such as massive arrays of solar panels.” one capable of spanning every kind of human practice such as art. The Space Renaissance Initiative believes in these concepts. systematically omits questions of social. Their focus on resources ‘out there’ ignores environmental degradation on Earth. Once thought of as "Seward's Folly" (Secretary of State William Seward was criticized for overpaying the sum of $7. known as S-type. This appealed to scholars across Europe but not to the great mass of individuals living in Florence. The energy of the sun can. The Humanization of the Cosmos—To What End?)NAR In short. or Venice. with men like Leonardo da Vinci. Alaska has since become a billion-dollar economy. But this Renaissance Man—or Woman—can also be seen as prefiguring the self-centered. the Space Renaissance Initiative argues. progressive. The same will hold true for space. and modern science was born.Cap Kritik 41/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab minerals. November 2010. more critical. environmental. in freedom. economic. and human agency therefore underpins the starting point of the Space Renaissance Initiative. an unprecedented new age of development took place: arts knew a wonderful age of innovation. is composed of iron. Voltaire. magnesium silicates and a variety of other metals. culture took on some essential principles of classical Greek philosophy. The philosophical roots of the Space Initiative are no less than the sixteenth-century Italian Renaissance and the Enlightenment. But there are surely major problems here. and in reason all mean that political power should be vested in the common person and not in states. which would solve society’s energy shortages at a stroke. music. Clayton . Amanda. one seeing the whole of the cosmos at his or her command. Milan. Harry. Monthly Review. there seems rather little reason to celebrate or restore it. with its prime focus on the power of the supposedly autonomous and inventive individual. given the problems it creates both for ourselves and our environment. Similarly. and opening up resources in the moon. For example. This movement led to the Age of Enlightenment and its most famous offspring: the American and French Revolutions. there are millions of asteroids of different sizes and composition flying throughout space. Consumer-led industrial capitalism necessarily creates huge social divisions and increasing degradation of the environment. The Initiative argues that opening up the cosmos to humanity—colonizing the solar system. and population crises because it is thinking too small.2 million to the Russians for the territory in 1867). and politics. Environmental degradation will be exacerbated rather than diminished by this technological fix. They used this money to enhance their position within their feudal societies. what was once seen as a wasteland will become the next gold rush. any claim that the Medici family (and similar families such as the Borgias) helped overthrow feudalism is far-fetched. The manifesto also praises the writings of Descartes. stretched over the circle of the cosmos. The belief of these philosophers in the enterprising individual. and the asteroids—could be central to social and environmental salvation. the Initiative’s focus on the apparently universal benefits of space humanization ignores some obvious questions. What will ploughing large amounts of capital into outer space colonization really do for stopping the exploitation of people and resources back here on earth? The “solution” seems to be simultaneously exacerbating social problems while jetting away from them.6 The Medicis and individuals such as Leonardo are often celebrated as examples of “The Renaissance Universal Man. With the enlightened patronage of such families as the Medicis. energy and real estate—are in near-infinite quantities in space. A simplistic and idealistic view of history. and military power. Dickens 10 – Visiting Professor of Sociology (Peter. and nobility. One category. thus further enhancing their wealth and that of their many illegitimate offspring. Mars. An average half-kilometer S-type asteroid is worth more than $20 trillion. in liberty. liberating. perspective on humanizing the cosmos tell us? DML. and Jefferson. kings. be made into a source of clean power from outer space. for example. Michelangelo. This kind of modern human identity has since been enhanced by consumer-based capitalism and. The Medicis were bankers and merchants who made their money at the center of an emerging global mercantilist capitalism. his head in the heavens and his bowels located in earthly regions. Alaska serves as an excellent analogy. Cheap electricity is most likely to increase levels of production and consumption back on earth. seeing them as the basis of a new. UK. What would an alternative. technology. But such “solutions” are again imaginary. one based in Northern Italy. narcissistic individualism of our own day. Another of the Medicis was made the Queen of France. This “Man” is perhaps best symbolized by Leonardo’s famous image of a male human being. Humanization in this shape—one now finding favor in official government circles—raises all kinds of highly problematic issues for society and the environment. and later Copernicus and Galileo leading the way. Ian. The progress made by the private sector in developing technologies and efficiencies for space tourism means that commercial enterprise can now start planning to venture still further afield. As space transportation and operations become more affordable. Rothenbaum. Volume 62. including cobalt and platinum. Issue 6. society is undergoing massive social. Jay. Members of the Medicis even made themselves into popes.

and it would be a great deal cheaper. dml) The idea of using satellites for harnessing solar power was introduced by Glazer (1968). So it is advisable to again be cautious about much of the highly optimistic publicity surrounding the use of solar power for Earthly needs. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 145-146. According to many estimates this will not be until reserves on Earth are much more depleted. One commentator (Launius 2003) outlines the argument that equivalent electricity could be produced by covering a section of the Sahara in solar panels. Harry. and became central to Gerard O’Neill’s space colony plans discussed below. The main criticism is the expense of the electricity they would produce. though requiring some form of private–public partnership or World Bank funding (Collins 2000. safer and easier to maintain (Collins (2000) disagrees). If it were ever to happen. Ian. Clayton . at least in the short to medium term (Macauley 2000). Woodell 2000). There are serious questions about its profitability. Amanda. conventional electricity generation in both developed and developing countries will be more than adequate to deal with demand (Macauley 2000). To Launius. However. Rothenbaum. outer space collectors of solar power look like an excuse for a space programme rather than a legitimate solution to energy problems. for the next quarter of a century at least. Those who do not write off the idea completely believe that it will become profitable and viable and may actually happen fairly soon. Jay. But we need again to remain cautious. would very likely be monopolized.Cap Kritik 42/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – SPS SPS is a band-aid solution for internal contradictions of capitalism and would be monopolized by the elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 .*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. DML. Only then will this particular outer spatial fix become profitable. it can be argued that it will simply never be viable because it is cheaper to produce renewable energy on Earth than it would be in space. Kassing 2000. because of the massive investment it would require. the energy produced would be extremely expensive and. A study of representatives of the energy industry and of industry concluded that. But this will only be at the point when the unit cost of electricity produced by Earthly power sources rises above the unit cost of satellite solar power.

as does travelling to a holy site during a pilgrimage. dml) Whichever kind of tourism is consumed and participated in. As a number of sociologists have argued. concerning society’s relations with the cosmos.Cap Kritik 43/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Tourism Space tourism is a narcissistic exercise that reinforces class divisions Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Travelling there supposedly brings the same kinds of rewards. Rather. in modern social conditions. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 124. This hegemonic view of the cosmos and society’s relation to it is a product of a new dominant social bloc. in the form of a new self. to literally make their ‘selves’ (Britton 1991. Amanda. Ian. and its images. They actively use this commodity. the aerospace industry. Space tourism forms part of this process. Oakes and Minca 2006). It is well recognized that capitalism caters to the narcissistic personality type prevalent in late modernity by offering consumer goods that claim to replace a widespread loss of identity.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Rothenbaum. But the producers of commodities are recognizing these tendencies amongst the consumers and are producing new forms of ‘aestheticized’ or ‘cultural’ tourism (Lury 1996. trips into space being presented by the space tourism industry as an ultimate aesthetic and spiritual experience. Consumption addresses the alienated qualities of modern social life and claims to be their solution: it promises the very things the narcissist desires – attractiveness. (Giddens 1991: 172) Giddens is almost certainly wrong to suggest that literally all of us are narcissists searching for a sense of self. Another form of ‘circuit’ is therefore involved here. Tourism makes space into a commodity Dickens and Ormrod 7 . dml) Space tourism is a rapidly growing field of economic activity. But this is only part of the picture. Ateljevic and Doorne 2006. Crouch 2006). the tourism industry and governments. live as though surrounded by mirrors. It is another part of society’s ‘outer spatial fix’. beauty and personal popularity – through the consumption of the ‘right’ kinds of goods and services. outer space is being made by elite groups into the new exotic destination of choice. Crang 2006. DML. in these we search for the appearance of an unblemished.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. one incorporating pro-space activists. and space tourists confirming that they have made new persons out of themselves as a result of their experience. Tourism in outer space will be the newest way in which social elites forge their identities. people do not simply ‘consume’ holidays and images of holidays offered by brochures. the chances are that it will help make and reinforce a particular kind of social identity. he is pointing to a certain tendency. one in which surplus profits are being ploughed into outer space. socially valued self. Hence all of us. Now that virtually all space on Earth has been humanized and thoroughly populated. one which particularly afflicts some classes of consumer. Harry. wonder and renewed identity to the space tourist. Clayton . Jay. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 129. The humanization of outer space also uses and reinforces an ancient and powerful worldview. It relies on the idea that outer space is an apparently pure and serene ‘other’ place offering a profound sense of awe. one in which consumers are using purchased commodities to develop their aesthetic and cultural identities.

Not only does it involve the observation of populations. There is a direct parallel between Bentham’s panopticon and this new orbital or ‘planetary’ panopticon (Whitaker 2000). Surveillance is becoming especially important in contemporary society. Telephone conversations can also be quite easily monitored. Both involve a watchstation up on high that observes deviant populations. Jay. This data can be used to target consumers. DML.Cap Kritik 44/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Surveillance (Biopower) Satellites are the new Panopticon – they exercise biopolitical control over the population Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Closed-circuit television monitors the activities of individuals. however. the outcome is a cowed and self-policing population.500 satellites can be seen exercising ‘biopower’ and ‘capillary’ authority via satellite. Rothenbaum. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 116. for example. Satellites capable of monitoring and transmitting pieces of information around the globe are a step towards making a global panopticon. A system of geosynchronous satellites is arguably the modern-day equivalent of a punishing God or supreme power in the sky feared by societies throughout human history. The planetary panopticon monitors and transmits highly personal information. Clayton . even though the sheer amount of information generated by all these technologies is difficult to cope with. dml) Foucault’s account is useful when we turn to one of the main ways in which the socialization of outer space is being deployed today.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Data on consumers’ purchases. About 200 of the Earth’s 2. is used not only for stock-control purposes but also to make profiles of individuals as consumers. to bring to their attention new products via advertising or promotion over the internet. But personalized surveillance goes even further than this. If Foucault is right. Car number plates can be photographed and matched to centralized records to track individuals or to charge them for the use of certain streets. Ian. Harry. As we shortly discuss. Amanda. and in neither case do the monitored have any knowledge of whether or not they are being watched. this picture needs some modification. but increasingly it is implicated in the transmission of information about people around the globe.

it could well be expendable and exploitable people who will work in zones of growing environmental risk once it is under way. What social relations are involved for the making of its harmonious. Environmental sustainability does not always imply social justice. this time of a social and political kind. Amanda. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 151. dml) Yet environmental risks are not the only ones associated with planetary engineering. Rothenbaum. We may well ask who might actually dwell and work in ‘terraformed’ zones and who might actually benefit. Lovelock’s proposal for terraforming is entirely unforthcoming about the kind of society that would live and work on a terraformed planet. Clayton . Yet of course. Harry. slowly evolving. Ian. It brings another possible set of risks.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. On the other hand. The most likely scenario is that it will be groups of highly qualified and highly paid scientists who will benefit most from the project. but it is always worth recalling the kind of society transforming nature. Indeed. DML. Jay. should the environment ever prove truly stable and lush with vegetation (as utopian space art would have us believe) then one can only assume it will be the most privileged members of society who escape the chaos of Earth to achieve a new freedom in the Heavens. as well as those corporations which might supply genetically engineered bacteria or orbital mirrors to heat the planet.Cap Kritik 45/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Terraforming Terraforming is not neutral – only the elite can take advantage of it and the expendable are expended to make it possible Dickens and Ormrod 7 . some are even winning research grants now to study such things. terraformed environment? Respect for environments and ecological systems may be an inherently ‘good thing’.

as sovereign for a particular global social order. There is a dialectic in place here as well. by convenient fiction——for example. it should be noted that there were a number of respondents who chose to comment on the likelihood and practicality of placing weapons in space.. and. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. other than the exceptional “American” state. remarked that ‘Given man’s persistent ingenuity and determination to find new ways of killing and maiming people. a global social order normalized in terms of capitalist social relations. Even in crisis conditions of contestation. A few mentioned that the weapons could be used to blast an asteroid on course for Earth or debris floating in space rather than referring to their military potential. States. IWren) As with other questions. Clayton . Exclusive missile defense constitutes a “hard shell” of sovereignty for one state. sustained. and it’s possibly happening already’ [C3006]. And their “citizens” are produced as “bare life” subject to the willingness of the global sovereign to let them live. If our argument is even half correct. dml) Each of the three forms of space weaponization has important constitutive effects on modern sovereignty. Harry. as the very idea of placing weapons in space feeds into a concept of human nature as aggressive and fearful. Amanda. while erasing the sovereign political subject status of other states. It also constitutes the ‘‘space-controlling’’ state.”” Space weaponization in the form of capacities for direct force application obliterate the meaning of territorial boundaries for defense and for distinguishing an inside from an outside with respect to the scope of policing and law enforcement——that is authorized locus for deciding the exception. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Space control reinforces that exclusive constitution of sovereignty and its potentiality for fostering unilateral decision. rather than expressing a clear view for or against. Rothenbaum. Together. and one woman said she thought it was what the American space programme was leading up to. Another middle-aged man. and as a state populated by an exceptional people. the claim with which this paper began——that modes of political killing have important effects——would be an understatement! Claims that space weaponization are inevitable are self-fulfilling. pg 99. if at all. This is the subtle. a global capitalism. expressing the view occasionally heard in pro-space circles that a military interest is necessary to get funding for a space programme at all [J3248]. “Taking sovereignty out of this world: Space weapons and empire of the future”. productive effects on political subjectivities. the political subjects of which are a global sovereign. these three sets of effects constitute what we believe can appropriately be identified as late-modern empire.S. are reduced to empty shells of sovereignty. the U. Review of International Studies (2008) 34: 755-775. a town planner. an exceptional “nation” linked to that sovereign. University of Essex and **James. Four people said that on technical grounds Earth-based weapons would be better. Ian. and “bare life” for individuals and groups globally to participate in that social order. ““Americans. building on assumptions of human nature that disseminated hegemonically Dickens and Ormrod 7 . I would be astonished if this didn’t happen eventually. DML. Nine people said they believed that the placing of weapons in space was inevitable. Another was not critical about this. consent is won.Cap Kritik 46/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Weapons You cause cap Duvall and Havercroft 8 – *professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota AND **professor of Political Science at the University of Oklahoma (Raymond and Jonathan. in turn. a concept which in turn weakens resistance to such an ‘inevitable’ project were it to proceed. The disturbing part is that these people. persuasive power of hegemony in practice. Jay. One management consultant said it was inevitable given that humans by nature are fearful and aggressive animals. What is particularly disturbing is that several respondents seemed to believe that the weaponization of space was inevitable given human nature. as useful administrative apparatuses for the governing of locals. who were both critical of the idea themselves. accepted it as inevitable. Such weaponization has been naturalized as ‘common sense’.*Peter.

Ian. Harry. Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 47/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **IMPACTS** DML. Amanda. Jay. Clayton .

robotics. focused on the species body.Cap Kritik 48/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Biopower Capitalism relies on biopower. in the epoch of which humanity now lives. then. According to Anders. and on one's own population: "the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of the power to guarantee an individual's continued existence. designating the very existence of a determinate group as a danger to the population. culminating in the present stage of automation. and biological. to its health and well-being. “Capitalism and Genocide.. Jay." Nuclear. both on the population of one's enemy. a stage which he designates as "post-civilized cannibalism" [postzivilisatorischen Kannibalismus]. For Anders. manage.even potentially -.a productive force. The other side of bio-politics. inserting the industrial extermination of whole groups of people into the very logic of capital: genocide as the apotheosis of instrumental reason! Reason transmogrified into the nihilistic engine of destruction which shapes the late capitalist world. Such a group.and death -. so long as it lives and breathes. for Foucault... If genocide is indeed the dream of modern powers . with all the conditions that can cause these to vary. life expectancy and longevity. and the end of history (Endzeit). Anders's concept of an overmanned world can be fruitfully linked to the immanent tendency of the law of value to generate an ever higher organic composition of capital.. the parallel increase of its usefulness and its docility.” Issue 36.. and the "birth of state racism". births and mortality. Internationalist Persepective. in which case it provides a point of intersection between the triumph of the real domination of capital economically. this power over life evolved in two basic forms . while the second industrial revolution saw the extension of commodity production to the whole of society. The extension of the law of value into every sphere of human existence. preparing the way for their replacement by machines. all this was ensured by the procedures of power that characterized the disciplines: an anatomo-politics of the human body... threatens its profitability. in which the world is "overmanned"." entailing an awesome power to inflict mass death. and technology as the subject of history.. it is because power is situated at the level of life. and in which Hiroshima marks the point at which "humanity as a whole is eliminatable"[tötbar]. they constituted . http://www. opening the way for the extension of the process of extermination to virtually the whole of the human species. Nonetheless." Such a bio-politics represents the subjugation of biological life in its diverse human forms to the imperatives of the law of value.. two poles of development linked together by a whole intermediary cluster of relations. for Foucault. has made humans obsolete. This "obsolescence of man" can at the level of total capital thereby create the necessity for mass murder. Bio-politics entails the positive power to administer. which.. the Holocaust marked the first attempt at the systematic extermination of a whole group of people by industrial means. the level of health. by which he means making a cut in the biological continuum of human life. and information technology. This stage corresponds to what Foucault designates as bio-politics.. which encapsulates both the "statification of the biological". weapons make it possible to wield this power to condemn whole populations to death. Bio-politics.reocities. and regulate the intimate details of the life -. culminating in an Endzeit. Clayton . though the latter also claimed that biological and hereditary DML. the first industrial revolution introduced the machine with its own source of power as a means of production. on the bases of which ever larger masses of living labor are ejected from the process of production. and. the race. It allows capital to mobilize all the human resources of the nation in the service of its expansion and aggrandizement. its integration into systems of efficient and economic controls.of whole populations in the form of technologies of domination: "In concrete terms . I would argue. is what he terms "thanatopolitics. computers. . The second . Amanda. indeed. a source of exchange-value. in order to become an insuperable burden for capital.. corresponds to one side of the dialectic of socialism or barbarism which presides over the present epoch. ceasing to be -. chemical. becomes a biological (in the case of Nazism) or class enemy (in the case of Stalinism. the third industrial revolution. Anders's philosophy of technology is unabashedly pessimistic. Ian..html] For Anders. and even to its very life. the extortion of its forces. also necessarily entails racism. Spring 2000. of this power over life. Michel Foucault's concept of bio-power can also be refunctioned to explicitly link it to the basic tendencies of the development of capitalism. the body imbued with the mechanics of life and serving as the basis of the biological processes: propagation. Their supervision was effected through an entire series of interventions and regulatory controls: a bio-politics of the population. the optimization of its capabilities. and creates domination over people with the ability to destroy entire populations. and the political and ideological transformation of capitalist rule. Harry. Moreover. centered on the body as a machine: its disciplining. while at the same time making it possible to grasp those features of capital which propel it in the direction of genocide. 2k [Internationalist Perspective... and the large-scale phenomena of population. is marked by the subordination of the biological realm itself to the logic of capital. Rothenbaum. and the subordination of man to the machine. his vision of a totally reified world. economic and military. leaving virtually no room for Marxist hope (communist revolution). the culminating point of the real domination of capital. One of these poles . the species.com/wageslavex/capandgen. from the cycle of accumulation as a whole. a dead weight.

but rather his theorization of the political and ideological moment of capital. new forces and new positions of affective labor characterize labor power as much as intellectual labor does. which allows us to better grasp its necessity. Moreover. Michael & Antonio. Rothenbaum. we are able to see how the value-form invades even the biological realm in the phase of the real domination of capital. Ian. as if the new powers of labor were only intellectual and not also corporeal (Section 3. and what I see as vital contributions to their theorization by Antonio Gramsci and Ernst Bloch. Hardt & Negri 2k – Professors at the European Graduate School (Professors. Production ‘ fills the surfaces of empire: is a machine that is full of life. however. which is labor. all of which have enriched Marxist theory. and to be able to inflict mass death on populations or races designated as a biological threat. and which revolutionaries ignore at their peril. they run throughout and constitute directly not only production but also the entire realm of reproduction.net/text. and it is to these. where he followed the counter-revolutionary line of the Stalinist Comintern. an intelligent life that by expressing itself in production and reproduction as well as in circulation (of labor. that is. Clayton . Jay. Amanda. Biopower is another name for the real subsumption of society under capital. it is possible to subject biological life itself to a formidable degree of control. when reproduction and the vital relationships that constitute it themselves become directly productive. and both are synonymous with the globalized productive order. his concept of hegemony. intersects with the transformations at the level of the political and ideological moment of capital. The Foucauldian concept of bio-politics allows us to see how. on the basis of technologies of domination. and in particular his concept of the "integral state".php?id=1034709069754) The danger of the discourse of general intellect is that it risks remaining entirely on the plane of thought. that I now want to turn in an effort to better elucidate the factors that propel capital in the direction of mass death and genocide. “Empire” http://textz. his interventions in the debates on strategy and tactics within the Italian Communist Party. However. The illusion of biopower is just an abstraction of the fundamental basis of social relations. by linking this concept to the real domination of capital. his political practice. his understanding of the state as incorporating both political and civil society. and languages) stamps society with a new collective meaning and recognizes virtue and civilization in cooperation.4).gnutenberg. Biopower becomes an agent of production when the entire context of reproduction is subsumed under capitalist rule. What is at issue here is not Gramsci's politics. The powers of production are in fact today entirely biopolitical: in other words. And 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the danger represented by such an enemy race can necessitate its elimination through physical removal (ethnic cleansing) or extermination (genocide). As we saw earlier. which exploded the crude base-superstructure model of orthodox Marxism and its vision of ideology as simply false consciousness.Cap Kritik 49/194 characteristics were linked to one's class origins). affects. while bio-power entails the horrific possibility of genocide. and his understanding of ideology as inscribed in practices and materialized in institutions. DML. Such a perspective. Biopower names these productive capacities of life that are equally intellectual and corporeal. Harry. it is Foucault's ruminations on the binary division of a population into a "pure community" and its Other.

China. Former US Secretary of Labor (Robert B. however.. on the other. Japan.org/UserFiles/File/Events/FY08%20Events/11_November %2007%20Events/111407%20Reich%20Article. Reich 07—Chancellor's Professor of Public Policy at the Goldman School of Public Policy. Clayton . a failing of capitalism. no democratic nation is effectively coping with capitalism’s negative side effects. while democracy is struggling to keep up. on the one hand. democracies have struggled to perform their own basic functions: to articulate and act upon the common good. the challenge for citizens is to stop these economic entities from being the authors of the rules by which we live. Harry. Former US Secretary of Labor (Robert B. and the United States. enables citizens to debate collectively how the slices of the pie should be divided and to determine which rules apply to private goods and which to public goods. while capitalism takes away this collective identity. Amanda. It is a system for accomplishing what can only be achieved by citizens joining together to further the common good. public relations. and how its rules are set. they have been accompanied by widening inequalities of income and wealth.thechicagocouncil. Democracy is designed to allow citizens to address these very issues in constructive ways. Rothenbaum. allowing corporations and elites buoyed by runaway economic success to undermine the government’s capacity to respond to citizens’ concerns.pdf)//AW Why has capitalism succeeded while democracy has steadily weakened? Democracy has become enfeebled largely because companies. and to help societies achieve both growth and equity. at its best. And while capitalism has become remarkably responsive to what people want as individual consumers. the other must soon follow. Capitalism corrupts and erodes democracy. And yet a sense of political powerlessness is on the rise among citizens in Europe. have invested ever greater sums in lobbying. Many economically successful nations—from Russia to Mexico—are democracies in name only. and environmental hazards such as global warming. those tasks are increasingly being left to the market. “How Capitalism is Killing Democracy”. and even bribes and kickbacks.thechicagocouncil. Jay. September/October 2007. even as consumers and investors feel more empowered. Capitalism’s role is to increase the economic pie.Cap Kritik 50/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Democracy Capitalism and democracy are on opposite ends of the spectrum—democracy tries to ensure that people are collective. we have blurred their responsibilities. Foreign Policy Journal. September/October 2007. in intensifying competition for global consumers and investors. http://www. http://www. long sold as the yin to democracy’s yang. their fortunes are beginning to diverge. is thriving. Yet today.. Reich 07—Chancellor's Professor of Public Policy at the Goldman School of Public Policy. The result is an DML. nothing more. Foreign Policy Journal. heightened job insecurity. Ian. Democracy. Capitalism. If the purpose of capitalism is to allow corporations to play the market as aggressively as possible. Today. What is desperately needed is a clear delineation of the boundary between global capitalism and democracy— between the economic game. They are encumbered by the same problems that have hobbled American democracy in recent years. Of course. This fact is not. “How Capitalism is Killing Democracy”. seeking laws that give them a competitive advantage over their rivals. but not political freedom. democracy means much more than the process of free and fair elections. to the detriment of our democratic duties. In short.org/UserFiles/File/Events/FY08%20Events/11_November %2007%20Events/111407%20Reich%20Article. But though free markets have brought unprecedented prosperity to many. has embraced market freedom. As these two forces have spread around the world.pdf)//AW Conventional wisdom holds that where either capitalism or democracy flourishes. poised to become the world’s third largest capitalist nation this year after the United States and Japan.

might increase the price of products and services. it is imperative to remember that we are also citizens who have it in our power to reduce these social costs. After 30 years of exceedingly hard work and DML. for example. Extinction Montague co-director Environmental Research Foundation 98 [Peter Montague. The only way for the citizens in us to trump the consumers in us is through laws and rules that make our purchases and investments social choices as well as personal ones. to slow the movement of capital ever so slightly. Politicians praise companies for acting “responsibly” or condemn them for not doing so. And the message that companies are moral beings with social responsibilities diverts public attention from the task of establishing such laws and rules in the first place. might give communities a bit more time to adapt to changing circumstances. Extended unemployment insurance combined with wage insurance and job training could ease the pain for workers caught in the downdrafts of globalization. Nor do they have any expertise in making such moral calculations. but the citizen in me thinks it worth the price. It is much the same with what passes for corporate charity. and publisher of Rachael’s Environment and Health News. even heroic -. My inner consumer won’t like that very much. And for those of us living in democracies. As a result. thereby boosting the bottom line. and climate change.au/1998/337/20135] The environmental movement is treading water and slowly drowning. Let us be clear: The purpose of democracy is to accomplish ends we cannot achieve as individuals. The first step. But democracy cannot fulfill this role when companies use politics to advance or maintain their competitive standing. Corporate executives are not authorized by anyone—least of all by their investors —to balance profits against the public good.have largely failed. A small transfer tax on sales of stock. The vast majority of us are global consumers and. or when they appear to take on social responsibilities that they have no real capacity or authority to fulfill. consumer and investor interests almost invariably trump common concerns. Harry. Clayton . they are also being entrusted with a kind of social responsibility or morality. but the citizen in me might think it a fair price to pay. The return on my retirement fund might go down by a small fraction. those that consume weeks or months of congressional staff time.org. In these roles we should strive for the best deals possible. make donations to charities of their own choosing in amounts they decide for themselves. While corporations are increasingly writing their own rules. global investors. A change in labor laws making it easier for employees to organize and negotiate better terms. companies donate money to good causes only to the extent the donation has public-relations value. The larger danger is that these conspicuous displays of corporate beneficence hoodwink the public into believing corporations have charitable impulses that can be relied on in a pinch. There is abundant evidence that our efforts -and they have been formidable. presumably. We can accomplish this larger feat only if we take our roles as citizens seriously. Democracy is supposed to represent the public in drawing such lines. Under today’s intensely competitive form of global capitalism. which is often the hardest. That is how we participate in the global market economy. But those private benefits usually have social costs. They invest to earn high returns. Yet the purpose of capitalism is to get great deals for consumers and investors. Ian. is to get our thinking straight. Shareholders who wish to be charitable would.Cap Kritik 51/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab arms race for political influence that is drowning out the voices of average citizens. 14 October 1998 http://www. at least indirectly.greenleft. In the United States. the fights that preoccupy Congress. That leaves societies unable to address the tradeoffs between economic growth and social problems such as job insecurity. making the true price of the goods and services we purchase as low as possible. But shareholders do not invest in firms expecting the money to be used for charitable purposes. widening inequality. Amanda. Jay. By pretending that the economic success corporations enjoy saddles them with particular social duties only serves to distract the public from democracy’s responsibility to set the rules of the game and thereby protect the common good. Rothenbaum. are typically contests between competing companies or industries. for example.

their atomic fallout was showering the population with strontium-90. narrow perspectives and selfish motives are rewarded. '40s and '50s lived their lives around and within their unions' struggles). but this is quite different from focusing our efforts on lobbying campaigns to convince legislators to do the right thing from time to time. finding new allies.even when Congress has been willing to impose them -. DML.). During the past 30 years. If they are allowed to make decisions behind closed doors. The AEC's best and brightest studied this problem in detail and and ultimately unsuccessful.” Thus. Then they lobby Congress in hopes that Congress will impose this latest “solution” on us all. The power to govern would naturally flow from those efforts. Errors remain uncorrected. they scheme with lawyers and experts behind closed doors. burdensome open democratic decision-making is essential to survival. argued in secret memos that the only way strontium-90 could get into humans would be through cattle grazing on contaminated grass. The focus of our strategies must be on building organisations that involve people and. The following year. Our technologies are now too complex and too powerful to be left solely in the hands of a few experts. What. Lobbying can mobilise people for the short term. they concluded. One thinks of the old Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) justifying above-ground nuclear weapons testing. such people don't develop a big following. and the amount that would end up in the cows' bones. Clayton . scientists and citizens began asking. the AEC reported to Congress in 1953. would contaminate cows' milk. they love to say. or blow the whistle on egregious violations. then announce their “solution”. “The only potential hazard to human beings would be the ingestion of bone splinters which might be intermingled with muscle tissue in butchering and cutting of the meat. a highly radioactive element that masquerades as calcium when it is taken into the body. And it deeply divides the environmental movement. democratic decision-making is no longer a luxury. strontium-90 moves into the bones. On that basis. Only by informing people. For the same reason that science cannot find reliable answers without open peer review. strontium-90 was not endangering people. causing cancer. we got a glimpse of what had happened to the environment and the people under the Soviet dictatorship. small groups of experts can make fatal errors. but without the ability for citizens to participate in decisions. but mobilising is not the same as organising. Things would be much worse today if our work of the past 30 years had never occurred. This question of democracy is not trivial. In the early 1950s. The fundamental importance of democratic decision-making means that our strategies must not focus on legislative battles. and trusting their decisions. we have failed to stem the tide of environmental deterioration.Cap Kritik 52/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab tremendous sacrifice. Rothenbaum. In the modern world. which of course it did. and certainly is not offered as the last word on anything . in that process. and their “solutions” -. where it irradiates the bone marrow. Many members of the mainstream environmental movement tend to view ordinary people as the enemy (for example. Have our efforts been adequate? Have we succeeded? Have we even come close to stemming the tide of destruction? Has our vision been commensurate with the scale and scope of the problems we set out to solve? To those questions. Amanda. Open. Open. After the Berlin wall fell. In the modern era. cows' milk?” The AEC scientists had no response. Make no mistake: our efforts have had a beneficial effect. Once in the body. it is a necessity for human survival. or rather movements. Harry. mimicking calcium. are we to do? This article is intended to provoke thought and debate. It is deep. but few successes building longterm organisations that people can live their lives around and within (the way many families in the '30s. “What about the Secrecy in government and corporate decision-making continues to threaten the well-being of everyone on the planet as new technologies are deployed at an accelerating pace after inadequate consideration of their effects. Congress declassified many of the AEC's deliberations. democratic decision-making will be an essential component of any successful strategy. They fundamentally don't trust people to make good decisions. the environmental movement has had some notable successes mobilising people. if we are honest with ourselves. the question is. those laws meant nothing. However. we must answer No. Naturally. Experts. Jay. The Soviets had some of the world's strictest environmental laws on the books. Openness. An insignificant amount would enter the body in this fashion. we must contend for the full power of government to be harnessed toward achieving our goals. As soon as these memos became public. They calculated the strontium-90 intake of the cows. Clearly.have often proven to be expensive. then. so they prefer to leave ordinary people out of the equation. and the general welfare will not usually be promoted. bureaucracies (whether public or private) cannot achieve beneficial results without active citizen participation in decisions and strong protection for whistle-blowers. Ian. They had neglected to ask whether strontium-90. can we survive as a human society. Instead. “We have met the enemy and he is us”.

Marsh 95. Such a tendency is understandable in the light of the economism and reductionism of much of the Marxist left. using the former to fragment the working class and the latter. and capitalism on the other. sexism. and South America. is the best account. then. extending not only over the United States and Western Europe but also over the Third World in Africa. Racism and sexism. an asymmetry exists between racism and sexism. If this fact is not recognized. then at a certain point the revolutionary elan of the civil rights and feminist movements is negated. to legitimize a tough-minded. which come in fairly late in Marx's analysis in volume 3 of Capital. but the reverse is generally not true. Clayton . and autonomy between and among spheres. Racism and sexism are like other holdovers from precapitalist epochs. The reign of capitalism up to this point has been nonnegotiable in the West. Rothenbaum. A tendency now exists in leftist circles to talk about racism. Both movements at that point have simply degenerated into demands for equal participation in the rat race. Capitalism defines the modern in a way that sexism and racism do not. Indeed. not only over women and African-Americans but also most men and whites. because of its thirst for surplus value. specificity. like rent or interest. as such. but they are not equal in importance to class domination. Three different models are possible here. to the extent that it fully comes into its own. Capitalism will transform sexual and racial relations to achieve its goals.Professor of Philosophy at Fordham University (James. a vulgar Marxist model that denies any autonomy at all. in my opinion. Racism and sexism in the West and North we are approaching rejecting in principle but not capital. capitalism. has an infinity to it and tends to overcome limits and incorporate them into itself. As such displaced forms. like the contradiction between symbolic interaction and purposive rational action. and in their own right as well. Progress in overcoming racism and sexism occurs up to the point where that overcoming infringes upon fundamental capitalistic social relations. racism and sexism. one-dimensional domination. to the sexual or racial domains. if Habermas is correct. Jay. the three-sector model mentioned above. late capitalism has more or less immunized the monopoly sphere of the economy from serious conflict. quantitative. The sophisticated Marxist model thus retains the strengths of the other two while avoiding and overcoming their onesidedness. Also. on the one hand. Critique Action and Liberation. and classism. Amanda. Capital twists racism and sexism to its own ends. coequal forms of domination. As such. Capital. Ian. we must consider the question concerning the relationship among racism. Also. without downplaying their tremendous moral evil and the enormous suffering they inflict in their contemporary manifestations. The result is that conflict has been displaced to other spheres more or less peripheral to this central monopoly sphere. One does not get at what is specific and essential in DML. are no different from rent and interest.simply allowing minorities or women to succeed within capitalism ensures reproduction of the harms. and a sophisticated Marxist model that asserts the dominance of class exploitation but allows relative autonomy on lived and ideological levels to the other two spheres. Why is class domination ultimately more fundamental and important and overriding? It is more universal. Harry. and class domination as distinct. We make the mistake of thinking that an AfricanAmerican person is fully liberated if he becomes an NFL quarterback and a woman if she becomes an executive on Wall Street. twisting them to its own ends. technocratic. to an extent are indirectly displaced forms of class domination and colonization. The fate of Martin Luther King's civil rights movement when it came North and began to be more openly economic in its orientation is one example.Cap Kritik 53/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Discrimination Capitalism rigs the game . the fate of women professionals asking for salaries equal to men in a context of economic retrenchment is another. It allows some diversity. but is finally not justified. p 282-3) Next. The sophisticated Marxist approach. subordinate moments in the capitalistic mode of production. of which American foreign policy in Vietnam and Nixon's machismo on the Watergate tapes is a dramatic example. Another way of putting the same point is to say that capitalism is a process of self-expanding value oriented to the production of surplus value. Class struggle is the most antagonistic of conflicts-fundamental cooperation is emerging between the sexes and races but not between labor and capital. Racism and sexism serve capital as ideology. Asia. they are important and must be fought. sexism. will relate racism and sexism to itself and incorporate them in various ways. sexism and racism are holdovers from prior epochs and. In this respect.

but are offered the vision and the possibility of freedom . As a glance at and reflection on the streets of Los Angeles after the 1992 riots shows (see below). and unjust. We are not condemned to an inexorable fate. Ian.) To study racism is to study walls. and greed. Pastor and Co-director of Crossroads 91 –– Ministry working to dismantle racism (Joseph. capitalized racism is not the same as pre-capitalist racism. capitalized sexism is not the same as pre-capitalist sexism. the walls of racism. and cultural racism can be destroyed. It shackles the victimizer as well as the victim. inhuman. privilege. As reflection on the use of women in advertisements to sell products indicates. once and for all. But we have also seen that the walls of racism can be dismantled. ghettos and prisons. and powerlessness are cruel. but by understanding these phenomena as related to and incorporated into this process of capitalist valorization. institutional. DML. in our separate prisons we are all prevented from achieving the human potential that God intends for us. Jay. Harry. For the sake of the world and ourselves. the prison of individual. of military buildups and violent aggression. D-rule Barndt. the effects of uncontrolled power. people of color and white people alike. will inevitably destroy us as well. Dismantling Racism: The Continuing Challenge to White America 155-6. Rothenbaum. The results of centuries of national and worldwide conquest and colonialism.Cap Kritik 54/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab capitalist modernity by talking about rent or interest or racism or sexism as such. stone by stone. We have looked at barriers and fences. The limitations imposed on people of color by poverty. The prison of racism confines us all. subservience. we dare not allow it to continue. You and I are urgently called to join the efforts of those who know it is time to tear down. The walls forcibly keep people of color and white people separate from each other. The danger point of self-destruction seems to be drawing ever more near . restraints and limitations. which are the marks of our white prison. of overconsumption and environmental destruction may be reaching a point of no return . Amanda. A small and predominantly white minority of the global population derives its power and privilege from the sufferings of the vast majority of peoples of color. Brick by brick. Clayton .

occupational groups. the rates varied. third-world infant mortality rate. The numbers for counties in Kansas showed the greatest variation. Once again. / However.Cap Kritik 55/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Disease Alt solves disease better—capitalism prevents effective disease solvency—poor members of society can’t get access to technology and are left with limited resources Biehl. or other socially defined categories. unlike Cuba. I looked at variability in health across geographic locations. The Canadian and Brazilian regions have the advantage of a better and more just healthcare system but.34.National Institute of Mental Health postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University (João. environmental justice.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_4_52/ai_65805749/pg_15/?tag=content. What we saw was that infant mortality rates in United States were more or less comparable to Cuba. Harry. Pre-modern and modern ways to access resources and convert risk into life possibilities routinely overlap to redistribute technology and care unequally. Ian. that Kansas had a rate a little higher than the U. examined Canadian data. Capitalism makes disease spread inevitable – profit motive cripples health sector and community response – data proves Levins 2K (Richard Levins is a professor of biology at Harvard University. As drugs for AIDS become more common. “Pharmaceuticalization: AIDS Treatment and Global Health Politics. the difference between best and worst. Anthropological Quarterly. Rothenbaum. among other factors. A Marxist approach to health would attempt to integrate the insights of ecosystem health. Amanda. For Kansas the range divided by the average is . He has achieved international recognition for his work over many years in the field of epidemiology. an effective measure of fairness. Just how variable.85. is the outcome in healthcare in different states in the United States. My colleagues and I examined the rate of infant mortality in each of these regions. we divided the variation. for example. Clayton ." and alternative medicine. and the least variation was in Cuba. We saw that the cancer rates in Kansas and in Cuba are comparable. we observed average rates as well as the disparity. by the average. and Kansas all have capitalist economies in which investment decisions are based on maximizing profit rather than any social imperative meant to equalize economic circumstance. who used medicines to prevent vertical transmission are now left "to choose" to breastfeed their newborns (as the least lethal option) because lack of clean water makes formula feeding a riskier practice. reflecting the quality of healthcare . different provinces in Cuba. That Cuba scored so high was not very surprising. the social determination of health. we found that Saskatchewan was somewhere between Kansas and Cuba. http://findarticles. that is. and the order in its disorder. But the process is a rough and inequitable one. much more was revealed.S. or in a Canadian province? Very interesting patterns emerged from that work. 07. The difference across health districts of Rio Grande was even less. / The reason we chose these places is that on the one Canada. age groups. Project Muse) As Susan Reynolds Whyte and colleagues note in the context of ARV access in Uganda. its unevenness. affordable treatment will change the meaning of AIDS (and of life!). different health districts in a Brazilian state. giving them an DML.S. different counties in Kansas. both as an average and how."46 With drugs available and structural violence ongoing. while Rio Grande do Sur in Brazil had a more typical. When we hand Brazil. politically motivated and deceiving discourses have surfaced to rationalize in a perverse fashion the survival dilemmas the most vulnerable now face in the absence of improved living conditions—poor HIV-positive mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. they have the disadvantages of capitalism. and much higher. Saskatchewan and Rio Grande do Sur along with Cuba have national health systems that provide fairly uniform coverage over a given geographic area. the variability within given populations. "healthcare for all. while the numbers that compared U. in each place. p. Jay. Similar things happen when we look at all causes of death. average. but in Cuba it was . I asked. "in principle. from the best to the worst. but the variability is higher in Kansas than in Cuba. One aspect of my approach to the issues of healthcare comes from my background as an ecologist. when we viewed the same data from the perspective of the range from the best to the worst rates of infant mortality. states showed somewhat less difference. 1099-1100. they expose the nature of healthcare —its dynamism. “is capitalism a disease?”.col1) A radical critique of medicine has to deal with the things that make people sick and the kind and quality of healthcare people get.

for example. say only some things can be chosen. The choice is distinguished by the lack of choice. in a factory emitting toxic fumes.Cap Kritik 56/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab intermediate location in the variability of health outcomes. when to be in the library. and if you clip all the coupons and scrutinize the supermarket ads. even from genetics. like nearly everyone else. / On the other hand. and social factors. We have to see them as constrained rationality. On a shorter time scale. now say. / Public health people. unexpectedly. and others who deal with these issues." they say. it is also caused by the environment. heredity versus experience. unchoice. how much energy you have. in fact. for example). it a component of an investigation of causal factors. People who have few choices in life at least can make the choice to smoke. is seated at the back of the classroom. In a more affluent community. others may vary greatly over smaller geographic units. it turns out that the health of a baby born to an African-American teenager is on the average better than the health of a baby born to an African-American woman in her twenties. or Tuesday and Thursday. and diet. But even when genetics is responsible for a given human characteristic. Nevertheless. or across small areas like counties. Physicians decide when to see patients. a small difference in temperature can have a big effect on their health--one that doesn't affect the more affluent. This is a genetic variable and thus a genetic disease but it occurs only with exposure to those fumes. They're structured. / It is an as-yet-unrecognized ecological principle in public health that when a community or an individual organism is stressed for any reason (low income. but it is not the experience of everyone. we assume that something we do now will have an impact later on. as a consequence. from the point of view of genetics and physiology. In the inner city of San Juan. "well. making the best of a bad situation. ovens. where the classes are smaller and teachers pay attention. For example. So. or that you read the ads but cannot get away for two hours for comparison shopping. The research showed that the more marginal communities had worse health outcomes. The apparently trivial difference in experience can have a vast effect on the health of someone who is marginal. like different neighborhoods within the city of Wichita. We choose food. One question we want to answer is whether variability will be greater across states and other large geographic regions. / Yet another dimension of choice is found in the way we perceive time. / This method can also be applied when comparing different diseases. whether you can have a babysitter available or not." The unhealthy choices people make are not irrational choices. some of the things that are unwise choices under other circumstances become the lesser evil. biological versus social. will prepare them for a career. Choices are always made from a set of alternatives that are presented to you by somebody else. She fidgets. Smoking increases inversely with the degree of freedom one has at work. this is because the poor make unwise decisions. Or suppose that you would love to eat organic food for lunch but what you have is a half-hour break to go down to the vending machines. while others are imposed by the environment. then sleep for three days. When making a choice about health. say. This makes as much sense as the notion that black people get more tuberculosis because they have bad genes. You have to change the context within which choice is made. Teen mothers are not experienced. / Smoking is another example. which generally are not a good idea. the most obvious is pigmentation. in the quality and quantity of healthcare--clearly unnecessary from the point of view of any limitation in our medical knowledge or resources. So there are people who choose: "yes. The same is true with respect to the opportunity to exercise choice. you need a poor neighborhood. there would be a higher probability of you being arrested as well. when to go to DML. We also notice that unemployment in Kansas averages 9 or 10 percent in most Kansas counties but is 30 percent in northeast Wichita. we find a threefold variation in infant mortality. and with it your opportunity to get quality food. weather could impact the data in large areas like states. For example. trivial. They would have us distinguish between disadvantages imposed o n us. this kid would simply end up with glasses. academics are notable for the way time is organized. Clayton . If you are a superb shopper. It is simply the way in which a pigment is deposited in the skin. emergency rooms have a lot of people coming in with burns from kerosene stoves. Choice also implies the lack of choice. a very severe climate. not all kids turn out badly. in two or three years. So is this a lethal gene? Is this a gene for a higher spread of pigmentation-one that also makes you more vulnerable to arrest? A standard geneticist would look at family histories and determine that if your uncle was arrested. "I will quit smoking now so that I won't get cancer in twenty years. in Puerto Rico. Suddenly she has become someone with a "learning problem" and is transferred to a vocational course even though she might have been great poet. Harry. worry a great deal about teen pregnancies. / Another interesting case can be found in Mexico. Why? The environment of racism erodes health to such an extent that it makes a certain amount of sense to have your babies early if you're going to have them. Kansas. If the conditions of life are very poor or oppressive. A Marxist confronted with choices among mutually exclusive categories like choice versus environment. can have a big impact on your health. Time does not have the same structure when you can't make solid plans now for what is going to happen to you later. Wednesday. I made it. The cancer is not a result of genetics alone. We know that kids do better if their mothers have had more schooling. "teen pregnancy is a danger to people. arguing that much that differentiates health outcomes in poor neighborhoods from rich ones can be associated with behavior. Yet this difference can cost you ten years of life. But let us take a closer look at this question of choice. and Friday. Ian. changing seasonal temperatures become very important. For instance. Most of the apparently unwise decisions people make have a relative rationality to them when their circumstance is taken into account. Amanda. The teacher is overworked and does not notice that the student cannot see the blackboard. some health education programs are valuable. the data also showed that there was tremendous difference among the outcomes in poor villages that you didn't get among the villages that were integrated into the Mexican economy. For such people. "yes. environmental. The appropriate remedy is education. it is only responsible within a particular context. Wherever there is a rich neighborhood." We need to look at teen pregnancy in a much broader social context before we can think about making it simply a public health issue." In fact. Suppose a pupil is a bit nearsighted but. obviously poverty is not good for you. they cut back on food and other kinds of expenditures with an immediate impact on nutrition. but only from the products a company has chosen to make available to us. Following the rules of genetics in this mechanistic way. and the babies are more likely to be underweight. do not experience the kind or quality of freedom that gives them control over their own lives. There is an intimate interdependence among biological. knows that the categories themselves must be challenged. Individual differences can come from anything. When we are able to look at smaller areas. Conclusion: the cause of criminality is genetic. to serve it. Or that you live in a neighborhood where the local supermarket was not as profitable as the national chain that owned it thought it should be. f rom personal experiences growing up. "it might give me cancer in twenty years. We know this from elections and from shopping. he or she will have proved that crime is hereditary. Students can and do choose courses of study that. Under those circumstances." What they miss is the notion of increased vulnerability. but it sure keeps me alive today. The difference in melanin between Americans of African and European origin is. / The illusion of Choice / Poor health tends to cluster in poor communities. and is gone. There are always preconditions to the exercise of choice. the people who dream up these baskets assume you are a wiz at finding bargains. ranking them according to how marginalized they were from Mexican life. Most people. The Centers for Disease Control. And so whenever we can get data across neighborhoods. but after all. you might just get by on the Department of Agriculture poverty level basket. Safety orientation within factories does help people cope with unsafe conditions. exercise. so what we need are education programs to teach people to make the best of their situation. so it is unlikely their behavior will change simply by lecturing to them. Why? Because neighborhoods are not simply random pieces of environment. But weather is not the only variable. When people are unemployed. that would allow them to say. Examined were such variables as whether there was running water or what proportion of the people spoke Spanish. It is one of the few legitimate ways in some jobs to take a break and step outside. Conservatives will say. There are good reasons why it might go either way. the lives of. why can't you? Some people have become CEOs of corporations who came out of that neighborhood. she gets into a fight with the kid at the next desk. the life pattern is such that one can work unloading a ship for twenty-three hours a day for two days. But. / Trivial biological differences can become the focus around which important life outcomes are located. individual differences in where you work. That may seem obvious. But suppose you are not so good. like northeast Wichita. Conservatives. in late autumn and early winter. Jay. Genetics is not an alternative explanation of social conditions. such as smoking. from those that were freely chosen and for which we can only blame ourselves. it will be extremely sensitive to other disparities. people will develop cancer at a higher rate. then unexpectedly work in a restaurant for another two days because his or her cousin has to go to a funeral in the mountains. that may be unfair and/or can be eliminated. where a study was conducted of several villages. if people have very low income. Rothenbaum. only to be lost in the averages we develop for large areas. / Behavior is one of the areas where public health workers want to intervene. that is. or if the prices go up." Not everyone can organize their lives along an orderly annual time scale. This is something that is not obvious when you simply say. and other dangerous means used to compensate for inadequate heat in their houses. finally forced to concede that there are big differences in health outcomes between rich and poor. The same is true in relation to food. we see very large variations in social conditions and. a professor may conveniently order his or her teaching schedule around patterns of Monday. those most likely to develop the cancer have livers that are not able to effectively process a particular chemical as well. genetic. because she is tall. they may have difficulty taking care of their babies.

basically. where all citizens have the vote. we can be hit by a car. They have treated unemployment. No employer will object to putting up a sign reminding workers to wear their hard hats on the construction site. of exercising choice. What they do is to try to make things more equitable--for instance. I am sure that on the whole. do we permit policies that create inequalities that have such a negative impact on our health? How do we explain this? We have schemes to improve agriculture but they increase hunger. Or. with counselors to advise them of their right to unemployment insurance and other benefit programs. Clayton . as a social problem rather than an inevitable byproduct of a vigorous market. who can buy improvements in health for themselves. Doctors. unions have negotiated collective agreements to change shift work. would go into the jungle and set up clinics and work very hard under very difficult conditions for low pay. Not absolute predictions. we see that those ostensibly aimed at improving the people's lives are nearly always hobbled by some hidden side condition. Some of the clinics that were established in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War and earlier. Local governments can address other social concerns. But health is also a consumer good. particularly for the affluent. So the council cannot create employment. their opposition may take some political form. more consciously. This highlights the lie in the notion that society is trying to improve health for everybody. or we are selfish. In Sweden. we directly challenge the false dichotomies that rule thinking about public health and constrain it within predetermined societal boundaries. But. first of all. only a powerful and wellorganized labor movement will be able to impose changes. operate is in the delivery of health services elsewhere. /If good health depends on one's capacity to carry out those activities that are necessary and appropriate according to one's station in life. He probably would like medicines to be cheaper. hours of work. In London. the cost of the benefits package will always come before what employees may DML. The history of struggle is long and not without achievements. Or the problems are just too complicated. But that is subject to the side condition that insurance industry profitability must be protected. and do away with inequalities. But. the more the possibility. and failed. management will see workers impinging on the very core of class prerogative. Like any aggressive business. Amanda. The unions recognized that health concerns were but another aspect of class relations. it was yet another reincarnation of the White Man's Burden that justified nineteenth-century imperialism. were for this purpose. they buy bottled water. Rather than improve water quality. and provide support. for example. In that situation. we can expect the business class to object. and part not. part of the value of labor power. at great sacrifice. Even the most farsighted programs initiated by European social democratic governments do not challenge the capitalist order in any way. HMOs. Sometimes we discover that part of a program is carded out successfully. President Clinton would rather have people covered by health insurance than not. it is easy to depend on the illusion of democracy and a beneficent government to solve our problems. through progressive income taxes or generous unemployment insurance. there is a program to break down the isolation of young mothers. they will be even more resistant. hospitals. and working conditions. to expand the range of choices. a paper was distributed that posed the following dilemma: Why. ignorance. But struggle is also difficult. nothing else mattered. perhaps we need to face facts and conclude that it just cannot be done. then. If the union's demands deal with the organization of work itself. Harry. A town council will address it by financing a center for the unemployed. But when we look at the policies that emerge from those institutions of democracy. during the Malayan insurrection. When that was achieved. the more control you have over your life and your experience of life. the United States would like peasants to have land. where they can meet one another. So the answer to those who talk about decision-making and choice is to tell them. / A good way to see how these hidden constraints. The center may even organize a support group where people can deal with their feelings about not being able to bring home an income to the family. What has gone wrong? One answer might be that we are just not smart enough. Or perhaps we're just the kind of species that is incapable of living a cooperative life in a sensible relation to nature. or we have some defect. seeing themselves either as bringing benefits to people who needed it or. none of these measures affects profitability or challenges the market. they even push it on people who do not need it. Things can come up. as trying to prevent communism. the health industries engage in public relations--the winning of hearts and minds. but there is no impact on poverty because the assumption that benefits would trickle down was an illusion. But it begins to get a little tricky when you talk about the reorganization of work or the expenditure of money. and therefore a regular object of contention in class struggle.Cap Kritik 57/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab seminars. but because they are constrained by the interests of the powerful. And if. transport workers demanded improved food to reduce heart disease among truck drivers. the repeal of some aspect of health and safety regulation. after each new expenditure. after having failed to eliminate hunger. improve people's health. Rothenbaum. in Europe. / What Can Be Done? / At a recent meeting I attended. / We should reject any of these unduly pessimistic conclusions. So some people can actually structure their lives in such a way that we can actually make predictions. living in a democracy. The basic reason that programs fail is not incompetence. In other places. people need to control their own lives. / In some cases improving on-the-job health is relatively cost-free. We have described at length both the prospects and problems of that system. When an expenditure has to come from the individual employer. but only if not expropriated from plantation owners. but only if the pharmaceutical industry continues to make high profits. We need to see healthcare in a more complex way. of course. Ian. or stupidity. Healthcare in the United States exists against background of this country's unrestrained capitalism. For instance. Health is part of the wage goods of a society. perhaps byway of a union demand. They organized to improve the quality of food in the roadside canteens and collaborated with restaurant owners and canteen owners and food was improved. for the employer. including. If the expenditure of money comes from taxes. so that they can exercise all their faculties to make meaningful choices. Health is also a commodity invested in by the health industries. Abroad. through government programs to improve health. For example. Of course. social democrats historically have taken a different approach--one that acknowledges inequality as an obstacle. for example. Those who can determine for themselves what constitutes necessary and desirable activities are clearly different from the people who have that determination made for them. and which are relatively neutral. rather than improve air quality. they need to provi de the tools for making those choices. They sell healthcare to as large a market as can afford to pay for it. We invest in engineering projects to control floods and they increase flood damage. the more it makes sense to make the kind of decisions that public health experts recommend. They will say that it is bad for competition and threaten to close down and move somewhere else. In taking each of these steps. Third. This distinction is clear when an employer negotiates health insurance for his or her employees. these systemic barriers. they perceive some interference with their competitive position. / When health policy is looked at from the point of view of which issues involve a direct confrontation of fundamental. We create hospitals and they become the centers for the propagation of new diseases. they employ oxygen tanks in their living rooms. which ones involve simply relative benefits to a class. it matters how that station is determined. Secondly. share experiences. Jay. obviously. A reasonable return on investment was the goal of the developers. An enterprise zone might be established in an inner city that actually brings in investment. ruling-class interest. and pharmaceutical companies. we can predict which kinds of measures are possible.

But evolution is a sword that cuts both ways: New diseases emerge. about how widely we need to look at the epidemiological. as in all scientific research. Rothenbaum. Malaria. Ian. but a fundamental security problem for the species as a whole. In the long course of evolution. the main lines of defense against this threat have not depended on explicit policies or organized efforts. The threat of infectious pathogens is not just an issue of public health. changing conditions have enhanced the potential for widespread contagion. 109. by who owns the research industry. As we enter the twenty-first century. Jay.) It is a considerable comfort and undoubtedly a key to our survival that. including nearly one-quarter of Western Europe's population at the time.” FOREIGN POLICY n. the unprecedented freedom of movement across international borders. not an alternative to it. research in the health field is dominated by the pharmaceutical and electronic industries.are now making a comeback. / There are intellectual concerns about how to analyze data. Steinbruner. Since its recognized appearance in 1981. The rapid growth rate of the total world population. ASP. some 20 variations of the HIV virus have infected an estimated 29. historical. there are also issues of health service and health policy. commands the production of knowledge production. So knowledge and ignorance are determined. There is class struggle in the debates around what kind of research ought to be done.5 million people currently dying of AIDS each year. An infectious agent believed to have been the plague bacterium killed an estimated 20 million people over a four-year period in the fourteenth century. and scientific advances that expand the capability for the deliberate manipulation of pathogens are all cause for worry that the problem might be greater in the future than it has ever been in the past. Amanda. there have been epidemics during which human immunity has broken down on an epic scale. and cholera . pp. Winter 1997/1998. 85-96. who 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab health is always a point of contention in class struggle.once thought to be under control . We have to take up health as a pervasive issue as we do with problems of the environment. the human body has developed physical barriers and a biochemical immune system whose sophistication and effectiveness exceed anything we could design or as yet even fully understand. with 1. Harry. Clayton . so far.4 million worldwide. DML. Disease causes extinction Stienbruer 98 – Senior fellow at the Brookings institute (John D.Cap Kritik 58/194 think they need. they are aspects of class struggle. But they are all part of one integral system that has to be our battleground in the future. and social questions they raise. Throughout history. while old diseases mutate and adapt. Increasingly. about how to think about disease. So is medical and scientific research. tuberculosis. “Biological Weapons: A Plague Upon All Houses.

renowned Marxist economist. Paul Sweezy. Hence. virtual work. the environmental crisis continues to deepen. our industrial waste. Even the IPCC. Naturally it does not operate without opposition. http://www. There can be no disruption of existing class or power relations. the most prominent proposals are shaped by the fact that they are designed to fit within the capitalist box. and so on. “A New War on the Planet?”. Thus despite the development of a growing environmental consciousness and the movements to which it has given rise in the last century.monthlyreview. the essential drive of the economic system that has generated the present environmental crisis. Lesser measures of reform.indypendent. tells us that climate change can be stopped on the cheap — if only the magic of technology and markets is applied. Harry. If this conclusion is accepted—and it is hard to see how anyone who has studied the history of our time can refuse. Corporations. mobilizes its defenses to repulse environmental-protection measures perceived as dangerously extreme. It is capitalism itself. at the very least. is the meaning of revolutionary change today. Long before that point is reached. Monthly Review. University of Oregon. while sometimes interfering with the operations of individual capitalists.” http://www. could at best slow down the fatal process of decline and fall that is already so far advanced. Monbiot pointedly tells us that the rich countries can solve the global warming problem without becoming “Third World” states or shaking up “middle-class” life —or indeed interfering with the distribution of riches at all. describing the latter as a great victory for the political economy of the working class. Founding Editor. such as biofuels or even nuclear power. Monthly Review. in a nutshell. Professor of Sociology. but with one crucial proviso: The socialism to be achieved must be conceived. including the state which it controls. as the quintessential negation of capitalism—not as a society that eliminates the most objectionable features of capitalism such as gross inequality of income. must at last learn to use its miraculous powers not to degrade itself and destroy its home but to make the world a better place to live in for itself and its progeny for millennia to come. Politics is carefully excluded from his analysis. All proposed solutions must be compatible with the treadmill of production. not only by its victims but also in extreme cases by its more far-sighted leaders. as Marx and Engels always conceived it. The affirmative declares war on the planet. Marx. to take it seriously—it follows that what has to be done to resolve the environmental crisis. hence also to insure that humanity has a future. cyclical depressions. or they talk of floating DML. in Capital. better insulated homes. are part of the solution. Editor.Cap Kritik 59/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Environment Partial reform only pacifies the masses. our endlessly expanding commodity economy and climate stability too. Amanda. which instead focuses on such things as more buses. “Capitalism and the Environment. more technocratic thinkers look for substitutes for hydrocarbons. we are led to believe. the capitalist class. Not surprisingly. Humanity. such constraints. in its policy proposals. Efforts have always been made to curb its excesses. 2007. Total replacement of capitalism is the only way to resolve the root of environmental crises. mass unemployment. John Foster. We can have our cars. virtual shopping and improved cement. we are now being told on every side — even by Gore — that where global warming is concerned there is a free lunch after all. having learned to perform miracles of production. never go so far as to threaten the system as a whole. Even progressive thinkers such as George Monbiot in his new book Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning have gotten into the act. There is nothing in the record or on the horizon that could lead us to believe the situation will significantly change in the foreseeable future. Magic bullet reform sustains capitalism in its entirety.htm Such is the inner nature. Despite the fact that economists have long insisted that there is no such thing as a free lunch. Clayton . replicating the root causes of ecological damage.org/1004pms3. no matter how desirable in themselves. Ian. Less progressive. not part of the problem. Jay. financial panics.org/2007/06/09/a-new-war-on-the-planet/) It is characteristic of the magic-bullet solutions that now pervade the media that they promise to defend our current way of life while remaining virtually cost free. Rothenbaum. And during the present century conservation movements have emerged in all the leading capitalist countries and have succeeded in imposing certain limits on the more destructive depredations of uncontrolled capital. It is hardly an exaggeration to say that without constraints of this kind arising within the system. This. 2004. The goal is clearly to save the planet — but only if capitalism can be fully preserved at the same time. capitalism by now would have destroyed both its environment and itself. with its in-built attitude toward human beings and nature alike as means to an alien end that must be rooted out and replaced. Is the position taken here in effect a restatement of the traditional Marxist case for a socialist revolution? Yes. is to replace capitalism with a social order based on an economy devoted not to maximizing private profit and accumulating ever more capital but rather to meeting real human needs and restoring the environment to a sustainably healthy condition. wrote feelingly about nineteenth-century movements for factory legislation and the ten-hours bill.

the trading of credits and the like. centring it about capital accumulation. but also across society and within the human spirit. etc. Broadly speaking. Or it can be deduced from the combined tendencies to degrade conditions of production (the Second Contradiction). The fact that the biosphere is one interconnected whole is downplayed in favor of mere economic expediency. desertification. Capital originates with the exploitation of labour. which includes such problems as species extinction. faced by natural obstacles. 51-52 Capital’s responsibility for the ecological crisis can be shown empirically. Capital acts through the corporation. one of the leading political philosophers of the 20th century. Capitalism destroys the environment – three warrants. employing new. p. capitalism. from this narrow perspective. February 9th. the imperative to expand continually erodes the edges of ecologies along an everlengthening perimeter. The giant corporations we rightly identify as ecological destroyers are not the whole of capital. therefore. temporally and institutionally In other words. What all of this suggests is that a real solution to the planetary environmental crisis cannot be accomplished simply through new technologies or through turning nature into a market. and. embodying principles of conservation that are essential to life. On occasion. toxic wastes. Ian. Jay. The dominant answers to global warming thus amount to what might be thought of as a new declaration of war on nature. “Biodiversity: what it is and why it’s important”.” Hence. high-tech armaments. they live in a world where institutions are in place to secure this across an ever-expanding terrain: the world of globalization. the force of capital expansion can be seen directly — as when President George W Bush abruptly reversed his pledge to trim emissions of CO2 in March 2001. We need to take a closer look at how this society works on the ground. the answer is to unleash a more powerful array of technological and market innovations so that the system can continue to expand as before. professor of social studies at Bard. We need to learn. then. and the laws it obeys. Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 60/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab white plastic islands in the oceans (a geoengineering solution to replace the lost reflectivity due to melting ice). Or it is thought pragmatic to dump iron filings in the ocean (the so-called Geritol solution to global warming) in order to grow phytoplankton and increase the carbon absorbing capacity of the ocean — without connecting this at all to the current oceanic catastrophe. and a whole way of being. explained: “Under modern [capitalist] conditions not destruction but conservation spells ruin. New social and democratic solutions need to be developed and rooted in human community and sustainability. The nascent capitalist economy was fostered by the feudal state. The ecological irrationality of this response is evident in the tendency to dissociate global warming from the global environmental crisis as a whole. finally. it operates through a host of intermediaries embedded within the gigantic machine for accumulation that is capitalist society. But this means stepping outside the capitalist box and making peace with the planet — and with other human beings. the temporal pace of their life accelerates. the day after the stock market went into free-fall and in the context of a gathering crisis of accumulation. Although the Second Contradiction may be offset in individual circumstances by recycling. by tracking down ecosystemic breakdowns to the actions of corporations and/ or governmental agencies under the influence of capital’s force field. to promote biofuels as a partial solution to global warming — without acknowledging that this will accelerate world hunger.com/2010/02/biodiversity/biodiversity-what-and-why/. the capitalist mode of production was installed as such after which capital began to convert society into its image and created the conditions for the ecological crisis. With this. 2002 “The Enemy of Nature”. It is then possible. Too much is at stake to close the argument with a demonstration of abstract laws. overcoming or displacing recuperative efforts and accelerating a cascade of destabilization. being mediated by consciousness. It is necessary to go to the root of the problem by addressing the social relations of production. sees no alternative to a new assault on nature. and takes shape as this is subjected to the peculiar forces of money Its nucleus is the abstraction of human transformative power into labour-power for sale on the market. destruction of the oceans. Amanda. italics in original] DML. we mean that certain human actions are carried out under the auspices of capital. but only its prime economic instruments. Harry.talkingnature. When we say ‘capital does this’ or that. the cancerous imperative to expand. Joel Kovel. on the other. PhD coastal marine ecology. this has taken place in three dimensions — existentially. pollution control. In this way a society. as they do so. are created hostile to the integrity of ecosystems. http://www. Clayton . If nature has “struck back” at capitalism’s degradation of the environment in the form of climate change. are no more than tendencies. tropical deforestation. people increasingly live their lives under the terms of capital. More broadly. We must recognize that today’s ecological problems are related to a system of global inequality that demands ecological destruction as a necessary condition of its existence. on the one hand. As Hannah Arendt. then took over that state (often through revolution). as much as we can about just what these actions are and how they can be changed. Capital is no automatic mechanism. Extinction Young. 10 [Ruth.

This may lead to the nonkeystone species being considered ecologically worthless and subsequently over-exploited. ecosystem services are maintained by entire functional groups. Diverse mangrove and coral reef ecosystems provide a wide variety of habitats that are essential for many fishery species. Presently we’re only scratching the surface of understanding the full importance of biodiversity and how it helps maintain ecosystem function. even if we did complete the enormous task of identifying and protecting all keystone species. there are a couple of problems with this idea. For example plant species convert carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and energy from the sun into useful things such as food. pollution or disease) led to the demise of these ‘keystone’ species? Would there be another species to save the day and take over this role? Classifying some species as ‘keystone’ implies that the others are not important. medicines and timber. These skates and rays eat bay scallops and their out of control population has led to the closure of a century long scallop fishery. Sea otters are a keystone species once hunted for their fur (Image: Mike Baird) Eventually a treaty protecting sea otters allowed the numbers of otters to increase which inturn controlled the urchin population. First of all. Rothenbaum. but when offered a big patch of algae it turned into a hungry herbivore – a cow of the sea – grazing the algae in no time. Similar to the removal of a keystone from an arch. what back-up plan would we have if an unforseen event (e. An example of this was discovered on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef.g. sea urchins. By the end of the experiment. a wise insurance policy for maintaining ecosystem services would be to conserve biodiversity. Ian. Because the urchins graze on kelp their booming population decimated the underwater kelp forests. we increase the chance of maintaining our ecosystem services in the event of future impacts such as disease. The most well known example of this occurred during the 19th century when sea otters were almost hunted to extinction by fur traders along the west coast of the USA. Clayton . the more likely these species will be present and the more resilient an ecosystem is to future impacts. However. they all have a function. a team of researchers estimated their value – it amounted to $US33 trillion per year. But. They interact with each other and the physical environment to provide ecosystem services that are vital for our survival. In some cases its groups of species not just one species that are vital for the ecosystem. Pollination carried out by insects such as bees enables the production of ⅓ of our food crops. Harry. When the time came to remove the fences the researchers expected herbivorous species of fish like the parrot fish (Scarus spp. over fishing of large shark species along the US Atlantic coast has led to a population explosion of skates and rays. for most ecosystems we don’t know which species are the keystones! Ecosystems are so complex that we are still discovering which species play vital roles in maintaining them. This led to a population explosion in the sea otters’ main source of prey. In doing so. The more biodiverse an ecosystem is. The scope of this task is immense. This loss of habitat led to declines in local fish populations. Sometimes we may not even know which species are likely to fill the keystone roles. “By protecting biodiversity we maintain ecosystem services” Certain species play a “keystone” role in maintaining ecosystem services. the removal of these species can result in the collapse of an ecosystem and the subsequent removal of ecosystem services. climate change. In the meantime. the reefs had changed from a coral to an algae dominated ecosystem – the coral became overgrown with algae. The bat fish was previously thought to feed on invertebrates – small crabs and shrimp. Second. To make it simpler for economists to comprehend the magnitude of services offered by biodiversity. we only need to protect the species and functional groups that fill the kexystone roles. such as fisheries. Amanda. they all have a niche. the shift back to coral was driven by a supposed ‘unimportant’ species – the bat fish (Platax pinnatus). DML. One could argue that to maintain ecosystem services we don’t need to protect biodiversity but rather. such as apex predators (See Jeremy Hance’s post at Mongabay). These are just two examples demonstrating how biodiversity can maintain the services that ecosystems provide for us. This is the international year of biodiversity – a time to recognize that biodiversity makes our survival on this planet possible and that our protection of biodiversity maintains this service.Cap Kritik 61/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Different species within ecosystems fill particular roles. Jay.) to eat the algae and enable the reef to switch back to a coral dominated ecosystem. invasive species and of course. So a fish previously thought to be ‘unimportant’ is actually a keystone species in the recovery of coral reefs overgrown by algae! Who knows how many other species are out there with unknown ecosystem roles! In some cases it’s easy to see who the keystone species are but in many ecosystems seemingly unimportant or redundant species are also capable of changing niches and maintaining ecosystems. surprisingly. This research examined what would happen to a coral reef if it were over-fished. leading to the recovery of the kelp forests and fish stocks. In other cases. During the last 35 years. The “over-fishing” was simulated by fencing off coral bommies thereby excluding and removing fish from them for three years.

then the faces expressing them must be unrepresented or silenced. Harry. Under capitalism. like children. Lewis and Clark Educational Papers. Clayton . if the needs are incompatible with the growth of capital. Morgareidge 98—Associate Professor of Philosophy at Lewis and Clark College (Clayton. And you cannot share an aspiration or a need without wanting to see it fulfilled. What reason can anyone give me to not to prefer the annihilation of all mankind to a scratch on my finger? Hume is one of many philosophers who argue that no such reason can be given. human behavior. The French-Jewish philosopher Emmanual Levinás whose major work appeared in 1961 claims that ethics arises in the experience of the face of the other. The production of all these things uses human lives in the shape of labor. So the mere recognition of what other human beings are involves us in wanting to see them live and prosper. nor can you share a fear without hoping that it will not come to pass. is the hope that human beings have the capacity to want the best for each other. What forces are at work in our world to block or cripple the ethical response? This question. But feeding people is not the aim of the food industry. As capitalist enterprises these activities aim single-mindedly at DML.html)//AW Well. Capital profits from the production of food. and all the necessities of life. or an obstacle.edu/~clayton/commentaries/evil. then either products can be manufactured to meet. in part.all mean nothing in themselves. fears. to be directed by the ethical concern for life. what is the foundation of moral life? What makes it possible for human beings to recognize that they have responsibilities to each other and to their communities? For example: What could possibly make anyone willing to pay living wages to workers in Indonesia or Haiti if you can get them to work for less? The 18th Century philosopher David Hume asks. Thou shalt not kill. those needs. Ian. I want to acknowledge that capitalism is not the only thing that blocks our ability to care. “Why Capitalism is Evil”. brings me back to capitalism. This means that the foundation of ethics lies not in reason. Other philosophers have taken similar positions. Obviously what capitalist enterprises do have consequences for the well being of human beings and the planet we live on. To put it in religious terms. or caring determines all. I want to claim. Radio Active Philosophy. in her 1984 book Caring. to share them. drink. it sees there only eyes through which brand names and advertising can enter and mouths that can demand and consume food. or even most. So now we must ask. if we see our obligations in each others faces. the development of technology. let me turn to capital's greatest critic. shelter. and tobacco products. Josiah Royce an American philosopher of the last century argued that you do not really understand another person if you do not understand her aspirations. the putting the world at the disposal of those with capital has done more damage to the ethical life than any thing else. In medicine. nothing has value of its own. Nevertheless. For Hume it is part of our nature that we feel sympathy for each other. clean air. then we have to want all the things capital does to be governed by that care.[1] If capital looks at (not into) the human face. But before I go there. and the temptation to use and abuse others will probably survive in any future society that might supersede capitalism. But to understand someone's feelings is. of course. but are valuable only if they can be used to turn a profit. though. the growth of markets. Most parents encourage this caring response in their children. capital is the devil. a suffering we are capable of either inflicting or opposing. as well as the resources of the earth.Cap Kritik 62/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Ethics Capitalism destroys ethical concerns. If we care about life. or else. Now none of these philosophers are naive: none of them thinks that sympathy. or shelter the purpose of the housing industry. making profits is becoming a more important goal than caring for sick people. argues that the ethical commitment arises out of the caring response that most of us feel towards those who. Nel Noddings. Another American philosopher. For those who manage and live from capital. To show why this is the case. The human face reveals its capacity for suffering. Exploitation and cruelty were around long before the economic system of capitalism came to be. Marx writes. Amanda. love. and the circulation of money. everything in nature and everything that human beings are and can do becomes an object: a resource for. So to look into the face of another human being is to see the commandment. and needs. What they do offer. but rather in our passions or our hearts. The 20th century proves otherwise. to the expansion of production. with the result that we grow up with an interest in cultivating our own capacity to care for others. or seem to meet. Jay. Rothenbaum. and this sympathy counters our narrow self-interest. Mountain streams. human lives -. Karl Marx. http://legacy. If human faces express needs. are in need.lclark.

Only when the end of capitalism is on the table will ethics have a seat at the table.as long as the production of all our needs and the organization of our labor is carried out under private ownership. Rothenbaum. is left out of deliberations about what the heavyweight institutions of our society are going to do. sometimes even by politicians and widely read commentators. Jay. an instrument of corporate growth. Clayton . "You can't stop progress. Ian. in living rooms. Only a minority ("idealists") can take seriously a way of thinking that counts for nothing in real world decision making. DML. the overriding commitment to meeting human need. They still think they can't stop it. Amanda. Therefore ethics. Harry. in letters to the editor.Cap Kritik 63/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the accumulation of capital. Moral convictions are expressed in churches. but almost always with an attitude of resignation to the inevitable. and such purposes as caring for the sick or feeding the hungry becomes a mere means to an end. People no longer say." but only because they have learned not to call economic growth progress. And they are right -.

Amongst those taking an ethical stance were men and women who likened the mining of asteroids to rape [B3010. Amanda. As one middle-aged single parent says.Cap Kritik 64/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Ethics (Mining) Respect for space resources is an ethical priority – mining space is the equivalent of raping nature Dickens and Ormrod 7 .*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Jay. [H1705] This kind of sentiment may well be anchored in the residual feeling that space is a realm of purity and godliness (this has certainly been mirrored in recent debates about leaving at least some parts of space as pristine sites (Williamson 2003. is left uncontaminated by human activity. I would hate to think that one day there might be a hotel on the Moon. dml) The other common sentiment was that using space resources in a similar way to that in which Earthly resources had been abused was unethical. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 174. it ‘seems like violation for companies to use other planets and asteroids for resources to maintain lifestyles on Earth’ [C41]. in contrast to Earth. Leaving debris and litter is a major concern for several respondents. One respondent predicted that religious groups would join environmentalists in opposing mining in space. Spennemann 2004)). It would lose its magic for me if I thought people were living out there and I get infuriated when I hear about the fact that we’ve already left debris floating around. Clearly these people do not take a Baconian stance towards the universe. She goes on to say that the prospect horrifies her and she believes that ‘man [sic] has such potential for destruction and likes to leave behind such a mess’. DML. Clayton . Harry. I’m torn between feeling that we shouldn’t interfere with space and yet I am curious to know about it. using outer space merely as an object for the fulfilment of human desires. Rothenbaum. Implicit or explicit in many of these arguments is the idea that it is particularly important that outer space. Ian. C3167].

the turning of Africa into a warren for the commercial hunting of black-skinned. They understand that the cruelty and exploitation that marked the colonization of the Americas benefited them. A 2002 lawsuit against AETNA insurance. The so-called “founding fathers” of America owned slaves. CSX is the present permutation of a company that used slave labor to lay railroad tracks.S. Red Ant Liberation Army News. The lawsuit is important because it raises the African American community’s just demand for reparations and at tacks the greedy profiteers of slavery. cotton. For that reason.S. Karl Marx wrote in “Capital”: “The discovery of gold and silver in America. CSX and Fleet Boston sought reparations for African Americans from these companies based on their participation in the slave system. government and their capitalist partners reaped massive profits dripping with the blood of African slaves. companies can trace their success to profits made from slavery. This process provided Europe with enough material wealth to spur the rapid advances in technological development and production known as the Industrial Revolution. Most European colonies used the plantation system to produce sugar. enslavement and entombment in mines of the aboriginal population. It insists that African Americans be compensated for centuries of forced labor and discrimination. indigo.wordpress. This is the legacy of Christopher Columbus. government must pay as well. For nearly 100 years.S. http://redantliberationarmy. Even today some U. Harry. October 11. Jay. Lindsay 10—Youth and Student Answer Coalition Member (Peta. Ian. 2010. ruling classes with centuries of free labor. Although legal chattel slavery no longer exists in the Americas. the U. rice and other crops for export to the European market.” Columbus and those like him are heroes to the capitalists. Genocide and slavery in the name of capitalist accumulation was practiced in the Americas and the rest of the colonized world. Clayton . DML. the beginning of conquest and looting of the East Indies.S. The capitalists’ unyielding search for profits and superprofits leaves them neither conscience nor morality. signaled the rosy dawn of the era of capitalist production. the Spanish began using African slaves in gold and silver mines. the U. the extirpation. It is not only specific companies that owe reparations. Amanda. In the 1600s.S. “Columbus Day: US Capitalism Built on Slavery. Slave labor built the White House. Fleet Boston is a bank that was founded by a slave trader. capitalist exploitation of poor and oppressed people continues to this day.Cap Kritik 65/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Genocide Celebrating the capitalist mindset is literally reinforcing the slavery and genocide of founding American ideas. today. tobacco. the masses of people who suffer exploitation have no reason to celebrate on Columbus Day.com/2010/10/11/columbus-day-u-s-capitalismbuilt-on-slavery-genocide/)//AW The slave trade provided the European and U. These historical conditions created the economic disparity faced by African Americans in the U. Genocide”. Rothenbaum. AETNA made its money insuring slaves as the property of their masters.

Kato. pages 339-360. the notion of rectitude also depends on the construction of the single privileged moment.scribd. Now imagine a society where everyone knows they are or may be watched as they walk through the streets. Surveillance. that is. all matter" becomes viable. whether it’s wire-tapping. real time) in which "juxtaposition of every locality. Ian. In other words the "absolute" point of the strategic gaze produces a homogenous temporal field (i. he conceded that activists’ justifications for their concerns often fail to resonate with the broad public. As the words of the aerial photographer quoted earlier reveal. “Nuclear Globalism: Traversing Rockets. Borland. DML. 18. After All.. Rothenbaum. The image of every part of the earth is now displaced onto that "absolute" moment." and often live suppressed and unhappy lives. Vol. observed consistently in studies. thereby disqualifying "other points of view (i.wired. the absolute temporality that presides over other forms of constructing time (i. http://www. Studies show that such children tend to be indecisive. have little "ethical competence. and state neutrality – but its tendency to create a watched and a watching class lends itself better to totalitarianism. or data mining. In this way which the back-up of technoscientific reason. Satellites.e. With the vantage point of hyperaltitude from outer space. ‘7 [John Borland." Gaycken warned. As or more disturbing may be the political implications of having a surveillance infrastructure in place.e. can be used to support democratic values of freedom. In response. Speaking today at the Chaos Communication Camp. Many philosophers reject the notion that given technologies are inherently politically neutral. in 1993. have an easy argument. Amanda. There are terrorists and criminals out there. or while surfing online. spatiolocality). an atemporal field. Jay. chronolocality). they say. Gaycken said. Harry. published in Alternatives.Cap Kritik 66/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Genocide (Surveillance) Surveillance creates obedience and dependence on the state. closed-circuit cameras. wants to give pro-privacy forces stronger arguments to counter these concerns. The so-called "real-time" is therefore the very temporality of the strategic gaze.com/threatlevel/2007/08/maybe-surveilla/ ] Jay Privacy advocates have a problem. the "absolute" point of the strategic gaze manifests uncontestable control as far as the surface of the earth is concerned. or to use the common vocabulary. Clayton .” published in Wired 8/8/2007. People change. http://www. "the three-dimensional forms are reduced to texture line and color. he argued. Surveillance destroys liberating thought and creates genocide against the Other. a PhD student at Germany’s Institut für Wissenschafts. and these tools can help stop violence and crime. professor of Political Science at the University of Hawaii. People who want to increase the amount of surveillance in society. as opposed to the hard facts of suicide bombers or commuters killed on the subway. such a warning resonates strongly. staff writer. which has seen democracy slide into the Nazi state.com/doc/4996747/Nuclear-Globalism ] Jay The pursuit of rectitude in the field of ariel photography has been none other than a constant battle against the three demential existence of forms and volumes that allow more than a single point of view. In a country such as Germany. and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze”. tailoring their behavior to fit what they believe the observer wants (or in some cases actively rebelling against those wishes). equality. and literally crippling the ability to make autonomous and ethical decisions. That – as in societies like Hitler’s Germany or Soviet Russia – will have tangible and widespread psychological consequences. Gaycken argued that there are well-established psychological consequences to being watched. “Maybe Survelliance is Bad. Philosopher Sandro Gaycken. Flattening the surface of the earth has also brought about a radical change in the regime of temporality. reinforcing conformity. dependent on others. the philosopher said." Rendering the totality of Earth a two- dimensional serves no purpose other than for technostrategic interpretation of the earth as data and maps. or appeals to abstract values. and destabilizes democracy..und Technikforschung in Bielefeld. "Surveillance stabilizes totalitarianism.e. An analogy might be the well-studied population of children with overprotective mothers. for example. ’93 – professor of political science at Hawaii [Masahide Kato. Many anti-surveillance arguments are based on vaguely emotional concerns.

2002). created conditions for widespread hunger and even starvation in 2003. Available from the World Wide Web at: www. 9. People have no more legal right to food than they have to any other commodity. a television. people are chronically hungry because they are poor and don’t have enough money to buy food. India now has “excess” food at the same time that it has widespread hunger. Clayton . Available from the World Wide Web at: www. Jay. Amanda.” “free trade. Poverty induced by capitalism is the root cause of hunger Magdoff 4 – Professor in Plant and Soil Science at the University of Vermont Fred. Funds were not available for those wishing to build grain storage structures. “Poor in India Starve as Surplus Wheat Rots” (New York Times. 9. is eaten by rats. In general. Rothenbaum. or is exported at low prices while people in India go hungry. February 2004.org/0204magdoff. 55 n. February 2004. “A Precarious Existence: The Fate of Billions?” MONTHLY REVIEW v.monthlyreview.Cap Kritik 67/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Hunger Neoliberalism undermines local agriculture.monthlyreview. This surplus food rots.htm The effects of the transition to “free markets.” where a combination of improved varieties and a number of agronomic techniques led to much greater national food production. December 12. food is just another commodity—like a pair of shoes. A newspaper headline tells it all. heeding aid organizations that advised a “free market” approach with decreased government “interference. The government. there were few storage facilities to allow farmers to store grains and wait for prices to rise. together with unfavorable weather in 2002. As prices received by farmers fell dramatically in response to a glut on the market. This decrease in planted area.” decided that after they had stimulated agricultural production they needed to reduce the state’s assistance for agriculture. 55 n. Ian. However.htm increased. DML. Harry. or an automobile. It is as simple as that! Under capitalism.” and decreased government support for food production have been even more damaging to Ethiopia.org/0204magdoff. The coexistence of surplus food and hunger also occurs in the third world. They reduced the amount of land they planted the following year. leading to widespread hunger-ethiopia proves Magdoff 4 – Professor in Plant and Soil Science at the University of Vermont Fred. Better seeds and easier access to fertilizers were made available to farmers and production Farmers responded in a completely logical way to record low prices in 2001. India is one of the success stories of the “green revolution. “A Precarious Existence: The Fate of Billions?” MONTHLY REVIEW v.

feminism. 1998). The theory of globalisation is obviously an economic tool for growth. And with the adverse impacts of globalisation on poor societies.2004). promoting TNCs can create jobs for men and women. Development agencies such as the World Bank have noticed the ills of globalisation and are starting to channel resources to NGOs that are involved with grassroots endeavours like micro-credit distribution and afforestation in rural communities. agile and reliable than men in routine assembly work. women are viewed to be more reliable than men in routine assembly work. McMichael. March 2011.are not being realised especially in the developing countries. maintains a constant level of poverty. Central America and the Middle Eastern regions compete for foreign trade and encourage women to enter the workforce (McMichael. Increased workload for women could prevent them from participating in the decisions-making processes that affect their own development (Prokorpy. women who find jobs in such corporations are underpaid (McMichael. workable interventions are a must. Clayton . but also a reservoir of labour force whereby women are actively recruited. is educated and so on” (Kerr. Journal of Peace. women. It is about time men and women in rural communities of developing countries make their voices count in the fight against the dim side of globalisation in securing a better life for today and the future. This responsibility becomes burdensome when as a coping strategy men migrate to urban areas looking for non-existent jobs. Jay. environmentalism. Since “women are society’s primary care-givers by ensuring that the family is fed. The natural environment also continues to suffer Globalisation with its profit motive is leading to overexploitation of resources including land. For example. 1998: 7). which puts emphasis on market efficiency and profit maximisation does not only (Cynthia & Frank. Maguire (1984) argued that the emphasis on efficiency reflects an economic recognition of the fact that 50% of the human resources (women) available for development were being wasted. 2004). Usually. Many marginalized communities are responding to the rising global inequalities by developing their own adaptive strategies. 2004). 028-033. Harry. as if women have always been ‘underused’. for example in food subsidies and health care have worsened living conditions of rural people in developing countries. and more particularly. “Development Constructs and Gender Relations: Assessing Rural Gender Relations within the Context of Dependency Theory and Globalisation”) NAR recognise developing countries as a ripe field to harvest profits. however. both material and cultural. 2004).. not only has implications for women’s incomes. 2004). Rothenbaum. work long hours and get paid below minimum wages and their wages are lower than men’s (Vogel. Rural people are the worse sufferers of these policies because of their already fragile state. Amanda. Ian. women are viewed to be more docile. without a human face. It is not surprising that patriarchal settings like Asia. Central America and the Middle Eastern regions compete for foreign trade and encourage women to enter the workforce (McMichael. most of resource-rich locations are rural areas where people depend mainly on agriculture for food supplies and incomes.Cap Kritik 68/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Laundry List Globalization reinforces gender norms. but also increase their workloads. It is not surprising that patriarchal settings like Asia. It is in this regard that current globalcountermovement and debates such as: fundamentalism.e. cosmopolitan activism and food sovereignty are taking place. women. Over-grazing on these pasturelands more than the land can handle by huge flocks of animals will reduce the viability of the land to support food and animal production and ultimately reduce incomes of these rural people. working long hours. reduction in public expenditure and increasing exports and growth rates in particularly Latin America and Africa (World Bank and IMF. **Faculty of Development Studies Globalisation. and devastates the environment. unregulated markets. 2005) bring many difficulties to humanity. DML. 2004). forest water and minerals. 2005. It is evident from the preceding that the promised outcome of globalisation .employment and improved living conditions . Gender and Development Studies Vol. Also. Arku & Arku 11 – *Scholar in Department of Educational Policy Studies. Severe social expenditure cuts. Also. Some say this is just a way of stabilizing communities that are being marginalized from the global market place (Sumner. lacking union rights. Social movements have emerged around the globe as a result of the ills of globalisation. And it is women who bear the brunt of such exploitative acts (Kerr. about 85% of workforce of the Maquiladoras trans-national export processing corporation in Mexico are young women because women are said to be docile. Looking at the bright side. leaving the weak behind (i. aged and children) to care for themselves. 1(2) pp. stays healthy. Maguire (1984) argued that the emphasis on efficiency reflects an economic recognition of the fact that 50% of the human resources (women) available for development were being wasted. Involving women as contributors of cheap labour. Globalisation in the name of efficiency requiring nations to implement macro-economic policies such as privatization.

This type of war relies on satellites and their capacity for enabling instantaneous response to perceived enemies. This in turn depends on the militarization of outer space. Ian. pg 77-79. Harry. This is attempted by ‘war at a distance’. Clayton . Jay. Protection can take many forms. but they are also concerned with politics. IWren) In this chapter we turn our attention to trying to theorize the broader social significance of the increased use of outer space for military purposes. Amanda. which has a central role in establishing and maintaining the new form of imperialism.Cap Kritik 69/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Militarism Capitalism necessarily turns to space militarization as a guarantor of its expansion via dispossession of foreign lands—this culminates in a new form of imperialism controlling both earth and space. but the bottom line is military force. We argue that understanding contemporary warfare also means turning to the material processes underling imperialism and ‘accumulation by dispossession’. DML. Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. as recent events have shown. But. University of Essex and **James. This in turn requires systems of property rights and protection of the kind that can only be supplied by government. These processes are social and economic.*Peter. both on Earth and in space. success for this new type of imperialism and its military handmaiden is in practice by no means guaranteed. Rothenbaum. Guarantees are required to ensure that capital investments are to be worthwhile. which in principle does not entail the costly and politically unattractive idea of sending troops to foreign countries. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology.

It is only when we manage to put into motion this concept of poverty as power that we can also understand what organisasion is.htm) NAR We really need a capacity to mobilise poverty. take the initiative but especially represent and present things. Bhandari – Professor of Rhetoric at University of California Berkeley (Rakesh. Ian. on the contraction of standards of social consumption in polluting regions and on convergence in less polluting regions. From. and how it is on this new terrain of anthropological modification and transformation that a new mode of struggle must be conceived. Strike is the moment of rupture. Current market-mediated pollution targets and compensation schemes have the most effective proximate response to unavoidable poverty-creating processes and institutions of capitalism has been perfectly well known.even though that poverty may be exported to sites from which it is not visible. experiment. It is something that is inside.edu/~cottrell/OPE/archive/0604/0025.14 This would require . Here there is a whole other issue regarding the anthropology of struggles and behaviours today.15 Some societies have succeeded in realising DML. scholar. Poverty is not something that is outside of the working class or of the normal structure of production. which do not yet exist and might well not come into being. Poverty is something that is put to the margin of this world of capitalist production but it's also something that runs through it internally and thoroughly. In a theatre too… Capitalism is the root cause of economic inequality. but here (exodus) it is the moment of rupture but it is also that of a social construction of community. with the state identified as being the only agency able to energise such a convection system. Two linked alternatives must be considered.ecn. The problem is all in the content not in the form. The relative weights of the mechanisms through which poverty is created will differ among countries occupying different positions in the world's division of labour. We have to interpret this because this strike in the common becomes a fact of a different civilisation. arguments have been made for "comprehensive systems of social security based on universal entitlements and funded by redistributive taxation".Cap Kritik 70/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Poverty Capitalism relies on a system of poverty to strengthen itself Negri 2 – Italian Marxist sociologist. by itself capitalist growth is not a solution to poverty. there are many ways in which it causes poverty . It is a great problem that obviously can only be resolved by practice. a capacity to renew the world. more or less centripetal webs towards organisation. Poverty is indignation against wealth but also the enormous capacity to produce wealth. Of course. of seeing how far for instance in relation to the traditional Fordist worker today the mode of feeling and seeing both work and communal activity has changed. collective property rights . Amanda. poverty is something that is at the centre of our metropolis. http://ricardo. minimise and equalise the impact of capitalism on the environment still would not avoid the other forms of poverty created by capitalism without a second set of redistributive interventions. On the contrary. Poverty is not simply the poor miserable polulations who are at the bottom of the third world.if not new systems of no purchase on the scale of the problem. it would be very interesting on this terrain for instance to make documentaries and movies.at the very least entirely new forms of regulation and governance and new levels of enforcement at the global and national levels. Rothenbaum. to create a physical image of the development of these struggles. Thomas Paine in the 18th century to the International Labour Office in the current era. This is what is now in present in consciousness at a very advanced level. Jay. “Poverty and Capitalism by Barbara Harriss-White”. The privileged places for this practice are fundamentally the metropolises.generationonline. The real subjectivation of the multitude does not make one think of organisational forms that have more or less democratic centralism. Clayton . a power. through the exclusion from the productive function. Florian Schneider and Thomas Atzert (October 2002.wfu. that has become more internal to it through the precariat. What we must managed to develop is the feeling that poverty is a subject. Rather than strike we should use the word exodus. It is there that we must try to verify. and bequeathed to generations. A Video Conversation with Antonio Negri. http://www. a new process of development (or "model") seeking to regulate. Harry. by itself. The most urgent necessity to counter the poverty caused through environmental change by the dynamic of capital is a new model of industrialisation based upon renewable energy. April 11th 2006.html) NAR Conclusion: The Poor Are Always With Us? Although it creates wealth. From the era of the genesis of industrial capitalism to the present-day. The failure of capitalism to address its poverty-creating processes not only generates a continual material and political struggle but also threatens the ecosystem in which capitalism is embedded.org/t/glossary. revolutionary philosopher and teacher (Antonio.

aid and "development" agencies responsible for tackling the MDGs under neo-liberalism. voters) whose decisions may nevertheless Structural violence is normally invisible. * inequities on a worldwide basis. In other words. they found that 18 million deaths a year could be attributed to the “structural violence” to which the citizens of all the other nations were being subjected. This book argues that the main cause of poverty. You cannot work for one day with the violent people who fill our prisons and mental hospitals for the criminally insane without being forcible and constantly reminded of the extreme poverty and discrimination that characterizes their lives. Europe. The finding that structural violence causes far more deaths than behavioral violence does is not limited to this country. after the shocks of an era of major economic depression and world war and in the face of a socialist alternative. capital punishment. Hearing about their lives.S. and DML. poverty is not just a Third World cancer. dml) Most experts blame the problem on our planet’s population explosion. Harry. However. *The lethal effects of structural violence operate continuously. whereas murders. wars. These are not acts of God. the Vietnam war (possibly two million. the discrepancies between the rich and poor nations have increased dramatically and alarmingly.16 Calls for poor people to empower themselves and support for some of them to organise. Sweden was their model of the nation that had come closes to eliminating structural violence. political parties. Comparing this frequency of deaths from structural violence to the frequency of those caused by major military and political violence. are not sufficient. Structural violence differs from behavioral violence in at least three .S. suicides. as 575.000 deaths per year from armed conflict. Global output has grown twice as fast as the global population since 1980. and the highest overall life expectancy in the world. Any approach to a theory of violence needs to begin with a look at the structural violence in this country.” by which I mean the non-natural deaths and injuries that are caused by specific behavioral actions of individuals against individuals. Cap is the root cause of poverty Batra 7 – Rishee’s dad. yet poverty stalks the world with increasing vehemence Extinction Gilligan professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School 96 [James. I am contrasting “structural” with “behavioral violence. During the past decade. The Downfall of Capitalism and Communism: A New Study of History pg 1-2. you are forced to recognize the truth in Gandhi’s observation that the deadliest form of violence is poverty. 1954-1973). Any theory of violence. and the material constituency which is damaged by current arrangements and which has an interest in a universal entitlement is comprehensively prevented from developing the countervailing power to claim it. Amanda. 1939-1945). . They are not where the major violence in our society takes place. rather than sporadically. while necessary. especially a psychological theory. When they compared the life expectancies of those living in the other socioeconomic systems against Sweden. and disability suffered by those who occupy the bottom rungs of society. The 14 to 18 million deaths a year caused by structural violence compare with about 100. Clayton . and about their families and friends. professor of economics at SMU (Ravi. on the average. with its poverty ranks swelling by a million every year. Such practices are not equal to the ways in which poverty is embedded in the institutions and processes of the capitalist mode of production. and so on. but of the growing monopoly power of big business. such as World War II (an estimated 49 million military and civilian deaths. Rothenbaum. *Structural major respects violence operates more or less independently of individual acts. In fact. concerning how to distribute the collective wealth of the society. Kohler and Alcock attempted to arrive at the number of excess deaths caused by socioeconomic have lethal consequences for others. (232 million). standpoint. including those by genocide—or about eight million per year. now resembles a banana republic. and the lowest discrepancies in death rates and life expectancy. which continues year after year. But both the welfare state and the income guarantee are ideas deeply out of fashion with the international funding. It had the least inequity in income and living standards. soldiers in warfare. such as the deaths we attribute to homicide. and that structure is itself a product of society’s collective human choices. and a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence. and the perpetrators who fill them are far from being the main causes of most violent deaths. independent of individuals and groups (politicians. the richest country. and the U. as contrasted with the relatively lower death rates experienced by those who are above them. suicide. Focusing merely on those relatively few men who commit what we define as murder could distract us from examining and learning from those structural causes of violent death that are far more significant from a numerical or public health.R. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. including the advanced economies of North America. Those excess deaths (or at least a demonstrably large proportion of them) are a function of class structure.000) deaths). Not a day goes by without realizing that trying to understand them and their violent behavior in purely individual terms is impossible and wrong-headed. Director of the Center for the Study of Violence. because it may appear to have had other (natural or violent) causes. is official corruption. p 191-196] The deadliest form of violence is poverty. every fifteen years. it also afflicts a large swath of people in the First World. it was clear that even war cannot begin to compare with structural violence. or human. the United States. and other forms of behavioral violence occur one at a time. which in turn reflects government malfeasance. the Indonesian massacre of 1965-66 (perhaps even a hypothetical nuclear exchange between the U. that evolves from the experience of men in maximum security prisons and hospitals for the criminally insane must begin with the recognition that these institutions are only microcosms.S. Australia and Japan. The poverty tumor is not the result of paltry growth in output. It is the strength of the contestation to regulate capitalism that will decide the levels and causes of poverty.Cap Kritik 71/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the welfare state. executions. Jay. anywhere and everywhere. which breeds economic policies that enrich the ruling elite and exacerbate income and wealth disparities. By “structural violence” I mean the increased rates of death. Ian.

in effect. dangerous. The question as to which of the two forms of violence—structural or behavioral—is more important. This is.Cap Kritik 72/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a sixyear period. perpetrated on the weak and poor every year of every decade. the equivalent of an ongoing. or lethal is moot. for they are inextricably related to each other. Harry. Clayton . throughout the world. DML. or genocide. thermonuclear war. Rothenbaum. Ian. Jay. as cause to effect. Structural violence is also the main cause of behavioral violence on a socially and epidemiologically significant scale (from homicide and suicide to war and genocide). Amanda. unending. in fact accelerating.

Once more. socially and politically powerful people (some even claiming to be on a mission from God) are attempting to make the cosmos into a means by which they can control society on Earth. in which power is maintained by those with technological domination over the universe. subservient society dominated by the power-elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 . pg 77. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. militarization and surveillance by the socially powerful are again making the universe into an entity dominating human society. But this is hidden by a mask of mysticism. then a contrary Chapter 1. Commodification. These developments are explored further over the next two chapters. Clayton . as are contemporary cosmological theories divorced from most people’s understanding. DML. Jay. Rothenbaum. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. It is a twenty-first-century version of the Platonic and mediaeval universes in which humans are made into repressed objects and thereby brought to heel. The combination of these two trends is a ‘Wizard of Oz’ effect. is development. again experienced as a frightening subject controlling Earthly affairs from on high. This is a relationship experienced by those not in control of the universe: those on the margins of Western society. which we began to outline in the return to a fearful and estranged relationship with the universe. which keeps the public in a position of fear and subservience. University of Essex and **James.*Peter. Ian. IWren) If this is the universe as experienced by pro-space activists. Amanda. Harry.Cap Kritik 73/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Repressed Society The culmination of this hegemonic drive towards technology and surveillance is a repressed.

more closely associated with peacetime military spending than with the actual world situation. support for investment in and the proposed deployment of a NMD system is largely a domestic concern. DML. In the final analysis. Ian.‟ „biased. Those who study terrorism do not ade-quately explain why certain human elements. “state terror very often breeds collective terror. Jenkins (1981: 6-7) challenges this notion on the grounds that it “implies that there can be no objective definition of terrorism and that there are no universal standards of conduct in peace or war.” On the other hand. Those who take these extreme posi-tions ignore the crimes committed against humanity. fundamental controlling apparatuses of the state may be viewed as terroristic.” Brian M. groups. scholars and politicians such as Ben-jamin Netanyahu (1995) have disregarded the alternate prin-ciple that “one man‟s terrorist is everyone‟s terrorist. Farsoun and Naseer H. Rumsfeld stated that "it is the asymmetric threats that are a risk. and great power rivalry. an expression of the powerless position of persons and groups who come from exclusionary states at the periphery of the international capitalist system. Behind the frustration of generations.‟ ideological and „out of touch with real political events‟” (Stohl and Lopez. Terrorist attacks are.is a Nuclear Age Peace Foundation Policy Analyst (“A Matter of National Priorities: National Missile Defense (NMD) and Theatre Missile Defense (TMD) as Violations of International Law and a Threat to Human Survival”October 2001.” Neta-nyahu never recognizes that the Israeli state engages in terror-ism against Palestinians.” the definitions diverge on several issues such as which agencies engage in terrorism and who exactly the targets of terrorism are (Goodwin. organizations or states seek to impose control over other human beings through violence. p. there is little empirical support for the proposition that a truly "defensive" NMD system could prevent such attacks even if a truly "defensive" system existed [EXHIBIT 21].Cap Kritik 74/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Terrorism Capitalism is root cause terrorism Paupp 2001 . rather than the exception. On this matter. in large measure. 1998: 7). have not denounced their terrorist activities. or models of the essential structure of a state when its purpose is to regulate behavior via various forms of repression. January 24th 2011. Rothenbaum. Amanda. as Eqbal Ahmad (1998: 5) argues.S. Despite the attempted linkage of disparate and unrelated threats to U. for an enemy can always choose to play a different game. Clayton . the Rumsfeld analysis cannot stand the test of critical analysis. they include cyber-attacks" [EXHIBIT 19]. terrorist attacks are a symptom rather than a cause of the underlying global maladies of our age. Robert Higgs has argued: "if an effective NMD system is ever successfully produced-a big "if"-it will certainly have cost far more than the presently projected amount. or by any number of other means immune to the missile defense system". Organiza-tions. national security. The real source of U. Jay. http://www. Aruri (2006). groups. Unfortunately.” Although several representative definitions of terrorism converge on the notion that terrorism is “the deliberate use of violence in order to influence some audience (or audiences) [author‟s emphasis]. there is no basis for alleging the possibility of a missile attack. “Terrorism from Above and Below in the Age of Globalization”. domination. imperialism. Furthermore. that vast expenditure will have availed little or nothing in the provision of genuine national security. nor do they include in their definitions the specific characteristics of the varied forms of terrorism. ex-tensions.S. and individuals who legitimate the use of vi-olence to achieve their goals may be viewed as products.org/articles/2001/10/00_paupp_nmd-tmd. foiling the best -laid NMD plans by firing a nuclear-armed cruise missile from a ship lying off New York. 2006: 2028).wagingpeace. Harry. 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon terrorist attacks. let me briefly introduce such terrorist epi-sodes. Jalata 11 .htm) In the aftermath of the September 11. or by delivering a chemical or biological weapon of mass death tucked into a shipment of cocaine bound for Los Angeles. and terror” (Oliverio. there is a history of colonialism. preferring to endorse the idea that “one man‟s terrorist is another man‟s freedom fighter.Professor of Sociology & Global Studies (Asafa. Where poverty and deprivation have reigned supreme. I argue that any balanced definition of and theory about terrorism must consider all attacks by both state and non-state actors as attacks on the life and liberty of noncombatant civilians as terrorist. there are scholars who acknowledge that state terrorism begets non-state terrorism: “When terrorism is theoretically examined as a form of social control. 1984: 3). and they include terrorism. Commentators and scholars such as Samih K. To illustrate my point. Terrorism is a backlash to the state’s monopoly on violence. who are sympathetic towards libera-tion fronts such as the Palestinian Liberation Organization or other oppositional organizations.1-4) NAR Yet. they include ballistic missiles. Some ig-nore the issue of state terrorism altogether while others “seek to denounce a focus on state terrorism as „skewed. Where widespread poverty and deprivation is the rule.

Amanda. corporate merchandise and advertising act like psychotronic weapons by commercializing and inserting the imagery of war into the public imagination. prisons. models its action on real military operations in Iraq: the fight with the Mehdi army in the south and the hunt for Uday and Qusay Hussein (Loftus 2004). Kuma War. necessary. and protests. Nonlethal weaponry is not meant to replace but to enhance conventional weapons. Ian. for instance. Rothenbaum. like violent porn. even the most nonviolent. Even if that was not the original intention. the video game series. Harry. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. the corporate state maintains a low-grade and perpetual quasi-war at all times and in all places under its [End Page 145] dominion. Jay. video games. and violent pornography that blurs the line between entertainment and news. Such simulations. both in domestic and foreign settings. any hypothetical advantages of sublethal techniques are outweighed by their real disadvantages—their invisibility to and greater acceptability by the public. that is exactly how they have been employed so far. DML. desensitize young males by promoting a model of aggressive masculinity that feeds recruitment in the warfare state while also preparing a larger public to accept state violence as virtuous. Just as the spy network uses terrorism as the pretext to spy upon the general population.1 (2006) 133-169. “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR And here. In this quasi- war. the truth is out. While the desire to reduce civilian casualties and minimize pain may be admirable in theory. Precisely because of their supposed harmlessness. law and order—which may eventually mean no more than enthusiasm for the neo-liberal order—become the excuse to turn mind control techniques against the population. In the gray zones of borders. and inevitable. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics. The New Centennial Review 6. This is attested to by a burgeoning industry of action films. work camps. simulation and reality. they are almost certain to be used with greater and greater frequency against ordinary citizens engaged in any kind of resistance to the government.Cap Kritik 75/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Total war Capitalism maintains cycles of constant threat construction and war to pacify the populace.9 It seems very likely that psychotronic weapons were conceived not merely to supplement but also to act as a convenient cover for conventional torture or war. Clayton . occupations.

There is no confabulation theory here. nations. feed them with energy. digital brain called the world stock-market and a type of citizen called the corporation. How this is possible is obvious: today the imprinting of our mind with the ideologies that make us love the FMI complex that is killing gaia starts at 3. Before II world war. Men had not been devolved into a short attention-span. but the invisible hand of go(l)d. there is still a natural genetic. Probably mankind is beyond salvation. some good some bad. the ‘nervous system’ of simultaneous indoctrination will imprint your brain with mass-media propaganda and the 3 ‘ideologies’ that make of its 3 networks. Every time we work. the FMI complex was more obvious. anthropomorphic belief on our self-centered position in the Universe. the organism of life. evolution and purpose is crystal clear to us – though all this might be hidden to you. biological program of love for nature. Especially if you are a Japanese living close to the death zone. when you are put in front of a TV. clean air. such as the nuclear industry. From then on. a concept of systems sciences that discharges full responsibility in the individuals and yet creates the same effect. bankers – you name it – show in everyday behavior. To explain you really the meaning of economics I would need an entire web-blog on complex economics which I have. It has a global. Amanda. machines and money as the future of mankind. nuclear scientists. natural food. in an economic ecosystem in which weapons could predate on man.. Those are the ideologies that sustain the Financial-Military-Industrial complex in which we live. provide them with information and within that scheme. 90% of the stock-market is dedicated to re=produce those machines. that nations are the supreme meaning of our existence. Rothenbaum. ecological movements in which people were aware that metal. visual neopaleolithic and ego-centric. Ian. Sancho. to appease and convince people that the FMI system cares for us. And this duality between a brain-washed mankind who adores the wrong memes and a newspeak of caring is specially present in Japan. Jay. to which we transfer our form and evolve to reach higher degrees of energy and information – to exist and what is far worse.cerntruth. http://www. Japanese are kept in a state of ‘neoteny’. came on top of all societies. we humans have only 2 functions: to work=reproduce those machines and to test=consume them. a perfectly organized system that we complexity theorists study scientifically as an evolving organic system. The Matrix of fictions and marketing built today to appease the sheeple was not yet in place. so we believe what it tells us. makes them in external behavior closer to their robots than to human beings. even if you are prisoner on the iron jail the FMI complex has built for all of us. Those are your memes to keep you happy. every time we consume it we test it and vitalize it. The financial system has an ideology called capitalism that tells us money is NOT just a system of metal-information (evolved from gold. so I will not insist on it. the FMI system in complexity). And that is right. But the FMI complex is an evolving system independent of man. with infantile myths and self-restrain. Clayton . So if you want to keep happy. but ‘emergence’.” published 3/29/2011. who became samurais and emperors (but this cannot be said. self-centered fictions which now are ‘common-sense’. and its values must be respected. individualist egotism that corporations. a nation founded by iron-horse warriors coming from Korea. weapons that kill our body. All this wisdom was lost and soon selfish egocentric tribes that relied on weapons to impose their power (Indo-Europeans) or money to hypnotize and slave people (cananeans). and by not distinguishing and pruning the bad fruits. You live in the Financial-Military-Industrial Complex (called in newspeak the Free market. the most informative atom of the Universe into e-money. that corporations serve us. They justify all the wrong paths with the same self-centered. There was an age that has resurfaced from time to time in religions of love and social. social love – the genetic program of human evolution. And only if you are aware of that arrow of evolution we have Because the FMI system is an evolving ecosystem of machines that is terraforming the Earth and substituting us. unrelentlessly: Gaia->History->The Metal-Earth (FMI complex). ’11 – chair of the Annual World Conferences on the Science of Duality [Louis Sancho. whose functions. And so a great deal of ‘newspeak’ takes place within the Financial-Military-Industrial Complex and the die-hard ‘believers’ that worship with messianic zeal the evolution of weapons. I know you think and believe the ‘experts’ of the system. This is what you have learned. which merely constructs it. gold that hypnotize our mind and today machines that make us increasingly obsolete were ‘dual fruits of the tree of science’. displaying an extreme aggressive-passive behavior to people who might ‘offend’ their sensibilities) and imprinted the happy peasants of the sun-god with an absolute slavery to the master.Cap Kritik 76/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – V2L No value to life in capitalism. And for 5000 years they built a matrix of ideological. equations. That simple chain is the world you live in. myopic. because it has become lobotomized to a point in which so much restrain of otherwise natural feelings and inner emotions. we reproduce a machine or a part of it. So it has its own organization and goals. evolving DML. “Fukyshima: Dying for Japan Inc. and worship their ‘traditions’. short-span. but in system sciences I prefer to call it by its biological function – so we shall call corporations company-mothers of machines. the meaning of it all. Because the world you live in is NOT a world in which life has an infinite value. the jail of their mind. the idols of mankind. This samurai today rules japan and its corporations that manufacture machines with a submissive population that likes more their robots than the foreigners. the ultimate beliefs. the super-organism of history as we substituted our fathers. we would become extinct. It is what it is expected of you.com/?p=257 ] Jay I know you don’t believe me. don’t worry and don’t read. We humans have become completely dependent on machines – organic systems of metal. data in a computer). Harry. Yet behind those ‘selfish memes of metal’ imprinted in our mind. in being free at least in your mind. in a ‘free market’ where all goes. But now the FMI system controls our information. And yet there is a certain beauty in knowing the truth. more complex than we are. our beliefs have adapted to them subconsciously since the Bronze age in which we discovered the power of weapons.

has as one of its outcomes what the German-Jewish thinker H. the Lukácsian concept of reification. is alienated in the pursuit of profit. This reduction of humans to a raw material is the antechamber to a world in which they can become so many waste products to be discarded or turned into ashes in the gas chambers of Auschwitz or at ground zero at Hiroshima. The features of the desk killer. Here. “Capitalism and Genocide.com/wageslavex/capandgen. are treated as so much Bestand. all beings. has become a vital part of the state apparatus of late capitalism. and destroyed. and no sense that those who went to the gas chambers were human beings and not things. sold. Ian. the seeming transformation of social relations into relations between things. the Adlerian concept of the administered man. Capitalism is inherently dehumanizing and converts people into only labor. what Marx calls the fetishism of commodities arises. that embodiment of the triumph of instrumental reason. is a hallmark of the real domination of capital: "Its basis is that a relation between people takes on the character of a thing and thus acquires a `phantom objectivity'.geocities. 2k – staff writer [Issue 36. an autonomy that seems so strictly rational and all-embracing as to conceal every trace of its fundamental nature: the relation between people. Money becomes an all-consuming god devouring everything in its path. even the capitalist. Consciousness ceases to be an end and becomes a means to the realization of profit. DML. Rather than nature being the environment in which human beings freely. and we back with the 3 ideologies of mechanism (machines are the future of man. They become nothing more than commodities to be bought. The outcome of such a process can be seen in the bureaucractic administration of the Final Solution. inherent in the commodity-form. Human beings forget that they are the source of value in their wealth and think that it is the source of their value. from which he rationally plans and organizes mass murder. That which should be a means becomes an end. capitalism estranges them from their own consciousness. Use value. Amanda. have been clearly delineated by Hannah Arendt. in capitalism becomes subordinate to the product's exchange value. and the Arendtian portrait of the desk killer. As a human type. He is the high-level functionary in a vast bureaucratic organization who does his killing from behind a desk. in which everything real. the capacity of products for fulfilling real human needs.Cap Kritik 77/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab set in motion. in the person of Eichmann. should be the vehicle of their conscious self-expression. standing-reserve or raw material. no great ideological passion for his project. they are treated as things. and that which should be the end becomes a means. not organic systems of metal that substitute and make obsolete human beings)." Reification. but use weapons to come up on top). enframing. in which the organization of genocide was the responsibility of desk killers like Adolf Eichmann who could zealously administer a system of mass murder while displaying no particular hatred for his victims. including humans. Rather than living to work the worker works in order to live. when human beings are administered. The consciousness of everyone. workers' own bodies. we can interpret the world as it is. capitalism (money is the language of god. the desk killer. nature. treating it as simply a technical task. thereby clearing the way for their removal or elimination by genocide. no different than the problem of transporting scrap metal.G. called a flag. including Fukushima. Harry.html] The phenomenon of reification. nature is turned against them. Clayton . “Critique Action and Liberation.” page 277. http://www.” Spring – 2000. so we must not love each other and evolve together as members of the same species. consciously express themselves and realize themselves. to keep body and soul together. In estranging human beings from object and process. not a language whose values are different from those of words and give zero value to life and maximal value to machines and weapons) and nationalism (the idea that we are different races according to a piece of cloth. For Adler. Capitalism turns people into profits. Jay. and its tendential penetration into the whole of social existence. the abstract labor time as measured in money. In this institutionalized reification in which things become more important than consciousness. professor of philosophy at Fordham University. The desk killer is the quintessential bureaucrat functioning according to the imperatives of the death-world. to be manipulated at will. can be joined to Martin Heidegger's concept of das Gestell.Adler designated as "the administered man" [Der verwaltete Mensch]. Rothenbaum. Internationalist Persepective. and the world around them. It turns consciousness into a means of individual life or mere physical existence. Marsh ‘95 – Professor at Fordham [James Marsh. which Lukács was one of the first to analyze. Complete value for life disappears. published 1995] Ideally.

The Bush régime militarized social and economic contradictions. rockets. foreign and domestic policy. They are Lockheed-Martin. The ‘war on terrorism’ provides a seemingly endless military outlet for surplus capital. necessitating military aggression and war mobilization. Raytheon. and much of the world. “The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capital”.S. including in the Balkans. and is facing an expanded counter-hegemonic challenge. Second is a structural crisis of over accumulation. or even assure minimal social reproduction. and legitimates the creation of a police state to repress political dissent in the name of security. as Wood would likely agree. made possible by the structural power of the global economy over individual countries. Historical Materialism. and the depleted uranium bullets. The train of neoliberalism became latched on to military intervention and the threat of coercive sanctions as a locomotive for pulling the moribund Washington consensus forward.html)//AW The weapons producers are a key part of the U. But was all this evidence for a new US bid for hegemony? A US campaign to ‘compete’ with other major states? To defend ‘its own domestic capital’? To ‘maintain a critical balance’ and ‘control major [state] competitors’? I trust my reasons for rejecting such an argument have been made clear in this critical article. the jets. Socialist Action. They play a direct role in determining U. Textron. the Cruise missiles. Harry. became ever more restricted. Third is a crisis of HIMA legitimacy and authority.ac. the downward pressure on wages and popular consumption worldwide.org/news/199910/war. Boeing. both intensive and extensive.Cap Kritik 78/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – War Capitalism causes permanent war-drives. But this structural power became less effective in the face of the three-pronged crisis mentioned above. have reduced the ability of the world market to absorb world output. Global and International Studies. Ian. Clayton . These are the producers of the weapons of mass destruction. Neoliberalism ‘peacefully’ forced open new areas for global capital in the 1980s and the 1990s. Jay. http://www. of people around the world. The problem of surplus absorption makes state-driven military spending and the growth of military-industrial complexes an outlet for surplus and gives the current global order a frightening built-in war drive. The system cannot meet the needs of a majority of humanity. launching a permanent war mobilization to try to stabilize the system through direct coercion. Military aggression has become in this context an instrument for prying open new sectors and regions. The system cannot expand because the marginalization of a significant portion of humanity from direct productive participation. the tanks. as the former ‘socialist’ countries became re-integrated into global capitalism. October 1999. Six huge companies dominate the arms market in the U. Robinson 07—Professor of Sociology.S. Northrop Grumman. Opportunities for both intensive and extensive expansion dried up as privatizations ran their course. and mortars that DML. Seligman 99—Editor of the Socialist Action Magazine (Carole.S.socialsciences. as the consumption of high-income sectors worldwide reached a ceiling. and the polarization of income. http://www.manchester. generates a colossal deficit that justifies the ever-deeper dismantling of the Keynesian welfare state and locks neoliberal austerity in place. ruling class. Rothenbaum. 2007. and so on. The legitimacy of the system has increasingly been called into question by millions. Capitalism makes a constant state of war inevitable—disarmament and cooperation is impossible in a capitalist-centric world. for the forcible restructuring of space in order to further accumulation. This was often accomplished through economic coercion alone. In the post 9/11 period. and McDonnell-Douglas. the military dimension appeared to exercise an over determining influence in the reconfiguration of global politics. Amanda. This crisis involves three interrelated dimensions. perhaps even billions.socialistaction.uk/disciplines/politics/research/hmrg/activities/documents/Robinson.pdf)//AW By the early twenty-first century.. The space for ‘peaceful’ expansion. global capitalism was in crisis. Latin American and Iberian Studies at the University of California-Santa Barbara (William I. First it is a crisis of social polarization. “Capitalism and War”.

American forces faced adversaries that had previously received U. though moving towards capitalism.bonded assembly plants where. Lenin said that "disarmament is obviously utopian under capitalism. Air Force officials are already proposing overseas sales of the F-22. or training. Now. has budgeted for the F-22 fighter jets at $200 million each? The original justification for producing this new generation of fighter planes was made during the Cold War against the so-called Evil Empire. for rock-bottom wages. Haiti.] During World War II.Cap Kritik 79/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab pierce the tanks. in a highly politicised society there is no rightwing or Mussolinian "law and order" mass movement against the cartels. is still not a capitalist country-as a field for capitalist exploitation Capitalism leads to a new world order of criminal enterprise. Juarez is also a model for the capitalist economy. so. in the workplaces and barrios. imported duty-free. except the Soviet Union. manufacturer on them. arms exports (many sold to governments who shoot down their own peoples or workers and peasants of neighboring countries) are paid for with our taxes. Profit-making was the engine that drove all the major countries. It is a city that follows religiously the philosophy of a free market. and in the home. during. specializing in Boarder Wars (Ed. was exposed by socialists and other honest people during the war. and then to the militias. June 21. many of the wealthiest war profiteers. DML. that the NATO forces were not bombing them to save them. F-16s (made by Lockheed) and F-18s (made by Boeing) to the new NATO allies. Vulliamy 11—British writer and journalist for the Observer and the Guardian.the cartels.. about seeing loads of spent ammunition casings on the streets of Dili. the very companies with controlling power in American society. who organised a week-long peace march after the murder of his son in the spring. The culture of impunity. Not by coincidence. casually shedding their Mexican workers. weapons. Remember the $64 billion that the U. without that rationale. [Journalist Alan Nairn testified the last week of September 1999. Over half of the U. who compete for tenders with corrupt police officers. must produce a newer model capable of shooting down the ones they are selling now. joined in cartels with Nazi-run German industry. resulting in violent wars. and tetracene.the whole city is a criminal enterprise". “Juarez is All of our Futures”. or any significant leftwing or union opposition. 2011.S.S. The arms manufacturers are so "patriotic" that in five out of the last six wars where the U. Recruits for the drug war come from the vast. Ian. p. by the United States. sprawling maquiladora .S. But this is not just a war between narco-cartels. is famously led by the poet Javier Sicilia. military technology. Sandra Rodriguez told me over dinner last month: about two children who killed their parents "because". a photographer who has chronicled the implosion. they explained to her.S. "goes from boys like that right to the top . D. and Juarez has become a teeming recruitment pool for the cartels and killers. This ammunition had been supplied to the Indonesian military. "It's a city based on markets and on trash. He could read the name of the U. before a Congressional sub-committee in Washington. the new justification is that the U." says Julian Cardona. "they could". is selling F-15s.S. acting like any corporation. she said. and after the war. and Juarez journalist. Harry. Iraq and Kuwait." This is even more true now than when he said it.S. capital of East Timor. in fighting World War II-not saving the Jews and other persecuted peoples of the world! Albanian Kosovars will be learning this bitter lesson under occupation. the National Movement for Peace.C. the cry will go up for the next generation of terrorist weapons of mass destruction. has sent troops into conflict-Panama. phony as it was.27. The grassroots movement against the postpolitical cartel warriors. but to secure Yugoslavia-which. have outsourced violence to gangs affiliated or unaffiliated with them. LexusNexus)//AW Interestingly. so the U. and Bosnia. making agreements to limit the production and acquisition of vital war material (such as magnesium. Amanda.) This and many other forms of cooperation between the American and German biggest industries before. because the arms-makers have assumed ever greater power and wealth. This is the mechanism of the war economy in which we live. Somalia. for example. tungsten carbide. workers make the goods that fill America's supermarket shelves or become America's automobiles. This very male war is opposed by women. The Guardian. "Cartel war" does not explain the story my friend. Jay. the corporations can do it cheaper in Asia. The army plays its own mercurial role. Clayton . Now. Juarez has imploded into a state of criminal anarchy .S. Rothenbaum.

Cardona told me how many times he had been asked for his view on the Javier Sicilia peace march: "I replied: 'How can you march against the market?'" Mexico's war does not only belong to the postpolitical. which is in the grip of the Gulf cartel.and politicians could throttle this river of money." Very much. Thus it is not warfare that has been following a regular pattern. and innovative torture. Yet in the aftermath the United States responded by printing oodles of money. It belongs to the world of belligerent hyper-materialism.they are pioneers of it. then. in which the only ideology left . according to Antonio Maria Costa. Twelve years ago Cardona and the writer Charles Bowden curated a book called Juarez: The Laboratory of Our Future. and these variations have generated regular economic cycles.the narco-cartels have no interest in talking at all. They control the message. US aid to Mexico. They have to bank it . Murder City. DML.banks that. what can the authorities do? Simple: Go After the Money. dml) Warfare is a perennial human activity. Amanda. and the economy is based on what happens when you treat people like trash. But they choose not to. Bowden puts it another way: "Juarez is not a breakdown of the social order. Mexico's carnage is that of the age of effective global government by multinational banks . they must wear another brand.but utterly in a present to which the global economy is committed. So Mexico's war is how the future will look. In a recent book. the 1973 Arab-Israeli battles were short lived and didn’t involve the United States militarily. Clayton . Juarez is the new order. I objected. I answer tentatively that I think there is a correlation between the causelessness of Mexico's war and the savagery. The Mexican cartels epitomised the North American free trade agreement long before it was dreamed up. Jay. and to a zeitgeist of frenzied materialism we adamantly refuse to temper: it is the inevitable war of capitalism gone mad." Capitalism causes cycles of wars that bring itself down Batra 7 – Rishee’s dad. is that it is about. The killers post their atrocities on YouTube with relish. Harry. and they thrive upon it. It certainly belongs to the cacophony of the era of digital communication." It can't be that banal. have been for years kept afloat by laundering drug and criminal profits. Journalists find it hard that while even people as crazy as Osama bin Laden will talk to the media . People often ask: why the savagery of Mexico's war? It is infamous for such inventive perversions as sewing one victim's flayed face to a soccer ball or hanging decapitated corpses from bridges by the ankles. to how the legal economy will arrange itself next. such as dipping people into vats of acid so that their limbs evaporate while doctors keep the victim conscious. They point. The cruelty is in and of the nihilism. the greed for violence reflects the greed for brands. Cartel bosses and street gangbangers cannot go around in trucks full of cash. People also ask: what can be done? There is endless debate over military tactics. For example. The thing that really makes Mexico's war a different war. commanding a vast viewing public. because it belongs not in the 19th century with wars of empire. and whether narcotics should be decriminalised. and more expensive. The Downfall of Capitalism and Communism: A New Study of History pg 50. business and banking preach by example . He said of the killers and cartels: "They are revolting people who do what they do because they cannot be seen to wear the same label Tshirt as they wore last year.S. the former head of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime. nothing. the war on drugs. but he pleaded with me not to underestimate these considerations. while bleating about the evils of drugs cooked in the ghetto and snorted up the noses of the rich. nor are they errant bastards of the global economy .which the leaders of "legitimate" politics. Narco-cartels are not pastiches of global corporations. race and religion . Rothenbaum. government response to it. but its financing has varied somewhat over time. they are democratic the postmodern way. but the U. postmoral world.they feel they have a message to get across . A very brave man called Mario Trevino lives in the city of Reynosa. and in the process generated the highest peaks of the money and inflation cycles. Ian. a war for the 21st century.is greed. in their business logic and modus operandi. They could not have known how prescient their title was. professor of economics at SMU (Ravi. What accounts for the three-decade periodicity of these cycles? It is hard to explain why certain events can occur with such regularity.Cap Kritik 80/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab "Killing and drug addiction are activities in the economy. I answer: these are largely of tangential importance. in the end. and of our time. they are busy across thickets of internet hot-sites and the narco-blogosphere. or the 20th with wars of ideology. and becomes a brand in itself. as they have with actions against terrorist funding. But they won't. for obvious reasons: the good burgers of capitalism and their political quislings depend on this money.

Every generation apparently finds a way to make the same mistake. Rothenbaum. Then it learns its lesson. Thus every generation succumbs to the temptation of pump priming to solve its problems. and inevitably encounters inflation. It is human nature alone that can possibly generate rhythmic patterns. But the hard-earned lessons of the past are forgotten. Jay. This way there are three-decade cycles of money growth and inflation. DML. Harry. It is usually observed that each generation is active for about thirty years.Cap Kritik 81/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab The answer must lie in the relative stability of the mental and psychological processes of the people involved in these events. Whenever a crisis occurs. Ian. the easiest way out for the government is to print money. because the old generation has been displaced even as new problems occur. Amanda. Clayton . curbs money growth and hence the spiral of prices.

" President Bush said in a hastily organized retreat. employing new. Even the IPCC.even by Gore -.html) During the last year the global warming debate has reached a turning point. more technocratic thinkers look for substitutes for hydrocarbons. virtual work. the most prominent proposals are shaped by the fact that they are designed to fit within the capitalist box. toxic wastes. The dominant answers to global warming thus amount to what might be thought of as a new declaration of war on nature. Ian.without acknowledging that this will accelerate world hunger. we are now being told on every side -. http://www. All proposed solutions must be compatible with the treadmill of production. Monbiot pointedly tells us that the rich countries can solve the global warming problem without becoming "Third World" states or shaking up "middle-class" life -. and climate stability too. not part of the problem. 8/06/07. better insulated homes.monthlyreview. Jay. which includes such problems as species extinction. from the current biofuels panacea to geoengineering solutions such as pumping sulfur particles into the stratosphere to shade the earth from the sun to claims that a market in carbon dioxide emissions is the invisible hand that will save the world.if only the magic of technology and markets is applied. or they talk of floating white plastic islands in the oceans (a geoengineering solution to replace the lost reflectivity due to melting ice). which instead focuses on such things as more buses." It is characteristic of the magic-bullet solutions that now pervade the media that they promise to defend our current way of life while remaining virtually cost free. The goal is clearly to save the planet -. We can have our cars. Politics is carefully excluded from his analysis. etc.Cap Kritik 82/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Warming Attempts at reform only render us unable to deal with the crisis of warming – capitalism proposes only half-way solutions that preserve the capitalist system but guarantee ecological destruction down the line. New social and democratic solutions need to be developed. Foster 07 – professor of sociology @ University of Oregon (John Bellamy. Rothenbaum. If nature has "struck back" at capitalism's degradation of the environment in the form of climate change. our endlessly expanding commodity economy. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). high-tech armaments. our industrial waste. We must recognize that today's ecological problems are related to a system of global inequality that demands ecological destruction as a necessary condition of its existence. such as biofuels or even nuclear power. one of the leading political philosophers of the 20th century. virtual shopping and improved cement. Or it is thought pragmatic to dump iron filings in the ocean (the so-called Geritol solution to global warming) in order to grow phytoplankton and increase the carbon absorbing capacity of the ocean -without connecting this at all to the current oceanic catastrophe. A New War on the Planet?. Corporations. As Hannah Arendt. It is then possible. capitalism. to promote biofuels as a partial solution to global warming -. the answer is to unleash a more powerful array of technological and market innovations so that the system can continue to expand as before. The ecological irrationality of this response is evident in the tendency to dissociate global warming from the global environmental crisis as a whole.that where global warming is concerned there is a free lunch after all. sees no alternative to a new assault on nature. There can be no disruption of existing class or power relations. explained: "Under modern [capitalist] conditions not destruction but conservation spells ruin. "Let's just focus on technologies that deal with the issue. Due to the media hype surrounding Al Gore's film An Inconvenient Truth. tropical deforestation. are part of the solution. What all of this suggests is that a real solution to the planetary environmental crisis cannot be accomplished simply through new technologies or through turning nature into a market. faced by natural obstacles. It is necessary to go to the root of the problem by addressing the social relations of production.or indeed interfering with the distribution of riches at all. "Let's quit the debate about whether greenhouse gases are caused by mankind or by natural causes. Clayton . the climate skeptics have suffered a major defeat.N. Even progressive thinkers such as George Monbiot in his new book Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning have gotten into the act. rooted in human community and DML. Hence. desertification. Less progressive. in its policy proposals. destruction of the oceans. Despite the fact that economists have long insisted that there is no such thing as a free lunch. from this narrow perspective.but only if capitalism can be fully preserved at the same time." Hence. Amanda. we are led to believe. Proposed solutions to global warming are popping up everywhere. followed by a new assessment by the U. The fact that the biosphere is one interconnected whole is downplayed in favor of mere economic expediency. Suddenly the media and the public are awakening to what the scientific consensus has been saying for two decades on human-induced climate change and the dangers it poses to the future of life on earth.org/mrzine/foster080607. tells us that climate change can be stopped on the cheap -. Harry.

Harry. There is now a worldwide scientific consensus that to fail to stop the present global warming trend will be to invite ecological and social catastrophe on a planetary scale over the DML. and the spatial scales on which these problems manifest themselves are increasing. availability of clean water. but patience evaporates very quickly if the companies invested in keep having losses. Rothenbaum. embodying principles of conservation that are essential to life. Even those industries that typically look ahead must sooner or later satisfy the demands of investors. and other natural resources. But this 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab means stepping outside the capitalist box and making peace with the planet -. and cannot be incorporated within the short-term time horizon of nonphilanthropic capital. In order to understand how the conflict between ecology and capitalism actually plays out at a concrete level related to specific ecological problems. destruction of the ozone layer. The foregoing defects in capitalism's relation to the environment are evident today in all areas of what we now commonly call "the environmental crisis. they have to make enough money to pay interest and to set aside a sinking fund for future repayment of bonds. bondholders. loss of genetic diversity. corporations also borrow via long-term bonds. Even the much-trumpeted flood of money going into the New Economy with future prospects in mind. This rush to grow generally means rapid absorption of energy and materials and the dumping of more and more wastes into the environment--hence widening environmental degradation. Clayton . desertification. Foster 01 (John Bellamy. elimination of coral reefs. With respect to those environmental conditions that bear most directly on human society. disposal of wastes. In these areas the dominant motives are obviously to secure a supply of materials for the manufacture of a final product. owners of capital figure on getting their investment back in a calculable period (usually quite short) and profits forever after. based in the rich countries. Ecology Against Capitalism Statistical Data Included) Capitalist economies are geared first and foremost to the growth of profits.e. The capitalist drive towards profits is the root cause of global warming. Controlling emissions of some of the worst pollutants (usually through end-of-pipe methods) can have a positive and almost immediate effect on people's lives. Amanda. The perspective in stock market "valuation" is the rate of profit gains or losses in recent years or prospects for next year's profits. extinction of species. shrinking water supplies." which encompasses problems as diverse as: global warming. A long-run point of view is completely irrelevant in the fluctuating stock market. associated with the "greenhouse effect" engendered when carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse gases" are emitted. These all represent issues of sustainability. Moreover. For this. and effects on population and the environment associated with the specific locations chosen for industrial projects. In evaluating any investment prospect. Just as significant as capitalism's emphasis on unending expansion is its short-term time horizon in determining investments. It is true that a longer-term perspective is commonly adopted by investors in mines. oil wells. trapping heat within the atmosphere. which needs to recoup its investment in the foreseeable future. However. i. The list is very long and rapidly getting longer.and with other human beings. Besides investing their own surplus funds.. Corporations are expected to maintain the value of their stockholder's equity and to provide regular dividends. lack of clean water. Speculative investors looking to reap rich rewards via the stock market or venture capital may have some patience for a year or so. raising questions of intergenerational environmental equity. able momentarily to overlook company losses. This is exactly the place where capital. The short-term time horizon endemic to capitalist investment decisions thus becomes a critical factor in determining its overall environmental effects. has already had its comeuppance. and radioactive contamination-to name just a few. and hence to economic growth at virtually any cost--including the exploitation and misery of the vast majority of the world's population. plus secure a flow of profits to warrant the risk and to do better than alternative investment opportunities. But even in these cases the time horizon rarely exceeds ten to fifteen years-a far cry from the fifty to one hundred year (or even more) perspective needed to protect the biosphere. Professor of Sociology at University of Oregon. and banks. rationing and conservation of non-renewable resources. and to obtain a rate of return that over the long run is exceptionally high. A significant part of the wealth of top corporate executives depends on the growth in the stock market prices of the stock options they hold. often demanding that it get its initial investment back in a year or two. the increasing toxicity of our environment and our food. A good deal of environmental long-term policy for promoting sustainable development has to do with the third world. The time horizon that governs investment decisions in these as in other cases is not a question of "good" capitalists who are willing to give up profits for the sake of society and future generations-or "bad" capitalists who are not-but simply of how the system works. which is a source of capital for expansion and a facilitator of mergers and acquisitions. Ian. overfishing. economic development needs to be planned so as to include such factors as water resources and their distribution.Cap Kritik 83/194 sustainability. Big investors need to pay attention to the stock market. Jay. the huge bonuses received by top corporate executives are influenced not only by the growth in profits but often as well by the rise in the prices of company stock. it is useful to look at what many today consider to be the most pressing global ecological issue: that of global warming. the real protection of the environment requires a view of the needs of generations to come. removal of tropical forests. requires the fastest return on its investments.

The solution being proposed via sequestration technology is to dump the excess greenhouse gas emission reductions on a level far more aggressive than what was envisioned by the Kyoto Protocol are now needed to address global warming.7–10. for the advanced capitalist economies. In other words. Extinction Cummins and Allen 10 (Ronnie. the biosphere scarcely weighs in the balance.8–6. Policy Advisor – Organic Consumers Association. which mainly has to do with the emission of fossil fuels. disease. http://monthlyreview. business temperatures means just CO2) pollutants (currently at 390 parts per million and rising 2 ppm per year) to 350 ppm. both in magnitude and sheer folly. damage to ecosystems.org/1001jbf. But little has been achieved thus far to address this problem. the earth’s environment will be so radically changed that cataclysmic results will undoubtedly manifest themselves worldwide. 2-14) The hour is late. including agriculture-derived methane and nitrous oxide pollution. The IPCC Working Group I concluded in its 2001 report that “there is new and strong evidence that most of the warming observed over the last fifty years is attributable to human activities. When set against the get– rich–quick imperatives of capital accumulation.0 °C (2. proposals are under consideration that involve a scale of operation that might well dwarf the star wars defense system. DML. Research ideas currently receiving government and corporate funding. The emphasis on profits to be obtained from fossil fuel consumption and from a form of development geared to the auto–industrial complex largely overrides longer–term issues associated with global warming—even if this threatens. endless wars. not As scientists warned at Copenhagen. surely include increased desertification in arid regions and heavier rainfall and risks of floods in other regions. and Will. emission reductions as a solution to global warming are much less desirable than sci–fi technological solutions that will allow us simply to reroute such waste. Either we radically reduce CO2 and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e. Ecology Against Capitalism.3 °F) in this century. and a disastrous rise in ocean levels. Amanda.5 °C (1. they now estimate an increase of 1. and loss of both species and genetic diversity. the failure of the Kyoto Protocol significantly to address this problem suggests that capitalism is unable to reverse course—that is. or else survival for the present and future generations is in jeopardy.htm) All of the hoped–for carbon capture and sequestration technologies are designed to get around the emissions problem. These will carbon dioxide elsewhere—in the oceans instead of the atmosphere. crop failures. within just a few generations.Cap Kritik 84/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab course of the present century. Rothenbaum. Jay. Yet. discussed in Discover magazine (August 2001). billions will die of thirst.0–3. rising sea levels (due to the melting of glaciers) that will submerge islands and delta regions.8 °F). pressurized carbon dioxide deep into the oceans. Int’l. which includes all GHGs. From any rational perspective. Ian. coated with any of the many chemicals that react with carbon dioxide. melting of the polar icecaps.6 degree Fahrenheit rise in global that the carrying capacity of the Earth in 2100 will be reduced to one billion people. there will be increased risks to human health. All of them raise major environmental considerations of their own. that could pull the gas from the air as it passes by.” In place of the IPCC’s earlier estimate of an increase in temperature by 1. and starvation. October 2001. The fact that such research is being funded and given serious consideration demonstrates that. involve the search for something on the order of a “giant absorbent strip. As always the most exploited areas of the world and their inhabitants will prove most vulnerable. cold. Harry. heat. war. None of these technologies are remotely practical at present and may never be. if we are to avoid climate chaos.” coupled with fleets of ships pulling two–mile–long pipes that will pump chilled. Foster 01 (John Bellamy. On top of all of this. Leading climate scientists such as James Hansen are literally shouting at the top of their lungs that the world needs to reduce emissions by 20-40% as soon as possible.5–6. – Organic Consumers Association. to move from a structure of industry and accumulation that has proven to be in the long run (and in many respects in the short run as well) environmentally disastrous. Professor of Sociology at University of Oregon. allowing the carbon–based economy to continue as before unchanged. the planet itself. Dir. no matter how urgent it is for life on the planet as a whole that greenhouse gas buildup in the atmosphere be stopped. Clayton . The use of the ocean as the final destination for the wastes of the human economy was an issue that already concerned Rachel Carson in the 1950s and ‘60s. as usual and a corresponding 7-8. Under this hellish scenario. serious damage to crops in the tropics and eventually in temperate areas as well. If this increase (even in the middle range) comes true. and 80-90% by the year 2050. Capitalism is unable to reverse course – working within its coordinates makes the fight to reduce carbon emissions unwinnable. “Climate Catastrophe: Surviving the 21st Century”.

but also every form of indirect murder: the fact of exposing someone to death. . Racism makes this process of elimination possible. that is when the capacity to legitimate murderous political actions in all our names and for all our sakes becomes altogether more rational. when it becomes the ‘bio-power’ or ‘bio-politics’ of populations. the biopolitical assay of life necessarily portrays a commitment to the supremacy of certain species types: ‘a race that is portrayed as the one true race.Cap Kritik 85/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Errthang (Biopower) Biopolitics is the root of racism and genocide – their mindset is the same one that created Auschwitz Evans 10 – Lecturer in the School of Politics and International Studies @ Univ. when the defence of society gives sanction to very real acts of violence that are justified in terms of species necessity. 2003: 255). Racism thus appears here to be a thoroughly modern phenomenon (Deleuze & Guattari. Clayton . for Agamben. 41 no. 2005). since it is precisely through the internalization of threat – the constitution of the threat that is now from the dangerous ‘Others’ that exist within – that societies reproduce at the level of life the ontological commitment to secure the subject. 2003: 256). shameful and hence meaningful example of necessary killing – the violence that is sanctioned in the name of species necessity (see Agamben. entire populations are mobilized for the purpose of wholesale slaughter in the name of life necessity. they are waged on behalf of the existence of everyone. power necessarily concerns itself with those biological threats to human existence (Palladino. 2003: 61). or. for it is only through the discourse and practice of racial (dis)qualification that one is capable of introducing ‘a break in the domain of life that is under power’s control: the break between what must live and what must die’ (Foucault. it is within those sites that ‘eliminate radically the people that are excluded’ that the DML.” Security Dialogue August 23. and against those who deviate from that norm. political death. degenerate. for political modernity to function one always has to be capable of killing in order to go on living: Wars are no longer waged in the name of a sovereign who must be defended. When ‘life itself’ becomes the principal referent for political struggles. precious space. When Foucault refers to ‘killing’. he is not simply referring to the vicious act of taking another life: ‘When I say “killing”. . what is at stake here is no mere sovereign affair. This takes us to the heart of our concern with biopolitical rationalities. Rothenbaum. calculated. against those who pose a threat to the biological heritage’ (Foucault. Ian. when notions of security are invoked in order to preserve the destiny of a species. massacres have become vital. then. Jay. a sort of ‘biological danger’. 1995. Biopolitically speaking. Epiphenomenal tensions aside. 2003: 62). increasing the risk of death for some people. since everybody is now possibly dangerous and nobody can be exempt. the race that holds power and is entitled to define the norm. 2008). dml) Having established that the principal task set for biopolitical practitioners is to sort and adjudicate between the species. 2010 vol. 4 413-433. wasteful and ultimately dangerous to the social order (Bauman. rejection and so on’ (Foucault. expulsion. Harry. 1990: 137). As Deleuze (1999: 76) duly noted. “Foucault’s Legacy: Security. The principle underlying the tactics of battle – that one has to become capable of killing in order to go on living – has become the principle that defines the strategy of states (Foucault. That is to say. 1991). and Violence in the 21st Century. but allows itself to produce all the more hecatombs and genocides: not by returning to the old law of killing. I obviously do not mean simply murder as such. At that point law increasingly renounces that symbol of sovereign privilege. conditions of life and the survival of a population that believes itself to be better than its enemy. quite simply. Amanda. since life becomes the author of its own (un)making. modern societies reveal a distinct biopolitical aporia (an irresolvable political dilemma) in the sense that making life live – selecting out those ways of life that are fittest by design – inevitably writes into that very script those lives that are retarded. backward. Indeed. which it now treats not as the juridical enemy of the old sovereign but as a toxic or infectious agent. . of Leeds (Brad Evans. War. While killing does not need to be physically murderous. racial problems occupy a ‘permanent presence’ within the political order (Foucault. it is indeed life that emerges as the new object of power. Evidently. hence altogether more frightening: When a diagram of power abandons the model of sovereignty in favour of a disciplinary model. that is not to suggest that we should lose sight of the very real forms of political violence that do take place in the name of species improvement. utilitarian. but on the contrary in the name of race. controlling and administering life. Auschwitz arguably represents the most grotesque. since one of the most ‘essential characteristics’ of modern biopolitics is to constantly ‘redefine the threshold in life that distinguishes and separates what is inside from what is outside’. 2002). the right to put someone to death.

DML. has been awash with works that have tried to theorize the ‘exceptional times’ in which we live (see. The camp can therefore be seen to be the defining paradigm of the modern insomuch as it is a ‘space in which power confronts nothing other than pure biological life without any mediation’ (Agamben. 2007. sovereignty as the ability to declare a state of juridical exception – has certainly gained widespread academic currency in recent times. The field of international relations. Kaldor. Guantánamo Bay. such a Schmittean-inspired approach to violence – that is. Hence. Harry. there is a categorical failure to address how necessary violence continues to be an essential feature of the liberal encounter. Violence is only rendered problematic here when it is associated with some act of unmitigated geopolitical excess (e. in particular. 2007).Cap Kritik 86/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab biopolitical racial imperative is exposed in its most brutal form (Agamben. Rothenbaum. Precluding any critical evaluation of the contemporary forms of violence that take place within the remit of humanitarian discourses and practices. Amanda. Clayton .g. in terms of understanding violence they are limited. While some of the tactics deployed in the ‘Global War on Terror’ have undoubtedly lent credibility to these approaches. This is unfortunate. the nature of the racial imperative that underwrites the violence of contemporary liberal occupations is removed from the analytical arena. 1995: 179). Ian. for instance. Devetak. 1995: 171). with post-interventionary forms of violence no longer appearing to be any cause for concern. the invasion of Iraq. and so forth). Jay. While lacking Agamben’s intellectual sophistry. use of torture.

rather than solar. destroying a faulty U. that there are now around fourteen thousand tracked objects circling around the earth.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. The farther space vehicles penetrate the solar system. the U. This is outright war. dml) But even if it were desirable.S. or rule by consent. Such a project could well be made a future hegemonic project. But even manufactured risks may be minimal in scope. This and the Cassini example further demonstrate the nature of “manufactured risk. and Gramsci’s notion of hegemony. the success of a galactic colonialism is by no means guaranteed. Dyes.Cap Kritik 87/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab K Turns Case Even if they win space is good in theory. under current political and social arrangements.” or making parts of the cosmos more like earth. Current and future forms of outer space humanization are. Rothenbaum. A defunct Russian satellite crashed into an American commercial satellite.” whereby the climates of other planets would be changed in such a way as to support life. But the prospect of galactic colonialisms raises the distinct possibility of hostilities in space.S. genetically engineered bacteria. Armed conflict has long been a common feature of past colonialisms.”19 This kind of risk. it will fail and lead to war Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter.” China demonstrated its capabilities in January 2007 by shooting down one of its own defunct satellites. and plans are now afoot to launch even more satellites. artificial dust clouds. compared with another risk stemming from cosmic colonization. Jay. are creating new problems that are unforeseen and extremely difficult to cope with. Satellites are already a means by which territories and investments on Earth are monitored and protected by governments operating on behalf of their economic interests. Dr. observable tracked objects to around thirty thousand. But success is not guaranteed. Clayton . Galactic wars may therefore be the product of galactic colonialism. This is because the very venture of space colonization brings new risks. Even whole satellites may collide. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. some thirty to forty million deaths could have occurred. satellite with a sea-based missile. These include proposals for “planetary engineering. a plutonium-powered generator fell to earth. The fifteenth-century Renaissance and the Enlightenment placed great faith in science as a means of bringing “progress. known as “space debris” or “space junk. The plan is a band-aid solution for the problems of cap Dickens and Ormrod 7 . No 6. Note. Both President Obama and the Russian authorities are now arguing for generating electricity with plutonium in space. Monthly Review Vol 62. Navy demonstrated a similar capability. is readily recognizable in space-humanization progress. then argued that there was probably a direct link between that crash and an increase of lung cancer on Earth. one led by a dominant social and economic bloc. Yet. generating thousands of pieces of orbiting debris. or what some social scientists have called “manufactured risk. professor of medical physics at the University of California. Such a scenario was prefigured by the Star Trekscience fiction television series in which the main role of “The Federation” is the protection of capitalist mining colonies. energy. John Gofman.” Science and technology.” Now such progress is regularly challenged. 2009. designed to drag older satellites out of orbit in order to avoid collisions.24 It is a discomforting fact that both China and the United States are now actively developing their own versions of “full spectrum dominance. that the 1997 Cassini Mission to Saturn’s moons (via Jupiter and Venus) was powered by plutonium. dml) This brings us back to our conceptual starting points: Harvey’s notion of ‘spatial fixes’ as solutions to capital’s continuing crises of accumulation. It is not widely appreciated. much scientific intervention today stems from the crises stemming from earlier intervention. Whether cosmic socio-spatial fixes are profitable or necessary will depend not only on environmental degradation or social crisis on Earth but on making the resources of outer space into a series of successful primary circuits of capital. the more likely it is that they will be powered by nuclear.21 Space colonization brings a number of other manufactured risks. Such ‘fixes’ would offer another promise of staving off capitalism’s tendency towards crisis formation.” Improved tracking systems will increase the number of smaller. and building nuclear-propelled rockets for missions to Mars. Ian.22 No plans were in place for such an eventuality. Furthermore. One estimate is that if something had gone wrong while Cassini was still circling the earth. as early as 1964. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 158.20 Space junk poses a serious threat to the whole enterprise of space colonization. Berkeley. Such collisions are estimated at millions or even billions to one. no more and no less than attempts at saving capitalism. and the redirecting of sunlight by satellite mirrors are all being advanced as means of “terraforming. many of these causing potential damage. suitably packaged as a DML. for example. between colonizing nations as well as between the colonizers and aboriginal peoples.23 Some of the wilder plans for space colonization also entail major risk. such a collision actually happened. In February 2008. Harry. Amanda. for example. far from creating Renaissance or Enlightenment-style optimism and certainty. for which no one agency or individual is usually culpable. having failed to achieve orbit. An arms race in outer space has already started. But on February 10. November 2010.

Needless to say. Clayton . Rothenbaum. poverty and environmental degradation on Earth. it 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab is far from clear when and how such fixes will be seriously attempted. there is every possibility that such interventions may make matters even worse. Jay. But how is the development of space made a ‘common sense’ enterprise? DML. what forms they would take and how successful they would be. Ian. Amanda. At the same time. Harry. If the ‘risk society’ thesis is taken seriously.Cap Kritik 88/194 boon to the Earth’s population. there is no clear indication that they will resolve the crises of unemployment.

This capital switch has. for example. Jay. But he also uses the term ironically. to bring communications access to South America. Amanda. Clayton . knowing that it could never be a permanent fix in terms of guaranteed or continuing capital accumulation. the ‘fix’ represented by the several thousand satellites surrounding the Earth is unstable for a number of reasons. Still less could it bring a stable cultural and political fix.Cap Kritik 89/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab K Turns Case – Satellites The use of satellites in capitalism guarantees the continuation of war and ethnic conflict Dickens and Ormrod 7 . capital’s switch away from satellites is only partial. Similarly. In truth. the Far East and zones where civil wars continue to threaten landlines. This includes telecommunications via satellite. Rothenbaum. DML.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. resulted in satellites no longer being the only favoured medium for telecommunications transmission. It is not finally fixed because of capital’s own fluctuating commitment to a particular technology. dml) Harvey uses the term ‘spatial fix’ to refer to the flows of capital into new areas for investment. allowing branches to communicate with their headquarters where landlines can be readily accessed or interfered with. Twenty years ago satellites were a central part of the global communications network as they bridged continents and allowed ubiquitous coverage of the globe. Satellites do remain the favoured medium in circumstances that are hostile to significant military or social interests. They are used. Ian. Harry. as we have seen. Fibreoptics has since been further developed and used as a means to transmit signals. Returning for the moment to the economic level. and there are social and political reasons for this. In parts of Africa subject to civil war. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 113-114. Africa. sub-sea cables bring communications to the main seaport or capital city while satellites are still used to make the networks over the remainder of the country. British banks with global operations use satellite links to their automated teller machines.

Clayton .Cap Kritik 90/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **ALTS** DML. Harry. Jay. Amanda. Ian. Rothenbaum.

the concept of capitalism implied in this perspective privileges economic relations over other social relations. 2011. Spanish and Portuguese colonization of the Americas. TRANSMODERNITY: Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World. eventual. Rigoberta Menchú in Guatemala or Domitila Barrios de Chungara in Bolivia? I do not pretend to speak for or represent the perspective of these indigenous women. Class analysis and economic structural transformations are privileged over other power relations.Cap Kritik 91/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alternate 1NC Alt Global Colonialism has created the hierarchies and basis for all forms of violence – structural or otherwise – in the modern world. Amanda. Our alternative is to shift our geo and body politics to a point of view outside Eurocentrism. petty-commodity production. Enloe 1990). etc. 1(1). the entangled “package. have not derived the epistemological and theoretical implications of the epistemic critique coming from subaltern locations in the colonial divide and expressed in academia through ethnic studies and woman studies.) are going to coexist and be organized by capital as a source of production of surplus value through the selling of commodities for a profit in the world market. 6) a sexual hierarchy that privileges heterosexuals over homosexuals and lesbians (it is important to remember that most indigenous peoples in the Americas did not consider sexuality among males a pathological behavior and had no homophobic ideology). Moreover. semi-serfdom. Ian.” These concepts are in need of decolonization and this can only be achieved with a decolonial epistemology that overtly assumes a decolonial geopolitics and body-politics of knowledge as points of departure to a radical critique. Harry.” What arrived in the Americas was a broader and wider entangled power structure that an economic reductionist perspective of the world-system is unable to account for. wage labor. 2) an international division of labor of core and periphery where capital organized labor in the periphery around coerced and authoritarian forms (Wallerstein 1974). what arrived was a more complex world-system than what political-economy paradigms and worldsystem analysis portrait. political-economy paradigms and world-system analysis. what we get is a picture in which the origins of the so-called capitalist worldsystem are primarily produced by the inter-imperial competition among European Empires. Rothenbaum. to. the capitalist worldsystem would be primarily an economic system that determine the behavior of the major social actors by the economic logic of making profits as manifested in the extraction of surplus value and the ceaseless accumulation of capital at a worldscale. 7) a spiritual hierarchy that privileges Christians over non-Christian/non-Western spiritualities institutionalized in the globalization of the Christian (Catholic and later. Decolonial Thinking. the transformation in the relations of production produces a new class structure typical of capitalism as opposed to other social systems and other forms of domination. Berkley (Ramon. and Global Coloniality) NAR Globalization studies. They still continue to produce knowledge from the Western man “point zero” god-eye view. with only a few exceptions. University of Cal. This was a crucial part of. Without denying the importance of the endless accumulation of capital at a world scale and the existence of a particular class structure in global capitalism. The primary motive for this expansion was to find shorter routes to the East. which let accidentally to the so-called discovery and. This has led to important problems in the way we conceptualize global capitalism and the “world-system. Decolonizing Post-Colonial Studies and Paradigms of Political Economy: Transmodernity. 8) an epistemic hierarchy that privileges Western knowledge and cosmology over non-Western knowledge and DML. say. From this point of view. Grosfoguel 11 . 2000). Accordingly. but was not the sole element in. A European/capitalist/military/Christian/patriarchal/white/heterosexual/male arrived in the Americas and established simultaneously in time and space several entangled global hierarchies that for purposes of clarity in this exposition I will list below as if they were separate from each other: 1) a particular global class formation where a diversity of forms of labor (slavery. 4) a global racial/ethnic hierarchy that privileges European people over nonEuropean people (Quijano 1993. The following examples can illustrate this point. 3) an inter-state system of politico-military organizations controlled by European males and institutionalized in colonial administrations (Wallerstein 1979). What I attempt to do is to shift the location from which these paradigms are thinking. Jay. I raise the following epistemic question: How would the world-system look like if we moved the locus of enunciation from the European man to an Indigenous women in the Americas. Protestant) church. If we analyze the European colonial expansion from a Eurocentric point of view. 5) a global gender hierarchy that privileges males over females and European Judeo-Christian patriarchy over other forms of gender relations (Spivak 1988. Clayton . The first implication of shifting our geopolitics of knowledge is that what arrived in the Americas in the late fifteenth century was not only an economic system of capital and labor for the production of commodities to be sold for a profit in the world market. From the structural location of an indigenous woman in the Americas.Associate Professor of Ethnic Studies.

intersectionality (Crenshaw 1989. a chicken-egg dilemma that obscure s the complexity of the capitalist world-system (Grosfoguel 2002). nonWestern people. 1998. which considers in its rationality the reproduction of life. Fregoso 2003) of multiple and heterogeneous global hierarchies (“heterarchies”) of sexual. and institutionalized in the global university system (Mignolo 1995.S.. sexual. an entangled articulation of multiple hierarchies. citizenship and democracy were formed in a process of colonial interaction with. 12) a media/informational hierarchy where the West has the control over the means of global media production and information technology while the non-West do not have the means to make their points of view enter the global media networks. structures of knowledge. 9) a linguistic hierarchy between European languages and non-European languages that privileges communication and knowledge/theoretical production in the former and subalternize the latter as sole producers of folklore or culture but not of knowledge/theory (Mignolo 2000). Quijano 1991). economic. Contrary to the Eurocentric perspective. epistemology and spirituality were globalized and exported to the rest of the world through the colonial expansion as the hegemonic criteria to racialize. and institutions of modernity such as nation-states. or a “heterarchy” (Kontopoulos 1993). but an integral. epistemic. and domination/exploitation of. The “colonial power matrix” is an organizing principle involving exploitation and domination exercized in multiple dimensions of social life. Jay. spirituality. The sixteenth century initiates a new global colonial power matrix that by the late nineteenth century came to cover the whole planet. 10) an aesthetic hierarchy of high art vs. Ian. political. linguistic and racial forms of domination and exploitation where the racial/ethnic hierarchy of the European/non-European divide transversally reconfigures all of the other global power structures. race. European Judeo-Christian patriarchy and European notions of sexuality. from economic. peasants and agrarian production at the worldscale. Harry. It is not derivative from. the more authority and respect he/she receives from the community.” the moment we use the word “capitalism. The idea of race organizes the world’s population into a hierarchical order of superior and inferior people that becomes an organizing principle of the international division of labor and of the global patriarchal system. Following Peruvian Sociologist Aníbal Quijano (1991. the different forms of labor that are articulated to capitalist accumulation at a world-scale are assigned according to this racial hierarchy. In the “coloniality of power” approach. The same way as the European industrial revolution was achieved on the shoulders of the coerced forms of labor in the periphery. “culture or the economy. to use U. Taking a step further from Quijano. 15) a spatial hierarchy that privileges the urban over the rural with the consequent destruction of rural communities. However. to say the least. subjectivity and labor (Quijano 2000). we could conceptualize the present world-system as a historical-structural heterogeneous totality with a specific power matrix that he calls a “colonial power matrix” (“patrón de poder colonial”). Post-colonial studies conceptualize the capitalist world-system as being constituted primarily by culture. laws. “capitalism” is only one of the multiple entangled constellations of colonial power matrix DML. what comes first. spiritual. the new identities. state institutions. 13) an age hierarchy where the Western conception of productive life (ages between 15 and 65 years old) making disposable people above 65 years old are considered superior over non-Western forms of age classification. The global gender hierarchy is also affected by race: contrary to preEuropean patriarchies where all women were inferior to all men. 3) The old division between culture and political-economy as expressed in postcolonial studies and political-economy approaches is overcome (Grosfoguel 2002). 14) an ecological hierarchy where the Western conceptions of “nature” (as an object that is a means towards an end) with its destruction of life (human and nonhuman) is privileged and considered superior over nonWestern conceptions of the “ecology” such as Pachamama. We are all encompassed within a capitalist world-system that articulates different forms of labor according to the racial classification of the world’s population (Quijano 2000. entangled and constitutive part of the broad entangled “package” called the European modern/colonial capitalist/patriarchal worldsystem (Grosfoguel 2002). and households (Quijano 2000). sexuality. Rothenbaum. or Tao (ecology or cosmos as subject that is an end in itself). For example. in the new colonial power matrix some women (of European origin) have a higher status and access to resources than some men (of non-European origin). Coloniality and modernity constitute two sides of a single coin. while political-economy places the primary determination on economic relations. in which subjectivity and the social imaginary is not derivative but constitutive of the structures of the world-system (Grosfoguel 2002). classify and pathologize the rest of the world’s population in a hierarchy of superior and inferior races. they are constitutive of capitalist accumulation at a world-scale. This matrix affects all dimensions of social existence such as sexuality. Grosfoguel 2002). or gender relations. Art Galleries and global art markets. It is not an accident that the conceptualization of the world-system from decolonial perspectives of the South will question its traditional conceptualizations produced by thinkers from the North. 4) Coloniality is not equivalent to colonialism. 5) To call “”the present world-system “capitalist” is. that is. modernity. In this conceptualization. Clayton . gender. coercive (or cheap) labor is done by non-European people in the periphery and “free wage labor” in the core. or antecedent to. rights. Tawhid. Amanda. 2) The old Marxist paradigm of infrastructure and superstructure is replaced by a historical-heterogeneous structure (Quijano 2000).Cap Kritik 92/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab cosmologies. where the older the person.” is a false dilemma. race and racism are not superstructural or instrumental to an overarching logic of capitalist accumulation. This conceptualization has enormous implications that I can only briefly mention here: 1) The old Eurocentric idea that societies develop at the level of the nation-state in terms of a linear evolution of modes of production from pre-capitalist to capitalist is overcome. and epistemology are not additive elements to the economic and political structures of the capitalist world-system. misleading. I conceptualize the coloniality of power as an entanglement or. naïve or primitive art where the West is considered superior high art and the nonWest is considered as producers of inferior expressions of art institutionalized in Museums. to political organizations. Third World Feminist concept.” people immediately think that we are talking about the “economy”. 11) a pedagogical hierarchy where the Cartesian western forms of pedagogy are considered superior over non-Westerm concepts and practices of pedagogy. What is new in the “coloniality of power” perspective is how the idea of race and racism becomes the organizing principle that structures all of the multiple hierarchies of the world-system (Quijano 1993). authority. Given the hegemonic Eurocentric “common sense. 2000. 2000).

Above. epistemic. 6) Accordingly. but not the sole one. Anti-systemic decolonization and liberation cannot be reduced to only one dimension of social life such as the economic system (capitalism) like it happened with the twentieth century Marxist left.” Capitalism is an important constellation of power. To transform this world-system it is crucial to destroy the historicalstructural heterogenous totality called the “colonial power matrix” of the “worldsystem” with its multiple forms of power hierarchies. Clayton . spiritual. political. Given its entanglement with other power relations. but a civilization that has conquered the world trying to colonially impose the ways of thinking. Jay. 7) The complex multiplicity of power hierarchies at the global scale in the present world-system we inhabit is not just a social or an economic system. “Capitalist/Patriarchal Western-centric/Christian-centric Modern/Colonial WorldSystem. It requires a broader transformation of the sexual. Rothenbaum. to move beyond this system the struggle cannot be just anticapitalist but an anti-systemic decolonial liberation. Amanda.” The “coloniality of power” perspective challenges us to think about social change and social transformation in a nonreductionist way. pedagogical and racial hierarchies of the “modern/colonial western-centric Christian-centric capitalist/patriarchal world-system. destroying the capitalist aspects of the world-system would not be enough to destroy the present worldsystem. Harry. DML. Ian. linguistic. Anti-systemic decolonial struggles against the fifteen power hierarchies of the world-system are at the same time a civilization struggle for a new humanism (Fanon 1967) and a new civilization (indigenous’ conception of transformation in different parts of the world). I outlined a total of 15 global power hierarchies. but I am sure there are more that escaped my conceptualization. at the risk of sounding ridiculous. aesthetic. gender.Cap Kritik 93/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab of what I called. acting and living to the rest of the peoples in the world. economic.

that subordinates the state to an empowered civil society structured around practices of participatory democracy. Williams 2008:156). but also by arborescent formations such as new democratic left parties in Europe (Rao 2009 Solty 2008). community. deployed in the pursuit of movement in the desired direction’ (Unger 2009:xxi. pressure for change may arise most urgently from a growing“environmental proletariat” (Foster 2010: 15) in areas of failing habitability. This project faces great challenges. however. both physical and informational. For such generative politics to take root ‘a synergistic relation between political parties and civil society must be forged in order to ensure that the necessary institutional spaces are created and the capacity for civil society participation is developed’ (M. and leadership in counter-hegemonic globalization can be expected to emanate from the South. toward the adjacent possible. as Bloch put it 10 – it is unlikely that transformative politics will gain traction until consumerism as a way of life that contains its own selfreproducing end values is rejected by (or becomes unviable for) great numbers of people. and a sustainable relation to the earth’ (Magdoff and Foster 2010). the intergovernmental organizations developing within the Bolivarian process and what may be an emerging Fifth International inclusive of parties and movements. the autonomist politics of the Larzac plateau is exemplary. The movement of movements will walk on both legs. in North America. the ‘programmatic imagination’ marks a direction and defines the next steps in taking up that trajectory (Unger 2009:xxi). Transnational networks and campaigns. that combines. whose constituents recognize in the intersections of power and oppression an emancipatory collective interest.11 To break from the hegemony of marketplacesociety is to endeavour ‘in the here and now to create in the interstices of the system a new social metabolism rooted in egalitarianism. Globally. globally and in national and local contexts – or else it will stumble. In this respect. welding the present to the future has an indelibly programmatic aspect. of new social relations and subjectivities. a counterhegemonic historical bloc organized around a project of sustainable human development and participatory democracy. and including as allies progressive state actors. Rothenbaum. registered in such notions as war of position and historical bloc. of communications and culture. This direction implies a process of democratic globalization that reaches beyond the Westphalian division of humanity into (potentially) warring factions – and well beyond the current state of the world. what seems adjacently possible is an ‘institutionalization of multilevel contestation’. in ‘virtuous circles’ that strengthen both movements and initiatives by state leaders at the global level (Evans 2008). The emergent themes and practices discussed above help mark a direction: toward a post-capitalist way of life that is broadly eco-socialist. and autonomous governance of the commons. Amanda. In practising sustainable consumption in the North. and winning state power is indispensable to transformation at a global level. Counter-hegemonic globalization is sustained by the transnational cultural infrastructures and activist networks that shape global civil society.” Interface 2:2. emphasis added). new media and new communicative struggles. of collective property. Ian. Marking a direction sketches the contours of a counter-hegemonic project – a possible it is the choice of next steps that enables motion. practices and subjectivities both on the cultural terrain of civil society and within/against the state. movements. counter-hegemony: in search of the new. within an ethicopolitical framework. initiatives to reclaim the commons. Counter-hegemony. combining rhizomic networks and ‘traditional’ trees. requires more than a cataloguing of what is new. where the marketplace society and postmodern fragmentation discussed earlier are most entrenched – where the left’s marginality contributes to a doxic condition of ‘dreamlessness’. dialogical communicative relations. As for the national and transnational. and the problem of welding present to future. “Crisis. 168-198. Yet achieving the global contraction in greenhouse gas emissions and convergence in emissions per capita necessary to avert the worst ecological scenarios will require a strong ethico-political solidarity of North with South –quite DML. ‘the possible that counts is not the fanciful horizon of possibilities but the adjacent possible: what is accessible with the materials at hand. reaching from the local to the global. the autonomy of individuals with an abiding appreciation of the intersecting relations that implicate us in each other’s lives. These politics must be substantially rooted in local and national contexts: local self- empowerment is a requirement of democratic mobilization. The elements of the new I have sketched also illuminate the next steps.Cap Kritik 94/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt extensions – Carroll Reject their complicity with capitalism – only unconditional rejection of consumerism can initiate revolts against capitalism that can become truly global Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William. to production of sustainable agriculture. These developments portend a global left. Jay. and quotidian practices of becoming aware and acting coherently all mark a cathartic shift from protest to generative politics. when placed in the context of the ecological race against time and the continuing hegemony of consumer capitalism. Clayton . creating new relations. Indeed. As an instrument of alternative – but transformative politics. Harry. dml) Our point of departure was a meditation on the new.

taken in that direction that. Clayton . Rothenbaum. the twin exigencies of our time. DML. Such a global transition would require that ecological and social revolutions in the South ‘be accompanied by. and the treadmill of accumulation’ (Foster 2010: 15). steps 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the reverse of what was on display at COP15 in Copenhagen in December 2009. the destruction of the planet. might open an exit hatch from capitalism. or inspire.Cap Kritik 95/194 nevertheless. universal revolts against imperialism. Amanda. cumulatively. What is particularly new in this organic crisis is the entwinement of human survival with democratic socialist construction. It is. and presently a distant possibility. Harry. Ian. Jay.

These successes are particularly stunning.marxist. By contrast.Cap Kritik 96/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt solves case Space exploration is inevitable. “Capitalism Versus Science”. doctors and engineers per capita than any other country on Earth in just a few decades? The superiority of the nationalized planned economy and the break from the madness of capitalism is the only explanation. Under capitalism. with all its power relations and consequent social injustices. even many advanced capitalist countries have been unable to eliminate illiteracy today. The Soviets immediately recognized the importance of the overall development of science and technology and linked it to the development of the country as a whole.com/capitalism-versus-science. Soviet scientists pushed the frontiers of knowledge. it was transformed into a leading super-power. When half of the world’s population is forced to live on less than two dollars a day. Harry. Many Soviet era scientists have been awarded Nobel prizes in various fields. This process seems destined to be made into a hegemonic project. Ian. Clayton . third world country that had been ruined by the First World War. economically and politically powerful will continue to make themselves even more potent via the humanization of the cosmos. Another vital component of their success was the massive expansion of education. Jay. Companies do not plan to advance technology. the first to put a man in space. One only has to look at the ban on stem-cell research under the Bush regime DML. If a cosmic society is to genuinely benefit the dispossessed it will have to be organized around radically different priorities. Patents. it’s just a question of how we approach it – the aff causes cap but the alt causes genuine society Dickens and Ormrod 7 . By abolishing private schools and providing free education at all levels. How were such advancements possible? How did the Soviet Union go from having a population that was 90% illiterate. A ‘risk society’. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 176. to having more scientists. individuals in the population were able to meet their potential. While the Soviet Union under Stalin was far from the ideal socialist society (something which we have explained extensively elsewhere). let alone open up university education to all who are able. and private industry were eliminated. particularly in the areas of Mathematics. Religious prejudices that had long held back rational study were pushed aside. and the first to build a permanently manned outpost in space. a form of ‘common sense’ with investments into an infinite outer space supposedly bringing great benefits to the whole of society. but from the alternative. http://www. which prevent large portions of the population from reaching their potential. the socially. Paleck 9 – Former Iowa Democratic nominee for the House of Representatives (Mike. The soviet government immediately tore down all the barriers on science that strangle innovation within the capitalist system. A citizen could continue their studies as long as they were capable. This broad view allowed them to put substantial resources into all areas of study. states and pro-space activists is beginning to make outer space into an extension of Earthly society. the ability of private companies to develop science and technology is limited by a narrow view of what is profitable. Rothenbaum. this time on a cosmic scale. The first step in this process was simply the recognition that science was a priority. Under current social and political arrangements. Amanda. Astronomy. In a matter of decades. trade secrets. its history gives us valuable insight into the potential of a nationalized planned economy. Nuclear Physics. The alt solves space better – technological expansion is held back by commercial profit. A powerful coalition of financiers. such a project also seems likely to make outer space in the image of the Earth itself. In 1917 the Bolsheviks took control of a backwards. will be created. when one considers the state the country was in when capitalism was overthrown.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. The USSR would go on to be the first to put a satellite into orbit. An alternative hegemonic project will have to be made.htm) The ultimate proof of capitalism’s hindrance of science and technology comes not from capitalism.8/12/09. massive financial barriers are placed in front of students. however. dml) It seems clear that society will be made increasingly ‘cosmic’. we can only conclude that massive reserves of human talent are being wasted. Under capitalism. semi-feudal. This allowed for more collaborative research across fields and a free flow of information between institutions. Space Exploration and Chemistry. Tragically. industrialists. they plan to build a marketable product and will only do what is necessary to bring that product to market.

in some cases new ones were erected as the direction of scientific study was subjugated to the needs and desires of the bureaucracy. The only thing that stands in our way is capitalism. Rothenbaum. With the development of computers. Potential cures for deadly diseases are tossed aside to clear the way for research into the latest drug to cure erectile dysfunction. The chains of the free- market prevent meaningful research from being done. is now tangible. but of Stalinism. Today. Harry. Capitalism does not drive innovation. DML. humanity stands at the doorstep of a bright future of scientific advancement and prosperity. Every aspect of human development is hindered by the erroneously-named free-market. the internet and new technologies. Humanity today is being held back by an economic system designed to enslave the majority for the benefit of a minority. One of the most outrageous cases was Stalin’s contempt for chromosomal genetics. is now in plain sight. Ian. A lack of resources for education and research keep doors closed to young aspiring minds. Just as the bureaucracy hindered the development of the economy. certain fields of study were outlawed entirely and leading scientists were arrested and sent to labour camps in Siberia. These crimes were not crimes of socialism. What was once veiled. including Agol. Amanda. but hinders it at every step. In the most extreme cases. it is the task of those interested in science and socialism to learn the lessons of history. Clayton . where he died in 1943. 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab But it wasn’t all good news under Stalinism. We are learning more and more about every aspect of our existence. it also hindered certain areas of study. What was once impossible. Private collectors hold unique and important specimens for their own personal amusement. Science is being held back by private interests and industry. Nikolai Vavilov. there would be no reason for such atrocities. Jay. This is madness. Under a democratically planned economy. is now understood. This ban wasn’t overturned until the mid 1960s. The advancement of scientific knowledge will one day put even the farthest reaches of the universe at our fingertips. Private companies refuse to let new technologies out of their back rooms. What was once a mystery. Levit and Nadson were executed. one of the Soviet Union’s great geneticists was sent to a labour camp. Religious interference locks science in a cage and declares important fields of study off-limits. While the many barriers of capitalism were broken down.Cap Kritik 97/194 to see the negative effects religious bigotry can have on science. The study of genetics was banned and several prominent geneticists.

This is what Roy Bhaskar (1986) refers to as an explanatory critique: the deliberate undermining of the false beliefs created by society based on social power and coercion. Moreover. forged against this particular form of humanization. Jay. Contemporary forms of subjectivity which are alienated from the cosmos and dreaming about being part of it are not inevitable. Harry. dml) In this book we have aimed to go even further towards revealing ‘the worm in the apple’ of space humanization: outlining the capital processes which underpin it and in the process stripping away some of the hegemonic assumptions that serve to obscure them. Clayton . Ian. but extend this order indefinitely into the cosmos.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Social and political alliances can be. Amanda. But an explanatory critique hopefully also shows that there is nothing inevitable about this process. The science of outer space is now being deployed to humanize the cosmos in ways that not only reproduce the social order. New types of common sense can be constructed. DML. and are being. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 189. it exposes the ways in which these mechanisms are used by the powerful as a means of enhancing their authority over the rest of society. Rothenbaum. An explanatory critique exposes the causal mechanisms and elements that underlie the complexity of the social life and of the universe.Cap Kritik 98/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Critique Merely the act of critique alone points out the flaws in space capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . They are the product of recent times and can certainly undergo change in a more socially progressive direction.

Clayton . ‘space for peace’ could also include diverting risk stemming from Earth-bound asteroids: a plan under active development by NASA and the European Space Agency (Gray 2007). Rothenbaum. this is not incompatible with scientific exploration of outer space aimed at simply discovering how the universe is structured. DML. and individualist fantasies.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Ian. To quote Etzioni. ‘As we move deeper into space we should be facing Earth and allow our deprived world to set the pace’ (1964: 198). or chart changes in the environment caused by global warming.Cap Kritik 99/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Floating PIC Alt doesn’t preclude the plan but it’s a prerequisite to solving the link Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 190. the humanization of outer space could emphasize collective responsibilities on Earth and try to ensure that any gains made through space exploration were spread throughout to improve the lot of the dispossessed on Earth (as was the original aim of the United Nations Moon Agreement). So long as it is not motivated by fear and panic. so long as funds are not diverted from more socially necessary projects. rather than being founded on the interests of capital. dml) Alternatively. In theory. Earth imaging technology available freely to all can be used to track refugee populations. Amanda. Harry. Jay.

They agree that forms of consciousness and identity nowadays no longer stem primarily from the factory or the sphere of production. economic growth and scientific rationality (see also. even to the extent of denying links between political identity and the material world. albeit with a less direct connection to class interests. Clayton . Habermas argued a quarter of a century ago that new social movement conflicts are carried on between those involved in production. neither fish nor fowl. feminist.Cap Kritik 100/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Movements/Link – K aff Class struggles must come first – any other issue can’t solve the root cause of their struggles Dickens and Ormrod 7 . They have some of the characteristics ascribed to real – that is. Often. as he notes. In addition. ethnic. these authors oppose any notion of general or ‘universal’ propositions such as the working class or class struggle being the principal generator of social change. regional or that of sexual minorities. The supposed separation from material politics by the new movements has inspired ‘postMarxist’ developments in social movement theory. or who are more seriously affected by them. The common denominator of all of them would be their differentiation from workers’ struggles. Ian. class – movements (for example mass mobilization) but they appeal to ‘illusory collective identities such as nation. and with interests in maintaining it in its current state. anti-institutional. As a number of authors other than Habermas argue. This has been heralded by some theorists as a radical new era of post-material (Inglehart 1981) or post-emancipatory (Giddens 1991) politics. In this respect. racist. for example. locality or even. Amanda. (Laclau and Mouffe 2001: 159) Whereas Laclau and Mouffe respond to the emergence of new social movements by removing material struggles from their analysis. These struggles are widely seen as composed of heterogeneous actors who do not represent a particular social stratum with identifiable interests. Laclau and Mouffe urge us to only look around to observe what they call ‘the new antagonisms’. ecological. anti-authoritarian. Laclau and Mouffe agree that Gramsci offered major insights into the role of ideology and ‘common sense’ as a means of holding society together. Jay. The unsatisfactory term ‘new social movements’ groups together a series of highly diverse struggles: urban. The diversity of people’s material positions is emphasized here. and those who are not and who are therefore ‘more sensitive to the self-destructive consequences of the growth in complexity. Beck 1992). this latter group deliberately and consistently challenges modern concepts of progress. to abstractions such as “the public” or “humanity” ’. Like many other writers on contemporary social protest. The new social movements are constituted by groups often removed not just from industrial production but from its values and priorities. The bond that unifies these heterogenous groups is the critique of growth’ (1981: 33). dml) Marxist theories are generally found wanting in the era of the new social movements. turning their attention to issues such as peace. Rothenbaum. these theorists believed that when human material needs were satisfied they would turn their attention to ‘higher’ cultural goals. Influenced by Michel Foucault and ‘poststructuralist’ thought. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 180-181. new social movements initially appear unconcerned with material politics at all. gender. most disturbing of all. As Scott writes: At least in the conventional Marxist analysis. Harry. two of the most influential political writers on global politics in recent years have been Laclau and Mouffe (2001). prosperity. (Scott 1995: 3) Here Scott is describing the problem traditional Marxists have had in explaining the constituency of new social movements. Mirroring the psychologist Maslow’s (1971) ‘hierarchy of needs’. this has meant explaining away new social movement identities as forms of false consciousness. social movements which define themselves without reference to class are a category puzzle. the environment and sexuality. DML. other theorists have attempted to retain an emphasis on fundamental antagonisms at the heart of the social order. considered as ‘class’ struggles. But they are addressing themselves to the question of how counter-hegemony can be formed at a time when ‘the ruling class’ seems to be on the wane.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James.

especially those who have suffered from capital investment. Jay. Like Laclau and Mouffe. ‘The multitude’ in this picture is therefore envisaged as the modern version of the international proletariat which Marx. This is conceived by these authors as a great mass of people subordinated to global capital and global power. Harry. Hardt working with political leaders. a ‘global elite’ still represents the interests of financial and corporate capital and.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. It is a force that the dominant social bloc must overcome if it is to remain intact. the multitude is coming to represent a powerful counter-force resisting and eventually overcoming capitalist imperialism. particularly via electronic networks and channels of information flows. Hardt and Negri argue that resistance is no longer forged in the factory. power throughout the whole of global society. Ian. ‘The multitude’ is the new counter-hegemonic force that will overthrow the existing social order. Amanda. dml) On the one hand. privatization and commodification disrupting their lives. It is the product of the new social and technological era. But resistance is now coming from what Hardt and Negri call ‘the multitude’. DML. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 181-182.Cap Kritik 101/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Multitude Endorsing the multitude would help break down capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Lenin. exercises and Negri argue that. Luxemburg and many others earlier believed was capable of creating its own hegemonic worldview and overthrowing the social order. the diversity of the multitude is its very strength. despite its many deprivations. Rothenbaum. Organizing themselves like capital itself. Clayton .

*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. They are again the people using their abilities and knowledge towards emancipating oppressed people. but subordinate orders. They are more likely to endorse projects not wholly devoted to further capital accumulation. ‘cultural leaders’.Cap Kritik 102/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Organic Intellectuals Embracing the organic intellectual is key to catalyze class struggles Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Here the prospects for resistance and the making of new kinds of coalition between dominant and subordinate groups are more promising. Clayton . DML. often including more ascetic tastes and resistances to consumerism (Savage et al. 1992). Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 186-187. These are the main ‘intellectuals’ of the present day. These are the intellectuals ‘organic’ to the subordinated or subaltern classes. Jay. creating new trends in consumption. Harry. Amanda. Rothenbaum. Ian. themselves low on economic capital. In Gramsci’s time and to an extent in our day they would include people attached to the labour movement and to trade unions. They are also people with high levels of cultural capital such as teachers and workers in the public sector. may find useful alliances with them. dml) A third set of intellectuals in Gramsci’s scheme is that attached to the resisters themselves. They have a vested interest in their elite status.

on the cosmos as a whole.Cap Kritik 103/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – SPACE COMMUNISM ALT TEXT – PUT COMMUNISM IN SPACE Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Ian. as such. and much more ambitiously. Jay.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. This is a highly human-centred project and. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 190. can be criticized for simply imposing humanity’s priorities. Is a cosmos reproducing and expanding a socialist or communist society necessarily a problem? Perhaps the significance of the utopian cosmists is that they prefigured the possibility of alternative types of space humanization. Rothenbaum. dml) Alternatively. Clayton . DML. Harry. humanization cosmists by spreading a could attempt to emulate the early twentieth-century Russian socialist or communist society throughout the whole of nearby outer space. But any project is going to be ‘human’ or ‘anthropocentric’. albeit communist priorities. Amanda.

Rothenbaum. Amanda. Ian.Cap Kritik 104/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **ANSWERS TO** DML. Clayton . Harry. Jay.

before him. This form of imperialism and capital expansion may seem particularly attractive to ruling elites. Harry. At the moment. dml) But this new form of imperialism is not quite ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in the classic sense outlined by Harvey and. cosmic imperialism is not directly dispossessing anybody of anything. at least. Rothenbaum. But the fact remains that this fourth stage of imperialism may in the long term simply reproduce Earthly conflicts. Earthly sociopolitical coalitions and environmental degradation into the cosmos. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 179-180. this precludes public and private investments in probably more worthwhile projects on Earth. Ian. Jay. as and when elements of nearby outer space are legally subdivided and exploited by different private or state interests. Clayton .Cap Kritik 105/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – No space cap war Even if there’s no harms right now – domination and war will happen Dickens and Ormrod 7 . There are no people or societies out there protesting or rising up against this latest stage of domination and capital accumulation. Furthermore. given the contradictions and increasingly evident social and environmental crises of Earthly society. DML. Amanda. Luxemburg and Lenin. such imperialism also opens up the possibility of wars between those powers gaining access to the Moon or other nearby parts of the cosmos. of course. But.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James.

Amanda. Ian. DML. Jay.Cap Kritik 106/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Space grants freedom Freedom is bad! Dickens and Ormrod 7 . but it also legitimizes the wants of its subjects. Rothenbaum. Harry.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. dml) These arguments about freedom are ultimately intricately related to the need of pro-space activists to re-experience total power centred around the self. Again. with its emphasis on the individual and delight at the survival of the fittest. Clayton . not only does the language of freedom sustain neo-liberal capitalism. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 166.

The familiarity of these tales precludes the telling of alternative stories. the Pilgrim Fathers. culture and contingency in human social life. this being a positive attribute. Some prospace activists frame their discussion of human nature directly in relation to Dawkins’ sociobiological arguments. For many pro-space activists. An intense focus on genes means that the interaction between organisms as a whole. Lewis and Clarke and Neil Armstrong are all examples of idols worshipped by the Western culture of exploration and imperialism. to fight the exploration and development of space is to fight against human nature. dml) Sociobiological arguments often reflect broadly accepted. In this way human society is not limited to one ‘ecological niche’ but can expand and grow to other niches. when resources become scarce. Biology is clearly important but it is overlaid or ‘over-determined’ by social relations and social processes of many kinds (Dickens 2000). Columbus. It is easy to see how to these people exploration would appear to be human nature. For some time now there have been extensive criticisms of sociobiology (see. biology should be seen as offering important insights into the causal powers underlying the growth and development of humans and other species. including psychic structure. and has been discussed by Dawkins himself (1998).Cap Kritik 107/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Biology=exploration This is capitalist and wrong and evil and dumb Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Lewontin 1993). sociobiology forces sociology to recognize the biological foundations of human behaviour and development. Sahlins 1972. Amanda. meaning. Clayton . for example. Rose and Rose 2000). Much of the foundation for the argument that it is in humanity’s nature to explore comes from grossly selective extrapolations from historical evidence. Sociologists and social anthropologists tend not be persuaded by this discipline because it disregards the importance of agency. To pro-space activists growing up in contemporary America. Indeed. some or all humans are pre-programmed to explore their surroundings for more resources. outer space represents the next ‘ecological niche’ for mankind. even hegemonic. To explore and develop space for them is to act according to human nature. It is believed that. in line with our critical realist standpoint as outlined in Chapter 1. On the other hand. their relations to their environment and their development during their lifetimes goes largely missing from the sociobiology enterprise (Dickens 2000). Society. Rothenbaum. the history of the world is largely understood as the history of exploration. many of which have become popular reading in the movement. It has characterized the whole of human history. Jay. One of the key points about a critical realism is that it points to the way in which certain kinds of science are used to ideological and political ends. DML. Ian. is reduced to the biological level (Pinker 1997.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Gene-based biology used to justify further space exploration and the increasing humanization of the universe is an excellent case in point. Harry. But these combine with other causal powers operating within society to generate biological development and forms of subjectivity. Conversely. The argument that curiosity and exploration are an adaptive survival trait for the human species is well-rehearsed. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 171-172. ‘common sense’ perceptions about human nature and human behaviour.

Cap Kritik 108/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Realism Realism isn’t the root cause of war – realist discourse is Dickens and Ormrod 7 . like other animals. Ian. Jay. Expansion into outer space is as likely to undermine peace as to bring it about. Perhaps needless to say. A more critical analyst would examine the way that this argument diverts attention from the real. as we have tried to argue in Chapter 2. DML. most paradoxically of all. At the time of writing. First. nonWestern societies are being invaded in the cause of ‘freedom’. it shows how seemingly universal and apolitical values (for example ‘peace’) are articulated by a movement with other concepts and priorities central to the discourse. one of the precursors to sociobiology and also unpopular with sociologists (Ardrey 1967. especially when ‘cornered’. Humans. The argument rests on an assertion that wars are the product of people competing for limited resources and that humans will inevitably fight for survival under such circumstances. Second. revolve around power and private property. These arguments stem from human ethology. more space and increased resources will lead to social harmony. ‘economic growth’ and. Amanda.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Rothenbaum. These. this is another argument unpopular with sociologists and political scientists. Clayton . will fight to survive. Lorenz 1966). ‘individualism’. we should note that many of the values held by pro-space activists are precisely those now informing Earthly ‘accumulation by dispossession’. dml) This argument exemplifies two points. An emphasis on the importance of space for peace on Earth has really come to prominence post 9/11. Harry. underlying causes of war. Social relations have again gone largely missing. Framing the problem in this way leads to a prognosis in which opening up outer space combined with individual freedom. ‘peace’. the discourses of social movements can change over time. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 172-173. Finally.

As we have already argued. Rothenbaum. They have been outspoken against the militarization of space. and have flagged up issues including the creation of space debris and the socio-environmental consequences of opening up space to capital. third world governments have also contested. Amanda. Social movements like the Global Network could mount such ethical opposition to the humanization of space that investment might. the monopoly that the Western world is developing over outer space. though it remains to be seen whether the US influence will continue to dominate proceedings in an era in which blocs of power in other countries such as China and India emerge as major stakeholders in outer space. Harry. Ian. The links they have built with other organizations associated with the political left. There is evidence that this movement is gaining in numbers and becoming increasingly militant. The United Nations’ role in dictating the shape of the humanization of space looks to become increasingly central. University of Essex and **James. for a while at least. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. but also against the use of nuclear power in space. that these resistances will be blown out of the water by those social alliances attempting to retain power. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology.Cap Kritik 109/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Cap Resilient Organic intellectuals are capable of resisting the decentralized and normalizing efforts of hegemonic. Organic intellectuals within popular culture and activist organizations will certainly have a key role to play if this is to be resisted. pg 72. demonstrate the awareness that activists have that issues about outer space are the result and continuation of the dynamic of a global neo-liberal capitalist economy. Clayton . capitalist views toward space propagated by the media and military Dickens and Ormrod 7 . such as the Yorkshire CND in England. As mentioned above. There is always the danger. Culture and the media have a key role to play in dulling or awakening popular consciousness about these issues. IWren) Resistances to military enterprises and to what Harvey calls ‘accumulation by dispossession’ may well be multiple. however. be halted. there is a danger that space technology itself disseminates a hegemonic worldview that legitimizes as inevitable the endless expansion of imperial capitalism into space.*Peter. 7 DML. albeit to date unsuccessfully. however. Jay.

There are the costs incurred as producers pass on the costs of their production to the rest of us -. Clayton . for infrastructure.com/articles/2011/01/02/unconventional_wisdom?page=0. When their processes move too far from equilibrium. The remedies recommended vary considerably. To meet these demands. and more and more guarantees of lifetime income. Why not then simply raise prices? Because there are limits beyond which one cannot push their level.9. “The Global Economy Won’t Recover. for renewal of resources. and lower living standards Harvey 10 . http://globalization. Jay. Director of The Center for Place. Rothenbaum. as well as frantic realignments of every variety. leading to bankruptcies. These fluctuations cannot easily be controlled by public policy.cuny. The result is ever greater uncertainty about all kinds of short-term decision-making.gc. There are good reasons to DML. The fundamental political struggle is over what kind of system will replace capitalism. but the idea that the system shall continue in its essential features is a deeply rooted faith. The choice is between a new system that replicates some of the present system's essential features of hierarchy and polarization and one that is relatively democratic and egalitarian. Amanda. It is called the elasticity of demand.” January-February 2011. Doubt feeds on itself as we search for ways out of the menacing uncertainty posed by terrorism.economic. political. it merely exposed it as hollow. is elsewhere. PhD in geography from Cambridge (“Organizing for the Anti-Capitalist Transition”. Together. Three percent compound growth (generally considered the minimum satisfactory growth rate for a healthy capitalist economy) is becoming less and less feasible to sustain without resort to all manner of fictions (such as those that have characterized asset markets and financial affairs over the last two decades). For a while now. It is wrenching to accept that the historical system in which we are living is in structural crisis and will not survive. Ian. sociocultural. The result is a growing profit squeeze. IWren) The historical geography of capitalist development is at a key inflexion point in which the geographical configurations of power are rapidly shifting at the very moment when the temporal dynamic is facing very serious constraints. Culture and Politics.foreignpolicy.for unskilled workers. Our recent "difficulties" are merely the next-to-last bubble in a process of boom and bust the world-system has been undergoing since around 1970. The only sure thing is that the present system cannot continue.David. including in the so-called emerging economies. Our existing system.or refuse to recognize -. All this activity simply accentuates the structural crisis. After all. such that it is today in structural crisis. the system proceeds by its accepted rules.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2011/04/OrganizingtheAnti. The latest financial crisis didn't bring down this system. But it is wrong. there has been a significant increase in taxation of all kinds.these realities. Cap unsustainable in the long term—propping it up in the short term leads to military repression. There are the personnel expenses of all kinds -. upturns always occur after downturns. Distinguished Professor at the City University of New York (CUNY).agrees that the world has been in some kind of economic trouble since at least 2008. politicians.Cap Kritik 110/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Cap Sustainable Transition is inevitable – the underpinnings of capitalism are collapsing Wallerstein 11 – *senior research scholar at Yale (Immanuel. http://www. for cadres. It has functioned remarkably well. and nuclear proliferation. pundits -. Meanwhile.for detoxification. Harry. which is reaching a point where the game is not worth the candle. pandemics. Talk given at the World Social Forum 2010. what I call a capitalist worldeconomy. it has moved steadily further and further from equilibrium. We meet at G20 sessions and seek a futile consensus. they fluctuate chaotically and bifurcate. Now or Ever. for top-level management. Most people do not recognize -. not whether it should survive. dml) Virtually everyone everywhere-economists. What we are witnessing as a result is chaotic fluctuations of all kinds -. All systems have lives. The last bubble will be state indebtednesses. But like all systems. these costs have risen beyond the point that permits serious capital accumulation. The problem is that the basic costs of all production have risen remarkably. The real action. We "develop" our economies in whatever way we can. poverty. climate change. We speculate on the markets. it has moved too far from equilibrium. has been in existence for some 500 years and has for at least a century encompassed the entire globe. the struggle over what new system will be created. And virtually everyone seems to believe that in the next few years the world will somehow "recover" from these difficulties. And the democratization of the world has led to demands for more and more education.pdf. environmental degradation. more and more health provisions. The extraordinary expansion of the world-economy in the postwar years (more or less 1945 to 1970) has been followed by a long period of economic stagnation in which the basic source of gain has been rank speculation sustained by successive indebtednesses.

Class inequalities will increase (as we already see happening). The political forces that coalesced and mobilized behind these transitions had a distinctive class character and clothed themselves in the vestments of a distinctive ideology called neoliberal. If that is to be done in an equitable way.” But the mass of the people will have to surrender the fruits of their labour to those in power. Intensifying global competition translated into lower non-financial corporate profits. of course. corporate and household) to its limits (particularly in the USA and the UK but also in many other countries from Latvia to Dubai). social. which is unlikely. personal initiative and entrepreneurialism were the best guarantors of individual liberty and freedom and that the “nanny state” should be dismantled for the benefit of all. one third of the capital equipment in the United States stood idle. depending upon what part of the world one inhabited. Crises are moments of paradox and possibilities. all of which had a Ponzi character.42 trillion needed in 1973 (the dollar figures are inflation adjusted). What spaces are left in the global economy for new spatial fixes for capital surplus absorption? China and the ex-Soviet bloc have already been integrated. of technologies and of geographical/ geopolitical distributions are likely to be profound. All manner of localized possibilities arise for either nascent capitalists in some new space to seize opportunities to challenge older class and territorial hegemonies (as when Silicon Valley replaced Detroit from the mid-1970s onwards in the United States) or for radical movements to challenge the reproduction of an already destabilized class power. The system that has been created amounts to a veritable form of communism for the capitalist class. The current crisis originated in the steps taken to resolve the crisis of the 1970s. The corollary was to enhance the profitability of financial corporations and to find new ways to globalize and supposedly absorb risks through the creation of fictitious capital markets. the other potential barriers of effective demand in the market place. and to suffer environmental degradations galore to say nothing of serial reductions in their living standards which means starvation for many of those already struggling to survive at rock bottom. free trade. political and geopolitical and environmental difficulties? Again. All of that may require more than a little political repression. that no serious active oppositions to continuous capital accumulation and further consolidation of class power materialize. So what will happen this time around? If we are to get back to three percent growth. The difficulties were in part resolved by creation of fictitious markets where speculation in asset values could take off unhindered. police violence and militarized state control to stifle unrest. then there is no alternative to socialism or communism. Africa is not yet fully integrated but there is nowhere else with the capacity to absorb all this surplus capital. (c) utilizing and empowering the most fluid and highly mobile form of capital – money capital – to reallocate capital resources globally (eventually through electronic markets) thus sparking deindustrialization in traditional core regions and new forms of (ultra-oppressive) industrialization and natural resource and agricultural raw material extractions in emergent markets. Can the capitalist class reproduce its power in the face of the raft of economic. Clayton . But the practice entailed that the state must stand behind the integrity of financial institutions. (f) Compensating for anemic rates of return in production by the construction of whole series of asset market bubbles. the answer is a resounding “yes. The current crisis offers a window of opportunity to reflect on what might be involved. Uneven geographical development and inter-territorial competition became key features in capitalist development. even supposing. The new rounds of primitive accumulation against indigenous and peasant populations were augmented by asset losses of the lower classes in the core economies (as witnessed by the sub-prime housing market in the US which foisted a huge asset loss particularly upon African American populations). Amanda. Questioning the future of capitalism itself as an adequate social system ought.15 trillion new investment needed in 1950 and the $0. What could be more irrational than that! Can capitalism survive the present trauma? Yes. Where will all this investment go now? Leaving aside the undisputable constraints in the relation to nature (with global warming of paramount importance). enforced part-timers or “discouraged” workers. Since the late 1990s. Since much of this is unpredictable and since the spaces of the global economy are so variable. while some 17 per cent of the workforce were either unemployed. The state (local and national) also became increasingly committed to providing a “good business climate” to attract investments in a highly competitive environment. thus introducing (beginning with the Mexican and developing countries debt crisis of 1982) “moral hazard” big time into the financial system. (d) At the other end of the social scale. therefore. What new lines of production can be opened up to absorb growth? There may be no effective long-run capitalist solutions (apart from reversion to fictitious capital manipulations) to this crisis of capitalism. So how can the left negotiate the dynamics of this crisis? At times of crisis. DML. to surrender many of their rights and their hard-won asset values (in everything from housing to pension rights). the political and cultural traditions and how the balance of political-economic power was shifting.Cap Kritik 111/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab believe that there is no alternative to a new global order of governance that will eventually have to manage the transition to a zero growth economy. Jay. The result has been global wage repressions (a declining share of wages in total GDP almost everywhere) and the creation of an even vaster disposable labor reserve living under marginal conditions. Rothenbaum. then uncertainties as to outcomes are heightened at times of crisis. To say that the capitalist class and capitalism can survive is not to say that they are predestined to do so nor does it say that their future character is given. These asset bubbles drew upon finance capital and were facilitated by extensive financial innovations such as derivatives and collateralized debt obligations. even with the opening up of China and the collapse of the Soviet Bloc. (b) undermining previous structures of monopoly power and displacing the previous stage of (nation state) monopoly capitalism by opening up capitalism to far fiercer international competition. The interests of the people were secondary to the interests of capital and in the event of a conflict between them. (e) The augmentation of otherwise sagging effective demand by pushing the debt economy (governmental. The ideology rested upon the idea that free markets. then this means finding new and profitable global investment opportunities for $1. Real problems of finding adequate outlets for surplus capital began to emerge after 1980. the class relations prevailing there. In midsummer of 2009.6 trillion in 2010 rising to closer to $3 trillion by 2030. At some point quantitative changes lead to qualitative shifts and we need to take seriously the idea that we may be at exactly such an inflexion point in the history of capitalism. this meant heightened reliance on “accumulation by dispossession” as a means to augment capitalist class power. Ian. the irrationality of capitalism becomes plain for all to see.” It must now take up the task of defining how another socialism or communism is possible and how the transition to these alternatives are to be accomplished. the World Social Forum became the center for articulating the theme “another world is possible. South and SouthEast Asia is filling up fast. instituting labor-saving technological changes and heightening competition. culminating in the property bubble that burst in 2007-8. But at what cost? This question masks another. Surplus capital and surplus labor exist side-by side with seemingly no way to put them back together in the midst of immense human suffering and unmet needs. These conditions varied considerably. opening the way towards the beginnings of a hegemonic shift of power particularly but not exclusively towards East Asia. to be in the forefront of current debate. the interests of the people had to be sacrificed (as became standard practice in IMF structural adjustments programs from the early 1980s onwards). Harry. These steps included: (a) the successful assault upon organized labor and its political institutions while mobilizing global labor surpluses. This contrasts with the $0.

it is the social movements that force the state to intervene in the market in ways that do not directly benefit capital (a fact that is conveniently forgotten in mainstream approaches). There is the contradiction between the productive forces and the relations of production. As Foster (2003) said. 2008. 754) This contradiction between capitalism and environmental sustainability expressed so clearly by Marx in the quote above is the central tenet of environmental Marxism. Marx (1981) himself argued that capitalism was not environmentally sustainable: But the way that the cultivation of particular crops depends on fluctuations in market prices and the constant changes in cultivation with these price fluctuations— the entire spirit of capitalist production. http://zonecours. According to O’Connor. and water quality). provoking the struggle of social movements to force capital to internalize this destruction. capitalism has a contradiction between the production relations and the conditions of production. As a result of this contradiction. With the introduction of trade to distant places and the concentration of population in cities. Ian. sustainable development based on long distance trade will not be environmentally sustainable. Amanda. 1999. have understood that environmental conservation and capital accumulation are contradictory goals. sending them to other places.ca/documents/A2010-1-2411184. for many people. which presided at the height of the sustainable development ideology and whose environmental record is uneven. This metabolic rift may have existed and exists in other noncapitalist societies. matter could have been recycled. (p. Organization Environment 2004. As is clear from this list.org/en/articles/2008/global-financial-crisis-shows-inherent-instability-of-capitalism) NAR DML. as in most Marxist accounts.pdf) NAR There are many contradictions in the capitalist system.hec. Castro 4 . which is oriented towards the most immediate monetary profit—stands in contradiction to agriculture. the dominant ideology of the capitalist system sees the same contradiction. soil. which manifests itself as the contradiction between production and the realization of value and surplus value. All American administrations. How can it be that the Rio Earth Summit. one of the most prominent ecological Marxists. Under this assumption.) Capital uses and destroys these conditions of production. at least. 195. and because it is in contradiction with environmental sustainability. Iwai 8 – Phd in Economics (Katsuhito. capital moves energy and matter from one place to another. In the case of the environmental crisis. There is another contradiction that O’Connor (1996). The leaders of the world have not been able to fulfill the agreements signed 10 years ago at the Earth Summit for this reason as well. air. http://www.Instructor of sociology at Clark College (Clark.tokyofoundation. taking them away from the places they had evolved.10 has called the second contradiction. but capitalism has universal tendencies and makes this rift universal. Global Financial Crisis Shows Inherent Instability of Capitalism. In O’Connor’s account. the conditions of production are not produced by capital but by nature and society. with the exception perhaps of the Clinton administration. even when based on market levels. has come to be seen as such a colossal failure? The answer is that it was undermined by global capital both from within and without. 17. December 08. Marx (1981) said that the social metabolism is “prescribed by the natural laws of life itself. labor power (which includes training and degree of socialization). The scale of ecological destruction is larger under capitalism than under previous modes of production. One of the ways Marx theorized that capitalism brings about environmental destruction is by creating a metabolic rift in the relations between humans and nature. Had they stayed in their own ecosystem. friend and foe alike.” and that capitalism squanders “the vitality of the soil. and creating this metabolic rift (Foster. the capitalist state intervenes partly in response to such movement pressure and partly to save capital from undermining its own capacity for capital accumulation.Cap Kritik 112/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Capitalism has an inherent contradiction between economic growth and environmental capacity – collapse is inevitable. (In mainstream approaches of sustainable development.SustainableDevelopment%28castro%29. which is carried by trade far beyond the bounds of a single country” (p. 2000). “Sustainable Development: Mainstream and Critical Perspectives”. which ten years ago was thought to mark a decisive change in the human relation to the environment. which has to concern itself with the whole gamut of permanent conditions of life required by the chain of human generations. Capitalism is unsustainable. science and technology can produce some of these conditions. but two of them will concern us here. Clayton . the capitalist system faces periodical crisis. and there is a degree of substitutability between nature and human-made capital. 3) Capital accumulation is the most important feature of the capitalist system. Rothenbaum. 949). But of course. The energy requirement for this distant trade is greater than that required by the local communities. The conditions of production are the “external physical conditions” (forests. and the communal conditions (which include space and social environment). Harry. Applying this concept to the soil. (p. it seems impossible to achieve sustainability and economic growth at the same time. Jay.

Milton Friedman and his followers in mainstream economics. however. and as a result of further bundling with numerous other financial instruments into big packages that were then dispersed around the globe. "greed" and individual defects. with the people who accept it expecting that yet other people will accept it in turn. leading to speculative bubbles and panics. they argue. this will cause markets to be stable. The moral and intellectual failures of the capitalist class and its political apologists are not mere personal defects. bootstrap logic: Everybody uses money as money merely because everybody believes everybody else uses it as money. a single subprime loan by itself is unattractive as a financial product. I do not have space to discuss this problem here. we can see that money has two faces: It brings greater efficiency. But when the subprime loans whose risks were concealed therein went bad. cowed labour and undue influence over state instruments have wrought the inevitable crisis of capital well known to students of Karl Marx. The more fundamental reason I believe that capitalism as a whole is speculative and inherently unstable is that the money on which it is based is itself speculative. As the financial products created in this way were traded more and more steadily among numerous parties. Rather than critique the power and influence of the capitalist class over the state. "Capitalism itself is the cause of the worldwide economic crisis". the risks became invisible from the surface. But. It is professional investors and investment funds that dominate the markets and compete with each other.the capitalist classes' assault on workers as "costs of production" . They buy and sell based not on their forecasts of long-term demand/supply conditions but on their observations of each other’s movements and readings of each other’s intentions. While holding no brief for the likes of Sir Fred Goodwin. in other words. the activity in financial markets. but at the same time it has the potential of causing great instability. and casino banking. They build automobiles not for themselves but in the expectation that others will buy them to ride in. the one described clearly in the classic formulation of Marx more DML. Ian. elites and their apologists blame its leaders and financial experts for their "incompetence". They came to be seen as being like the money in which people place supreme trust. is of entirely different nature. A major difference between this and the Asian currency crisis and other financial crises that preceded it is that the value of the US dollar. Lexis) YOUR editorial ("What banks owe us: fairness and honesty". To avoid a critique of the capitalist system. unemployable surplus capital and profit.it is the abstract "market" populated by imaginary "rational" capitalists that is cited. The subprime loans that set off the crisis are extremely risky loans to people with low creditworthiness. When a price is expected to rise or fall. To hold money is. Because the risk of default on such loans is so high. Cap collapse inevitable – laundry list The Herald 9 (Don Ferguson. rather than examine the causes and consequences of the generation of enormous. Here again we see the workings of bootstrap logic: Everybody trusted the products as safe merely because everybody believed everybody else trusted them as safe. Nor is there any understanding of how soaring profits. Harry. Jay. In a capitalist economy supported by money. People are willing to hold it only because they expect other people to accept it in exchange for something else. claim that speculation leads to stability. Money has made the economy much more efficient by making it possible to conduct transactions without the trouble of exchanging on a barter basis. There is an element of speculation in this process. In this light. Amanda. are irrational and will promptly fall by the wayside. for example. including markets for stocks.Cap Kritik 113/194 Why is capitalism 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab unstable? Because it is fundamentally based on speculation. The instability of money as a purely speculative construct—a problem that has been concealed up to now—may come to the surface henceforth in the form of the crisis in the key currency. however. Thus. trust in all financial products toppled like a row of dominoes. cheap credit. 2009. April 4) reflects the current misconception that finance capital. it is not irrational to buy or sell more and move the price further up or down. Consider carmakers. Those investors who buy high and sell low. But money has no intrinsic value. The Herald. The awful and unbearable truth for capitalism's cheerleaders is that the crash of the western financial system is merely a symptom of the more profound collapse of capitalism currently under way. bonds. Rothenbaum. it is "wilful ignorance of what markets need" that is the problem. expanding markets. Rather than study real class relations . it is self-serving and erroneous to ignore the fact that the failed policies of political and economic leaders have their foundation in the very operation of capitalism itself. and trust in it is based on circular. they began to be considered readily convertible to cash and other safe assets. foreign currency and their derivatives. it is impossible for efficiency and stability to coexist as claimed by the neoclassical economists. This bootstrap logic of money also underlies the present financial crisis. But bundling many such loans together and securitizing them made the risks seem diluted. are the cause and not merely one effect of the present crisis of capitalism. What they assert may apply to an idyllic market where investors mediate between producers and consumers. may be severely shaken. the key currency of the international monetary system. the purest form of speculation. Only the rational investors who buy low and sell high will survive. Clayton . "failure of leadership" is blamed. and faithfully manifest in the present situation. This is the essence of the current financial crisis.

and transparent . That cannot be repaired within the present paradigm. in the words of one arch-apologist: "You ain't seen nothin' yet. wrong. 3 Downfield Gardens. Your conclusion that "the lesson is that what has been lacking is confidence. Clayton ." Dr John O'Dowd. As we move towards the end of the beginning. Ian.remuneration is an essential component" is. Bothwell. leading to crisis. Amanda.Cap Kritik 114/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab than 150 years ago. That can be restored by a new banking order in which fair . Rothenbaum. The excesses of the past will be moderated and capitalism will change to fit the new circumstances. along with its moral authority to govern in our name DML. Harry. Loss of confidence is an effect. REGARDLESS of the outcome of the present economic crisis. of its fundamental connection with the public. This is an opportune time to modify our political system as it has run out of control. The link is more than coincidental. if not all. I believe. its cause is the failure of the specific mechanisms of profit creation. much in the way of the economic system. Jay. Democracy has lost much. it is clear the system that created it will not be allowed to return.

and widely considered the maximum rise to which humanity can adapt without serious difficulty. So. the economist Herman Daly points out that full employment could be easier to achieve in an economy not addicted to growth because it would reverse "the historical trend of replacing labour with machines and inanimate energy". The other problem is the counter-intuitive rebound effect spotted by William Stanley Jevons in 1865 when he wrote. They're often interconnected. a hamster doubles its weight each week. like a sufficiently stable climate. Ian. biodiversity and the nitrogen cycle to do with farming). DML. to avoid dangerous climate change the fall in carbon intensity would need to improve by more than two hundredfold. Harry. even with the most optimistic likely uptake of low-carbon energy. Jay." Increased efficiency tends to lower costs and perversely drives up overall resource use. this week.guardian. "carbon intensity" changes flatlined over the last decade and even worsened in some years. three of which had already been transgressed (climate change. let's hope the government scans the results for what they really mean. it is seemingly impossible to reconcile a growing global economy with a good likelihood of limiting global temperature rise to 2C. There is of course one thing in nature that grows uncontrollably. because the world would be a very strange place if the same was applied in nature. In this context. the agreed political objective of the European Union. "It is a confusion of ideas to suppose that the economical use of fuel is equivalent to diminished consumption. chair of the Financial Services Authority and the Committee on Climate Change. Against this trend. It shows that. a new piece of research by the New Economics Foundation thinktank looks at which rates of global economic growth are compatible with prevention of a dangerous level of warming. So when those growth figures come out. Amanda. The very contrary is the truth. http://www. For example.uk/commentisfree/cif-green/2010/jan/25/uk-growthenergy-resources-boundaries) To avoid collapse the economy has to operate within thresholds that do not critically undermine the things that we depend on on a daily basis. it didn't stop and continued doubling each week. It's odd. On climate change. “Growth is good … isn't it?”. you would be looking after a very hungry nine billion-tonne pet hamster. you may be inadvertently celebrating our acceleration toward an ecological cliff edge and an opportunity missed to find a new. Adair Turner. refers to the pursuit of growth for its own sake as a "false god". if you find yourself cheering a return to growth. fresh water and a healthy diversity of plants and animals.co. The economic doctrine of growth collides headlong with the laws of physics and thermodynamics. from birth until around six weeks old. productive farmland. Writing in the science journal Nature last year. Other work by Professor Kevin Anderson of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research at Manchester University concludes that: "Economic growth in the OECD cannot be reconciled with a 2C. a multidisciplinary group of scientists identified nine key safe-use planetary resource boundaries. on its first birthday.Cap Kritik 115/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Growth Good Infinite growth will inevitably destroy itself – not focusing on expansion will allow more stable labor sources. The New Economics Foundation study looks at by how much growth would need to be delinked from fossil fuels – the so-called carbon intensity of the economy – to reach the mark of climate safety suggested by Nasa climate scientist James Hansen." The problem is that growth drowns out the gains from increased efficiency and technological innovation. It's called cancer and tends to kill its host.1/25/10. Both the desirability and possibility of never ending growth goes unquestioned in mainstream economics. For example. If. Simms 10 – Policy director at new economics foundation (Andrew. Rothenbaum. Clayton . Having improved steadily in the late last century. We are on the cusp of several others. better direction. 3C or even 4C characterisation of dangerous climate change. Only so much energy efficiency can be squeezed from a system.

dml) The pro-space movement often links growth with freedom. Historically.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Jay. but pro-space activists seem blind to this possibility. Ian. Harry. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 167. DML.Cap Kritik 116/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Growth/Cap kt Freedom Nope! Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Clayton . Rothenbaum. growth and expansion has often had devastating effects on the freedoms of many groups of people. But it does not recognize that freedom is actually experienced by only some members of humanity as a result of growth. Amanda.

Dolman and Cooper 11 – Professor of Comparative Military Studies at the School of Advanced Air and Space Studies at the Air University. or that state-based capitalist exploitation of outer space would more efficiently reap and distribute any riches found there. Accordingly. then. Ian. a timely injection of realist thought may be precisely what is needed to jolt space exploration from its post-Apollo sluggishness. Clayton . the debate has not been whether space should be weaponized. http://www. Jay. we insist here and in several other venues.** Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization.. so as to center the debate on a true midpoint of beliefs. Rothenbaum. not whether space should be developed commercially. “Increasing the Military Uses of Space”.edu/press/space-Ch19. but how best to prevent the weaponization of space. Chief Negotiator at the Geneva Defense and Space Talks (Everett C. Our intent here. Harry. To actually advocate weaponization in space brings full condemnation. that space exploration and exploitation have been artificially stunted from what might have been. and not along the radical axis of two of the three world-views.ndu. It is for these reasons. There has been little room for the view that state interest persists as the prime motivator in international relations.. 2011. DML.2 Hence.Cap Kritik 117/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Space cap good Capitalist ideologies will moot resource gains in space – aff can’t claim root cause claims. Those who even question the blanket prohibitions on weapons or market forces in space exploration are ostracized. is to add the third point of a theoretical triangle in an arena where it had been missing.html) Still. but how to ensure the spoils of space are nonappropriable and distributed fairly to all. Amanda. Henry F. the realist view has been set aside (at least rhetorically) as states jockey for international space leadership. in most academic and policy debates.

Resistance to such developments can again.Cap Kritik 118/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Perm Permutation gets coopted – the panoptic nature of space control shuts out possibilities for resistance Dickens and Ormrod 7 . if necessary. the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space is a good example of how new social movements operate on local and global levels (Eschle and Stammers 2004). Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 121. stopping by state authorities in many parts of the world. these two scales interact. Psychoanalytic theory could certainly provide additional insights into the workings of this expressive dimension of movement activity.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Even leading activists in the Global Network have been subjected to surveillance in recent years. though the ways in which the unconscious is implicated must be the subject of further research. but should make their political commitments clear. Certainly the movement to keep space for peace has engaged with international political arguments about the legality and desirability of legislation relating to outer space militarization. covering countries as far apart as India. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 183-184. Ian. As Castells (2000a) describes. kinds of struggle are now a regular feature of contemporary society. Members of the Yorkshire CND have been conducting weekly protests (see Yorkshire CND 2007). Clayton . Jay.1). such as the field of DML. however. with people articulating who they are. very diverse. requires regular. There is a distinct danger that some fledgling projects to explore the relationship between society and the universe. therefore. Resistance at the local level. global surveillance. Africa and Latin America. A programme of local events constitute the Global Network’s annual ‘Keep Space for Peace’ week. All these developments require monitoring and. with the internet having a central role to play in making the links between the different scales. what they care about and why they are challenging the institutions of power. Resistance at the global level tends to have what Eschel and Stammers call an ‘instrumental’ form. The rapidly growing antiglobalization movement. with local struggles informing those at the global scale and vice versa.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. is typically of a more ‘expressive’ or emotional kind. Resistance to privatization and commodification. is widespread. Harry. Their concerns should be with revealing the suffering that results from social processes that serve the interests of those in power. music can have an important role in this (Box C. dml) Sociologists should not construct themselves as detached intellectuals. including programmes by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. Institutions for global surveillance and defence such as the Echelon surveillance system and the so-called ‘star wars’ US missile defence system depend on interceptor missiles and tracking devices located in different regions throughout the globe. more scientific argument. dml) Perhaps surprisingly for such a universal movement. There is most definitely an affective bridge between GN activists on a global as well as a local scale. Resistance by trade unions may have been weakened or sidelined by the programme of ‘accumulation by dispossession’ but new. the new social movements are made via loose-knit global and local networks. Furthermore. Struggles and coalitions are typically organized at both the regional and the global scales.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. The interests of the movement are pursued by any possible means and particularly via rational. As Eyerman and Jamison (1998) argue. If we win a link it means the perm fails – have to start with a critical standpoint Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Rothenbaum. one with its own counter-hegemonic values and which regularly turns up at meetings of the World Trade Organization. Amanda. Resistance takes two forms – global and local – the alt is a local solution that must be kept separate from the global form of the plan in order to avoid cooption Dickens and Ormrod 7 . dml) Finally. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 148. panopticism is also being extended to the monitoring of more exceptional threats to the social order. have a strong regional or local basis.

whether in the heavens or on earth. There is.1 (2006) 133-169. Under the rhetoric of democracy and egalitarianism. Rather than try to figure alternative social relationships. as robot sensors. the extension of the current socio-economic system into space is supported uncritically. It is articulated through the ethos of competition and the survival of the fittest. do 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab little but reproduce hegemonic common sense about the benefits of space exploration and development (Ormrod 2005). regressed cultures. Although astrosociology may draw public attention to under-researched issues. hierarchy is the reality. that operates through fear. That this should happen is generally considered common Outer spatial fixes are part of a hegemonic solution to the world’s problems. and their ideologues control the masses with the wand of propaganda (Laughland 2003). as gaps in order. A war not merely to fatten defense budgets but to deplete the civilian. something that prevents those alternative social relationships from forming. the state prefers a control that leaves no marks. University of Essex and **James. The New Centennial Review 6. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics.*Peter. “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR Indeed. reflected in such statements as. Thus. necessarily precluding the exploration of alternative possibilities. the concept of space becomes central to the Promethean ideology. however. Property rights are central to this process as capitalism attempts a series of outer spatial fixes. It is also behind the definition of everything outside the state as a lack needing to be remedied or filled. as failed states. with dynamism and flux. Clayton . Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. control remains anonymous and invisible. Invisible. as scanners that probe mechanically. Entrepreneurship presents itself less as a necessity of capitalism than as a spiritual ideal of initiative and strife. Amanda. pg 77-78. Rothenbaum. The ethos of business and military blend into each other in the doctrine of perpetual war. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. Into these gaps. Space technology itself plays a central role in disseminating a hegemonic Western culture in which a possessive individualism is promoted. that appears to its citizens as invisible satellite eyes in outer space. Sensing its own robot impunity and limitless expansiveness. for to the Prometheans. populations present themselves as recalcitrant flesh to be disciplined and spiritualized through strife. the state inserts its rationality through the stealthy monitoring of a robotic technology. despite its rhetoric of reason and law. it will offer nothing if it does not do so critically. and for the moment it is to organic intellectuals within the Global Network and similar organizations that we must look for critical new visions of our relationship with the universe. Development and exploration of space is an uncritically capitalistic project that seeks quick fixes to structural problems. it becomes inevitable. the Promethean betrays itself as romantic in its aesthetic. which represents the elimination of the human. it arrives at that dangerous [End Page 161] solipsism. and complete. as spy software that reads keystroke to keystroke the random fluctuations of inner space. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Jay. always hope for resistance. with probing the outermost and the innermost. our two theoretical starting points lead us to argue first that the humanization of outer space is a product of economic and social crisis and second that such humanization is a means of reasserting hegemonic authority. virtuous. to act with impunity. a hierarchy in which business elites. Capitalism expands into outer space as a result of its inherent contradictions. Ian. IWren) Taken together. Space is the unifying concept in the expansion of the state territorially into the heavens and internally into the psyche. In this fascination with collapsing the boundaries of spirit and body. the Promethean state articulates the demigod. Dickens and Ormrod 7 . In so expressing rationality without the inconvenience of undisciplined flesh.Cap Kritik 119/194 ‘astrosociology’ being developed by Jim Pass (2004). Harry. capital being drawn from the primary circuit and invested in more speculative projects that extend the system in time and space through the secondary and tertiary circuits. the maintenance of distance between the elites and the masses. Through fear. Their policies will always be tainted by militaristic global capitalism killing value to life. technocrats. "We create our own DML.

“Law’s Empire and the Final Frontier: Legalizing the Future in the Early Corpus Juris American culture industries of the time knew all too well. As the Soviet and (Barton. space functioned primarily as a metaphor for the future.Cap Kritik 120/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab reality. and challenged the traditional prerogatives of law’s empire itself. Amanda.pdf) Leon Lipson was reportedly fond of saying that “ ‘space is a place. and a new force for the construction of the future. By the unparalleled force of its technological spectacles. Clayton . Ludwig Teller attested to this construction of space in the New York Law Forum:Space is no longer an ordinary word of the English language. it opened up a new geography.133Indeed. It has taken on a secondary meaning identified with the science and technology of astronautics and expressive of the awesome responsibilities which missiles and satellites and flight beyond the earth’s atmosphere and into the mysterious reaches of outer regions have imposed upon us. DML.bartonbeebe. This put the legal estate on the defensive. external constraints become not merely ineffective but irrelevant. Rothenbaum.’”131 Lipson’s remark may be understood as part of his attempt to reign in some of the especially fantastic ideations that characterized early space law. The scientific frontier in outer space promoted in the popular imagination on Earth an alternative language of command. that seemed intelligible only to scientific knowledge. a new standard of authority and competence." In a world thus fashioned and driven from within. and for the scientific worldview—be it capitalist or communist—that would dominate that future. At the same time. Yet outer space was more than just a geographical concept in the 1960s. Beebe 99 – Professor at NYU School of Law Spatialis”. Perm can’t solve – plan isn’t compatible with the alt. outer space was also a metaphor for the profound challenges that this future presented to the status of legal knowledge. space exploration was local. As the Sputnik crisis suggests. The recent “spatial turn in critical thinking”132 in the law and elsewhere should help us to appreciate that outer space was also a thoroughly politicized and socially constructed realm. the geography of the future. Ian.com/documents/n-beebe. space exploration helped establish science as a center of political and normative authority. Who controls space controls the world. “ space” was a topic. not a topic. Jay. To the extent that it was a metaphor for the scientific future.www. as much for the scientific culture in orbit as for the legal culture on the ground. Harry.1999.

There are important differences between Sohn-Rethel’s account and Lerner’s. p. Red Critique. and this forms a major focus of his and Lerner’s thesis. which operates independently of the needs and uses which the seller or buyer has in mind. alienated from the exchange process.Cap Kritik 121/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Framework The affirmative’s knowledge is not value-neutral. Contrary to what Lerner implies during most of the book. “What is Orthodox Marxism and Why it Matters Now More than Ever”. Postone (1996) has argued similarly that ‘abstraction’ in general is central to capitalist societies. This purely abstract system of thought represented in the form of money (‘a crude approximation of the underlying principle’) leads to abstract. like the empiricists Copernicus and Brahe before him. I will. They are given ‘the freedom to abandon the constraints of the “ordinary” world’ (Ferguson 1990: 1). The person producing a commodity is. Jay. The argument is that the existence of this abstract system justifies the existence of an elite of scientists capable of studying the system untainted by the practical knowledge of the worker. pg 31-32. My main argument here is that among all contesting social theories now. Sohn-Rethel sees Galileo as representing a distinct break from his predecessors in instituting a new form of abstracted knowledge that severely heightens the mental/manual division of labour. I will end by arguing for its effectivity in bringing about a new society based not on human rights but on freedom from necessity.: 4). thought. for Davidson. one might say ‘objective’. only Orthodox Marxism has been able to produce an integrated knowledge of the existing social totality and provide lines of praxis that will lead to building a society free from necessity. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe.and seventeenth-century scientific revolutions. contrary to Lerner’s (1991) argument. Davidson argues. and possibly future capitalist exploitation of space resources) has not been an age of equality or celebration of the knowledge of the manual worker. Alfred SohnRethel (1975) and Frankel (2003) have argued that this more scientific mode of relating to the universe merely intensified rather than alleviated the alienation of the masses from the universe. represents a break from the truly abstract philosophy of Plato. knowledge first arose as part of the exchange relationship in what he calls ‘societies of appropriation’ or capitalist societies based on a high division of labour. But first I must clarify what I mean by Orthodox Marxism. therefore. perhaps more tellingly. The latter. diet. education. from within the Marxist tradition itself. Sohn-Rethel’s argument is that ‘abstract’. and its employment actively sustains capital Dickens and Ormrod 7 . according to Sohn-Rethel. He goes on to argue. scientific. that the abstract form of scientific knowledge was instrumental in legitimizing the division of mental and manual labour in modern capitalism. Ian. Clayton . I will argue that to know contemporary society—and to be able to act on such knowledge—one has to first of all know what makes the existing social totality. its production is contingent on a specific separation of labor that privileges a small scientific and military elite. Second. housing. based on such an interrelated knowledge. online) Any effective political theory will have to do at least two things: it will have to offer an integrated understanding of social practices and. Harry. in which s/he comes to see his/her product in terms of an abstract exchange value. Like all other modes and forms of political theory. the very theoretical identity of Orthodox Marxism is itself contested—not just from non-and anti-Marxists who question the very "real" (by which they mean the "practical" as under free-market criteria) existence of any kind of Marxism now but. Galileo. The scientific cosmological elite of today is still maintained by others’ labour. The development of capital in two distinct epochs has led to corresponding developments in epistemology. as Marx described. DML. First. and the military and the governments and corporations that control them. It is a break alleviating a lot of the problems of the division of labour by relying on artisan and serf knowledge available to all. I will argue that the dominant social totality is based on inequality— not just inequality of power but inequality of economic access (which then determines access to health care. the development of modern capitalism led to the sixteenth. For Lerner. Methodology must come first in order to solve cap Tumino 1 – *Professor of English at Pittsburgh (Stephen. This epoch has had its own cosmic elite of not only scientists but also engineers. the introduction of coinage in Ancient Greece led to Greek philosophy and mathematics. Davidson (1985) is also extremely critical of the development of objective scientific approaches to the universe that distance knowledge from people’s everyday experience of the universe. remains Earth-centred (as in Tycho Brahe’s model). He points to parallels between Galileo’s law of inertial motion and the abstraction of the commodity exchange. Rothenbaum.*Peter. IWren) It should be noted that. The result of de-centring Earth through science. colonial capitalism based initially on practical knowledge of navigation (now satellites. offer a guideline for praxis. first say what I regard to be the distinguishing marks of Orthodox Marxism and then outline a short polemical map of contestation over Orthodox Marxism within the Marxist theories now. Amanda. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. However. University of Essex and **James. Lerner does not draw out a full criticism of the relationship between capital and cosmology that replaced it. is the creation of ‘a cold mechanical world’ (ibid.

and from overweening regulatory states. these DML. ethnicity. Atton 2009) and the diffusion of culture jamming and other practices of media literacy. or nationality. as in proliferation of alternative media (often via the internet. queeries. This humanization (not eradication) of capitalism is the sole goal of ALL contemporary lefts (marxism. Media now comprise a vast field of cultural struggle. Only Orthodox Marxism recognizes the historicity of labor and its primacy as the source of all human wealth. dml) Mediatization and the struggle to democratize communication Many of the issues at stake in the politics surrounding the form and content of communications media comprise a special instance of the struggle to reclaim the commons. As a political emergent. both locally and translocally. In Jean Cohen’s (1985) classic. based on cultural equality but economic inequality. feminism. ). Jesse Jackson. . corporate media and lifeworld. . and to foster more literate and critical readers of media texts. . Communicative democracy comprises a social vision in which the voices of citizens and communities carry into a vibrant and diverse public sphere. and rather Americanized treatment. Ian. ) to. the extent to which movements take up democratic communication as a general interest is a measure their catharsis from fractured subalternities (with their characteristic foci upon single issues and narrow constituencies) to an ethicopolitical collective will. has always been the not-sohidden agenda of the bourgeois left—whether it has been called "new left." or "radical democracy. Haraway.. . For all. The formation of organic intellectuals is substantially caught up in this struggle to break the dominant class’s monopoly within the intellectual field (Thomas 2009: 418-19). Such an understanding of social inequality is based on the fundamental understanding that the source of wealth is human knowledge and not human labor. capitalist organization of communication creates a multifaceted democratic deficit. disability. the new includes a mediatized politics of everyday life. and the corporate enclosure of knowledge. In a media-saturated world. Here. . Media democrats struggle to limit corporate power and commercial logic. In this paper I argue that any emancipatory theory has to be founded on recognition of the priority of Marx's labor theory of value and not repeat the technological determinism of corporate theory ("knowledge work") that masquerades as social theory. Butler. the main reason for its popularity in the culture industry—from the academy (Jameson. . Amanda. These are all secondary contradictions and are all determined by the fundamental contradiction of capitalism which is inscribed in the relation of capital and labor. discrimination and thus accept economic inequality as an integral part of human societies. focused upon state and capital. was cited by NSM theorists of the 1970s and 1980s as a criterial attribute of the emergent movements of late modernity. 2006. 168-198. Downing 2001 ). media democrats build a new nexus among movements. wealth is produced by the human mind and is thus free from the actual objective conditions that shape the historical relations of labor and capital. inequality in media access. Clayton . The politics of media democratization is necessarily multi-frontal and intersectional. That is. Why? Because such arguments authorize capitalism without gender." "postmarxism. . race. “Crisis. capitalism is here to stay and the best that can be done is to make its cruelties more tolerable. The world of the early 21st century is densely networked by virtue of an unprecedented apparatus of communications. They accept a sunny capitalism—a capitalism beyond capitalism. that presses for limits upon corporate power and for an opening of access to the means of communication (Hackett and Carroll 2006). yet also a politics. . Harry. In pursuing this social vision on several fronts including those of state. Ralph Nader. sexuality. to democratize media workplaces and labour processes. by the way. When we look at media activism ‘on the ground’ we find many of the rudiments of counter-hegemonic politics. Jay. a place where strategies might converge across issue areas and movement identities (Hackett and Carroll. ) to daily politics (Michael Harrington. . the centralization of power in media corporations. Such a society. movements. . counter-hegemony: in search of the new. . The question of autonomy Autonomy from old-left parties and unions. Rothenbaum. This 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab systematic inequality cannot be explained by gender. evident for instance in the failure of mainstream media to create a democratic public sphere. . to develop alternative media. homogenization of media content. race..” Interface 2:2. All modes of Marxism now explain social inequalities primarily on the basis of these secondary contradictions and in doing so—and this is my main argument—legitimate capitalism. more humane. media activism underlines the importance to counterhegemony of reclaiming or creating the means and forms of communication necessary for subaltern groups to find their voices and to organize. anti-racism. )." This is. the undermining of communities through commodification. Activists see the struggle to democratize communication as a multi-frontal war of position that needs to be waged in conjunction with other movements. Harvey.Cap Kritik 122/194 transportation. ‘Media activism’ can be read as a critical response that takes different forms depending on location in the media field. which has opened new possibilities both for bourgeois hegemony and for oppositional politics. . All progressive-democratic movements have an stake in these struggles. Debate is the critical site of contestation against capitalism Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William.

‘a concept that evokes relations of simultaneous interdependence and autonomy.Cap Kritik 123/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab movements were viewed as practitioners of a ‘self-limiting’ identity politics that rejected largescale projects. who introduced the notion of autonomist Marxism into English-language academia in the 1970s (Cleaver 2001. 2003). then. Here. Harry Cleaver. sameness and difference’ (2009: 301). and wider social practices which delineate. rather than construe policy as the accurate expression of dispassionate. 32: 1. but in historical materialism. autonomy has roots not only in NSM theory. Ian. Jay. Yet autonomy remains a lasting legacy of the so-called NSMs.’ 6 As a sensibility that holds both visionary and strategic implications. As a challenge to the view that policy. Mark Purcell. Univ. as a manifestation of knowledge. such a view shifts our relationship with policy from a means by which the individual might comprehend the significance of the policy statement in terms of truth to an understanding that the language used within the policy statements itself actively constructs the world to which it pertains. but they move together and lean into one another. information evenings and media actions – designed to provoke public debate and to persuade people join the cause (G. Wright 2008:113). Amanda. Analysis of discourse must precede analysis of policy – it’s key to understand both how policies are formulated and how to accurately respond to them without error replication – discourse necessarily shapes the ways policies are viewed and thought of meaning they are tied to what they said in the 1AC Adams 11 – *Lecturer in Education and Program Director. Alternatively. Harry. Whilst by no means an agreed field (cf. unity and multiplicity. defining autonomy as the ability of workers to define their own interests and to struggle for them – to go beyond mere reaction to exploitation. This view acknowledges the parts played by history and culture in determining specific ways of viewing the world whilst illuminating how understanding is dependent upon prevailing social and economic arguments (after Burr. and many others in mind. ‘the world is not a commodity. predicated it on an agency-centred analysis of the working class. it has become fashionable to describe policy in terms of discourse.” Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education. or to self defined ‘leadership’ and to take the offensive in ways that shape the class struggle and define the future (Cleaver 1993). Famous since their dismantling of a McDonald’s restaurant in 1999 and for the slogan. January 2011. drawing on Laclau and Mouffe (1985). policy can no longer be simply said to be understood and applied. obligation and freedom. Policy. Accordingly. dml) With such concerns. Gergen’s view invites us to consider policy as having a ‘performative’ function and that that presented is neither a true representation of reality nor an accurate reflection of intent. Clayton . the appeal of self-limiting politics is embarrassingly limited. The movements and interests that comprise the bloc do not dissolve completely into it.5 Becoming aware is both an ongoing aspect of autonomous self-development and a movement-building praxis instantiated in a range of pedagogical activities – forums. William 2008: 63). in the wake of neoliberalism’s global triumph and in the midst of its global crisis. Autonomy informs aspects of contemporary counter-hegemonic politics at the level of everyday life. This stylization was never unproblematic as an empirical account. indeed. arises either in the individual or in the natural world. Bacchi. suggests that relations between elements of such a formation be conceptualized in terms of equivalence. Williams 2008:72-3). Rothenbaum. Centre for Educational Studies. the struggle for autonomy is a crucial element in challenging hegemony and in bringing into existence what Gramsci (1971: 327) called a ‘new conception of the world … which manifests itself in action. prefiguration is grounded in a moral imperative to ‘become aware’ and to act ‘coherently’ (2008:72) by living the ideals to which one aspires. unbiased observations. of Hull (Paul. This has meant not only maintaining independence from political parties and functioning in a ‘bottom-up’ or ‘horizontal’ manner but cultivating in themselves and others an autonomy that partly frees them from neoliberal ideology and the power of consumer society. Here. other roles and associated activities.’ these activists resist the hegemony of global market society ‘by cultivating themselves as “autonomous” political subjects and organizing a movement considered to be an “autonomous” counter-power’ (G. distribution and consumption of policy. should not be seen as an accurate portrayal of some DML. Although activists can never be fully autonomous from the forms of power to which they are subject. 2000) policy as discourse does provide grounds for further consideration of the interplay between policy creation and response. we can consider the work of Kenneth Gergen (1995) and his proposal that all knowing arises in the social processes of language use and meaning-making. “From ‘ritual’ to ‘mindfulness’: policy and pedagogic positioning. Put another way. discursive practices involved in the production. and several decades later. 57-69. for example ‘professional’ and. this perspective construes policy as a representation of the interplay between the policy text (the material embodiment of the policy document and associated forms). as shown in Gwyn Williams’s (2008) ethnography of alterglobalization activism in the Larzac plateau of southern France. The key question is how autonomy and other emergent features of activism might figure in a counter-hegemonic historical bloc.

discourse presents a variety of representations from which action might be chosen: Discourses are about what can be said. social. historical. might be constructed. economic and social specificity. Policy as discourse is. Third. p. but also to sustaining systems of belief about the nature of social reality’. it is clear that professional actions undertaken in relation to policy appear. 2000. Amanda. economic and social specificity. determined by the availability of dominant discourses. as Hastings (1998. 52) This redistribution of voice constitutes certain voices as meaningful or authoritative (Ball. this ‘highlights the instrumentality of the process of problem construction not only to successful policy making. In this regard. Policy as discourse attends to both the uses and effects of policy insomuch as it considers the influences pertaining to the creation of the policy text. . [and] . On this matter. (2000. Thus certain possibilities for thought are constructed. the differential power of some actors’ (Bacchi. First. policy as social construction. but rather as subjective realisations borne out of cultural. then. human agency occurs through the deployment of the subject’s exercise of choice from the discourses available. but also about who can speak. . p. much has been written from this perspective. Put briefly. that these lenses also provide the means by which solutions. Discourses embody the meaning and use of propositions and words. whereas those who are seen as ‘lacking’ power are described as constituted in discourse. p. 1988. Second. it is through the process of argumentation that certain solutions are presented as viable alternatives. 52) to act. 194) notes. historical. not as objective responses to positions of truth. Crucially. therefore. through its recognition of cultural. as well as associated roles and identities. an interplay between ‘conceptual schema attached to specific historical. and thought. where and with what authority. it articulates a view that ‘problems’ do not exist as pre-human issues to be addressed but rather that they are the products of political reasoning located in economic. 49). Jay. in short. 2006). DML. those who are deemed to ‘hold’ power are portrayed as the ones making discourse. This view is not new. Rothenbaum. To put the point briefly. The lenses offered by history. In such a view. institutional and cultural contexts . p. . Further. when. that is to say the pronouncements ‘captured’ as policy imperatives.Cap Kritik 124/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab pre-existing status but is. and most importantly. Bacchi notes the tendency of this perspective to: Concentrate on the ability of some groups rather than others to make discourse. p. . policy as discourse. a social construction given legitimacy through the permission it gives to speak. constrains the scope of both policy construction and policy response (Ball. 36). (Ball. policy as discourse establishes a number of key principles. the subject is said to exercise agentic action. This social construction of policy requires an appreciation that the processes of problematisation and argumentation are the lifeblood of policy existence. With this in mind. culture and economics through which ‘problems’ to be solved are identified determine not only the mechanisms by which ‘reality’ might be understood but also the very ‘problems’ themselves. Harry. ‘as much a way of knowing and a way of acting strategically as a form of description’ (Edelman. 2006. the mechanisms by which this is imported into the professional lifeworld and the prevailing social conditions which form the very language used to describe the policy itself. Clayton . rather. 48) This world-to-person fit describes the ‘subject position’. Interpretational options are thus taken to be both pre-existing and available to the subject. through the act of locating oneself within a frame of predetermined potentialities. In short. p. cultural and historical ways of viewing the world. and on some groups rather than others as effected or constituted in discourse. Problem construction is. Ian. 2006.

The hegemonic Eurocentric paradigms that have informed western philosophy and sciences in the “modern/colonial capitalist/patriarchal world-system” (Grosfoguel 2005. Reject their truth claims – without escaping their Eurocentric paradigm everything they say is suspect. following Fanon (1967) and Anzaldúa (1987). Black feminist scholars called this perspective “afro-centric epistemology” (Collins 1990) (which is not equivalent to the afrocentrist perspective) while Latin American Philosopher of Liberation Enrique Dussel called it “geopolitics of knowledge” (Dussel 1977) and.Associate Professor of Ethnic Studies. to think epistemically like the ones on the dominant positions. spiritual. that is. Berkley (Ramon. TRANSMODERNITY: Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the LusoHispanic World. Subaltern epistemic perspectives are knowledge coming DML. Clayton . Ethnic/racial/gender/sexual epistemic location and the subject that speaks are always decoupled. gender. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. In Western philosophy and sciences the subject that speaks is always hidden. Nobody has forced a particular view of ‘common sense’ but it best serves the interests of dominant social orders. By delinking ethnic/racial/gender/sexual epistemic location from the subject that speaks. The main point here is the locus of enunciation.” The fact that one is socially located in the oppressed side of power relations does not automatically mean that he/she is epistemically thinking from a subaltern epistemic location. Chicana and black feminist scholars (Moraga and Anzaldúa 1983. But an intellectual who. the withdrawal of funds from education and welfare. 2011.Cap Kritik 125/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Framework – Epistemology First Epistemology first—the space industry is sustained only by the knowledge and the intellectuals complicit in propagating and normalizing the hegemonic worldview that seizing space is a “natural” extension of resolving capital crises Dickens and Ormrod 7 .” This is not only a question about social values in knowledge production or the fact that our knowledge is always partial. The “ego-politics of knowledge” of Western philosophy has always privilege the myth of a non-situated “Ego”. Nobody escapes the class. that is. University of Essex and **James. perhaps unwittingly. and Global Coloniality) NAR The first point to discuss is the contribution of racial/ethnic and feminist subaltern perspectives to epistemological questions. It also tends to be promoted by what Gramsci called ‘traditional’ intellectuals who claim to be politically unattached but who. linguistic. the success of the modern/colonial worldsystem consists in making subjects that are socially located in the oppressed side of the colonial difference. It is important here to distinguish the “epistemic location” from the “social location. Decolonizing Post-Colonial Studies and Paradigms of Political Economy: Transmodernity. It has been seen as ‘common sense’ that man (sic) should continue to explore and humanize the universe. Ian. and racial hierarchies of the “modern/colonial capitalist/patriarchal world-system“. increased levels of nationalism and so on. Decolonial Thinking. As feminist scholar Donna Haraway (1988) states. It entails capital accumulation. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. Precisely. It is promoted and engaged in by intellectuals who are ‘organic’ to the space industry and the social movement that supports it. Amanda. 1(1). erased from the analysis. Harry. sexual. the maintenance of class relations. conceals who is speaking as well as the geo-political and body-political epistemic location in the structures of colonial power/knowledge from which the subject speaks. Western philosophy and sciences are able to produce a myth about a Truthful universal knowledge that covers up. I will use the term “bodypolitics of knowledge. Rothenbaum. is ‘organic’ to those resisting such common sense will demonstrate the ways in which it is actually being done. concealed. Collins 1990) as well as Third World scholars inside and outside the United States (Dussel 1977) reminded us that we always speak from a particular location in the power structures. neutral. IWren) The second way in which space is involved in hegemonic struggles is that space development and settlement are widely supported as solutions to the economic and environmental contradictions of capitalism. our knowledges are always situated. Jay. Grosfoguel 11 . University of Cal. objective point of view. perpetuate the social order. to use Gramsci’s word. Bruce Gagnon and leading members of the Global Network could be seen as ‘organic’ intellectuals in this sense. the growth of a militarized industry. the geo-political and body-political location of the subject that speaks. geographical. pg 69. 2006b) for the last 500 hundred years assume a universalistic. increased social inequalities.*Peter.

Complementing the thinktanks’ online literature is the US Defense Department’s wealth of reports and plans at Defense Link. is the possibility of attainment of global striation at a higher level of perfection through ‘smooth’ dominance over submarine space. after a fashion. Jay. Henry Luce’s imperial peace to be enforced. where we can understand the desired goal of Empire for a group of operators. at least on the part of the US. Mindful of totalizing conspiracy theory. 2000 and PNAC sections on East Asia and NATO/Europe). for example. one suspects. and elsewhere). 2009.’ in a sense. What is new. While examining the precursors below. most notably ‘Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategy.’ an end-state of global organization (as opposed to the ‘Body without Organs’). forces. Amanda. we should emphasize the contrasts between the relative ‘mindlessness’ of capital flows and the clearly conspiratorial pouvoir of the Neocons’ militarism (not underestimating the ‘hidden hand of the market. 8 (2). and dreams of world conquest (e. 245-277. and cyber space. that FSD is the threat of the constitution of a Deleuzean ‘Full Body. as part of the ‘Global War on Terror.’ ‘Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather. We will also see that the achievement of FSD appears to necessitate clashes with deep alternate centers of pouvoir such as China and Russia. as FSD would have it. 1987) are nothing new. and resources for a new century’ (Project for a New American Century.Cap Kritik 126/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab from below that produces a critical perspective of hegemonic knowledge in the power relations involved. ocean space. “The Multitude and its Doppelgänger: An Exploration of Global Smooth Space”. popularly referred to as ‘Neocons. Nevertheless. it is worth remembering that the (white man’s) ‘burden of civilization’ for the West is centuries old. rather than Pax Americana.’ Their network of thinktanks—prime among them the Project for a New American Century and the American Enterprise Institute—have made available online numerous policy statements and grand plans. 1996)—just the terms embedded in the chapter titles give some idea of this particular future: ‘Worldwide Information Control System. Ian. What I am claiming is that all knowledges are epistemically located in the dominant or the subaltern side of the power relations and that this is related to the geo.and body-politics of knowledge. We need to examine the evidence for this to be able to state that the multitude has not infrequently been duped (recently. 2003). Air Force 2025 (US Air Force. could be the result (for the ‘threats’ posed by China and Russia. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies. and thus the black hole. in the color-coded revolutions in the Ukraine.’ however!). and a renewed focus on Pax Americana.) NAR We are ‘fortunate. land space. Failing to question the epistemology of the aff leads to extinction. by more than profit and the bottom line. Georgia. Rothenbaum. outer space. We could say. eventually.g.’ ‘Peacespace Dominance. Harry.’ ‘Global Battlespace Dominance. by what the Pentagon has called Full Spectrum Dominance (Shelton. Clayton .Associate Professor of Geography (Mark. or perhaps wormhole.’ Start-Tek [sic]-Exploiting the Final Frontier-Counterspace Operations. magus John Dee’s angelicallysuggested role for Elizabethan England: French. airspace. preliminarily. of global thermonuclear conflict. henceforth ‘FSD’). The disembodied and unlocated neutrality and objectivity of the ego-politics of knowledge is a Western myth. to have emerged since 9-11 into a dichotomized geopolitical discourse. the success and the sheer publicity of the latter’s synarchical constructive chaos is an anchoring point among the cognitive dissonances of Empire’s subjects— a bold plan that gives us some idea of the black hole of macro-fascism that is inspired. 2000). perhaps. see Project for a New American Century. there is much reinvention of Cold War nemeses. DML. In this grand project. Bonta 9 .’ ‘Brilliant Warrior. I am not claiming an epistemic populism where knowledge produced from below is automatically an epistemic subaltern knowledge. 2000. the Federation of American Scientists’ website includes one of the most intriguing of these visions. the US Air Force also provides numerous online reports relevant to the FSD vision (see US Air Force.’ We should certainly remain unsure whether these are also the desired goals of non-American Empire and of the global market.’ who have had innumerable successes.

and political energy is being channelled into the possibility of transforming Mars’s physical geography. constitute Mars’s current cultural geography. policy makers in Space-faring nations in particular have given scant attention to the political spatialities of the planet (2006). a terra nullius. Jay. or a space of intrinsic value? Second. ‘as not just a matter of what we can do. along with fictional representations and media constructions. Vigorous scientific. and by whom? Martian colonization is beginning: it is time. to attend to it critically. questions that are not yet answered: should Mars be regarded as a terra communis. as Linda Billings (2006) asserts. how can it be transformed into a possession. inhabiting it with stories and plans and dreams’. its areology. Political spatialities. 7 It is these spatialities that are currently in flux. should Mars be claimable space. yet. In his quasifictional study of Martian colonization. technical. Harry. DML. as Fox (2006. 225) writes. Two specific questions emerge from this article. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. they have to defend their reps Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. however. Kim Stanley Robinson (1994. Mars has moved out of science fiction and onto national budgets and the agendas of international legal bodies. ‘We have the opportunity to explore Mars’. precolonial stage. Amanda. Clayton . And it is political spatialities that will ultimately underpin any future activities on the planet. but also what we should do’. and if so. The task of this article has been to provide an analysis of its uneven terrain in the context of western political economic trajectories. before we begin to build. 149). What comes next is an application of lessons learned from terrestrial colonialism of the past to Martian spatiality in its current. Rothenbaum. The task of the larger project of which this article is an early part. Similarly. dml) The European imperial explorers who began excursions five centuries ago shifted expeditions to ‘the new world’ from the domain of speculation to that of physical and political practice.Cap Kritik 127/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Framework (Mars Affs) In the context of Mars colonization your language is not neutral – the way they frame the plan is inextricably tied to plan action. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. and not Mars’s physical terrain. write McArthur and Boran (2004. ‘It is clear that we should seek some ethical guidelines in advance before we repeat our sorry history elsewhere’. 367) points up the importance of attending to these Martian spatialities now: ‘noosphere preceded biosphere – the layer of thought first enwrapping the silent planet from afar. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. Ian. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. is only barely initiated.

Rothenbaum. empirical facts. Even the iconic architect of the current economic system himself.. DML. In the futurist field. capitalism.S. a Minneapolis-based journalist who has written for Fort Worth Weekly and The Dallas Morning News. The veteran Southern Methodist University economics professor saw this storm approaching years ago and has written several books. Ravi Batra is also shaking his head — but for different reasons. Jay. Greenspan said.fwweekly. “Prophet of Boom (and Bust): Now will they listen to Ravi Batra?”. and the stock market crash of 2000. He wrote Greenspan’s Fraud in 2005. massive government bailout has failed thus far to unfreeze the credit system that is the lifeblood of U. Ian. the 65-year-old Indian-born academic has an amazing record of economic and social forecasting going back several decades. about what the country should have been doing to handle it. Amanda.asp?article=7369. he’s still trying to figure out. and an unprecedented. Rajani Kannepalli Kanth. past or present … and he does it all by reference to recorded. Harry. IWren) The worst economic cycle in more than half a century has everyone from struggling homeowners to former Federal Reserve chairmen shaking their heads in disbelief. to the mergers booms and soaring stock prices of the ’90s. retail sales are in the toilet. In Dallas. Clayton . he has a nearly 90 percent record of being right. former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan.Cap Kritik 128/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Batra Unqualified Rishee’s dad is a genius FW Weekly 08 (Fort Worth Weekly. bankruptcies of major companies are a daily occurrence. not paradigm [or] ideology. told a Congressional panel several months ago that his deregulation and debt-is-OK approach was mistaken. which he predicted in the 1960s. he predicted an economic depression and the rise of a charismatic leader who might help dig the country out of that hole.com/content. In fact. where a 65 to 70 percent accuracy rate is acceptable.” said Prof. Jobs are disappearing. written by Kendall Anderson. “Ravi is a phenomenon — the best predictive record of any economist. including a couple of best-sellers. from the rise of Islam. a visiting scholar at Harvard University who specializes in political economy and social anthropology. And in his 2006 book. But what exactly is causing the current worldwide financial meltdown. The New Golden Age — The Coming Revolution Against Political Corruption and Economic Chaos. http://archive.

Cap Kritik 129/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **AFF STUFF** DML. Rothenbaum. Amanda. Jay. Clayton . Harry. Ian.

the very idea of a noncapitalist economy takes the shape of an unlikelihood or even an impossibility. systemic. But the point should emerge none the less clearly: the virtually unquestioned dominance of capitalism can be seen as a complex product of a variety of discursive commitments. expansive. if they exist at all. self-rectifying. embracing. and. dynamic.. must inhabit the social margins. It becomes difficult to entertain a vision of the prevalence and vitality of noncapitalist economic forms. in the realm of experiment. the book selectively traces the discursive origins of a widespread understanding: that capitalism is the hegemonic. originating. and possibilities of changing it. organized and organizing.K. disciplining. The representati n. victorious and ascendant. and essentialist. transformative. modern historiography. self-reproducing. real. academic social science. the anticapitalist imagination.9 It is therefore the ways in which capitalism is known that we wish to delegitimize and displace.4 Scrutinizing what might be seen as throwaway uses of the term . constraining. or of capitalist retreats and reversals. present form of economy and that it will continue to be so in the proximate future. in an endless array of texts. For this reason. tracing some of the different. full. techniques. For in the vicinity of these representations. Rothenbaum. for example. colonizing.as well as systematic and deliberate attempts to represent capitalism as a central and organizing feature of modern social experience. If it were possible to inhabit a heterogeneous and open-ended economic space whose identity was not fixed or singular (the space potentially to be vacated by a capitalism that is necessarily and naturally hegemonic) then a vision of noncapitalist economic practices as existing and widespread might be able to be born. definite. This we see as a first step toward theorizing capitalism without representing dominance as a natural and inevitable feature of its being. evolutionary scenarios of social development. and to populate that world with exotic creatures that become. rational. penetrating. upon inspection. only a few of these are examined for the ways in which they have sustained a vision of capitalism as the dominant form of economy.Cap Kritik 130/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Gibson-Graham You’re doing it wrong—representations of capitalism as hegemonically dominant preclude the realization of actual social change.7 In this book we focus on the practices and preoccupations of discourse. but also as a brake upon. even incompatible. that deliberate attempts to develop noncapitalist economic practices and institutions must take place in the social interstices. classical and contemporary political economy. traditions and infrastructures of meaning. Gibson-Graham 06 – J. Jay. what shadowy economic forms might come forward? In these questions we can discursive artifact we call "capitalist hegemony" is a complex effect of a wide variety of discursive and nondiscursive conditions. protean. and capable of conferring identity and meaning. These depictions have their origins in the diverse traditions of Marxism. In this sense. we hope to foster conditions under which the economy might become less subject to definitional closure. Harry. Representations of capitalism are a potent constituent of the anticapitalist imagination. western philosophy and metaphysics. or in a visionary space of revolutionary social replacement.8 The argument revisited: it is the way capitalism has been "thought" that has made it so difficult for people to imagine its supersession. It follows from this prevalent though not ubiquitous view that noncapitalist economic sites. to the capitalist system or to global capitalism . At the same time. selfidentical. centered and centering. heroic historical narratives. indeed. positive. including but not limited to organicist social conceptions. In the chapters that follow. Ian. active. powerful. or binary patterns of thinking. Amanda. or of daily or partial replacements of capitalism by noncapitalist economic practices. self-expressive. or have contributed to the possibility or durability of such a vision. representations of capitalism that can be collated within this fictive summary identify the broad outlines of our project: to discover or create a world of economic difference. quite local and familiar (not to mention familiar beings that are not what they seem). Clayton . popular economic and social thought. a new anticapitalist DML. The process is one of unearthing. providing images of what is to be resisted and changed as well as intimations of the strategies.5 What difference might it make to release that brake and allow an anticapitalist economic imaginary to develop unrestricted?6 If we were to dissolve the image that looms in the economic foreground. lawful. and in the context of such a vision. or even the only. as a corollary. depictions of "capitalist hegemony" deserve a particularly skeptical reading. phallocentric. IWren) The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It) problematizes "capitalism" as an economic and social descriptor. of bringing to light images and habits of understanding that constitute "hegemonic capitalism" at the intersection of a set of representations.passing references. persistent. progressive. pen name shared by feminist economic geographers Julie Graham and Katherine Gibson (“The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy”. pg 2-5. "capitalist hegemony" operates not only as a constituent of. creative. Changing this view is a pre-requisite to the alt. It is through these discursive figurings and alignments that capitalism is constituted as large.

To such an essentialist reading of identity "capitalism" designates an underlying commonality in the objects to which it refers. while repositioning capitalism itself as an effect. Overdetermination enables us to read the causality that is capitalism as coexisting with an infinity of other determinants. industrialization.35 so can an overdeterminist approach realize its power and strategic capacity by virtue of its oppositional relation to the preeminent modes of understanding both language categories and identity/being. to oppose and contradict).37 But it testifies to the resilience of the dominant conceptual context (it should perhaps be called a mode of thought) in which the objects of thought exist independently of thought and of each other that an autonomous economy still exists and operates in social representation. if it is not a unity but a heterogeneity. Harry. To the extent that we conceptualize entities as autonomous. pg 43-45.34 If capitalism/man can be understood as multiple and specific. not a sameness but a difference. and as the unique referents that give each sign a stable and singular meaning. to that extent does the strategy of thinking overdetermination have the power to destabilize theoretical discourse and reposition the concepts within it. To conceptualize capitalism/man as multiple and different is thus a condition of theorizing noncapitalism/woman as a set of specific. There is no singularity of Form to constitute noncapitalism/woman as a simple negation or as the recessive ground against which the positive figure of capitalism/man is defined. internationalization . far from being over or even well on its way. bounded. Ian. It is also a reassertion of the hegemonic conceptions of language and determination that overdetermination is uniquely positioned to contradict. liberating discourses of economy and society from capitalism's embrace.. fragment. capitalocentric modes of thought Gibson-Graham 06 – J. corresponding to one thing. monistic entity precludes noncapital alternatives and furthers hegemonic. if it incorporates difference within its decentered being. that overdetermination is a discursive strategy that can potentially empty. centered. identities (like capitalism) can become visible as entirely constituted by their "external" conditions. Just as postmodernism obtains its power from modernism (its power to undermine and destabilize. and discrete (constituted by the exclusion of their outsides). DML. It is a testimony to the power of overdetermination that it has allowed certain post-Althusserian theorists to envision an "economy" that is not singular. and that therefore is not capitalism's exclusive domain. different societies become the sites of a resemblance or a replication. and an origin of meaning and causation in social theory. Amanda. Complex processes of social development . A long shot Representing capitalism as a bounded. definite forms of being. noncapitalism can only be subordinated or rendered invisible (like traditional or domestic economic forms). a noncapitalist politics of class (whatever that may mean) might take root and flourish. proletarianization. the places where capitalism is inhabited and constituted by noncapitalism. One can also say. Jay. pen name shared by feminist economic geographers Julie Graham and Katherine Gibson (“The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy”. When capitalism exists as a sameness. and that obtains its shifting and contradictory identity from the always changing exteriors that overdetermine it.commodification. discovering the surplus and contradictory meanings of the term.36 Through the lens of overdetermination. Taken together these strategies have the potential to undermine capitalism's discursive "hegemony" and to reconceptualize its role in social determination. 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab politics might emerge. And what may account for the economic monism or hegemonism that accompanies most representations of capitalist society and development? Here a partial answer may be found in the metaphysics of identity that Althusser sought to undermine. Rothenbaum. That the capitalist economy often escapes reconceptualization and so continues to function as an organizing moment. Thus we are not surprised to encounter a capitalism that is essentially the same in different times and places (despite the fact that sameness as the precondition of meaning is exactly what various structuralist and poststructuralist traditions have sought to undermine. if it is always becoming what it is not.K. where it escapes the logic of sameness and is unable to maintain its ostensible self-identity (see chapter 10). One can say that representations of the capitalist economy as an independent entity informed by logics and exclusive of its exteriors have allowed capitalism to hegemonize both the economic and the social field. Operating under an "imperative of unity" (Hazel 1994: 4) western conceptions of identity entail both the unity of an object with itself (its selfresemblance) and its one-to one relation with the sign by which it is known: one word with one meaning. decenter and open the economy. IWren) What interests me most here is the question of why the economism of which capitalism is the bearer is so difficult to moderate or excise. has hardly begun. however. Noncapitalism is to capitalism as woman to man: an insufficiency until and unless it is released from the binary metaphysics of identity (where A is a unified self-identical being that excludes what it is not). none of which can definitively be said to be less or more significant. But that process. then noncapitalism/woman is released from its singular and subordinate status. With an overdeterminist strategy we may empty capitalism of its universal attributes and evacuate the essential and invariant logics that allow it to hegemonize the economic and social terrain. Clayton . Representations of society and economy cannot themselves be centered on a decentered and formless entity that is itself always different from itself. ordered or selfconstituting.become legible as the signatures of capitalism rather than as unique and decentered determinations. It is easy to appreciate the strategic effectiveness of reading the texts of capitalism deconstructively.Cap Kritik 131/194 perhaps but one worth pursuing. But overdetermination can be used as an additional anti-essentialist theoretical strategy to complement and supplement the strategy of deconstruction. cannot be understood as a simple theoretical omission.) By virtue of their identification as capitalist settings.

Amanda. Jay. Rothenbaum. Clayton . Ian. Harry.Cap Kritik 132/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab DML.

it can therefore be seen as "an abstraction with concrete effects" (in Laclau and Mouffe's wonderful critical phrase) rather than as a discursive moment that is relationally defined. and culture (or some other such partition) continues to function as the general conceptual frame within which particular social discourses are inscribed. The language of social instances that divides society into economy. But the capitalism they describe. Laclau and Mouffe leave the economy theoretically untouched. inhabited by a set of logics that increasingly define the character of the social landscape (Diskin and Sandier 1993). it is not equivalently "subjected.. It remains positive and homogeneous. Rothenbaum.27 Laclau and Mouffe's capitalism is the protagonist of a unified narrative of development that sets the political stage. No "exteriors" (discourses in which it has other meanings) operate to subvert its unity and self-resemblance. polity. When it is not overtly theorized. a disproportionate effectivity. In a diverse array of texts and traditions." If it is affected and shaped by its social contexts. it is now the case that post-Marxist and cultural theorists often avoid constituting the economy as a theoretical object (perhaps theoretical avoidance is anti-economism's highest form. Clayton .K. The immutable logics at the core of its being are independent of its social contexts (they always operate and are not fully susceptible to being abridged). it will write itself into every text of social theory. capitalism is rendered as the "subject" of history. IWren) This representation of capitalism in Hegemony and Socialist Strategy is notable not only for the extraordinary transformative capacity with which capitalism is endowed . and by extension the economy. including the "retreat" from economism inspired by Althusser. in familiar and powerful ways. capitalism both has and is an essence.it is given sole responsibility for a thoroughgoing historical transformation . It is a cause without being to the same extent an effect. This gives capitalism. Until it’s retheorized as the object of social relations it will always recreate itself dominantly in social discourse—that turns their advocacy Gibson-Graham 06 – J. As the inadvertent result of their theoretical silence. Its definition and operations are independent of articulatory practices and discursive fixings.but also for the familiarity and unremarkability of the depiction.Cap Kritik 133/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Gibson-Graham Link – Cap as Subject Their representation of capitalism as a subject that acts on the social field denies the true situational and external factors that create capitalism in individual contexts. since it would be impossible to problematize every social dimension and practice. Amanda. and unfixing society from its economic base." Instead it claims the terrain of the social as the arena of its self-realization. In this sense it exists outside overdetermination. for example. Ian. In the rendition of recent economic and social history quoted above. But the "failure" to theorize the economy is inevitably associated with certain problematic effects. an agent that makes history but is not correspondingly "made. pen name shared by feminist economic geographers Julie Graham and Katherine Gibson (“The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy”. it defines itself as capitalism because it lacks another name.) By itself. Its internal imperatives of growth and expansion are manifest in history as its external form. Jay. and the heroic role they assign to it. For various reasons. the economy has a fixed (if atheoretically specified) identity and capitalism itself has a fixed and transparent (or generic) meaning.26 While undoing the closed and singular social totality. is a remnant or borrowing (from other parts of the Marxian tradition) rather than a product of their own theoretical elaborations. pg 38-39. Unlike other social practices and processes in Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. Unless the economy is explicitly written out. this is not a fatal "omission" or a necessary source of theoretical deformations. or until it is deconstructively or positively rewritten. Harry. capitalism inhabits the present as a concrete embodiment of its abstract description.28 DML.

Carroll 2010) – counter-hegemony has also taken on transnational features that go beyond the classic organization of left parties into internationals. illustrates the limits of transnational activism that radiates from advanced capitalism to exert external pressure on behalf of subalterns in the global South. counterpoised to neoliberalism’s transnational historical bloc.Cap Kritik 134/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Perm Critique alone fails – integration of actual solutions key Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 190. Yet the same group. well-intentioned practices of solidarity reproduced a paternalism that failed to inspire local collective action. ‘we are witnessing the emergence and re-making of political imaginaries…. Indeed. ‘the more such solidarity work involves grassroots initiatives and participation. takes on a spatial character. the greater is the likelihood that workers from different countries will learn from each other’. Clayton . with external support. The scaling up of militant particularisms requires ‘alliances across interrelated scales to unite a diverse range of social groupings and thereby spatialize a Gramscian war of position to the global scale’ (Karriem 2009: 324). such as the successful international effort in 1998 to defeat the Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI). Perm solves—only combining both hard science and social insight can reveal the link between the two. “Crisis. in initiatives such as the World Social Forum. the construction of global governance institutions. led to ‘psychological empowerment’ and movement mobilization (Friedman 2009: 212). movements. an incipient war of position is at work here – a bloc of oppositional forces to neoliberal globalization encompassing a wide range of movements and identities and that is ‘global in nature. enabling transnational counter-hegemony to gain a foothold (Rahmon and Langford 2010: 63). Such alliances. however. the origin point is national. and in the growth of transnational movement organizations and of a ‘democratic globalization network’. workers taking direct action on their own behalf. in the latter. as Marie-Josée Massicotte suggests. DML. the mainland-based migrant workers’ association. As I have suggested elsewhere (Carroll 2007). counter-hegemony: in search of the new. to contest the terrain of global civil society. ‘left to themselves … are easily dominated by the power of capital to coordinate accumulation across universal but fragmented space’ (Harvey 1996: 32). still has currency. It will take much hard work and politics on a mass scale to forge new social alliances. Amanda. in this context. Jay. Philosophy and sociology are only tools for uncovering how reality is structured and for freeing up the discussion of feasible alternatives. Gramsci’s adage that while the line of development is international. dml) Explanatory critique can only go so far. Catharsis. through its support for its ally. Ian. respectively.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Friedman recounts how a campaign by the Hong Kong-based group of Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehavior to empower Chinese mainland workers producing goods for Hong Kong Disneyland failed due to the lack of local mobilization by workers themselves. As a rule. Harry. Much of the energy of anti-capitalist politics is centred within what Raymond Williams (1989) called militant particularisms – localized struggles that. What Sousa Santos (2006) terms the rise of a global left is evident in specific movementbased campaigns. the emergence of a transnational capitalist class and so on (Soederberg 2006. which often lead to valuable localized actions as well as greater transborder solidarity’ (2009: 424). dml) Just as hegemony has been increasingly organized on a transnational basis – through the globalization of Americanism. 168-198. Eli Friedman’s (2009) case study of two affiliated movement organizations in Hong Kong and mainland China. The alt alone is coopted – you need a multitude of standpoints means the perm solves Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William. that address issues of North-South solidarity and coordination (Smith 2008:24). In the former case. These moments of resistance and transborder activism do not yet combine to form a coherent historical bloc around a counter-hegemonic project. must be grounded in local conditions and aspirations. Reducing everything to social constructionism is counterproductive. Rather.” Interface 2:2. Rothenbaum. transcending traditional national boundaries’ (Butko 2006: 101). counter-hegemonic ideologies and space projects that benefit oppressed populations. has helped facilitate self-organization on the shop floor. The ultimate aim of this must be a relationship with the universe that does not further empower the already powerful.

Cap Kritik 135/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Dickens and Ormrod 7 .1). Opposition to both neoliberalism and war are constitutive themes of the anti-capitalist movement. played a critical role both in making the forum possible and in restraining themselves from trying to dominate the forum or competing too openly among themselves. Venezuela and Ecuador. founding member of the UK Stop the War Coalition. Too often the left has taken its stand within the framework of that ideology. in order to understand the dialectic between social and physical worlds. It should have been possible. Unfortunately. Yet the Caracas forum also showed up the limitations of the WSF process. whether for tactical reasons or from principled agreement. IWren) The physical and natural sciences have often historically denied that their attempts to know the realities with which they are concerned are in any way dependent on the social world.org. Director of the Centre for European Studies at King’s College London. The truth is that cooperation between the two actually strengthens both. whilst explaining the importance of material reality. the physics of subatomic particles to a text. The same is true at a global level. Editor of International Socialism AND ** Chris Nineham. Rothenbaum. not at any of the Porto Alegre Forums.*Peter. subway systems to rhetorical devices. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. Ian. Amanda. Clayton . Archer et al. in the International Journal of Socialism. We maintain that. the high points of the European movement at Genoa and Florence were informed by this cooperation. for example. ‘it is hard to reduce the entire cosmos to a grand narrative. President Hugo Chávez echoed many others when he spoke there of the importance of the movement against the Iraq war in weakening the US’s ability to act in what it regards traditionally as its own backyard. The peak so far reached by the WSF took place. The social influences on the theories and methods of science are therefore ignored. Autonomous anti-capital movements fail—only combining social mobilization with political action can unite large populations and create a political driving force Callinicos and Nineham 07 . But as Bruno Latour says. 1997. and argue that the job of the social scientist is to work with the knowledge produced by physicists and the like. University of Essex and **James. 1998) (see Box 1. an ontology is necessary that explains how insights from both the social and physical sciences can be combined. all social structures to discourse’ (Latour 1993: 64). but in Mumbai in January 2004.*Alex Callinicos. 2 July 07. Harry. infused as it was by both a strong anti-imperialist consciousness and the movements of India’s vast poor. The two most successful forums—Florence and Mumbai—were ones where opposition to the “war on terror” was a dominant theme. We recognize that causal mechanisms operate on a number of different levels within the universe. thus privileging the kind of knowledge held by the social sciences over that of other disciplines. The result of this should be a theory that reduces the universe to neither the merely physical nor the purely social. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. combining that with sociological understanding. The ideal of science is of an objective discipline that is value-free and guided by its own criteria of progress. in the social sciences in the last few decades there has often been a suggestion that our understandings of the physical and natural worlds are mere social constructions. But recognition of both the principled significance and the mobilising power of anti-imperialism needs to be built into how the social forums operate. to launch a very high DML. These points are related to the fundamental tenets of critical realism as outlined by Roy Bhaskar and others (Bhaskar 1986. the ongoing attempt by scientists to construct a theory of everything runs counter to this kind of ontology. This was proved by the success of last year’s “polycentric” WSF in Caracas. Jay. involving not merely Rifondazione but also smaller parties of the radical left such as the LCR and the Socialist Workers Party as well as more radical elements of Italy’s centre-left Left Democrats. pg 41.isj. former drummer for the indie pop band The June Brides. Likewise. But a break is required by an honest appreciation of the interplay between political parties and social movements. It was taken for granted among the tens of thousands of mainly Latin American activists assembled there that the US poses a real and present threat to the gains being made by movements in Bolivia. But the two key organisations of the Indian left—the Communist Party (Marxist) and the Communist Party of India—alongside various Maoist organisations. An honest reappraisal of the relationship between parties and movements would allow the social forums to play to their strengths. a product of the society in which they were created. 1998. Saying this does not mean returning to the tedious and sterile argument— either the war or the “social question”. http://www. Venezuela. IWren) This understanding has to involve an open break with the ideology of autonomous social movements. However much retrospect is coloured by Bertinotti’s subsequent right turn. helped mobilize thousands in protests in Genoa (“At an impasse? Anti-capitalism and the social forums today”.uk/?id=337.

Documents of the left within the movement tend to espouse versions of radical reformism. whether revolutionary or reformist. But at a time when the anger against neoliberalism is growing everywhere and so many people are reassessing their political loyalties. But it needs to be accompanied by open debate about the nature of the enemy that we are confronted with and of the alternatives that we should be seeking. the left within the movement. None of this should prevent cooperation among different forces on the left seeking to give the anti-capitalist movement a more coherent and strategically focused direction. because of its acceptance of a version of the ideology of autonomous social movements (although individual LCR members such as Christophe Aguiton. The emergence of new anti-capitalist political formations that are at least partly the product of movements of resistance—Portugal’s Left Bloc. But fighting neoliberalism and war is necessarily a highly political affair. and openness and humility on the other. But we can reach constructive agreement on the many issues—opposition to neoliberalism and war—that unite a large spectrum of forces. LAW and negotiation”.27 Another important figure on the left of the movement. DML. has kept aloof from the anti-capitalist movement as an organisation. There is unlikely to be agreement between the different tendencies in the movement in the short or medium term over general political alternatives. new political coalitions can emerge. The development of the movements necessarily generates political disagreements that cannot be kept separate from party organisations. so providing a framework in which political debate and practical organising can fruitfully interplay. Many present were suggesting it. Moreover. A united front involves the coming together of different forces around a common but limited platform of action. these forces will have disagreements about political programme. shows a similar approach in his calls for “deglobalisation”. Because they are focused round action. developed by the revolutionary Marxist tradition. the LCR. participate in neoliberal coalitions at the all-India and state levels: the Left Front government in West Bengal has violently clashed with workers and peasants in recent months.28 Such formulations do not sufficiently address the reality that confronting imperialism as a system will require global social transformation based on the collective power and organisation of the oppressed and exploited in the North as well as the South. such alliances can be politically inclusive and maximise the chances of practical campaigning agreement. In breaking out of this impasse. they may also differ over how to pursue the common actions that have brought them together. We believe that the concept of the united front. Through the experience of such campaigning. Harry. high powered campaign from the forum calling on all the movements round the world to pledge defence of the gains of the Chavista experience so far. But so long as they come together round limited and relatively specific aims. This ideology conceives social movements as a neutral space somehow beyond politics. Precisely because they are different. The big Indian Communist parties. despite the very positive role they played in the Mumbai WSF. The Bamako Appeal’s first plank is. Such cooperation is essential. it will be necessary to define precisely what the radical left is within the movement. A much more principled organisation. Respect in Britain—shows the extent to which activists recognise the need for a political voice as part of the development of opposition to neoliberalism and war. Walden Bello of Focus on the Global South. This is no simple matter. But because of the autonomist principles so jealously guarded by the WSF leadership. they can be a testing ground for different tactics and strategies. no such centralised initiative was taken. Pierre Rousset and Sophie Zafari have played important roles in the movement at global and/or European levels).Cap Kritik 136/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab profile. Rothenbaum. Amanda.29 Striking the right balance between disagreement and cooperation once again requires a break with the ideology of autonomous social movements. provides a better guide to building democratic. This is the way to break movements away from abstract position taking or sectarian point scoring. Clayton . and nowhere is free of the antagonisms of wider capitalist society. “For a multipolar world founded on peace. the Left Party in Germany. The sorry record of Rifondazione has already been discussed. It is precisely this kind of unity in action that many people are looking for in the current situation.26 Amin’s pronouncements are sometimes redolent of nostalgia for the high tide of Third World nationalism between the 1950s and 1970s: “The reconstruction of a ‘front of the countries and peoples of the South’ is one of the fundamental conditions for the emergence of ‘another world’ not based on imperialist domination”. it seems to us that the anti-capitalist left needs urgently to try such methods if it is to reach out and connect with its potential audience. Jay. Ian. Constructing such united fronts is not easy: it requires initiative and clear leadership on the one hand. dynamic movements than does the model that has prevailed so far. should working together in order to fight to give the movement a more strategic and focused direction.

Pre-existing structures and worker organizations made possible a workers’ takeover of much of the Spanish economy (especially in Catalonia). style. factory committees. indigenous sovereignty. http://www. this isn't to say that every so-called 'progressive' ballot initiative or organizing campaign is necessarily radical or strategic. “pure” but alone). Andre Gorz. Anti-reformism dooms any movement away from capitalism Burrows 1 – author and publisher from the SMAC lecture series New Colonist Paul. theory. Reforms are not all created equal. Talk minus action is zero. we need to recognize that no revolution begins with the overthrow of the State. expansive environmental protections. Chris. or avoid direct action. the state.Cap Kritik 137/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Perm – Reformism Good Reformism from with-in solves Dixon 1 – Activist and founding member of Direct Action Network Summer. It doesn’t imply that we should refrain from criticism of Cuba’s economic system from a socialist and working-class perspective.com/altcap. methods. but each has the potential to escalate struggles and sharpen social contradictions. (But this doesn’t imply that we should turn a blind eye to human rights violations in Cuba. white supremacy. they created new prospects for revolutionary change. the alternatives we create must embody the values we profess to hold. and more importantly. None will single-handedly dismantle capitalism or other systems of power. In addition to saying “talk minus action equals zero. making mistakes. The Spanish Revolution of 1936-39 didn’t just happen because the Spanish were more “radical” or “committed” than we are." Look to history for examples: the end of slavery. just because they’re relatively non-existent compared to the rest of Latin America (or Canada for that matter). and Activism”. refers to these as "non-reformist" or "structural" reforms. enabled Spanish workers to develop knowledge of their enterprises. and in the process. he critically cites one of the examples in my essay: demanding authentic contends. Participation in radical unions. Amanda. but it’s also true that action minus well-thought-out ideas and principles can be less than zero.newcolonist. Younger activists especially need to take this seriously. activist community (young and old. As Gramsci pointed out we need to maintain an optimism of will. because they tend to Unrealistic expectations are a fast road to burnout and despair. Instead of saying “Anything short of complete ‘Revolution’ is reformist” (and then going home to watch TV).' for instance. embargo. and more concerned about our own political relevance. and tone we adopt. a little more questioning of our assumptions. "a struggle for non-reformist reforms--for anti-capitalist reforms--is one which does not base its validity and its right to exist on capitalist needs. we need to start by asking such questions. Reformism. and by articulating them in a language that’s real. These and many more are arguably non-reformist reforms as well. Yet they all struck at the foundations of power (in these cases. a sense of their own competence. hard struggles. “Reflections on Privilege. and it can hinder the growth of a radical movement.” Get real!) From an organizing perspective alone. the eight-hour workday. we need to recognize that the language we use. community and workplace level.” is in my opinion. He To bolster his critique of 'reformism. Jay. we need to look in the bloody mirror. We need to ask ourselves “What are we really doing to create a welcoming movement. socialized health care. In other words.html I think that if we want to build a popular movement. Harry. everyday struggles and demands to long-term radical objectives. desegregation. The dismantling or seizure of the State is usually a reflection of a deep revolution already occurring at the grassroots. when was the last time I reached out to someone who didn’t already share my politics. Any anarchist who says they won’t support Cuban solidarity efforts. We need to think hard about the meaning of solidarity. Rothenbaum. and capitalism).) DML. what are we really doing to foster solidarity. Online we need revolutionary strategy that links diverse. because the Cuban revolution is “Statist” and “authoritarian. simply because we’re worried about the declining number of post-capitalist experiments to support. we need to strike a balance between hope and reality—something that is absolutely necessary. The struggle of the Spanish anarchists and communists offers many lessons—not the least of which is that revolution is a long-term agenda. think that militancy alone (regardless of popular support) will bring about a fast demise of capitalism. Of course. however. making 'adjustments' to a fundamentally flawed system. in his seminal book Strategy for Labor. and gave them direct experience with collective organizational principles. a culture of resistance. politics. criteria. or could care less about the U. (Not many people are interested in the subtleties of the “dialectical relationship between base and superstructure. It can be damaging to individual people. the Old Left needs to recognize that all the same criticisms apply equally to themselves. and collectives for decades. It was the culmination of almost 70 years of organizing. We need to have a little humility — we need to be a little less attached to our conclusions. Instead of saying everyone else isn’t revolutionary enough (while we sit on our ass waiting for the Revolution. Solidarity is NOT about supporting those who share your precise politics. A non-reformist reform is determined not in terms of what can be. and goals differ from our own. And we shouldn't misinterpret these efforts as simply meliorative incrementalism. observing that the state-capitalist system is powerful. without sacrificing either. and rationales. At the same time. when was the last time I actually had an impact on someone?” Instead of saying “those young anarchists don’t know how to build institutions” (and then calling them “reformist” or “parochial” or “bourgeois” when they do). and none were endpoints. and create an alternative to capitalism. The entire Left. Ian. but what should be. even if we have a pessimism of mind. is not an excuse to stuff our nests. leading to enlarged gains and greater space for further advances. a little less quick with our judgements and dismissals.” younger activists need to simultaneously pay more attention to history. socialist or not) needs to build or expand upon its own institutions. the mannerisms. It’s about supporting those who struggle against injustice—even if their assumptions. progressive.S. building a popular base. All were born from long. Clayton . and believing that revolution is a long-term agenda. and the experiences of veteran activists. is at least as important as the substance of our message. full of shit. But some can fundamentally shake systems of power. we need to be less concerned about the alleged failings and ignorance of others. Now consider contemporary struggles: amnesty for undocumented immigrants. Ultimately. if our efforts are to be sustained beyond youthful idealism into the rest of our lives.

Jay. Ian. Harry. Clayton . Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 138/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab DML. Amanda.

O'Brien 1992. how. socially and culturally homogenized world. Mittelman 1996a. this paper aims to analyze the underlying logic(s) of globalization and to show that globalization tendencies neither result in a 'borderless' world nor lead to the end of geography. Amidst such 'globalization fervour'. Weiss 1998. Scott 1997. if lacking the material force of. Cox 1997). Sassen 1996a. the dialectical response to this has been the affirmation of difference. which is equally present as. Although the neoliberal 'end-state' view of globalization has been critically refuted in recent literature (Boyer and Drache 1996. new forms of local resistance and local expression emerge. Brown 1997. which has also become increasingly 'placeless'. it is worthwhile to pause for a moment and re-examine critically the analytical constructs in these theses. Instead. Though it invades local contexts of action. As a vehicle for housing and controlling the organization and location of these resources and competencies.ever. and the multiplicity and hybridization of social life at every spatial scale (Amin 1997. Jay. they claim. globalization does not destroy them. 1995a. Dicken 1998. Globalization is conceptualized as a complex process of interrelated tendencies (Dicken et al 1997). the nation state ceases to be a political institution capable of exerting influences on the activities of capital. Dunning 1997). relatively little has been said about the underlying logic(s) and tendencies of globalization as an ongoing process. While not denying some of the broader empirical global trends identified by Ohmae4 and other ultraglobalists. national institutions and social systems (Mueller 1994). Olds et al forthcoming. instead. It is defined as an economy in which there is close economic inter. The end result is the demise of geography and national boundaries. the geopolitics of capitalism have become irrelevant in an allegedly 'borderless' world. much counterglobalization literature has focused on pro. Yeung 98—Professor of Economic Geography at the National University of Singapore (Henry Wai-chung.dependence of national economies at a global scale. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. and in which there are relatively few artificial restrictions on the cross-border movement of people. Because of this increasing convergence of production. 23. which no longer make a difference in the 'borderless' world.viding evidence to show that the world is not yet globalized. These tendencies towards homogenization and differentiation reflect continuous tensions between capital and the state in the (re)production of space. “Capital. constituted by the relativization of scale. Dunning (1993. the fortunes of individuals. Keller et al forthcoming). 3. MNEs [multinational enterprises] remain in a class of their own. State and Space: Contesting the Borderless World”. DML. the apparently dominant homogenizing tendencies (Cox 1996). Horsman and Marshall 1994. The global economy today has become more functionally integrated and interdependent than ever (Perraton et al 1997. JSTOR)//AW The late twentieth century has witnessed extensive globalization of economic activities. reinforcing the interconnectedness of the Henry Waichung Yeung local and the global. Hirst and Thompson 1996. goods or services. The convergent effects of globalization and cross-border organizational learning have rapidly outpaced the divergent effects of cultures. Globalization can therefore be seen as a dialectical process of homogenization and differentiation. assets. Blackwell Publishing. 129) observes that one of the most distinctive features of the world economy of the early 1990s is the ease with which the kinds of assets and intermediate products that determine a nation's prosperity and growth are able to move across national boundaries. Levy 1995). Vol. The end-state of globalization is often perceived as an economically. and cooperative commercial relationships. Clayton .dependence among and between the leading nations in trade. Amanda. To them. industries and even nation states are so intertwined with ongoing events in the global economy that it becomes almost impossible to define the nation state without reference to the broader economy (Baylis and Smith 1997. Harry. firms. 135)1 Because of this increasing integration and inter. cf Hirst and Thompson 1996). however. typically through cross-border investments and trade spearheaded by transnational banks and transnational corporations (TNCs).3 Such 'borderless world' and 'end of geography' theses may seem inevitably valid in today's globalizing world. however. Ian. investment. circulation and consumption over space. 1995b. international economists and liberal politicians to assert that the world is 'borderless' (Ohmae 1990. Rothenbaum. Dicken 1998. Reich 1991.2 In such a 'borderless' world. Such tensions. Cox 1997. No.Cap Kritik 139/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Link Turn Link Turn: Exploring space leads to the building of a global economy and the eventual destruction of capitalism. Julius 1990. (Dunning 1995. it is now fashionable among business gurus.

Cap Kritik 140/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab are not materialized at the polar scale of the global and the local. Ian. Clayton . Rather. when what appears to be a local phenomenon can simultaneously be a regional or global event elsewhere. There seems to be a continuous transformation of global flows and local embedding through the relativization of scale. they transcend the global-local scale and are problematized by the relativization of scale. Rothenbaum. much to the disappointment of global-local dialecticians.5 DML. Jay. Harry. Amanda.

(5) Production of subjectivity. Hackitectura Workshop. and hence the imperative of individual rights as the political mechanism for getting them met. Control functions through the modulation of these conditions.Cap Kritik 141/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Biopower Good Biopolitics is necessary to solve capitalism. not through the tayloristic organization of time and space. this does not mean that democracy was the “absolutely inevitable” outcome of the development of biopolitics. The diagram of power technologies in the industral society is the panopticon. and governance are three of the main families of power technologies in the society of control.wordpress. “Biopolitics. professor at the University of Cincinnati. and in a democratic system there is therefore a bias toward pragmatic. Technologies of biopower in the age of networks are different from those of the industrial era. such as factories. as we already mentioned. of course. it aims to produce the totality of social life. of technocracy. Of course there are moral values that all democratic societies must in some degree uphold (individual autonomy and freedom. biopolitical production is used. also the age of biopolitics and democracy? How should we theorize this relationship? I would like to offer five propositions as food for thought. Negri. Biopolitical production would refer to the production of forms of life. fluid fields of networks. too [by Hardt. coined by writer William Burroughs and commented upon by Gilles Deleuze [1990]. technological and social protocols. Democratic citizens have the freedom to ask “why”. 37.” and democracy. Third. Ian. Dickinson ‘4 – professor at UCincinnati [Edward Dickenson. as in the sense addressed by the Greek term “biomechania”. is not to repress people. in addition to being the age of biopolitics and totalitarianism. Another is the provision of a rising standard of DML. and the visible and astonishing success of that project has been crucial to all Western democracies since 1945. fairness. Of course. expertise its substitute for authority. However. (2) The main aim of biopower. the concept of the essential legitimacy and social value of individual needs. led by Pablo de Soto and Jose Perez de Lama. is simply to provide a rising standard of living. democratic social and political orders are also implicitly and often explicitly expected to do something positive and tangible to enhance the well-being of their citizens. Biopower. human dignity. again. Scientific “fact” is democracy’s substitute for revealed truth. “scientism” subverted the real. (3) We can better understand the technologies of contemporary biopower by comparing them to the technologies of [bio]power in the industrial society. or “scientism.com/2011/01/28/on-biopower-and-biopolitics/ ] Jay (1)We use “biopower” [in the sense defined by Foucault. But as people’s states. but it rather deals with the production of the real. Biopower is not aimed at prohibiting and punishing. and confrontational with capitalism Democracy limits the effects of biopower – ensures it can’t cause violence. schools. subjective ecologies] alternative to. with which any citizen has a right to differ. the rule of law). The age of democracy is the age of professionalization. offices and homes. Jay. In the networked society. “objective” or naturalized answers— since values are often regarded as matters of opinion. ’11 – [The Hackitectura Workshop in Athens. They are often described by the term society of control. there is a deeper connection between the two. It also in a sense replaced them. Lazzarato and others]. 1 2004] Why was Europe’s twentieth century. Rothenbaum. In this sense. social. One of those things. http://mappingthecommons. It was deployed in the so called insitutions of enclosement. to describe the kind of politics and political actions that oppose capitalist biopower. it is deployed through technics or technologies. laws and norms. where bodies and minds were disciplined in space and time. Central European History. and later detailed by Deleuze. this is not merely a matter of historical coincidence. First. Amanda. (4) Society of control technologies aim to make people productive. but to make populations productive. Democracy. but they do so. (6) Biopolitics would describe on one end the technologies of power that relate to biopower. No. historical ideological underpinnings of authoritarian polities in Europe in the nineteenth century. flexibly and creatively. Facism. but rather through the modulation of subjectivities and behaviors in the open. biopolitical production would describe the production of forms of life [technical. and those values are part of their strength. Harry. but it does mean that it was “one among other possible outcomes of the crisis of modern civilization.” Second. To borrow a phrase from Detlev Peukert. has to be understood as a strategy and as a relation. “On Biopower and Biopolitics.” published 1/28/2011. has historically been a cornerstone of some strategies of social management. Hardt and Negri] to describe the form of power in contemporary networked society.” published in Central European History. as any kind of power. being part of capitalism. people become productive when they are able to operate autonomously. Vol. Clayton . The Greek term “biomechania” describes effectively the biopolitical dimension of industrial society. the vulnerability of explicitly moral values in democratic societies creates a problem of legitimation. I would argue that there is also a causal fit between cultures of expertise.

” not only an authoritarian one. To give just one example. in the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the expected level of the average citizen’s active participation in European political. cultural. after all. In the new model. Democracy. but this was potentially a democratic “Wahn. Clayton . craziness) at all. or. 93 The expansion of infant health programs – an enormously ambitious. The political “subject” (or citizen — as opposed to the political subject. it seems to me that an assessment of the potentials of modernity that ignores the ways in which biopolitics has made life tangibly better is somehow deeply flawed. There was a reason for the “Machbarkeitswahn” of the early twentieth century: many marvelous things were in fact becoming machbar. more or less moral and self-disciplined. measurable. DML. it may not be so simpleminded. more or less socially competent. Of course.Cap Kritik 142/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab health. and by 1929 (when average real purchasing power was not significantly higher than it 1913) it was only 9. technocratic. In this sense. It is striking. social. “Biopolitics. one that focuses less on the machinations of technocrats and experts. Even in the late 1920s. it is not really accurate to call it a “Wahn” (delusion. By 1913 it was 15 percent. Fourth. one in five children died before reaching the age of one year. there is virtually a biopolitical consensus. Again. and extraordinary ways. Fifth. as expanding the range of their choices. as did the expected level of her effective influence in all these spheres. at the most simple-minded level. more or less healthy and physically capable. In that sense. limiting. This made it a matter of increasing importance whether the average person was more or less educated and informed. And modern social reform — “biopolitics” defined very broadly—seemed to offer the possibility of creating the human foundation for a society ordered by autonomous participation. top-down. I would like to try to offer here the beginnings of a reconceptualization of biopolitical modernity. time was on the side of that opposition. a connection between political citizenship on the one hand. historically there has been a clear connection between the concept of political citizenship and the idea of moral autonomy.7 percent. the democratic welfare state has “delivered the goods” in concrete. medicalizing. Biopower enables the modern methods of survival we have now. oppressive thing. which in fact embodied the historical movement of modern-ization. as empowering them. many social engineers could and did look with reat satisfaction on the changes they genuinely had the power to accomplish. and the sexual and reproductive autonomy implied in the individual control that is a central element of the modern biopolitical complex. therefore. No. The regulation of sexual and reproductive life has long been understood in European societies to be among the most fundamental issues of morality. In that older model.who is an object of state action) is also a moral subject. 1 2004] This understanding of the democratic and totalitarian potentials of biopolitics at the level of the state needs to be underpinned by a reassessment of how biopolitical discourse operates in society at large. professor at the University of Cincinnati. Biopolitics is almost never conceived of – or at least discussed in any detail – as creating possibilities for people. and sometimes intrusive. then. and more on the different ways that biopolitical thinking circulated within German society more broadly. Amanda. nor is it accurate to focus only on the “inevitable” frustration of “deleusions” of power. bureaucratic. and economic life rose steadily.” published in Central European History. or indeed as doing anything positive for them at all. Dickinson ‘4 – professor at UCincinnati [Edward Dickenson. Central European History. 37. It would be bizarre to write a history of biopolitical modernity that ruled out an appreciation for how absolutely wonderful and astonishing this achievement – and any number of things like it – really was. and in the long run. Jay. rather than by obedience. on the other. Harry. The citizen’s capacity for moral reasoning is the legitimating postulate of all democratic politics. Vol. at the “prepolitical” level. 92 And that consenus is almost always fundamentally a nasty. it was precisely the democratizing dynamic of modern societies that made the question of the “quality” of the mass of the population seem— and not only in the eyes of the dominant classes — increasingly important. infant mortality in Germany in 1900 was just over 20 percent. constraining. Facism. This too was part of the Machbarkeitswahn of modernity. that the new model of German modernity is even more relentlessly negative than the old Sonderweg model. one that partakes in crucial ways of the essential quality of National Socialism. social engineering project – had a great deal to do with that change. to insist on considering the fact that modern biopolitics has “worked” phenomenally well. and here again. premodern elites were constantly triumphing over the democratic opposition. But at least there was an opposition. in other words. Ian. Everywhere biopolitics is intrusive. Rothenbaum. There is.

Amanda. Jay. Ian. Rothenbaum. Clayton . Harry.Cap Kritik 143/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab DML.

especially those not yet connected by cable. They have proved useful in coordinating humanitarian efforts after natural disasters. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. it should be addressed toward ameliorating the many crises that face global society. dml) Most obviously. There are many serious crises down here on Earth that have urgent priority when considering the humanization of outer space. but it hardly represents society as a whole. First. Is $2 billion and upwards to help the private sector find new forms of space vehicles really a priority for public funding. especially at a time when relative social inequalities and environmental conditions are rapidly worsening? The military-industrial complex might well benefit. Satellites have even been commissioned by the United Nations to track the progress of refugees in Africa and elsewhere DML. have helped open up phone and Internet communications for marginalized people. for example. that public spending on space should be stopped. Rather. Satellites.Cap Kritik 144/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Satellites Good Even if there are problems with satellites – they help the disempowered Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. This is not to say. November 2010. including satellites manufactured by capitalist companies. Satellites. the technology allowing a human presence in the cosmos would be focused mainly on earthly society. Amanda. there is the obvious fact of social inequalities and resources. Ian. Monthly Review Vol 62. Clayton . Jay. No 6. can also be useful for monitoring climate change and other forms of environmental crisis such as deforestation and imminent hurricanes. Harry. Rothenbaum. however.

pg. through wealth or leadership) or control over ecological circumstances (such as meeting their own and their family's or tribes need for food. “Perpetrators of Genocide: An Explanatory Model of Extraordinary Human Evil. first published in 1932. although individuals are capable of goodness and morality. In his provocatively titled Moral Man and Immoral Society. such as striving to have a powerful military. “The proportion of reason to impulse becomes increasingly negative. and the in-group/out-group distinction. These specific traits arc sufficient to explain why leaders will behave.”10 The voluminous psychological literature on group dynamics certainly affirms that groups can develop characteristics that create a potential for extraordinary evil. groups have a power to repress dissent and. was another vocal proponent of individual regression in groups. The fact that there is no world government compels the leaders of states to take steps to ensure their security. as offensive realists expect them to behave. The human environment of evolutionary adaptation was anarchic.” he writes. This environment produced the behaviors examined here: egoism. My argument is that anarchy is even more important than most scholars of international relations recognize. Darwin and International Relations: On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict. There is a diffusion of responsibility within groups that can make evildoing a relatively simple matter. In addition. Amanda. a clear distinction between the character of people acting in large social groups as opposed to their character as individual people.”9 What is this basic difference? In short. Harry. operationalizes. Niebuhr argued that there is a “basic difference between the morality of individuals and the morality of collectives. Mearsheimer advances a powerful argument that anarchy is the fundamental cause of such behavior. Niebuhr argued. not particularly strong or swift—survived and evolved to become what we consider human. Ian. aggressing when forced to do so. Evolutionary theory explains why individuals are motivated to act as offensive realism expects. “when we proceed from the life of individuals to that of social groups.Professor and Chair of psychology at Whitworth College (James. Clayton . shelter. Humans endured because natural selection gave them the right behaviors to last in those conditions. even if they must hurt other humans or risk injury to themselves. in the proper circumstances. 2004. they will strive to maximize their power. among whom a common mind and purpose is always more or less inchoate and transitory and who depend therefore upon a common impulse to bind them together.gonzaga. whether an individual is a captain of industry or a conquistador. legitimates. classes or nations. or other resources). but it is the mechanism of group experience that potentiates. who taught for many years at Union Theological Seminary in New York City.”11 Humans are biologically selfish. Jay. There is.pdf) Reinhold Niebuhr.Cap Kritik 145/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Competition Inevitable Realism and the self-help theory are rooted in human nature – anarchic worlds from the dawn of time to today created an impetus for realist thought. groups are inherently selfish and uncaring.empirically proven Thayer 2004 – Thayer has been a Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and has taught at Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota (Bradley. http://guweb2. defined as either control over others (for example.” 2001/02. and forging and maintaining alliances. 2004. 70-71) DML. encourage the abandonment of the individual self. and narcotizes the emergence of man’s various and often unsavory selves.edu/againsthate/Journal1/waller. whether races. I argue that evolutionary theory also offers a fundamental cause for offensive realist behavior. As Israel Charny writes: “It is a human being who operates through the mechanisms of group behavior to do what he does to fellow human beings. That is.groups inevitably trend toward selfishness and self-interest Waller 1. 75-76) The central issue here is what causes states to behave as offensive realists predict. our ancestors lived in a state of nature in which resources were poor and dangers from other humans and the environment were great—so great that it is truly remarkable that a mammal standing three feet high—without claws or strong teeth. Thayer 2004 – Thayer has been a Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and has taught at Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota (Bradley. pg. Rothenbaum. This is what neorealists call a self-help system: leaders of states arc forced to take these steps because nothing else can guarantee their security in the anarchic world of international relations. domination. Moral constraints are less powerful in groups than in individuals. Even if individuals aren’t biologically selfish. thus. Darwin and International Relations: On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict.

Hamilton recognized that individuals are egoistic.S.76 Political institutions. DML. if the child were a first cousin. and thus to take a one-in-ten chance of dying.74 Thus. Second. its survival. could flourish as long as the child were his offspring or sibling." For these reasons. Consequently. belonging to the group is better—it increases chances of survival— than existing alone. Dawkins. evolutionary theory provides an explanation for what is commonly known. whether monarchies or aristocracies. rational choice theorists also do not expect individuals or states to show this type of behavior beyond their own self-interest. Genes did not want to create or inhabit people. onequarter for aunts. Louis XIV. The fundamental point here is that "selfishness" of the gene increases its fitness. creating organs and ultimately animal bodies. cooperation. or altruism beyond what is in the interests of the animals. as a result of William Hamilton's idea of inclusive fitness. or to religion. as we will see below.54 They made mistakes. and so the behavior spreads. The organism evolved largely to satisfy the wants of the gene. Albert Somit and Steven Peterson. among others. The gene creates an instinctual or genetic basis for egoism because it is concerned only with satisfying its wants. egoistic behavior contributes to fitness. and leaders such as Julius Caesar. E. First.Cap Kritik 146/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Evolutionary theory offers two sufficient explanations for the trait of egoism. such as humans. or Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid. Some cells became specialized. typify dominance hierarchies—as do the modern state and its many institutions. 2004) One result of the evolution of our mental architecture is the ability to indoctrinate humans. Rothenbaum. such as the formation of a thin membrane that held the contents of the molecule together to become a primitive cell. and psychologist Donald Campbell. albeit more slowly. Amanda.O. suggest that humans readily give allegiance or submit to the state.O. however. Third. But again. the group could fall apart and then die out because of predation from its or another species. that egoism is more complex than Darwin envisioned. Wilson. there is no intentionality in this process. that aids survival. Ian. evolutionary theory can explain egoism and suggests why cooperation between unrelated individuals is very often difficult and remarkably unlike the behavior one encounters within the family. but the process continued nonetheless. As the great evolutionary theorist J. even if belonging requires subordination. As a result of the ideas of Darwin. the pack. for most primates. Egoism thus becomes a trait or adaptation in animals. and in time efficient copy makers emerged. Similarly. Irendus Eibl-Eibesfeldt. but less so in their behavior toward genetic relatives. these "survival machines" became more sophisticated due to evolution. Indeed."72 Three factors cause this ease of indoctrination. and Hamilton. Clayton . Dawkins focuses his analysis on the gene. Humans are inherently selfish. as I stressed in the previous chapter. such as government bureaucracies and the military. The first is a classic Darwinian argument: Darwin argued that an individual organism is concerned for its own survival in an environment where resources are scarce. that individuals favor those who are close genetic relatives. survival in an anarchic and dangerous world dictates membership in a group and produces a fear of ostracism from it. complex social behavior among unrelated individuals can be seen as the interaction of selfish individuals. As E. the gene that inclines a man to jump into a river to save a drowning child. Wilson writes: "human beings are absurdly easy to indoctrinate—they seek it. and so on— are satisfied so that it can continue to survive. conformity helps keep groups together!' If group conformity becomes too weak. Haldane wrote in 1955. realists and. and in a similar manner egoism evolves through a population. The concern for survival in a hostile environment also requires that in a time of danger or great stress an individual organism usually places its life. Thus. since the cousin shares an average of one-eighth of his genes. or to ideologies like liberalism or communism. Darwin and International Relations: On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict. The selfish gene theory of evolutionary theorist Richard Dawkins pro vides the second sufficient explanation for egoism. shelter. uncles. principally reproduction and food consumption.B. This is because close relatives share at least fifty percent of their genotype—one-half for siblings and parents. It has to ensure that its physiological needs—for food. Evolutionary theorists now recognize." different types of molecules started forming. Haldane captured this point well when he wrote that he would give his life to save two of his brothers (each sharing half of his genotype) or eight of his cousins (each sharing one-eighth of his genotype). and these contributed to fitness. or tribe. Harry. not the organism. in parent-offspring and sibling relationships. As I discussed in chapter 1. and most evolutionary theorists expect no tendency toward solidarity.research proves Thayer 2004 – Thayer has been a Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and has taught at Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota (Bradley.77 Biology makes us inherently self-interested-disproves all other theories. Over time. above that of other members of the social group. because evolution has produced a need to belong to a dominance hierarchy!' An overview of human history provides context: much of it is a record of threats of force or wars to gain territory and resources. and one-eighth for cousins. Jay. an acceptance of or conformity to a particular status quo lowers the risk of conflict in a dominance hierarchy. and grandparents. herd." The gene could also spread. These understandings have great consequences for the study of politics. Beginning with chemicals in a primordial "soup.

on this view. Alexander advances the idea that 'at some early point in our history the actual function of human groups . “Political realism in international theory” p. Rothenbaum. shelter and other resources necessary to survival and differential reproduction. Harry. 29 DML.deceived. And suppose two societies A and B are in competition with one another for food. Amanda.peting human units. 161.. Then if. Jay. Those societies in the past which learned how to engage successfully in balance of power politics would have been naturally selected for and have expanded from smaller groups to larger groups. in any event. and it is easy to see why a term from the lexicon of international relations is appropriate in accounting for the rise of large states. Alexander calls this 'the Balance-of-Power hypothesis'. To protect themselves. A makes an alliance with C in order to conquer B and succeeds.Associate Professor of Politics at Monash University (Robert D. For suppose we have three non-kin related societies A.was protection from the predatory effects of other groups'. The guiding thought here. say.28 Early life was. groups or institutions . JSTOR) As alternative.the significance for their individual members . a hunt in which people were treated as prey .Cap Kritik 147/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Spegele 96. Ian. a brand of warfare. Clayton . despite their costs. provides biological content to Martin Wight's incisive observation: 'The idea of balance arises naturally in considering any relationship between com. were worth it in the biological sense of enabling them to enhance their reproductive success. ensnared and forcibly run to ground just as in a chase. individuals would have joined groups which. it will have significantly expanded its relative resource base. B and C.

These values are contested by social movements such as the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space. there is every hope that the benefits of space exploration and development may be made available to everyone. is perfectly clear where its priorities lie. however. The values are all inevitably human. Amanda. if the universe is treated with care and respect rather than as a resource to be exploited. both positions raise important dilemmas. were we to take the cosmocentric ethic seriously. Crucially. we cannot identify cosmic need in a disinterested. The deep ecology-type position does not demand that life be spread to Mars. And more often than not they are an expression of power relations. This is not to say that the humanization of outer space is an inherently bad thing. The latter position would appear to reject planetary engineering as ‘life has no precedence over non-life’ (1990: 192). even though this would be at odds with the deep ecological principle of non-interference. Clayton .Cap Kritik 148/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Link turn – Deep Eco Affs Deep ecology resists privatization that allows for space control Dickens and Ormrod 7 . DML. These values are. As in Naess’s (1989) ‘deep ecology’. Individuals and institutions are straightforwardly attempting to protect their investments. would we not be morally obliged to try to prevent asteroid collisions in space? And what if the survival of life on Earth really did depend on changing the climate on other planets? Surely upholding the rights of lifeless planets is absurd? Ultimately. An anthropocentric standpoint is. Harry. The rocks of Mars would have a right to remain unchanged.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. in the end. Rothenbaum. Like this movement. The universe has no ‘value’ except that ascribed to it by society. It depends on which interests are doing the humanizing. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 157-158. At first glance McKay notes that the former position would seem to advocate planetary engineering on the basis that we have a duty to maximize Mars’s ‘biological potential’. socially and politically made. arguing that it only leads to further human self-aggrandizement and a continuing denial of humanity’s spiritual links with the cosmos. Perhaps there are some lessons here from Earth to outer space. as its name implies. for values are social constructs. as Val Plumwood (2001) recognizes in relation to Earthly environmental ethics. Or it can mean a ‘cosmocentric’ ethic in which value is extended to inanimate objects like dead planets and asteroids. Tarnas (2006) disagrees strongly with this position. dml) The other perspectives McKay forwards hinge around ‘intrinsic worth’ being attached to non-human nature. we should return to the Earthly world of political economy if we are to get a more accurate picture of what lies behind the privatization and colonization of outer space. which. this can mean attaching value to human and non-human life for its own sake. asocial way. Privatizing outer space would only enhance the power of the already powerful. How is populating Mars to be weighed against human lives that could be saved on Earth with the money involved in reaching the planet? What if spreading life to Mars destroys what little life may be there already? Similarly. Yet. Jay. It does not necessarily entail a view that humans are masters of the universe. inescapable. Ian. This is abundantly clear when we consider the legal rights being demanded by those attempting to own part of the Moon or Mars. as McKay notes.

Yet frustratingly. Amanda. postcolonialism is inherently Eurocentric because it focuses almost entirely on European empires. despite the fact that Australia has laid contentious claim to 42 per cent of Antarctica since 1933 – a claim solely based on acts of imperial exploration and flagraising. and ongoing colonization – the voluminous field of Australian postcolonial studies has refused or failed to acknowledge this situation. there is a curious critical silence. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. For example. European epistemologies. Indonesia. and spatial production of Mars are decidedly unlike British practices of the last few centuries. Harry. ‘post-colonial studies are too preoccupied with a linear account of liberation in certain countries’. and Canada have emerged. the discursive production of its spatiality. Jay. not one deals with Antarctica.Cap Kritik 149/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Alt Fails – Mars A postcolonialist analysis of Mars fails – it’s different from historical conditions Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. when it comes to new colonialisms. As Ferro (1997. Rothenbaum. dml) Postcolonial spatial theory is an analytical lens through which to view Martian spatiality in its historical character: it allows for a useful view on the cultural construction of the planet. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. But this does not automatically eliminate Mars from the field of colonial spatiality. 60) points out in his discussion of the difficulty of accommodating contemporary Antarctic colonialisms within existing postcolonial theoretical frameworks. To generalize. postcolonialism tends to figure imperialism and colonialism and their associated spatialities as historical European phenomena from whose ruins nations such as Australia. and not one addresses Space. 3 And while there are clear similarities between past and present colonialisms. the planned colonization. viii) argues. Clayton . A survey of leading postcolonial journals demonstrates this refusal: of the hundreds of articles in these publications. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. and European spaces of the past. and the ways in which established power groups work to prefigure the planet as an object of capitalist commodification and strategic managerialism. exploration. Or as Dodds (2006. DML. Ian. despite the proliferation of postcolonial analyses of past colonial spatialities.

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Aff – AT – Patriarchy
Spread of capitalism is key to women’s equality Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO
Johan Norberg, In Defense of Global Capitalism, pg. 23

Growing prosperity gives women more opportunity to become independent and provide for themselves. Experience from Africa and elsewhere shows that women are often leading entrepreneurs for various kinds of small-scale production and exchange in the informal sector, which suggests that, absent discrimination and regulation by the government, the market is their oyster. And indeed, the worldwide spread of freer conditions of service and freer markets has made it increasingly difficult for women to be kept out. Women today constitute 42 percent of the world's work force, compared with 36 percent 20 years ago. Capitalism doesn't care whether the best producer is a man or a woman. On the contrary, discrimination is expensive because it involves the rejection of certain people's goods and labor. All studies have shown that respect for women's rights and their ability to exert influence in the home are closely bound up with their ability to find employment outside the home and earn an independent income.

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Aff – AT – Invisible Committee
They have it backwards, revolutions aren’t a threat to global empire, they sustain it. Bonta 9 - Associate Professor of Geography (Mark, “The Multitude and its Doppelgänger: An Exploration of Global Smooth Space”, ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 2009, 8 (2), 245-277.) NAR In the postmodern era (1945-present), two spectral networks—International Communism and International Terrorism (Sageman, 2004)—have had life breathed into them and have served, in concert with the ‘Evil Empire’ and certain ‘rogue states,’ to instill microfascisms in many a democraticand freedom-loving body in the USA, while in realpolitik advancing the spread and penetrations of Empire. The grand International Communist Conspiracy, with roots in the late 1800s, was the earlier of the two, and it served its purpose well all the way up to the end of the 1980s. To keep the Reds at bay, the secret state infiltrated the Left as successfully as the Right (Quigley, 1966), coming to saturate the media, academe, and public relations (Saunders, 2000), though often passing itself off as inept, inefficient, and even relatively powerless. During this time, subversive revolutionary movements both domestic and foreign were not necessarily decapitated as often as they were made safe, channelled into ‘more productive’ operations; or, if need be, as described above, swung in the other direction, steered and tricked into spectacular false flag operations that gave excuses for jailtime, invasion, toppling of regimes, or at least sanctions or discrediting. Authoritarian/communist/police states with eyes everywhere became necessities not only because of
internal paranoia and the ‘nature of totalitarian State power’ but also because of the myriad sabotages practiced by the ‘free world’— the experience of Gladio (Blum, 2004) is extremely instructive here, and the case of Castro’s Cuba comes to mind as well. Terrible questions are suggested, such as if some political prisoners really are plotting to violently overthrow the regime, then should the regime, to prove its ‘commitment to democracy,’ let them go? The newer menace of international Islamic

terrorism is built on the premise of a network that arose out of two secretive groups— Wahabism, based in Saudi Arabia, and the Muslim Brotherhood, engendered in Egypt—that coalesced in the 1980s

through resistance to the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Emboldened by the withdrawal of the USSR, the foreign mujahedin returned to their countries and were rebuffed, if not detained and tortured, by the regimes in power, who did the bidding of the US. Thence, led by Osama bin Laden, they turned on the West (Esposito, 2002; Scheuer, 2003; Sageman, 2004). But

the very existence of a selfnamed and cohesive ‘Al Qa’eda’ network, which was named at the behest of FBI agent John O’Neill (Frontline, 2002), has been questioned, most notably and effectively in the BBC documentary ‘Power of Nightmares’ (Curtis, 2005), which argues that International Terrorism is the ultimate bugaboo narrative that serves to bolster the power of governments that no longer provide us with comfort and positive achievement (capitalism does that) and so have refashioned themselves as our protectors from nightmares. ‘Al Qaeda’ has, nevertheless, taken on a monstrous existence, just as the International Communist Conspiracy did in the days of McCarthy—perpetrating devastating crimes such as 9-11-2001 and 3-11-2003 and 7-7-2005 (intriguingly, the only person to ever be convicted of 9-11 plotting was released in early 2006 in Germany—the US government was unwilling to provide prosecutors with requested evidence: Agence France-Presse, 2006). Ahmed (2006) provides a solid argument for Al Qa’eda as intricately interwoven with what we are calling Empire. The evidence for the perpetrators behind 9-11, as well as other terror events, points back to Empire’s networks (conservatively put, ‘rogue elements of X’), and particularly,
as gagged whistleblower Sibel Edmonds has it (www.justacitizen.org; see Rose, 2005, and other literature on her case), to networks of far-right mercenaries (which of course Osama bin Laden always was in any case) duping other cells of mercenary-terrorists connected not to ‘rogue states’ like Iraq, Iran, and North Korea but to major Western powers and allied states, to NGOs and drug trafficking, money-laundering, influence-peddling, and other P2/IranContra/BCCI/Gladio-type operations. Needless to say,

massive funds are poured into the US’s ‘black budget’ and its open budget to better fight this terrorist menace, possibly by infiltrating its cells and pushing its operatives to carry out acts they might not otherwise choose to, horrendous crimes that give Empire an excuse to further its agenda (Hess, 2002).

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Aff – AT – Epistemology
Prefer our evidence – their evidence is futile intellectual pride Saunders 7

Peter, Adjunct Professor at the Australian Graduate School of Management, Why Capitalism is Good for the Soul, http://www.cis.org.au/POLICY/summer%2007-08/saunders_summer07.html Andrew Norton notes that disaffected intellectuals since Rousseau have been attacking capitalism for

its failure to meet ‘true human needs.’(26) The claim is unfounded, so what is it about capitalism that so upsets them?Joseph Schumpeter offered part of the answer. He observed that capitalism has brought into being an educated class that has no responsibility for practical affairs, and that this class can only make a mark by criticising the system that feeds them.(27) Intellectuals attack capitalism because that is how they sell books and build careers. More recently, Robert Nozick has noted that intellectuals spend their childhoods excelling at school, where they occupy the top positions in the hierarchy, only to find later in life that their market value is much lower than they believe they are worth. Seeing
‘mere traders’ enjoying higher pay than them is unbearable, and it generates irreconcilable disaffection with the market system.(28) But the best explanation for the intellectuals’ distaste for capitalism was offered by Friedrich Hayek in The Fatal Conceit.(29) Hayek understood that capitalism

offends intellectual pride, while socialism flatters it. Humans like to believe they can design better systems than those that tradition or evolution have bequeathed. We distrust evolved systems, like markets, which seem to work without intelligent direction according to laws and dynamics that no one fully understands. Nobody planned the global capitalist system, nobody runs it, and nobody really comprehends it. This particularly offends intellectuals, for capitalism renders them redundant. It gets on perfectly well without them. It does not need them to make it run, to coordinate it, or to redesign it. The intellectual critics of capitalism believe they know what is good for us, but millions of people interacting in the marketplace keep rebuffing them. This, ultimately, is why they believe capitalism is ‘bad for the soul’: it fulfils human needs without first seeking their moral approval. Their attempt to blame corporate exploitation on capitalism is misinformed and continues false teachings that result in corporate bureaucrats. Vance 5 – adjunct instructor in accounting at Pensacola Junior College, Mises
Laurence M. Vance, http://mises.org/story/1887

The all-too familiar circle of the government regulating an industry, creating a "crisis," and then intervening even more to solve the crisis, thus making things worse, is no where more apparent than DiLorenzo's examples from the energy industry. The book concludes with a look at "the never-ending war on capitalism" by government intervention, regulations, agencies, and bureaucrats. DiLorenzo also includes university professors, politicians, and lawyers in his indictment. "American universities devote an inordinate amount of time and resources to teach potential business leaders not how to be capitalists but how to be corporate bureaucrats." Politicians "view businesses as cash cows to be plundered for the benefit of their own political careers." "Lawyers now have incentives to spend their lives digging up cases and evidence against corporations because some consumers stupidly misused their products." DiLorenzo also briefly reviews three anticapitalist but best-selling books: Eric
Schlosser's Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, Barbara Ehrenreich's Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, and Michael Moore's Stupid White Men and Downsize This! He finds that the capitalism attacked in these books

is not capitalism at all, it is socialism, mercantilism, interventionism, and assorted anticapitalist myths. Although these "reviews" are an added bonus to the book, they would be even better if they were lengthened and made into
a series of appendices.

Their authors scapegoat capitalism – hold them to a high standard of causal evidence Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO
Johan Norberg, In Defense of Global Capitalism, pg. 290-291

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an ideological defense will be needed for freedom from borders and controls. It contains all the anonymous forces that have served this purpose throughout history: other countries. Decisionmakers are unwilling to shoulder responsibility for failures and problems. Globalization does not speak up for itself when politicians blame it for overturning economies. or raise their own salaries. Harry. sometimes justifiably so. other races and ethnic groups.Cap Kritik 153/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab All change arouses suspicion and anxiety. Then there are plenty of people willing to accept full responsibility for the course of events. is forcing them to pollute the environment. the uncaring market. and enriching a tiny minority. Clayton . increasing poverty. It is preferable to be able to blame someone else. rather than their own decisions. Globalization does not defend itself. Rothenbaum. DML. And globalization doesn't usually get any credit when good things happen— when the environment improves. Amanda. So if the trend toward greater globalization is to continue. Jay. Ian. the economy runs at high speed and poverty diminishes. or when entrepreneurs say that globalization. even positive changes can have troublesome consequences in the short term. cut jobs. Globalization makes an excellent scapegoat.

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**WEST GOOD**

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Imperialism Good
Spreading American values is good – allowing for a plurality of cultures causes genocide Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia
(David, “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”, Foreign Policy no. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53, JSTOR, dml)

Culture is not static; it grows out of a systematically encouraged reverence for selected customs and
habits. Indeed, Webster's Third New International Dictionary defines culture as the "total pattern of human behavior and its products embodied in speech, action, and artifacts and dependent upon man's capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations." Language, religion, political and legal systems, and social customs are the legacies of victors and marketers and reflect the judgment of the marketplace of ideas throughout popular his- tory. They might also rightly be seen as living artifacts, bits and pieces carried forward through the years on currents of indoctrination, popular acceptance, and unthinking adherence to old ways. Culture is used by the organizers of society politicians, theologians, academics, and families to impose and ensure order, the rudiments of which change over time as need dictates. It is

less often acknowledged as the means of justifying inhumanity and warfare. Nonetheless, even a casual examination of the history of conflict explains well why Samuel Huntington, in his The Clash of Civilizations, expects conflict along cultural fault lines, which is precisely where conflict so often erupts. Even worse is that cultural differences are often sanctified by their links to the mystical roots of culture, be they spiritual or historical. Consequently, a threat to one's culture becomes a threat to one's God or one's ancestors and, therefore, to one's core identity. This inflammatory formula has been used to justify many of humanity's worst acts. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWS-FoXbjVI Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia
Many observers

(David, “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”, Foreign Policy no. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53, JSTOR, dml)

contend that it is distasteful to use the opportunities created by the global information revolution to promote American culture over others, but that kind of relativism is as dangerous as it is wrong. American culture is fundamentally different from indigenous cultures in so many other locales. American culture is an amalgam of influences and approaches from around the world. It is melded-consciously in many cases into a social medium that allows individual freedoms and cultures to thrive. Recognizing this, Americans should not shy away from doing that which is so clearly in their economic, political, and security interests and so clearly in the interests of the world at large. The United States should not hesitate to promote its values. In an effort to be polite or politic, Americans should not deny the fact that of all the nations in the history of the world, theirs is the most just, the most tolerant, the most willing to constantly reassess and improve itself, and the best model for the future. At the same time, Americans should not fall under the spell of those like Singapore's Lee Kuan Yew and
Malaysia's Mahathir bin-Mohamad, who argue that there is "an Asian way," one that non-Asians should not judge and that should be allowed to dictate the course of events for all those operating in that corner of the world. This argument amounts to selfinterested political rhetoric. Good and evil, better and worse coexist in this world. There are absolutes,

and there are political, economic, and moral costs associated with failing to recognize this fact. Repression is not defensible whether the tradition from which it springs is Confucian, Judeo-Christian, or Zoroastrian. The repressed individual still suffers, as does society, and there are consequences for the global community. Real costs accrue in terms of constrained human creativity, delayed market development, the diversion of assets to
enforce repression, the failure of repressive societies to adapt well to the rapidly changing global environment, and the dislocations, struggles, and instability that result from these and other factors. Americans should promote their vision for the

world, because failing to do so or taking a "live and let live" stance is ceding the process to the not always-beneficial actions of others. Using the tools of the Information Age to do so is perhaps the most peaceful

and powerful means of advancing American interest. If Americans now live in a world in which ideas can be effectively exported and media delivery systems are powerful, they must recognize that the nature of those ideas and the control of those systems are matters with which they should be deeply concerned. Is it a threat to U.S. interests, to regional peace, to American markets, and

to the United States's ability to lead if foreign leaders adopt models that promote separatism and the cultural fault lines that threaten stability? It certainly is. Relativism is a veil behind which those who shun scrutiny can hide. Whether Americans accept all the arguments of Huntington or not, they must recognize that the greater the cultural value gaps in the world, the more likely it is that conflict

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will ensue. The critical prerequisite for gaining the optimum benefits of global integration is to understand which cultural
attributes can and should be tolerated-and, indeed, promoted-and which are the fissures that will become fault lines.

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and the closely managed society of Singapore-central governments have aggressively sought to restrict the software and programming that reach their citizens Their explicit objective is to keep out American and other alien political views. settlement procedures consistent. fly the same airlines. Paris. Cap is awesome and key to make sure we don’t fall behind in the world Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia (David. Tel Aviv. and listen to the same music. with that acceptance also comes a recognition that the principal symbol of national identity – namely sovereignty-must be partially ceded to those entities. They are concerned that it implies a sense of superiority on Americans' part or that it DML. And if people are to move easily from deal to deal. and Tokyo all read the same newspapers. disclosure rules must be the same. If goods are also to move unimpeded. “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”. For example. JSTOR. stay in the same hotels. Los Angeles. Frankfurt. and. and product safety and labeling standards brought into line. mores. tariff laws must be consistent. the leading entrepot of Southeast Asia. prosperous world. as international organizations arise to coordinate policy among many nations on global issues such as trade. Foreign Policy no. and commercial laws harmonized. Rothenbaum. Business leaders in Buenos Aires. The United States in particular seems to have problems with this trend. Singapore has sought to filter out certain things that are available over the Internet essentially processing all information to eliminate pornography. New Delhi. Santiago. they have realized that to compete in the global marketplace they must conform to the culture of that marketplace. Seoul. Singapore. as it is called in some parts of the Middle East. Not surprisingly} in many other countries . while satellite dishes are technically against the law. business is the primary engine driving globalization. "news pollution. New York. Mexico City. and redress transparent. air transport agreements need to be established. These governments are the heirs of King Canute. dml) Some find the idea that Americans would systematically seek to pro mote their culture to be unattractive. Clayton . Harry. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53. for example. In many ways. and almost half of the people of Guangzhou have access to satellite-delivered programming. immigration controls standardized. development. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53. customs standards harmonized. eat the same food. The Soviet Union fell in part because a closed society cannot compete in the Information Age. China has set up a "Central Leading Group" under the State Planning Commission and the direct supervision of a vice premier to establish a similar system that will exclude more than just what might be considered obscene. the infamous monarch who set his throne at the sea's edge and commanded the waves to go backward. Istanbul." In these countries. and crisis management. Foreign Policy no.fundamentalist Iran communist China. the recognition that sometimes there are inter ests greater than national interests is a crucial step on the path to a more peaceful. drive the same cars. JSTOR. Amanda. dml) France and Canada have both passed laws to prohibit the satellite dissemination of foreign meaning American-content across their borders and into the homes of their citizens. the United States was involved in creat ing the World Trade Organization and now undermines its effectiveness by arbitrarily withdrawing from its efforts to blunt the effects of the Helms-Burton act. approximately one in five citizens of Beijing has access to television programming via a dish. These countries will fare no better. Singapore. Jay. but it would be a mistake conclude that the implications of globalization will be limited primarily to the commercial arena. They need look no further than their own elites to know this. is a hub in a global network of business centers in which the lives of the elites are virtually identical. Rome.Cap Kritik 157/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Imperialism Good – Satellites Oppressive governments are trying to limit out satellite access – we should increase it to spread the awesomeness of capitalism Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia (David. wear the same suits. These players are as comfortable operating in the international environment as they would be at home. Johannesburg. While the people of their countries remain divided by culture. Hong Kong. the environment. “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”. and the organizations that they represent in effect establish glob al standards and expectationsfacilitating the progress of globalization. If capital is to flow freely. In China. the control of new media that give previously closed or controlled societies virtually unlimited access to the outside world is a high priority. a community of international bureaucrats is emerging. The community of nations increasingly accepts that such supranational entities are demanded by the exigencies of the times. The global marketplace is being institutionalized through the creation of a series of multilateral entities that establish common rules for international commerce. health. In politics. Moscow. Ian. Still.

producing the most popular information products. Clayton . Jay. Harry. Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 158/194 makes an uncomfortable value judgment. and leading in the related development of the global trade in services are as essential to the well-being of any would-be leader as once were the resources needed to support empire or industry. Amanda. Ian. defining software standards. DML. But the 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab realpolitik of the Information Age is that setting technological standards.

There is a Darwinian process to capitalism. If stereo manufacturers can no longer find a market for their goods. While Rosa Luxemberg wrote that while the capitalism will inevitably consume itself and that socialism is a possible option . Jay. The capitalist that Marx evokes in his work is only a caricature of the behavior of capitalists and does not reflect reality as history has shown it to be.ninjalawyer. they will make mistakes and learn from them. Harry. would inevitably be replaced by socialism. Despite Marx's predictions. Successful capitalists are smart enough to plan for long-term profits in addition to the short-term. The crisis of overproduction will never happen because capitalism is flexible and will sacrifice it's short t rm goals to achieve its long term ones. Capitalism. in which trusts and monopolies prevent the economy from running naturally and efficiently. Ian. but when that is achieved. Marx also never took into account the effect government regulation and welfare would have on the capitalist system. None of the problems Marx predicted are unavoidable as long as we do not sink to the level of sharks. has been prevented by legislation and unionization. How many buffalo-fur coat business es do we see? Despite the various crises of the past century.com/writing/marx. and those unable to account for factors beyond their short-term profits will be replaced by those who can. Any business naturally desires monopolies over its markets. the consequences are disastrous. Rothenbaum. he felt. such as cable television or computers. I go so far as to question the Marxist logic that capitalism is doomed to collapse.html Marx utilizes the Hegelian dialectic in his attempt to prove that capitalism will inevitably collapse from the crisis of overproduction and the class conflict caused by enmiseration and alienation.Cap Kritik 159/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Resilient Capitalism is too adaptive to be overcome Serwetman 97 – JD Suffolk Law Will. Amanda. Clayton . DML. http://www. Marx died waiting for this revolution to come about. capitalism is perfectly capable of inventing new markets to replace saturated ones. nor can they be seen as socialist states because they retain post-revolution ary class structures and are not radical democracies. they close down and invest their money in a new industry. Like anyone else. Even the Russian and Chinese revolutions cannot be viewed as results of capitalism collapsing. The final stage of capitalism. and it never has. capitalism thrives and shows no major signs of strain.

Capitalism’s products (property.) aren’t mere legislative creations – they are intrinsic to human nature -recognizing inevitability prevents escalating wars Wilkinson 5 – Academic Coordinator of the Social Change Project and the Global Prosperity Initiative at The Mercatus Center at George Mason University Will. exchange. as is the division of labor. There is no way to stop dominance-seeking behavior. Productive hierarchies are those that organize cooperative efforts to achieve otherwise unattainable mutually advantageous gains. An alternative solution to the problem of distribution is the recognition and enforcement of property rights. Harry. "Cognitive Adaptations for Social Exchange. Evolutionary psychology can help us to understand that property rights are not created simply by strokes of the legislator's pen. egalitarian cooperation and sharing.Cap Kritik 160/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Inevitable Resistance to capital is futile and dangerous – natural hierarchies of power are inevitable and sustain peace Wilkinson 5 – Academic Coordinator of the Social Change Project and the Global Prosperity Initiative at The Mercatus Center at George Mason University Will. Business organizations are a prime example. thereby threatening the viability of enterprises that tend to make everyone better off. XXVII No. and transgressions against property in particular. Rothenbaum. and Christine Prehn. In their groundbreaking paper." For example. Property rights are prefigured in nature by the way animals mark out territories for their exclusive use in foraging. hunter-gatherer life is not "a kind of retro-utopia" of "indiscriminate. contrary to widespread belief. A free society therefore requires that positions of dominance and status be widely available in a multitude of productive hierarchies. and the detection of people who have cheated on agreements. Aristocracies and dictatorships are extreme examples." Cosmides and Tooby point out that. but to no one's serious detriment. Cato Policy Report Vol. like corporations. Cato Policy Report Vol. New scientific research provides even stronger evidence for the existence of such property "instincts. Allocative hierarchies. Most impressive. there is the constant risk that it becomes dominated by allocative hierarchies. exist mainly to transfer resources to the top. recent experimental work by Oliver Goodenough. a legal theorist. Jay. is often directed at modern positive-sum productive hierarchies. the accounting of costs and benefits. Recognition of such rudimentary claims to control and exclude minimizes costly conflict. Capitalism and Human Nature. which helps us to guard against the concentration of power in too few hands. etc. However. Capitalism and Human Nature. and mating. hunting. 1 Property Rights are Natural The problem of distributing scarce resources can be handled in part by implicitly coercive allocative hierarchies. 1 Emory professor of economics and law Paul Rubin usefully distinguishes between "productive" and "allocative" hierarchies. Clayton . a neuroscientist. Cosmides and Tooby have shown through a series of experiments that human beings are able easily to solve complex logical puzzles involving reciprocity. Mutually Beneficial Exchange is Natural Trade and mutually beneficial exchange are human universals. on the other hand. points to the DML. A flourishing civil society permits almost everyone to be the leader of something. That. which by itself provides a strong evolutionary reason to look for innate tendencies to recognize and respect norms of property. Amanda. thereby somewhat satisfying the human taste for hierarchical status. they argue. Some forms of hunter-gatherer trading can involve quite complex specialization and the interaction of supply and demand. Rubin warns that our natural wariness of zero-sum allocative hierarchies. suggests that the human mind evolved specialized modules for making judgments about moral transgressions." The archeological and ethnographic evidence shows that hunter-gatherers were involved in numerous forms of trade and exchange. and that opportunities for greater status and dominance through predation are limited by the constant vigilance of "the people"—the ultimate reverse dominance hierarchy. we are unable to solve formally identical puzzles that do not deal with questions of social exchange. Ian. We may hope only to channel it to non-harmful uses. XXVII No. whether the local Star Trek fan club or the city council. Although the nation-state can perform productive functions.

we can't prove that it exists in all men. Their survival instinct won't let them. the Marxist ideal is a prescription for disaster. without which life could not exist. Those choices are the only thing that separates the Dahmers and Martin Luther Kings of the world. so the existence of a will to power is hard to ignore. If one disagrees with the way Marx sees manki nd. Jeffery Dahmer and Martin Luther King were products of the same society. http://www. and ambitious natures. It is possible that there are other elements of human nature. hurling ourselves off of cliffs. No theory of human nature is plausible unless it has definitive survival value. Natural survival instince makes capitalism unovercomable and desirable – sex edited Serwetman 97 – JD Suffolk Law Will. human beings respond at a very basic level. Both men believed that a [hu]man[s are] is a product of his society. Due to our naturally distrustful. he seemed to be overlooking the forces that made man what he is today. Rothenbaum. Man is a product of evolution. his theories are inherently flawed. the human mind is "built" to trade. by our ability to reason. This argument makes some sense but it ignores two things: the infinite and contradictory variety of experiences any society will produce and the evidence that [h]man's behavior will always be guided by certain instincts. and takes a more Nietzschean view. The genius of a few individuals is all that has kept mankind raised from the life in nature that Hobbes called "brutish. when subjected to scrutiny. Marx believed that man could acquire compassion and genuine concern for his comrades simply by making it important in post-capitalist society. and control in order to competition for the things we need. it would not progress. Jay. If there were no do more than just sit there and exist. and so do not reproduce as often. It allows us to formulate strategies for survival and act upon them. without a survival instinct there would be nothing to prevent us from starving ourselves out of negligence. humans acquire the ability to learn and make their own decisions. attitudes. since it ignores the role of individuals and looks only at groups. and the viability of a communist society. that we have not yet found in our DNA. We are separated from other living things. If one accepts the materialist conception of the world at face value. However far into the childhood or the womb you take back our chain of experiences. humans will not motivate themselves to do anything unless there is a reward.com/writing/marx. When Marx argued that there is no single nature of man because we're simply products of our society. If human nature can be changed. At this point. In a single day. Competing for resources forces us to establish our identities and maximize our chances of survival and reproduction. Marx's first set of assumptions regards the nature of [hu]man[s].Cap Kritik 161/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab existence of "functionally specialized. By compassion. as he feels it can simply by changing our society that we live in. He bases his materialist conception of human nature on that of B. but the basic underlying assumptions of his work. but what he learns. a human being has bi llions of experiences. When we face danger or discomfort. Marx's economic theory is flawed as well. and ideas a re absorbed at an early age by exposure to those of the world around him. Amanda. then most of what Marx wrote will be consistent. and we can live better. why should we live with the inequities of capitalism? The problem is that his assumptions are backed by no credible arguments. there must be a starting point. Harry. Fear and desire are perfectly natural to us. any of whi ch would make the continuation of our species impossible. though. We will never be able to adjust to life in a Marxist society. Nietzsche's most sensible argument was that conscious thought coupled with our survival instinct generates what he called a "will to power. Natural selection weeds out people who cannot live wit h others. If it's not known to be in our DNA. Man not only chooses which experiences to learn from. money. the forces that drove it would lead to its inevitable collapse and replacement wi th communism. however. These assumptions lead me to question his conclusions regarding the forces that drive history. which precede capitalism. While Marx gave the world a great deal to think about and has influenced billions. we would just take them and copulate and nothing else. Ludwig Fuerbach. we are free and can develop any way we choose. Some of the details have been addressed by modern Communists and Socialists. nasty and short. While the species might survive.ninjalawyer. seem to conflict with reality. Ian. not accounted for by the will to power. and it cannot be inhe rent to man unless it's in our genes. That starting point is our subconscious and our base instincts. content-dependent cognitive adaptations for social exchange. Which experiences influences us most and the degree of their influence is dependent upon our choices. At some age. greedy. Humans are no exception. and he will learn from many of them. This would not only take generations to instill in society. I refer to our general distaste for watching other human beings suffer--those that enjoy suffering cannot function in society. Competition isn't just good for men--it's necessary. Clayton . we can empirically observe a sense of compassion in men that helps us build the great societies that we have. Our will to power drives us to accumulate food.html Karl Marx's work laid the foundation for the theories that redefined the left in the nineteenth century. Even Marx acknowledges the human will in "Alienated Labor. He analyzed capitalism and concluded that while it was productive. his ideal reflects the same mistakes. but it there is no reason to believe tha t any given individual would embrace it." The individuals responsible for these achievements were generally not DML. the self-consuming nature of capitalist society. All living organisms possess a survival instinct. As long as our nature remains unchangeable. Every individual's beliefs. Survival instinct and conscious thought can be proven." In other words." although it plays no role in his theory. Looking at human history. Because Marx's materialist view on humanity does not acknowledge our nature. or committing suicide when we're upset." "Will to power" is the application of conscious thought to our survival instinct.

Ian. Rothenbaum. If these few contributors weren't punished for their differences . they spent their lives working humbly under the "patronage" of feudal lords. Harry. Jay. raising all of mankind higher and higher from our natural. Capitalism encourages individuals to make their contributions and spread them throughout the world. animal-lik e existence. DML. which has increased our rates of progress exponentially.Cap Kritik 162/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab rewarded until the advent of capitalism and is industrial revolution. Clayton . Amanda.

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Cap Sustainable
Capitalism is progressive, self-correcting, and wealth-generating – ensures sustainability Goklany 7 – Julian Simon Fellow at the Political Economy Research Center
Indur, Now For the Good News, http://www.reason.com/news/show/119252.html Environmentalists and globalization

foes are united in their fear that greater population and consumption of energy, materials, and chemicals accompanying economic growth, technological change and free trade—the mainstays of globalization—degrade human and environmental well-being. Indeed, the 20th century saw the United States’ population multiply by four, income by seven, carbon dioxide emissions by nine, use of materials by 27, and use of chemicals by more than 100. Yet life expectancy increased from 47 years to 77 years. Onset of major disease such as cancer, heart, and respiratory disease has been postponed between eight and eleven years in the past
century. Heart disease and cancer rates have been in rapid decline over the last two decades, and total cancer deaths have actually declined the last two years, despite increases in population. Among the very

These improvements haven’t been restricted to the United States. It’s a global phenomenon. Worldwide, life expectancy has more than doubled,
young, infant mortality has declined from 100 deaths per 1,000 births in 1913 to just seven per 1,000 today. from 31 years in 1900 to 67 years today. India’s and China’s infant mortalities exceeded 190 per 1,000 births in the early 1950s; today they are 62 and 26, respectively. In the developing world, the proportion of the population suffering from chronic hunger declined from 37 percent to 17 percent between 1970 and 2001 despite a 83 percent increase in population. Globally average annual incomes in real dollars have tripled

poverty has halved since 1981, from 40 percent to 20 labor in low income countries declined from 30 percent to 18 percent between 1960 and 2003. Equally important, the world is more literate and better educated than ever. People are freer politically, economically, and socially to pursue their well-being as they see fit. More people choose their own rulers, and have freedom of expression. They are more likely to live under rule of law, and less likely to be arbitrarily deprived of life, limb, and property. Social and professional mobility have also never been greater. It’s easier than ever for people across the world to transcend the bonds of caste, place, gender, and other accidents of birth. People today
since 1950. Consequently, the proportion of the planet's developing-world population living in absolute

percent. Child

work fewer hours and have more money and better health to enjoy their leisure time than their ancestors. Man’s environmental record is more complex. The early stages of development can indeed cause some environmental

deterioration as societies pursue first-order problems affecting human well-being. These include hunger, malnutrition,
illiteracy, and lack of education, basic public health services, safe water, sanitation, mobility, and ready sources of energy. Because greater wealth alleviates these problems while providing basic creature comforts, individuals and societies initially focus on economic development, often neglecting other aspects of environmental quality. In

time, however, they recognize that environmental deterioration reduces their quality of life. Accordingly, they put more of their recently acquired wealth and human capital into developing and implementing cleaner technologies. This brings about an environmental transition via the twin forces of economic development and technological progress, which begin to provide solutions to environmental problems instead of creating those problems. All of which is why we today find that the richest countries are also the cleanest. And while many developing countries
have yet to get past the “green ceiling,” they are nevertheless ahead of where today’s developed countries used to be when they were equally wealthy. The point of transition from "industrial period" to "environmental conscious" continues to fall. For example, the US introduced unleaded gasoline only after its GDP per capita exceeded $16,000. India and China did the same before they reached $3,000 per capita. This progress is a testament to the power of globalization and the transfer of ideas

and knowledge (that lead is harmful, for example). It's also testament to the importance of trade in transferring technology from developed to developing countries—in this case, the technology needed to
remove lead from gasoline. This hints at the answer to the question of why some parts of the world have been left behind while the rest of the world has thrived. Why have improvements in well-being stalled in areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab world? The proximate cause of improvements in well-being is a “cycle of progress” composed of the

mutually reinforcing forces of economic development and technological progress. But that cycle itself is propelled
by a web of essential institutions, particularly property rights, free markets, and rule of law. Other important institutions would include science- and technology-based problem-solving founded on skepticism and

free and open societies prosper. Isolation, intolerance, and hostility to the free exchange of knowledge, technology, people, and goods breed stagnation or regression.
experimentation; receptiveness to new technologies and ideas; and freer trade in goods, services—most importantly in knowledge and ideas. In short,

Capitalism can modify into a mixed economy – ensures it’s sustainability Noble 3 – chair of the department of Political Science and director of the international studies program at the California State
University Charles, Why Capitalism Needs the Left, http://www.logosjournal.com/noble.htm

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In combination,

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free market and capitalism have also helped usher in and sustain fundamental political changes, widening the scope both of personal freedom and political democracy. Because of this system, more people get to choose where to work, what to consume, and what to make than ever before, while ancient inequalities of rank and status are overturned. The spread of market capitalism has also laid the foundation for the expansion of democratic decisionmarket capitalism is not a

making. With the establishment of private property and free exchange, political movements demanding other freedoms, including wider access to government, have proliferated. To be sure, capitalism cannot guarantee personal liberty or political democracy. It has produced it share of dictatorships too. But, to date, no society has been able to establish and maintain political democracy without first establishing and securing a market capitalist system. The large corporations that stand at the heart of contemporary capitalism have proven indispensable in this transformation. They are the essential intermediaries in the modern economy, linking financial capital, expertise, technology, managerial skill, labor and leadership. They are spreading everywhere in the world not only because they are powerful, but also because they work. But

machine that can run on its own. It , limits, and above all else stewardship. Partly because the system feeds off of people's darker instincts, partly because it is a machine, and therefore indifferent to human values, and partly because there is no central planner to assure that everything works out in the end, there must be some conscious effort to bring order to this chaos, however creative it might be. Left to its own devices, unfettered capitalism produces great inequities, great suffering, and great instability. In fact, these in-built tendencies are enough to destroy the system itself. Karl Marx figured this out in the mid-19th century and built his revolutionary system on the

needs rules

Marx underestimated our ability to use politics to impose limits on the economic system itself. At one time, and still in other places, even conservatives knew this to be true, and offered themselves up as responsible social stewards. Whether out of a sense of noblesse oblige or enlightened self interest, they volunteered to lead a collective effort to reform the system so that capitalism could survive and continue to serve human interests. From the 1930s through the 1970s, American corporate leaders and a fair number of Republicans seemed to understand this too. They made their piece with "big" government, seeing in the New Deal and even the Great Society a way to forge both social peace and political stability through the creation of a "mixed" economy.
expectation that these dark forces would prevail. But

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Space Cap Sustainable
Space makes cap more sustainable. Autino et. al., ’11 – Chairman of the Greater Earth Initiative

[Adriano Autino, member of the International Astronautic Federation and Chairman of the Greater Earth Initiative; Patrick Collins; Alberto Cavallo; Michael Martin-Smith; Charles Radley; authors for the Space Renaissance Initiative; “Call for a World Space Renaissance Forum;” accessed 6/21/2011; http://www.spacerenaissance.org/papers/CALL_FOR_SR_FORUM.pdf ] Jay

The global economy is entering a deep crisis, the worst since 1929. This is the second act of the "Crisis of
Closed-World Ideologies", which has been developing throughout the XX Century. In 1989, the fall of the Berlin wall was the Crisis of Collectivist Ideology. The recent massive failure of the financial system is the Crisis of Neo-Liberal

Ideology. Both these ideologies failed because they are based upon a closed-world, terro-centric philosophy. There are now almost 7 billion humans making massive demands on planet Earth: we urgently need to open the frontier, and move to a wider vision of our world, so as to access geo-lunar system resources and energy. In short, we need a new "Open World Philosophy". The alternative would be the implosion and collapse of our civilization. The most promising event of the current time, the emerging
countries' industrial revolution, will very soon have to face the dramatic insufficiency of the energy and other resources of the Earth. Because of this they are destined to fail if they remain locked within our planetary boundaries. There are some encouraging signs, pointing the way out of such confinement: in 2004, Scaled Composites proved that low-cost space travel is feasible - as it has been for 50 years. And both China and India have the Moon in their sights: they seem to understand clearly that space offers an alternative to a darkening future. This is because it is now evident that any closed-world strategy will result in

tragedy, as the 1930s depression ended with World War II. Today, since the energy and resources of planet Earth are not enough, it is far too likely that this crisis will end with a terrible holocaust, if we do not reach outside our world to obtain new resources and energy. Consequently if
G20 discussions are to solve the economic crisis, they must include plans for geolunar system industrialization, as the only sustainable direction for development, since this will make non-terrestrial resources and energy available. If governments are to give out financial aid, it should not be to obsolete industrial segments! Help should be given to the most promising industrial revolution of our age: the ignition of the space economy, which can only be based on low-cost space travel. This means, initially, rapidly developing low-cost space travel, industrialization of the Moon, space solar power supply, and accessing extra-terrestrial resources from asteroids and cometoids! There need be no depression if we aim high! If we want our civilization to continue, and to reach a higher ethical level, a new Renaissance is necessary and urgent - a Space Renaissance, the industrial and cultural revolution of our age! Stock exchanges are burning billions each week, but what are they burning? Only bits of information in bank accounts. Real

wealth is not money, but technologies and the potential for work: with 7 billion intelligences, Humanity has
never been so rich! The above is clearly evident to all astronautic humanists, but not to our political leaders!

DML, Ian, Harry, Jay, Amanda, Rothenbaum, Clayton

Ian. Harry. achieve for its poor citizens. outright mass murder and genocide. 98 Capitalism is not a perfect system. to suggest that another system could do as well? Alternatives to Capitalism end in war and genocide Rummel 4 – prof. millions might die. All other institutions. but this isn't the full picture. pg. deadly purges. imperialism and inequality – and. but by concentrating solely on individual instances." intellectuals. The Khmer Rouge – (Cambodian communists) who ruled Cambodia for four years – provide insight into why Marxists believed it necessary and moral to massacre so many of their fellow humans. As in a war. Clayton . one may miss the larger reality of how a political or economic system generally works and what fantastic values it confers on the great majority compared with other alternatives. and the Thirty Years War between Catholics and Protestants. extrajudicial executions and fraudulent show trials. lethal prison camps and murderous forced labor. Critics of globalization are good at pointing out individual harms—a factory that has closed down. social and cultural disaster. Marxism is more deadly then all the wars of the 20th century. either in history or in the world around us. Is there any evidence. the rich and landlords. counterrevolutionaries. including World Wars I and II. Their Marxism was married to absolute power. secular and otherwise. In total. because some people drown and some get burned to death. Rothenbaum. that of Marxism has been by far the bloodiest – bloodier than the Catholic Inquisition. By that method water or fire can be proved to be bad things. And what did Marxism. they had to mercilessly tear down the old feudal or capitalist order and Buddhist culture. tyrants. Marxist regimes murdered nearly 110 million people from 1917 to 1987.Cap Kritik 166/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab 2AC Cap Good Frontline Of course capitalism has its problems – however. Jay. It also disregards the calm and steady progress that is the basic rule of a society with a market economy. In Defense of Global Capitalism. and then totally rebuild a communist society. religions. rightists. a wage that has been reduced. Marxism has meant bloody terrorism. this greatest of human social experiments. exploitation. as in the defeat of Hitler in World War II. as in a real war. but rejecting all systems is not an option. They believed without a shred of doubt that they knew the truth. In practice. There would be necessary enemy casualties: the clergy. The irony is that in practice. note that all domestic and foreign wars during the 20th century killed around 35 million. fatal deportations. that they would bring about the greatest human welfare and happiness. and it is not good for everyone all the time. Amanda. the goal of a communist utopia was enough to justify all the deaths. when Marxists control states. Nothing could be allowed to stand in the way of this achievement. but these deaths would be justified by the end. and that to realize this utopia. Hunting down negative examples of what can happen in a market economy is easy enough. emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii Rudolph. capitalists. To the ruling Marxists. Online Of all religions. it’s short-sighted to reject the free market without a specific and viable solution Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. That is. Problems are found in every political and economic system. It left in its wake an economic. at this most bloody cost in lives? Nothing positive. There is nothing wrong with identifying problems and mishaps in a predominantly successful system if one does so with the constructive intent of rectifying or alleviating them. For perspective on this incredible toll. The Marxists saw the construction of this utopia as a war on poverty. Such things do happen. Government – the Communist Party – was above any law. environmental. A myopic focus on capitalism's imperfections ignores the freedom and independence that it confers on people who have never experienced anything but oppression. the various Catholic crusades. man-made famines. The Killing Machine that is Marxism. even after decades of total DML. cultural norms. "wreckers. and the Korean and Vietnam Wars. But someone who condemns the system as such is obligated to answer this question: What political and economic system could manage things better? Never before in human history has prosperity grown so rapidly and poverty declined so heavily. bourgeoisie. noncombatants would unfortunately get caught in the battle. traditions and sentiments were expendable.

Rothenbaum. Ian. or decree the whims of a dictator. What is astonishing is that this "currency" of death by Marxism is not thousands or even hundreds of thousands. Amanda. Overall. And that around 35 million people escaped Marxist countries as refugees was an unequaled vote against Marxist utopian pretensions. DML. As a government's power is more unrestrained. had been wiped out. Its equivalent would be everyone fleeing California.Cap Kritik 167/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab control. but millions of deaths. or California and Texas. It is not by chance that the world's greatest famines have happened within the Soviet Union (about 5 million dead from 1921-23 and 7 million from 1932-3. There is a supremely important lesson for human life and welfare to be learned from this horrendous sacrifice to one ideology: No one can be trusted with unlimited power. The more power a government has to impose the beliefs of an ideological or religious elite. including 2 million outside Ukraine) and communist China (about 30 million dead from 1959-61). Marxism did not improve the lot of the average person. but usually made living conditions worse than before the revolution. emptying it of all human beings. and the rest died as an unintended result of Marxist collectivization and agricultural policies. in the last century almost 55 million people died in various Marxist famines and associated epidemics – a little over 10 million of them were intentionally starved to death. the more likely it is to kill its own citizens. Harry. This is almost incomprehensible – it is as though the whole population of the American New England and Middle Atlantic States. the more likely human lives and welfare will be sacrificed. as its power reaches into all corners of culture and society. Jay. Clayton .

“The Capitalist Peace. Two economically integrated states can more often avoid military violence. Second. Anarchy makes it difficult for states to compel honest answers from one another except through the threat or imposition of harm. Rothenbaum. globalization allows nations to acquire wealth through production and trade rather than DML. however.pdf) While policy differences or resource competition can generate conflict.cato.045). Of course. Interestingly.associate professor of political science at UC San Diego (Erik. as national economies become more integrated with each other. and democracies don't pick fights with each other. Markets are arguably most relevant as mechanisms for revealing information. Still. This is the closest ordinal value on the scale to a value at least two standard deviations above the mean (3.Cap Kritik 168/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – War Capitalism prevents conflict through information Gartzke 7.1%). but a nonintegrated initiator cannot make its threats credible or informative. OPEN score is at least six.capitalism prevents war Gartzke 7. there are no wars in the capitalist dyads either. since market integration combines mechanisms for revelation and coercion. but such acts create a relative as well as absolute loss. The expansion of capitalism makes war less likely Griswold 5. Freedom to trade nurtures democracy by expanding the middle class in globalizing countries and equipping people with tools of communication such as cell phones.edu/~egartzke/publications/gartzke_ajps_07. Clayton . trade and globalization have reinforced the trend toward democracy. With trade comes more travel.26). one can signal by “burning money.1491 for the two dummy variables). http://dss. the capitalist dyads again contain no wars and the relationship is highly significant (0. not much different from that for democratic dyads (R = 0.To extend this very crude test a bit further. more contact with people in other countries. requires that we move beyond cross tabs. When I do this. Gartzke.OPEN. satellite TV. globalization has dramatically raised the economic cost of war.PhD. War in a globalized world not only means human casualties and bigger government. Third.associate professor of political science at UC San Diego (Erik. A leader’s threats against another state become costly when threats spark market repercussions. Contests inform by being costly. “Peace on earth? Try free trade among men.php?pub_id=5344) First.PhD. Pr=0. Still. both democracies and capitalist dyads appear never to fight wars. It also produces a subsample of capitalist dyads that is about 6. a globalized initiator can signal but has little incentive to hamper its own markets when a nonintegrated target does not suffer (Gartzke 2006b). States with economies integrated into global markets face autonomous investors with incentives to reallocate capital away from risk.Director of the Cato institute center for trade policy studies (Daniel.a record high. Amanda. (LOW) is probably the best candidate for such a test. Harry. though the smaller sample of cases for which data on financial openness are available means that only about a quarter of the wars are accounted for in the sample (54 wars. Let me arbitrarily define capitalist dyads as those where the lower IMF FIN.” expending valuable resources autonomously. Competition creates incentives to bluff.pdf) How many wars occur between “capitalist” countries? It is not obvious how to condense the bundle of factors discussed above into a single variable. An economically integrated target can be coerced by the threat of losing valuable exchange. and more exposure to new ideas. and Boehmer 2001). determining more about these relationships.ucsd. Participants learn from watching the reactions of leaders to the differential incentives of economic cost and political reward. while tactics such as burning money only harm the initiator. IMFFIN. http://www. Studies prove. Thus. “The Capitalist Peace. http://dss. and their relative impact on war. Thanks in part to globalization. they need not produce contests if states can resolve differences diplomatically. Conversely.0. Ian.” 1/5/07.ucsd. but also ruptured trade and investment ties that impose lasting damage on the economy.9% of the available sample of observations. In short.” 12/28/05. Jay. rather than for adding to the risks or costs of fighting (Gartzke and Li 2003.” 1/5/07. I add zeros to round out missing observations so that the capitalist and democracy samples are the same size and all 222 wars appear in the sample. Li.006+2×(1. and the Internet. Liberal theory emphasizes the pacifying effect of cross-border economic linkages.627)=6. those nations have more to lose should war break out. forcing actors to choose between bearing the burden of competition and backing down. Tactics that impart costs only as a byproduct of imposing costs on an opponent can produce relative gains. almost two thirds of the world's countries today are democracies -. to exaggerate capabilities or resolve.org/pub_display.edu/~egartzke/publications/gartzke_ajps_07._2=4.

and human capital. for instance. The spread of capitalism alone solves wars and conflicts Bandow 5." Capitalism is by far the more important factor. http://www.PhD. territory). Out of the ashes of that experience. Rothenbaum. The shift from statist mercantilism to high-tech capitalism has transformed the economics behind war.ucsd. To believe is does is dangerous: There's no panacea for creating a conflict-free world. while nations with very low levels of economic freedom are 14 times more prone to conflict than those with very high levels. Rummel. In large part because of their intertwined economies.empirically proven Gartzke 7. Peace advocates have long championed factors thought to make war prohibitively expensive. Clayton . Amanda. including alliance memberships." The point is not that democracy is valueless. neither is democracy. and regional differences.” 11/10/05. “Spreading Capitalism is good for Peace.that is. in and of themselves.edu/~egartzke/publications/gartzke_ajps_07. just usually not each other. But promoting open international markets .php?pub_id=5193/) But Gartzke argues that "the 'democratic peace' is a mirage created by the overlap between economic and political freedom. Cobden. "liberal political systems. "representative governments are unlikely to contribute directly to international peace." That is. while "democracy is desirable for many reasons. challenges Gartzke's methodology and worries that it "may well lead intelligent and policy-wise analysts and commentators to draw the wrong conclusions about the importance of democratization. Harry. democracies typically have freer economies than do authoritarian states.Former assistant to president Regan. Capitalism prevents war and disincentivises conflict.” 1/5/07. then it also is true that "states with advanced free market economies never go to war with each other. That doesn't mean that nothing can be done. Senior fellow @ the Cato institute (Doug. democracy alone doesn't yield peace. Hot-blooded nationalism and ideological fervor can overwhelm cold economic calculations. Free-flowing capital markets and other aspects of globalization simultaneously draw nations together and raise the economic price of military conflict. Moreover. created by the Fraser Institute. and helped to usher in a world war. Author R. Free political systems naturally entail free elections and are more likely to protect other forms of liberty . noting that he relied on the same data as most democratic peace theorists." Gartzke responds in detail. Markets generate economic opportunities that make war less desirable. Territorial aggrandizement no longer provides the best path to riches. Thus. say oil or timber or farm products. poorer democracies perform like non-democracies. provides a coercive step short of war to achieve foreign policy ends. He explains: "Democracy does not have a measurable impact.is the best means to encourage peace as well as prosperity. Powell 1999). which interfere with economic prosperity. but then. It long has been obvious that democracies are willing to fight.org/pub_display. http://dss. Comparison of available allocations is zero-sum. have no impact on whether states fight. Although the causes of conflict vary.civil and economic. Those are assets that cannot be seized by armies. Of course. either. wealth is measured in terms of intellectual property. If people need resources outside their national borders. a general war in Europe is now unthinkable.Cap Kritik 169/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab conquest of territory and resources. a mutual preference for peace requires that the value of winning be small relative to the cost of fighting (Morrow 1989. but need not result in violence if the stakes are literally “not worth fighting over” or when bargains preempt fighting.associate professor of political science at UC San Diego (Erik. France. spreading capitalism . Capitalism prevents conflict escalation. Imagine two countries attempting to divide up a bundle of goods (resources.precludes the impacts of the kritik Bandow 5. any shift from one allocation to another benefits one country only at the expense of the other country.J. Jay. “Spreading Capitalism is good for Peace. His conclusion hasn't gone unchallenged. Trade wars in the 1930s deepened the economic depression. and other Western European nations to form a common market that has become the European Union. However. In this framework. Contends Gartzke. an avid proponent of the democratic peace theory. they can acquire them peacefully by trading away what they can produce best at home. Senior fellow @ the Cato institute (Doug.Former assistant to president Regan. free trade and globalization do not guarantee peace. financial assets. “The Capitalist Peace. sanctions." he notes in a chapter in the latest volume of Economic Freedom in the World. http://www. the relationship between economic liberty and peace remains." In particular.” 11/10/05.org/pub_display.cato.php?pub_id=5193/) Positive economic trends are not enough to prevent war. But deep trade and investment ties among nations make war less attractive. Increasingly." Gartzke considers other variables. If it is true that democratic states don't go to war. claimed optimistically that “Should war break out between two great nations I have no DML. nuclear deterrence.cato. Ian. for example. the United States urged Germany. exacerbated global tensions.pdf) Conflict is inherent in the allocation of resources among two or more parties.

355). the value of resources in dispute is small or varies with ownership. then nations can be better off “outsourcing occupation” to local leaders and obtaining needed goods through trade.S. occupying a reluctant foreign power is extremely labor intensive. Ian. invasion of Iraq illustrates. War or treaties that shifted control of territory changed the balance of resources. and power.Cap Kritik 170/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab doubt that the immense consumption of material and the rapid destruction of property would have the effect of very soon bringing the combatants to reason or exhausting their resources” ([1867] 1903.”30 Increasing the cost of fighting.32 DML. or how long fighting lasts. Sovereigns. and to a lesser extent citizens.31 As the U. and rooted labor in favor of intellectual and financial capital (Brooks 1999. If the rents from conquest decline. or alternately increasing the benefits of peace—even when possible— shape what each actor will accept in lieu of fighting. Even the prospect of nuclear annihilation did not deter disputes during the cold war (Schelling 1960). Amanda. even as occupation costs increase. If. Development can alter these incentives if modern production processes de-emphasize land. on the other hand. War costs are also endogenous. and which after. Harry. making war more expensive will affect who wins. Clayton . Nations have historically used force to acquire land and resources. 2005. if war is a process where competitors inflict costs on one another. then states can prefer to buy goods rather than steal them. but not whether a contest occurs (Levy andMorgan 1984). then states can be disinclined to fight. and subdue foreign populations. prospered as the state extended its domain. Jay. if fighting is prohibitive. Rosecrance 1996). Yet. minerals. If soldiers are expensive. countries will make themselves a “nice little war. but do not tell us which bargains are forged before warfare. Rothenbaum.

Those that are closed are nine times more likely to completely suppress civil and political freedoms as those that are open.cato. is frequently counterproductive. Nations that have followed a path of trade reform in recent decades by progressively opening themselves to the global economy are significantly more likely to have expanded their citizens' political and civil freedoms. Deputy Director for Education at the United States Institute of Peace. In particular.” 1/6/04. Human needs theory is closely identified with the seminal work of John Burton. since old resentments and distrust can keep tensions higher between groups or countries. And by promoting faster growth. For example. Rothenbaum. as Tutsis in exile violated the rights of Hutu leaders even as Hutus in power dehumanized and slaughtered Tutsis at home. and Helsing. “Introduction: Exploring the Intersection between Human Rights. as Louis Kreisberg notes. Jay. Memoirs can likewise evoke violent responses.” pg. Leaders who emphasize ends over means are not likely to hesitate before violating human rights in pursuit of their goals.Cap Kritik 171/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – Freedom Capitalism promotes democracy. Amanda. http://www. in so doing.org/pub_display. and democratic ideas. 03 ( Michelle. Capitalism empirically leads to increased freedom and democracy Griswold 4. who theorized in Deviance. free markets. communications. “Trading Tyranny for Freedom: How open markets till the soil for democracy. and democracy. Economic liberalization provides a counterweight to governmental power and creates space for civil society. Protecting freedom is key to prevent dehumanization Mertus 6-Associate Professor of International Relations at American University. “inhumane treatment deepens the antagonism and the desire to continue the struggle and even to seek revenge.org/essay/dehumanization/) Parties may come to believe that destruction of the other side is necessary.php?pub_id=3630) Political scientists have long noted the connection between economic development. Ian. political reform. like unmet human needs.associate director of Cato's Center for Trade Policy Studies (Dan. describing other peoples as “animals.” 1/6/04. but also. This sort of into-the-sea framing can cause DML.org/pub_display. Not only do human rights abuses lead to the onset of conflict.. the most economically open countries today are more than three times as likely to enjoy full political and civil freedoms as those that are relatively closed. Such was the case in Rwanda in 1994. Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and Political Problems that unsatisfied human needs are the root cause of many of the most violent conflicts. and long-standing human rights abuses fueled the genocidal massacres of the 1990s. Human rights abuses.cato. http://www. "Dehumanization. intended to intimidate and suppress the enemy. 3-4) The notion that deprivation of human rights contributes to protracted social conflict draws from the theory of basic human needs. and civil society. so too have democracy and political and civil freedoms. As trade and globalization have spread to more and more countries in the last 30 years.empirically proven Griswold 4. threaten the security of individuals and social groups and." July 2003 24 May 2008 http://www. prolonging a struggle and making an enduring peace more difficult to attain.php?pub_id=3630) The reality of the world today broadly reflects those theoretical links between trade. freedom. widespread killings. Rwanda’s history of social tensions. Dehumanization leads to Genocide and multiple wars Maiese. Harry.” “vermin. trade promotes political freedom indirectly by creating an economically independent and political aware middle class.” Some ideologies use dehumanizing imagery to exclude “enemy” groups. “Trading Tyranny for Freedom: How open markets till the soil for democracy. Politicians and militaries can use that fear to stoke their campaigns and further their agendas. Clayton .beyondintractability. and pursue an overwhelming victory that will cause one's opponent to simply disappear. Increased trade and economic integration promote civil and political freedoms directly by opening a society to new technology. and political and civil freedom. create cycles of dehumanization based on fear.associate director of Cato's Center for Trade Policy Studies (Dan. (Julie and Jeffrey W. The callous and indiscriminate use of violence.” or “evil incarnate” and thereby setting the stage for future human rights abuses.

Cap Kritik 172/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab lasting damage to relationships between the conflicting parties. and noting that he had already fallen for 64 floors without anything bad happening to him." And it is always well to bear in mind David Hume's observation: "It is seldom that liberty of any kind is lost all at once. and genocide. Toledo Law Review.professor of law at Wake Forest (Sylvester Petro. dehumanization often paves the way for human rights violations. in WWII.” Actually. Iran.php?krieger) Jonathan Tepperman’s article in the September 7.” Actually. Ian. “The iron logic of deterrence and mutually assured destruction is so compelling. tyranny. “The bomb may actually make us safer. the establishment of personal relationships between conflicting parties. one may still insist on echoing Ernest Hemingway – "I believe in only one thing: liberty. 2005. there has not been any war among nuclear states. such as those in Korea. and some near disasters. Vietnam and Afghanistan." Thus. petty. Dangerous logic! Tepperman builds upon Waltz’s logic. and Sudan—are all run by dictators. then every invasion of freedom must be emphatically identified and resisted with undying spirit. including being “stupid. p. Clayton . it certainly is not one on which to risk the future of civilization. “it’s led to what’s known as the nuclear peace…. Russia is also on the list. the development of empathy.” Rather.’” Waltz expresses his optimism in this way: “We’ve now had 64 years of experience since Hiroshima. he is asking us to do more than trust in the rationality of leaders. Cambodia. even evil….” Tepperman argues. and the former Yugoslavia. p. and adherence to established international regulations in closed political systems allow them greater leeway in pursuing programs to acquire them. despotism. and the end of all human aspiration. Jay. and concludes “that all states are rational. the most notable being the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Ask Solzhenstyn. which it isn’t. a University of California professor emeritus of political science. Indeed.” Tepperman shares this world with Kenneth Waltz.” But if this is a peace worthy of the name. because these weapons make “the costs of war obvious. and nuclear weapons programs—North Korea. Pakistan. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and Councilor – World Future Council (David. In sum. independent scrutiny. 2009 issue of Newsweek. 99) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. there were a number of proxy wars between nuclear weapons states.” even though their leaders may have a lot of bad qualities.” provides a novel but frivolous argument that nuclear weapons “may not.Senior Vice President of the Center for American Progress and Director of the Open Society Policy Center. in fact. and the pursuit of common goals. The countries that have been the most active proliferators of materials for chemical. and unacceptable. Spring 1974. 480) However. One irrational leader with DML. it is unacceptable to say that the invasion of one aspect of freedom is of no import because there have been invasions of so many other aspects. and concluding that so far it looked so good that others should try it. The lack of openness. Syria.org/articles/2009/09/04_krieger_newsweek_response. Democracy prevents WMD proliferation Halperin 5 . in Tepperman’s world. biological. if one believes in freedom as a supreme value and proper ordering principle for any society aiming to maximize spiritual and material welfare. make the world more dangerous….Pres. It is thought that the psychological process of dehumanization might be mitigated or reversed through humanization efforts. https://www. Belarus. “Still Loving the Bomb After All These Years”. Harry. (Morton Halperin et al. making it more difficult to solve their underlying problems and leading to the loss of more innocent lives.[9] Similar atrocities have occurred in Rwanda. 9-4. Although not classified as an autocracy. Ask Milovan Djilas. For example. “The Democracy Advantage”. inevitable. It’s striking and against all historical precedent that for that substantial period. Waltz’s logic is akin to observing a man falling from a high rise building.wagingpeace. Russia has a long way to go in esA similar pattern is at work 33 tablishing democratic institutions that can assure transparency in government behavior and hold government officials accountable for their actions.” He asks us to trust that rationality will always prevail when there is a risk of nuclear retaliation. venal. who Tepperman describes as “the leading ‘nuclear optimist. the dehumanization of the Jews ultimately led to the destruction of millions of people. he is asking us to gamble the future on this proposition. That road leads to chaos. “Why Obama Should Learn to Love the Bomb. war crimes. Proliferation risks global nuclear war and extinction Krieger ‘9 . Libya. Protecting rights is a priori – it cannot be sacrificed for anything Petro 74 -. Rothenbaum. Amanda.

democratic accountability also plays a crucial role in preventing major public policy disasters. that the spread of nuclear weapons makes the world safer. Presumably he would have President Obama providing new and secure nuclear weapons to North Korea. “Should International Law Be Part of Our Law?”. he refers to as “nuclear pessimists. no matter how poor. Amanda. that leaders enact policies that serve the interests of their people. “nuclear weapons start to seem a lot less frightening.” “Nuclear peace.” but deterrence is a theory that is far from rooted in “iron logic. it is striking that no democratic nation. and I would certainly be one of them. Tepperman? Democracy acts as a backstop against all of their impacts – no democratically elected leader will allow policy disasters McGinnis and Somin 7 – Professor of Law @ NU and Georgetown Respectively (John and Ilya. that would be serious. Stanford Law Review.” Thus. France and China) to engage in good faith negotiations for nuclear disarmament. Yes. in fact. at least to some extent. be carried out. he not only favors nuclear weapons. He also doesn’t make the case that in a world without nuclear weapons. developed nuclear arsenals. but they never agreed to maintain indefinitely a system of nuclear apartheid in which some states possess nuclear weapons and others are prohibited from doing so. has ever had a mass famine within its borders. who see nuclear weapons as presenting an urgent danger to our security. Tepperman finds that when viewed from his “nuclear optimist” perspective. (96) whereas such events are common in authoritarian and totalitarian states. For example. the prospects of conventional war would increase dramatically.” he tells us. etc. he concludes that wouldn’t be so bad “given the way that bombs tend to mellow behavior.Cap Kritik 173/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab control over a nuclear arsenal could start a nuclear conflagration. Clayton . Jay. the more other countries may come to believe that they can challenge Country A with impunity from nuclear retaliation. The longer that nuclear weapons are not used. Questia) Finally. UK. After all. but finds the security of these weapons to trump human security. Tepperman celebrates “the iron logic of deterrence. made most prominently by Kenneth Waltz.” It is a theory based upon threats that must be effectively communicated and believed.” Those who oppose Tepperman’s favorable disposition toward the bomb.) the conditions under which A will retaliate with nuclear weapons.” These would be the people. Tepperman seems to be arguing that seeking to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons is bad policy. Leaders of Country A with nuclear weapons must communicate to other countries (B. or would do so in the future. DML. Ian. We have certainly come far too close to the precipice of catastrophic nuclear war. Pakistan and any other nuclear weapons states that come along so that they will feel secure enough not to use their weapons in a first-strike attack. Deterrence is unstable and therefore precarious. make efforts at non-proliferation unnecessary and even unwise. since elected leaders know that a highly visible catastrophic failure is likely to lead to punishment at the polls. the greater the incentive for these countries to develop their own nuclear arsenals. As an ultimate celebration of the faulty logic of deterrence. because of their threat. (97) More generally. If some additional states. including Iran. Most of the countries in the world reject the argument.” But the “extremely bad” thing he asks us to accept is the end of the human species. our species and our future. and the International Court of Justice interpreted this to mean complete nuclear disarmament in all its aspects. resulting in a global Hiroshima. These countries joined together in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. democracy serves as a check on self-dealing by political elites and helps ensure. Rothenbaum. C. Tepperman calls for providing any nuclear weapons state with a “survivable second strike option. “rests on a scary bargain: you accept a small chance that something extremely bad will happen in exchange for a much bigger chance that something very bad – conventional war – won’t happen. and that nuclear weapons. The principal bargain of the NPT requires the five NPT nuclear weapons states (US. The more that Country A bullies other countries. The leaders of the other countries must understand and believe the threat from Country A will. Russia. Harry. it is only an unproven supposition that nuclear weapons have prevented wars. Do we really want to bet the human future that Kim Jong-Il and his successors are more rational than Mr.

. pg. That road leads to chaos. For. Spring. even those who disagree with the whole system. if someone plans to start a business. if no one wants to go to a certain area for a certain type of job and the government determines the wages. of course. For " . echoing Ernest Hemingway . p. liberty for the individual is simply impossible. Jay. he goes bankrupt.al be in a position where his income is independent of the government. with a natural motive for providing the best possible product at the lowest possible price. does all the planning and assigns and controls all the jobs. In both systems there will always be people who disagree. Under complete socialism.ciety.self "not free to become a professor" but the fact is simply thatothers choose not to avail themselves of his services. the worker must ultimately lose his freedom to choose his own line of work. DML.ing to buy his services because he is ignorant. http://www. Clayton . then every invasion of freedom must be emphatically identified and resisted with undying spirit. but he is still free because he is uncoecced. Published Originally in 1971. Ask Solzhenitsyn. In a socialist so. as absence of coercion. In Russia what happens is that an economic demand is "created" for a worker in the salt-mines of Siberia. tyranny. of course. Nor can he coerce employees into working for him: he cannot command their services by edict. 1974 – Prof." And it is always well to bear in mind David Hume's observation: "It is seldom that liberty of any kind is lost all at once. They can in fact usually earn their living by attacking the existing state of affairs. the government must force him to go there. can still find employment. But in a socialist system all such choices would be coerced. and no one will stop him. not as the power to do something. "4 In a free-enterprise economy. Only in a free- enterprise economy can the individu. Amanda. the consumer determines the economic fate of the manufacturer (and with him. Someone who wants to be a college professor and isn't. but with socialism the political leader has the power to shut up the opposition. so that his product will outvote that of his competitors in the economic plebiscite of the consumers. if one believed in freedom as a supreme value and the proper ordering principle for any society aiming to maximize spiritual and material welfare. in fact. It is precisely under a socialist state that the least liberty can exist. where the state owns all the means of production.tence . because of the power of unlimited government. and consumers voluntari.. Libertarianism: A Political Philosophy for Tomorrow.. When we discuss "freedom to choose one's job" we mean freedom in its primary sense. Ask Milovan Dijas. This pro. despotism.ism the state would eventually wither away. The manufacturer of the product cannot coerce the consumer. It must control the worker along with the work. is not necessarily unfree. one may still insist.com/archives/200304/0783. If nobody is will.ly choose to buy his product (if they don't. it is above all under socialism. He may not get the job he wants..ndtceda. Ian. he goes broke). There.html] However. No one forces him to start the business." Thus. In a centrally planned economy. Perhaps the most foolish thing that Marx ever said was that under social. PETRO 74 Petro. people who disagree with the government can easily be disposed of.. and the end of all human aspiration. Law @ NYU [Sylvester. and his plan is un. Toledo Law Review. In sum. Harry. he may call him.vides the manufacturer. people who disagree with the government. 480. 249-250 In a free-enterprise society. his employees). The worker voluntarily chooses to work for him. it is unacceptable to say that the invasion of one aspect of freedom is of no importance because there have been invasions of so many other aspects.Cap Kritik 174/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – Alt=Coercion Strong state economics ensures totalitarianism and unlimited government coercion Hospers 7 – Professor Emeritus of Philosophy @ USC John. In a free economy. but only by paying them at least as much as the going wage for the type of work in question."I believe in only one thing: liberty. Rothenbaum. all this is different. that the state is and must be closest to omnipo.wise or short-sighted.

Space tourism is as important as ever. settlements are likely to follow. bringing its people together and forming partnerships from former enemies as space remains outside the framework of human violence. It also solves every impact ever Collins and Autino 09—*PhD. A growing. Its importance goes beyond its potential economic value as a new industry when it can facilitate a new view of our world. and natural DML. and what may still come. of which the inhabitants will add to the wealth of different cultures which humans have created in the many different environments in which they live. Education. Mars. mortgage financing and insurance. http://www. **Space Future Representative and Editor (Patrick and Adriano. dml) In all three surveys the venture capitalists expressed concerns about commercializing outer space. Clayton . As trade spreads through near-Earth space. high insurance expenses. plagues or growing pollution. communications. and war. author of the Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution. “What the Growth of a Space Tourism Industry Could Contribute to Employment. actually help make the case for humans in space. The most frequent follow-up comment was that because of the various risks associated with commercial space ventures. This publication describes the transformational experience that commonly follows observation of Earth from space-Earth free of borders and conflicts.com/archive/space_tourism_after_dennis_tito. Such activities aimed at making near-Earth space habitable are the logical extension of humans' historical spread over the surface of the Earth. and extraterrestrial resources. Jay. When astronauts return to Earth. These horrors include both man-made disasters such as nuclear war. Environmental Policy Dept.Cap Kritik 175/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Space Tourism Cap expansion in space causes space tourism Livingston 2K – adjunct professor in the Graduate School of Business at Golden Gate University (David. high risks of funding with the requirement for equally high returns. traffic management. restrictive government policies. hostilities. In the first phase. Ian. inexperienced space company management. published in 1998. The most likely commercial opportunities cited have remained constant over the years and include launch services. Harry. Space tourism is key to the overview effect – solves all violence Livingston 2 – adjunct professor in the Graduate School of Business at Golden Gate University (David. Economic Environment Research Lab. in turn. 2009. asteroids and in man-made space structures.shtml)//AW Investment in low-cost orbital access and other space infrastructure will facilitate the establishment of settlements on the Moon.” http://www. Success of such extra-terrestrial settlements will have the additional benefit of reducing the danger of human extinction due to planet-wide or cosmic accidents [27]. Amanda. Economic Growth. Space Future. individuals in space experience the well-documented effect known as the overview effect. remote sensing. “Space Tourism After Dennis Tito. market uncertainties. infrastructure. Environmental Protection. Rothenbaum. Second Edition. Their concerns centered around the high cost of getting into space. 2001. development of new regulatory infrastructure in various Earth orbits.spacefuture. successful space-tourism industry could bring perhaps millions to space who would. This could have a powerful positive impact on our world. including property/usufruct rights. they all typically share the same transformational experience. space tourism. “$pace: The Final Financial Frontier.shtml. these opportunities may encounter problems in financing and implementation. and complex legal issues.spacefuture. dml) The horrific events of September 11.com/archive/space_the_final_financial_frontier.spacefuture. policing and other services will enable the population living in Earth orbits to grow very large. real estate.” http://www. pilotage. long development times. All those who completed the survey recognized that commercial opportunities are possible in outer space. Culture and World”.com/archive/what_the_growth_of_a_space_tourism_industry_could_contribute_to_employment_econ omic_growth_environmental_protection_education _culture_and_world_peace. As mentioned earlier. a term coined by Frank White. share this experience with others.shtml. microgravity projects. perhaps even more so than it was prior to September 11.

Jay. Hence the failure to develop passenger space travel has seriously distorted the path taken by humans' technological and economic development since WW2. appear to be achievable only through the development of a vigorous space tourism industry.It is hard to think of any objective that is more important than preserving peace.Cap Kritik 176/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab disasters such as super-volcanoes or asteroid impact. while waste and suffering due to the unemployment and environmental damage caused by the resulting lack of new industrial opportunities have increased.16]. and have such horrific. 8. DML. Clayton . Amanda. long-term sideeffects that their use should be discouraged as strongly as possible by the international community. Weapons developed in recent decades are so destructive. if space travel services had started during the 1950s. Harry. Summary As discussed above. away from the path which would have been followed if capitalism and democracy operated as intended. Hence. Technological know-how which could have been used to supply services which are known to be very popular with a large proportion of the population has not been used for that purpose. Ian. The achievement of this depends on low space travel costs which. Rothenbaum. at the present time. reducing the incentive to use these weapons by rapidly developing the ability to use space-based resources on a large scale is surely equally important [11. the space industry would be enormously more developed than it is today.

rather than hold them back. Jay. which we have seen only a few times before in history. DML. http://www. Sustainability Public Policy Challenges of Long-Duration Space Exploration. where the world system of societies is interdependent. they tend to hear with the ears of the Cold War world .Cap Kritik 177/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – World Peace Space globalization key to move away from cold war mentality and achieve space peace Dudley-Rowley and Gangale 6 – *CEO and Founding Researcher. the latent functions of the negotiation of this new world order will open the Cosmos to China. drive them forward. They see still-highly agrarian economies with their Cold War Era eyes. AIAA Member (Marilyn and Thomas. Amanda. Harry. Ian.org/Library/PDF/DudleyGangale_PublicPolicy. A key feature of the post Cold War world that makes their progress possible is an interdependence among the world system of societies that requires a level of international cooperation. and where they can wheel and deal and buy any resource to get them where they want to go. OPS-Alaska.astrosociology. Clayton . working in a collective way toward large-scale mutual goals. When Americans hear Chinese and Indian space authorities claim they will send humans to the Moon or launch space stations. dml) The context of the reshaping world order is re-organizing the space exploration endeavor and empowering those who risk to explore. Rothenbaum. Their large populations. AIAA member AND **Executive Director. As with the latent functions of the Space Race of the Cold War that produced the post Cold War transformation. and others with whom they collaborate. OPS-Alaska. these societies are quantum-leaping into a state of advanced industrialization on a world stage where capitalism is globalizing. India. For.pdf.

At the same time. New Scientist Much of today's population growth is occurring in rural regions in the developing world. NJ (Michael G. Expanding populations also create rising demands for food. jeopardising food production among many other problems. unless patterns of consumption change . “Seizing the Future: The Dawn of the Macroindustrial Era. but adopting the newest. with unevenly distributed resources and a ravaged environment. Amanda.with rich nations causing less environmental damage and poor ones consuming more. Professor of Management at Montclair State University in Upper Montclair.” 1998. Politicians and the public seem utterly oblivious to what will be required to maintain crucial ecosystem services and an adequate food supply in the face of rapid climate change and an accelerated loss of biodiversity. habitat fragmentation. Unemployed. Imagine a well-armed world. The future looks grim. Rothenbaum.2 billion in the industrialized world. limited education. Shortages of fresh water are increasingly common. and outright habit destruction. have been young adult men. is having a grave impact on biodiversity.Executive director of the expansionary institute. Here too illegal immigration is increasingly a problem. poverty. disaffected young men provide both public support and cannon fodder for terrorism. Rising oil prices may now be signalling the end of cheap energy. It seems likely that by 2050 nuclear. Ian. future generations will not have to imagine. faculty at Stanford University. While human beings have had an effect for the last 50.000 years. opinions on immigration are already sharply divided. alien species introduction. The majority of terrorists behind 9/11 and attacks in Europe.org/biod/population/human_pop1. it has only been since the industrial revolution that the impact has been global rather than regional. sparking tension both within and between nations as increasing numbers of young people migrate to cities and to wealthier countries looking for a better life. which also poses a threat to successful development. This is also the demographic group responsible for most crime globally.ecology. the complaint may arise that we simply have too few people to populate these new worlds and staff the jobs in interstellar cities. Capitalism solves overpopulation DML. at least two more Earths would be needed to support everyone. pollution. Clayton . Extinction Otten 1 Edward Otten. Unless we act now. In the US.. cleanest and most efficient technologies for energy use and production of goods and services. If the 5 billion-plus people in developing nations matched the consumption patterns of the 1. 90 ) Zero population growth proponents consistently fret that a rampant population increase will eventually lead to global overcrowding. The strain this puts on ecosystems and resources in developing countries is compounded by demands from industrialised nations keen to exploit everything from timber and tropical fruits to metals and petroleum. making humans the dominant species on the planet. energy and materials. http://www. Pg. mounting evidence of global warming makes reducing fossil-fuel use imperative. This global impact is taking place through five primary processes: over harvesting. as the species begins to migrate and establish settlements. Jay. Second Edition.html The exponential growth of the human population. for instance. Although this does not appear to be an immediate danger. This destruction of species by humans will eventually lead to a destruction of the human species through natural selection. biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction will be in the hands of most nations and many subnational groups. inequity and repressive government. 2000-2001. Western European nations have tended to accept limited immigration from developing countries as a way to augment their workforce. Dissatisfaction is inevitable where populations of mostly young people face high unemployment. Revolutions and political unrest most often occur in developing nations with growing populations. as thousands of people flee overcrowded labour markets in poor African and Asian countries in search of jobs..Cap Kritik 178/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Overpop Expanding Capitalism to space solves population growth Zey 98. poor healthcare. 9-30-2006. numbers of young working-age people are rising by up to 3 per cent per year. The exploration and colonization of other spheres potentially offers limitless possibilities for the numerical growth of the human species. Professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics at the University of Cincinnati. Ironically. And global wars Ehrlich and Ehrlich 6 Paul Ehrlich and Anne Ehrlich. they contend. still split between rich and poor. Harry. where large numbers of illegal immigrants enter the country in search of work. In many developing countries. eventually the species will have to confront the possibility that we will simply run out of room for comfortable habitation.

" DML."Yet this could "become devas. he continues. Clayton . and clearing open-access land for cultivation. They have an incentive to appropriate resources at the fastest rate possible. This condition is generally labeled the "tragedy of the commons. 159-160 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab The relationship is a powerful one. Rothenbaum. fodder. When fuel wood and fodder are not owned and formal laws of possession do not govern their harvest and use. 151) observes that "most contributions by children consist of capturing and appropriating open-access natural resources such as water. Amanda. Harry. people do not hear the full cost of their consumption." The link between these institutions and fertility partly reflects the impact of economic growth-by encouraging economic growth. often leading to exces. and eventually the individual household. and other forest products. Formal analysis of the data indicates that these differences are not merely random. pastures. Many developing countries have poorly specified or poorly enforced property rights. the community. Fertility rates are more than twice as high in countries with low levels of economic freedom and rule of law compared with countries that have high levels of those measures. fish.Cap Kritik 179/194 Norton 4 – Professor of Business at Wheaton College Seth." What better way to capture open-access resources than to have as many gatherers as possible? Higher fertility is a way to do this. these institutions indirectly affect fertility. fuel wood. pg. Jay. Ian. But there also is evidence that these growth-enhancing institutions affect fertility for other reasons.Theodore Panayotou (1994.sive harvest.tating for the resource. makes "the number of children the decisive instrument in the hands of the household: The household's share of open-access property depends on the number of hands it employs to convert open."This.access resources into private property. You Have to Admit It’s Getting Better.

and for many others as well. its hereditary predispositions. . or any other religion. its planetary engineering. . “RECLAIMING THE FUTURE: SPACE ADVOCACY AND THE IDEA OF PROGRESS”.” Sagan continues: “I’m struck again by the irony that spaceflight – conceived in the cauldron of nationalist rivalries and hatreds – brings with it a stunning transnational vision. Sagan writes: “Where are dreams that motivate and inspire? Where are the visions of hopeful futures. they suggest. and breadth of vision that did capture the imagination of the world . Space advocates also foresee a new era of peace and mutual understanding arising as a result of space travel. to set up their own colonies . in Business (David. http://taylordark. but unfortunately absent on Earth. . Rothenbaum. Frank White.%20Dark%20--%20NASA%20conference%20paper. Many space advocates complain that optimistic images of the future have been displaced in recent decades by far more negative views. To me.Cap Kritik 180/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Overview Effect Space exploration allows for universal peace. “On Earth it is difficult for . Clayton . Ian. "I think the minute I saw the view for the first time was really one of the most memorable moments in my entire life. cultural differences would be cherished and exaggerated. Livingston 2 – M. Those who wish to found experimental communities. people to form new nations or regions for themselves. .” Space dwellers will become aware that “we are one. serving as fuel for social evolution. in the original settlement of the New World and the American frontier. Dark the Third 6 – Associate Professor in Political Science (Taylor. People who live in space will take for granted philosophical insights that have taken those on Earth thousands of years to formulate. It inspired an optimism about technology. horse.” White also suggests that “the multiplier effect means that sending a limited number of people into space can lead to a broad-based social transformation. This diversity would serve as a tool of survival. of technology as a tool for human betterment and not a gun on a hair trigger pointed at our heads?” A rare exception to the spread of gloomy visions. "It really strengthens your convictions. “The Ethical Commercialization of Outer Space”. Heppenheimer observed. . that what appears to be ‘the world’ to people on Earth is merely a small planet in space."8 When asked by the interviewer how it changed his understanding of God. and what appears to be ‘the present’ is merely a limited viewpoint to one looking from a higher level. we are all in this together. the United States touched greatness. September 19th 2006. . will have the opportunity to strike out into the wilderness and establish their ideals in cities in space. an enthusiasm for the future .davidlivingston. but in the founding of self-governing communities which reflect the Arapaho or Cherokee customs . They will start at a place we have labored to attain over several millennia. They seem the squabbles of mites on a plum. Amanda. argues for the existence of what he calls an “overview effect” in which humans who are launched into space achieve a veritable breakthrough in human consciousness.”27 With a renewed commitment to space. and buffalo.com/T. “But in space it will become easy for ethnic or religious groups.”28 Another space enthusiast.A.pdf) Most astronauts claim to view Earth differently after having been in space. . Necessarily. . You spend even a little time contemplating the Earth from orbit and the most deeply ingrained nationalisms begin to erode.D. the Sultan said.com/publications/The_Ethical_Commercialization_of_Outer_Space. .”26 Zubrin likewise claims that Mars colonization will promote cultural diversity in a world where it is increasingly threatened by proximity and overcrowding. according to Sagan.” science author T. its social conventions. ”25 Carl Sagan also sees more cultural diversity as humanity establishes new civilizations on different planets and other celestial bodies: “Each society would tend to be proud of the virtues of its world. . war and strife solve nothing. When the Saudi-Arabian Prince Sultan Bin Salman al-Saud went into orbit in June 1985 he said. Jay. With Apollo. was the space program of the 1960s: “Apollo conveyed a confidence. http://www. Those living in space “will be able to see how everything is related. opportunities that were last seen. to try new social forms and practices. Sagan writes that “the unexpected final gift of Apollo” was “the inescapable recognition of the unity and fragility of the Earth. the troubles all over DML. Looking at it from here. Heppenheimer even suggests that “we may see the return of the Cherokee or Arapaho nation — not necessarily with a revival of the culture of prairie. Often their commentaries show a world that is united in space. The experiences of the few become new information for the many. Harry. the psychological and cultural health of America and humanity in general would surely improve.” In a burst of multicultural enthusiasm. energy. it's an opportunity to prove that there is no conflict being a Muslim.”29 The overview effect solves all war.pdf) Others have argued that the diffusion of human beings off the planetary surface will open up new opportunities for social experimentation. Space migration will also enlarge the pool of positive images of the future available to humanity – images that space advocates consider essential to motivate and guide purposeful activity.

Robert Bigelow of Bigelow Aerospace of Las Vegas was recently interviewed about his announcement to invest $500 million of his own money over the next several years to build a space cruise liner for Earth to moon tourism. Bigelow understands the limitations of our perceptions and the way we do things.11 DML. Ian. I think the jury is still out on whether or not it’s the human race. who went to space in January 1986. Harry. Amanda. It would have a positive effect on their future decisions concerning war and peace.”10 Such space-based perspectives and their spillover effects on those of us unable to experience space firsthand may ultimately have a greater influence on our commercial space business practices than anything we do or say on Earth. When asked during his interview if his cruise liner would have defenses onboard in case of a meeting with a hostile ET. especially since we have technology that enables us to do so much. said upon his return: "If the superpower leaders could be given the opportunity to see the Earth from the perspective from which I saw it—perhaps at a summit meeting in space in the context of the next century—they might realize that we're all in this with a common denominator. look very strange as you see the boundaries and border lines disappearing. Bigelow replied: I'm not so sure exactly who the Klingons are. Jay. Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 181/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the world. Congressman Bill Nelson. Clayton . You have to have some harmony. I think we have a huge divergence between our paths of improvement on spiritual maturity. while at the same time this century we compare that against the path of our technological advancements."9 U. and not just the Middle East. I think in order to be a member of a species that is a space-faring species that other species shouldn't fear.S. I think you have some type of meeting where your technological maturity is met to some degree with spiritual maturity.

and (re)production of space. Clayton . domination and control of space. Swyngedouw 1992. four dimensions of spatial practice by capital are suggested (Gottdiener 1987. [b]y increasing the range of possible substitutions within a given production process. Harvey 1989. When this 'consumption' of space by capital is completed. In the radical literature. 3. State and Space: Contesting the Borderless World”. Rothenbaum. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 145) notes that. Space therefore remains integral to the (re)production of capital and capital accumulation. Ian. No. DML. Harry. a proper theorization of the spatial dynamics of globalization should address the fundamental relationship between capital and space. “Capital. Yeung 98—Professor of Economic Geography at the National University of Singapore (Henry Wai-chung. Yeung 1998a): accessibility and distanciation. Lefebvre 1991.Cap Kritik 182/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Overview Effect – Extensions Capitalism in space creates a “borderless world” in which people can free themselves from geographical constraints. when space is seemingly commanded and 'consumed' by capital (represented by TNCs) for further accumulation. JSTOR)//AW Second.less' and 'placeless'. 23. Amanda. in which capital becomes 'state. Blackwell Publishing. Obama's end-state of a 'borderless' world is achieved. Jay. capitalists can increasingly free themselves from particular geographical constraints. Harvey (1985. appropriation and use of space. This is particularly true during the internationalization of capital. This 'consumption' of space by capital is manifested in the spheres of circulation (transport and communication) and production (factors of production). Vol.

the new superlightweight materials now used in wheelchair construction are a derivative of NASA’s advanced material research.S. Both at Indiana University. Britain or the United States today.. Building global reach capabilities constrains economic innovation in the short run but contributes to its expansion in a longer run. 32-37. p. military mobilization increases leading sector growth rates and shares. Heg collapse causes global nuclear war Thayer 6." Consequently. This is not to say it fulfills Woodrow Wilson's vision of ending all war. Growth. particularly war's worst form: great power wars. Amanda. Harry. “Seizing the Future: The Dawn of the Macroindustrial Era. 89) Various products for consumer and industrial application are spun off from the research and development activities of the space program. Pg. “In Defense of Primacy. DML. More importantly.Cap Kritik 183/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Economic Innovation Expanding Capitalism to space will foster economic innovation Zey 98. Professor of Management at Montclair State University in Upper Montclair. In that they are dead wrong and need to be reminded of one of history's most significant lessons: Appalling things happen when international orders sang: "You don't know what you've got (until you lose it). Retrenchment proponents seem to think collapse. leadership reduced friction among many states that were historical antagonists . Hitler succeeded the order established at Versailles.*Professor of Public and Environmental Affairs and **Professor of Political Science (Rafael and William. Every space environment makes possible the growing of crystals that may help in the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other deadly diseases. there is every reason to believe that the Moon and probably Mars will themselves become sources of energy and material that will serve humanity on Earth. Israel and Egypt. 77) The results establish that the United States has exhibited positive economic and political inertia as historical values exert significant effects on their own contemporary values. Domestic economic innovation is a prerequisite to attaining world economic and political leadership. Wars still occur where Washington's interests are not seriously threatened.S.S. but a Pax Americana does reduce war's likelihood. NJ (Michael G. Lexis) THROUGHOUT HISTORY. During the Cold War.” National Interest.. Today. Without U. power. Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota. American primacy within the international system causes many positive outcomes for Washington and the world. As country and western great Ral Donner that the current system can be maintained without the current amount of U. power behind it.” 1998. Everything we think of when we consider the current international order--free trade. In addition to ensuring the security of the United States and its allies. it is important to note what those good things are.Executive director of the expansionary institute. Indonesia and Australia. a robust monetary regime. Importantly. Trade. World economic leadership is a prerequisite to attaining political leadership in the form of global reach capabilities. Clayton . Scholars and statesmen have long recognized the irenic effect of power on the anarchic world of international politics. increasing respect for human rights. Second Edition. Duluth (Bradley A. U.S. South Korea and Japan. such as in Darfur. p. Nov/Dec2006 Issue 86. The Dark Ages followed Rome's collapse. Ian. Reuveny and Thompson 4.. growing democratization--is directly linked to U. most notably France and West Germany. For instance. the liberal order created by the United States will end just as assuredly. Economic innovation is key to maintaining US hegemony. American primacy helps keep a number of complicated relationships aligned --between Greece and Turkey. The communications industry as we know it could not exist without the species’ achievements in space satellite technology. Rothenbaum. a finding that supports the Modelski and Thompson (1996) twin peak idea and one that speaks against the generic war/postwar economic contraction assertion that some analysts have posited over the years. power. peace and stability have been great benefits of an era where there was a dominant power--Rome. India and Pakistan.Professor of Defense and Strategic Studies @ Missouri State University. The first has been a more peaceful world. Jay. and Systemic Leadership.

Cap Kritik 184/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Disease Expanding capitalism into space solves disease Zey 98. DML. and scientific advances that expand the capability for the deliberate manipulation of pathogens are all cause for worry that the problem might be greater in the future than it has ever been in the past. Winter 1997/1998. “Biological Weapons: A Plague Upon All Houses. The communications industry as we know it could not exist without the species’ achievements in space satellite technology. tuberculosis. but a fundamental security problem for the species as a whole. Steinbruner. the new superlightweight materials now used in wheelchair construction are a derivative of NASA’s advanced material research.5 million people currently dying of AIDS each year. Harry. with 1. Throughout history. Amanda. the main lines of defense against this threat have not depended on explicit policies or organized efforts. For instance. 109. Professor of Management at Montclair State University in Upper Montclair. Disease causes extinction Stienbruer 98 – Senior fellow at the Brookings institute (John D. The threat of infectious pathogens is not just an issue of public health. Rothenbaum. Ian. Since its recognized appearance in 1981. As we enter the twenty-first century. “Seizing the Future: The Dawn of the Macroindustrial Era. Every space environment makes possible the growing of crystals that may help in the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other deadly diseases..once thought to be under control . including nearly one-quarter of Western Europe's population at the time. there have been epidemics during which human immunity has broken down on an epic scale.are now making a comeback. the unprecedented freedom of movement across international borders. 89) Various products for consumer and industrial application are spun off from the research and development activities of the space program. and cholera . More importantly. Jay. Second Edition. pp. 85-96. In the long course of evolution.4 million worldwide. ASP. while old diseases mutate and adapt. changing conditions have enhanced the potential for widespread contagion. there is every reason to believe that the Moon and probably Mars will themselves become sources of energy and material that will serve humanity on Earth. Pg.) It is a considerable comfort and undoubtedly a key to our survival that. The rapid growth rate of the total world population. some 20 variations of the HIV virus have infected an estimated 29.” 1998. Malaria. An infectious agent believed to have been the plague bacterium killed an estimated 20 million people over a four-year period in the fourteenth century. NJ (Michael G. so far.” FOREIGN POLICY n. Clayton ..Executive director of the expansionary institute. the human body has developed physical barriers and a biochemical immune system whose sophistication and effectiveness exceed anything we could design or as yet even fully understand. But evolution is a sword that cuts both ways: New diseases emerge.

pharmaceutical companies devoting huge resources to research and medicines to do with obesity. being expensive. You have to Admit It’s Getting Better.oping country. as free trade and the market economy promote greater prosperity in poorer countries. On the contrary. but capitalism is not to blame for it. That westerners spend money this way does not make things worse for anyone. pg. Capitalism is not the cause of misplaced disease research – rather. whereas only a fraction is devoted to attempting to cure tropical diseases afflicting the poorest of the world's inhabitants. freer trade. As a result those states have now rid themselves almost completely of a parasite that formerly affected something like a million people.ier and if existing-but-underusedsafe_water. solutions to remuining pro hi ems (such as AIDS and the diseases of affluence). This is not money that would otherwise have gone to researching tropical diseases—the pharmaceutical companies simply would not have had these resources otherwise.ogies. Substantial additional improvements in infant mortulitv and life expectancy are possible in developing countries if they become wealth. This means. we shouldn't imagine that everyone would have obtained cures for their illnesses. 187 It is not a problem for the Third World that more and more diseases have been made curable in the Western world. Empirically. pg. for example. Jay.” a strain of rice enriched with DML.cractes.nomic development. blinding thousands every year. Rothenbaum. their needs and desires will play a larger role in dictating the purposes of research and production. 186 One common objection to the market economy is that it causes people and enterprises to produce for profit. Ian. 76 Notably. Clayton . 334-. and transparent government and bureau. In Defense of Global Capitalism. Thus. individual property rights. economic growth purported by capitalism is key to preventing disease Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. baldness. Harry. and not just because a wealthier world can devote more resources to helping the poor. The unfairness exists. How. improvements in well-being have not yet run their full course. things that westerners can afford to worry about and pay for. If wealthy people in the West demand help for their problems. it is critical to focus on strengthening the domestic and international institutions that will boost technological change and eco. their resources can be used to research and eventually solve those problems. and agricultural technologies are more widely spread (Lomhorg 200 I. might be increasingly unaffordable. the rule of law. sanitation. 22 The Monsanto Corporation allows researchers and companies free use of their technique for developing “golden rice. once the easy and relatively cheap improvements in health and life expectancy have been captured. which are not necessarily trivial to the people afflicted with them. This criticism is understandable. In Defense of Global Capitalism. Further improvements in human well-being will depend largely on the development of human and capital resources and encouraging the development and deployment of new risk-reduction technol. such as malaria and tuberculosis. In many fields. that is something that has proved to be a benefit.Cap Kritik 185/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Disease Capitalism solves disease – free trade and IPR encourage tech transfer that lowers cost of solutions Goklany 4 – Julian Simon Fellow at the Political Economy Research Center Indur. whether one lives in <J developed or devel. which include free markets. the Third World can inexpensively share in the research financed by wealthy Western customers. Amanda. far fewer would do so than is now the case. excess profit is used for philanthropy Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. and depression. not for needs.ever. Capitalism gives companies economic incentives to help us by developing medicines and vaccines. And. Without capitalism and the lure of profit.~) 1. pg. In fact. The Merck Corporation gave free medicine to a project to combat onchocerciasis (river blindness) in 11 African states. sometimes paying nothing for it.

Ian. Clayton . A number of pharmaceutical companies are lowering the prices of inhibitors for HIV/AIDS in poor countries by up to 95 percent. which could save a million people annually in the Third World who are dying of vitamin A deficiency diseases. Amanda. Jay. on condition that the patents are preserved so that they can maintain full prices in wealthier countries.Cap Kritik 186/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab iron and beta carotene (pro-vitamin A). DML. Harry. Rothenbaum.

their preferences will have no impact. it can develop environmentally friendly technologies—wastewater and exhaust emission control. what we might call a “California effect. not least because they have brand images and reputations to protect. democracy. Countries usually begin protecting their natural resources when they can afford to do so. What firms are primarily after is a good business environment—a liberal economy and a skilled workforce— not a bad natural environment. needed the wealthy California market. A wealthier country can afford to tackle environmental problems. trade. Harry. and when they have still more resources they also begin regulating air quality. The California effect implies the opposite: free trade enables politicians to pull profit-hungry corporations along with them in a race to the top. whereas no fewer than 80 percent of the multinationals do so. they could more Anti-globalists usually claim that the profit motive and free trade together cause businesses to entrap politicians in a race for the bottom. The worst forms of air pollution have diminished in their cities during the period of globalization. in a compilation of essays on DML. Incipient signs of the California effect's race to the top are present all over the world. For example. first introduced in the 1970s and tightened since. Ian. whereupon those states again ratcheted up their requirements. most environmentally friendly technology immediately to retrofitting it. otherwise. they start to regulate effluent emissions. manufacturers all over the United States were forced to develop new techniques for reducing emissions. 20 This finding undermines both the arguments put forward by companies against environmental regulations and those advanced by environmentalists maintaining that globalization has to be restrained for environmental reasons. But instead the opposite happened: other states gradually tightened up their environmental stipulations. Brazil. When Western companies start up in developing countries. When they grow richer. A review of research in this field shows that there are no clear indications of national environmental rules leading to a diminution of exports or to fewer companies locating in the countries that pass the rules. 19 A number of factors cause environment protection to increase with wealth and development. Four researchers who studied these connections found “a very strong. But it is the fact of prosperity no less than a sense of responsibility that makes environmental protection easier in a wealthy society.” A country that is very poor is too preoccupied with lifting itself out of poverty to bother about the environment at all. for environmental reasons. and China—the three biggest recipients of foreign investment—have followed a very clear pattern: the more investments they get. Such was the case earlier in western Europe. When our standard of living rises we start attaching importance to the environment and obtaining resources to improve it. Production in those countries generated almost 20 percent less emissions than the same production in closed countries. Progress of this kind. Researchers have investigated steel manufacturing in 50 different countries and concluded that countries with more open economies took the lead in introducing cleaner technology. Only 30 percent of Indonesian companies comply with the country's environmental regulations.Cap Kritik 187/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Environment Capitalism empirically shields the environment – eight reasons – wealth. This phenomenon occurs because compliance with environmental rules accounts for a very small proportion of most companies' expenditures. Jay. 21 Sometimes one hears it said that. This process is being driven by multinational corporations because they have a lot to gain from uniform production with uniform technology. when environmental regulations are tightened up. and they are more willing to comply with environmental legislation. if the governments of the world were to phase out the incomprehensible tariffs on environmentally friendly technology. Rothenbaum. they have more modern machinery. Environmental destruction is worst in dictatorships. economic progress and growth are moving hand in hand with intensified environmental protection. the better control they gain over air pollution. And they prefer assimilating the latest. This development would go faster if economies were more open and. Clayton . positive association between our [environmental] indicators and the level of economic development. In Defense of Global Capitalism. market adjusting to scarcity. easy compliance. Because car companies easily comply with the exacting requirements of other states. Amanda. at great expense. private property Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. Mexico. tech development. 225-237 All over the world.” The state of California's Clean Air Acts. Having done so. and the new techniques are generally far gentler on the environment. because globalization has caused different countries to absorb new techniques more rapidly. Environmental quality is unlikely to be a top priority for people who barely know where their next meal is coming from. One out of every 10 foreign companies maintained a standard clearly superior to that of the regulations. and so it is in the developing countries today. the poor countries of the South must not be allowed to grow as affluent as our countries in the North. requires that people live in democracies where they are able and allowed to mobilize opinion. in particular. Because they are restructured more rapidly. pg. were stringent emissions regulations that made rigorous demands on car manufacturers. however. Abating misery and subduing the pangs of hunger takes precedence over conservation. regulation of externalities. for example— and begin to rectify past mistakes. and California would soon be obliged to repeal its regulations. their production is considerably more environment-friendly than the native production. Global environmental development resembles not so much a race for the bottom as a race to the top. Many prophets of doom predicted that firms and factories would move to other states.

a few decades ago. If a certain raw material comes to be in short supply. but rather Beijing. we 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab find anthropologist Richard Wilk fretting that: If everyone develops a desire for the Western high-consumption lifestyle. such as ameliorating hunger and sparing people the prosperity beyond a certain critical point can improve the environment. New York. Pollution and emission problems are still growing in the poor developing countries. This makes everyone more interested in economizing on that resource. and New Delhi. where. In the form of silicon—which makes up a quarter of the earth's crust— it is a key component in computer which suggests that demand does not exceed supply.000. coli bacteria concentrations in coastal waters have plummeted. But our interest in finding better energy sources led to methods being devised for using oil. In our affluent part of the world. but at every level of growth annual particle density has diminished by 2 percent in only 14 years. refuse problems are diminishing. more people are eating their fill. or Slovenia. has steadied since the mid-1980s and in several cases has slowly improved. the Danish statistician horror of watching their children die. The documented cases of extinction during the past 400 years total just over a thousand species. At $10. and it prosperous Stone Age man were to say that. the researchers found a positive connection between increased growth and better air and water quality. and emissions may be disastrous. in reusing it.000 species going extinct every year is traced by Lomborg to its source—a 20-year-old estimate that has been circulating in environmentalist circles ever since. energy use. he found that what he himself had regarded as self-evident. Tying people down to that level of development means condemning millions to premature death every year. the environment suffers. Humanity is constantly improving technology so as to get at raw materials that were previously inaccessible. with about 10 of his students. He finds that there has never been any large-scale tree death caused by acid rain. It is a mistake. and E. there would not be enough stone. because they can learn from more affluent countries' mistakes and use their superior technology. certain of the raw materials we use today. and today it is one of our prime resources. He found instead that air pollution is diminishing. Lomborg shows that. As for the problem of garbage. Metals have never been as cheap as they are today. Prices are falling. not so much with emissions and pollution. In the United States. its price goes up. When growth in a very poor country gathers speed and the chimneys begin belching smoke. dung. in terms of how long we must work to earn the price of a raw material. did not agree at all with official empirical data. this turning point is now occurring progressively earlier in the developing countries. the environment has consistently improved since the 1970s. What is more. The cities with the worst problems are not Stockholm. enabling closed swimming areas to reopen. All the fresh water consumed in the world today could be produced by a single desalination plant.000 people die from air pollution when using wood. per capita GDP is about $36. Heavy metal emissions have been heavily reduced. the next hundred years worth of Danish refuse could be accommodated in a 33-meter-deep pit with an area of three square kilometers. But when prosperity has risen high enough. Mexico City. The trend over the last few decades of falling raw material prices is clear. oil was just something black and sticky that people preferred not to step in and definitely did not want to find beneath their land.4 percent of the Sahara Desert. New innovations make it possible for old raw materials to be put to better use and for garbage to be turned into new raw materials. the turning point generally comes before a country's per capita GDP has reached $8. nitrogen oxides have diminished by almost 30 percent and sulfur emissions by about 80 percent. to believe that growth automatically ruins the environment. But that information is just about as interesting as if a Raw material consumption is not static. and furs to go around. In addition to the factors already mentioned. more than 6. Such a claim is usually made by environmentalists. salt. of which about 95 percent are insects. Every day in the developing countries. Some years ago. Jay. and Zürich. In relation to wages. and in trying to find substitutes for it. and Greenpeace member Bjørn Lomborg. Today it is unhealthy for fewer than 10 days a year. Lomborg gathered publicly available data from as many fields as he could find and published them in the book The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World. consulting firms. and people are living longer. The picture that emerges there is an important corrective to the general prophesies of doom that can so easily be imbibed from newspaper headlines. To his astonishment. and we are attaining a level of prosperity that makes this possible. and possibly a bit more than that. more and more people are mindful of environmental problems such as endangered green areas. Rothenbaum. air quality in the enormous cities of China. There. environmental problems. 22 But studies show this to be colossal misapprehension. Banks. pollution follows an inverted Ucurve. UNDP estimates that no fewer than 2. instead of large-scale deforestation. quite contrary to the picture one gets from the media. Ian. and a half ago. and viruses. In a modern economy. in Tokyo. would not suffice for the whole world if everyone consumed the same things. most harmful industrial emissions. powered by solar cells and occupying 0. A century There is a simple market mechanism that averts shortages. the relentless growth in consumption. and rightly so: the air was judged to be unhealthy for 100–300 days a year. as with resources running out if everyone were to live as we do in the affluent world. Lomborg shows that air pollution and emissions have been declining in the developed world during recent decades. Clearly. For example. then. chips. natural resources today are half as expensive as they were 50 years ago and one-fifth as expensive as they were a hundred years ago. even without recycling. in finding more of it. And claims that we would need this or that number of planets for the whole world to attain a Western standard of consumption— those “ecological footprint” calculations—are equally untruthful. Amanda. but erroneous statement about 40. This improvement has coincided with uniquely rapid growth.04 million square kilometers between 1950 and 1994. and information technology corporations do not have the same environmental impact as old factories. and agricultural waste in their homes as heating and cooking fuel. we start looking for ways of using other raw materials.2 million people die every year from polluted indoor air. but even that represents a 50 percent reduction in 10 years. that is. With more and more people achieving a high level of prosperity. waste. is concerned. the price of DML. Clayton . with the exception of Los Angeles. resources are not running out. the steady deterioration of the global environment. Harry. phosphorus emissions into the seas have declined drastically. bacteria. heavy. if everyone attained his level of consumption. 23 That is roughly the level of prosperity of Argentina. In the developed world.000. the figure is roughly 80 days.Cap Kritik 188/194 Environmentally Significant Consumption published by the National Academy of Sciences. doomsayers believed that oxygen masks would in the future have to be worn all around the city because of the bad air. Lomborg illustrates how increased prosperity and improved technology can solve the problems that lie ahead of us. compiled statistics and facts about the world's environmental problems. Here as well. In the 1970s there was constant reference to smog in American cities. The oft-quoted. this is also due to the economic structure changing from raw-material-intensive to knowledge-intensive production.24 million to 43. Lomborg thinks it is closer to 1. This result is already “disastrous” and far more destructive than atmospheric pollution and It is not true that pollution in the modern sense increases with growth. the environmental indicators show an improvement instead: emissions are reduced. it is in the developing countries that we find the gravest.300. 24 The same trend is noticeable in the rest of the affluent world—for example. in presentday quantities. On the contrary. dirty industry is to a great extent superseded by service enterprises. which are the most heavily polluted in the world. Sand has never been all that exciting or precious. In addition. Instead. According to one survey of available environmental data. Apart from its other positive effects on the developing countries.500 species a year. the computer. In 1900 the price of electricity was eight times higher. the world's forest acreage increased from 40. and air and water show progressively lower concentrations of pollutants. but today it is a vital raw material in the most powerful technology of our age. South Korea.

Cap Kritik 189/194 coal seven times higher. growing economy capable of using the best solutions. because that would require several hundred million telephone operators. Systems of emissions fees are needed to give polluters an interest in not damaging the environment for others.Such incentives were absent in the Eastern bloc under socialism. but the problem can be rectified with more efficient transport and purification techniques. for example. The exhaust was so noxious that West Germans were not allowed to own Trabants. Private property is key to environmental protection – government has zero incentive to protect public lands Stroup and Shaw 9 – *Prof. it is better to have resources and advanced science than not to have them. An Environment Without Property Rights. Owners have incentives to use resources productively and to conserve where possible. noisy. Rothenbaum. To claim that people in Africa. and the price of oil five times higher than today. it has generally affected isolated. Very often. and there trade can make a positive contribution. In a world where technology never stops developing. not open.asp?id=196 is helpful to look at the reasons why private property rights protect the environment. it Richard and Jane. the EPA refused to let it be driven on public streets. If the property is collective or government-owned. whether they continue using the land or intend to sell it. Indeed. In the pursuit of profits. Then it was declared that nationwide telephony for China was physically impossible because all the world's copper wouldn't suffice for installing heavy gauge telephone lines all over the country. It is more environmentally friendly for a cold northern country to import meat from temperate countries than to waste resources on concentrated feed and the construction and heating of cattle pens for the purpose of native meat production. By simple Technological advance can outstrip the depletion of resources mathematics. the people’s car produced in East Germany between 1959 and 1989. and a 2 percent increase in recycling and/or efficiency. Carbon dioxide emissions. technology developed instead. because new finds and more efficient use keep augmenting the available reserves. Harry. Consider the Trabant. it spewed a plume of oil and gray exhaust smoke. a 1 percent annual increase in demand. The biggest environmental problems are associated with production and consumption. If shortages do occur. after nomads had overexploited the common lands and then moved on.Manufacturers could not reap a profit from making a better car. Therefore. 97 percent less metal is needed for a soft drink can than 30 years ago. partly because of the use of lighter aluminum. Amanda. no income later on. But in the midst of this desert environment could be seen a small patch of green. It was because they were common lands that the rain forests of the Amazon began to be rapidly exploited in the 1960s and 1970s and are still being rapidly exploited today. soil. the land was parched yellow. instead of each country trying to have production of its own. A car today contains only half as much metal as a car of 30 years ago. Jay. so they had no incentive to adopt new. 26 Trade and freight are sometimes criticized for the general effect it has on growth. So few automobiles were available that DML. had been introduced in 1964. It is the absence of definite fishing rights that causes (heavily subsidized) fishing fleets to try to vacuum the oceans of fish before someone else does. environmental improvements are due to the very capitalism so often blamed for the problems. which confront us with entirely new challenges. But on the few occasions when this has happened. But it was slow (top speed 66 mph). There are several:3 1. When the magazine Car and Driver brought one to the United States. When talking about the market and the environment. Not many years ago. and it didn’t have a gas gauge. destroying the environment. and was essentially unchanged 25 years later. where all ownership was collective. because factories were government-owned. But the supply of manpower did not run out. it had no discernible handling.The Trabant was so bad partly because its design was basically the same as it had been when the car was first manufactured in 1959. even though in practice Indians possess and inhabit large parts of them. a commodity that people believed would run out. then with the right technology most substances can be recycled. for example. . then. business firms have a strongincentive to implement new resourcesaving technologies.4 (Production stopped shortly after the Berlin Wall came down. Clayton .org/publications/article. People in most ages have worried about important raw materials becoming exhausted. it is better for production to take place where the technology exists. everyone was convinced of the impossibility of the whole Chinese population having telephones. who are dying by the thousand every day from supremely real shortages. has fallen continuously and is now only about a tenth of what it was 200 years ago. On the contrary. even aside from Trade leads to a country's resources being used as efficiently as possible. One-third of the world's steel production. poor places. tend to increase rather than diminish when a country grows more affluent. a satellite image was taken of the borders of the Sahara. and air from destruction. Owners can obtain financial rewards from using resources productively and they have a strong incentive to reduce costs by conserving on their use of each resource. no one has any such long-term interest. http://www. With modern production processes. The introduction of private property creates owners with long-term interests. Ian. everyone then has an interest in using up the resources quickly before someone else does. where the desert was spreading. Landowners must see to it that there is good soil or forest there tomorrow as well. from both a natural and a human viewpoint. that the most large-scale destruction of environment in history has occurred in the communist dictatorships. and wrong. The latest model. Before that had time to become a problem. with all the consumption of resources that would entail. the 601.independent. A few years ago. This proved to be an area of privately owned land where the owners of the farm prevented overexploitation and engaged in cattle farming that was profitable in the long term. of Economics @ Montana State University AND **Senior Associate at the Political Economy Research Center To understand why. In order to meet those challenges. it is important to realize that efforts in this quarter will be facilitated by a freer. Many environmental issues also require international regulations and agreements.) The Trabant provided basic transportation and was easy to fix. The price of copper. Proper rules are needed for the protection of water. cleaner technology that would give better performance. because otherwise they will have allowed to become as prosperous as we in the West because we can find theoretical risks of shortages occurring is both stupid and unjust. as well as emissions fees to make the cost of pollution visible through pricing. fiber optics and satellites began to supersede copper wire. must not be The environmental question will not resolve itself. Only about a 10th of forests are recognized by the governments as privately owned. Everywhere. That is why the amount of raw materials needed to make a given product keeps diminishing as productive efficiency improves. affluent ones. is being reused already. that resource will never be exhausted. there was little incentive to produce any cars at all in East Germany. Goods are produced in the places where production entails least expense and least wear and tear on the environment. static calculations are uninteresting. No wonder. Lomborg establishes that if we have a raw material with a hundred years' use remaining. 25 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab The risk of shortage is declining all the time.

Clayton . it will be more valuable and add more to the personal wealth of its owner.6 mentioned above.8 Clearly. A private owner could probably have stopped the dumping of aviation fuel on the Estonian farmland ground. A story is told about a part of Estonia where the underground water is flammable because vast quantities of aviation fuel were dumped into the ground and they seeped into the water. such protection was absent.But in the Eastern bloc. the owner of lake property would envision a place that would attract tourists and homebuyers. reducing the owner’s wealth. The private owner of a resource has more than just the incentive to preserve the value of that resource. Ian. Rothenbaum. That happens because land’s current worth reflects the net present value of its future services—the revenue from production or services received directly from the land. they got rid of the fuel by dumping it onto the 3. they falsified their reports. DML. says Hill. resources were routinely wasted. Without a system of redress through the courts. the use of fertilizers and herbicides was high. minus the costs required to generate the revenues (and both discounted to present value terms). even for owners whose personal outlook is short-term.Throughout the Soviet Union under Communism. he or she personally bears the cost of that negligence in the form of a decline in the value of the resource. Once known for its purity. the emphasis was on using up resources. the effluent is discharged directly into the lake and has created a polluted area 23 miles wide.2. not on producing them—for a good reason. its value falls today. Property rights provide long-term incentives for maximizing the value of a resource.Lake Baikal is the largest and deepest freshwater lake on Earth. For example. If using a tract of land for the construction of a toxic waste dump reduces its future productivity. The industrial sources of the metals were known.5 That is because using them was a sign that work was being done. According to one source. A resource owner has legal rights against anyone who would harm the resource.In a society of private ownership. Harry. even though excessive use of these chemicals could have harmful effects.7 4. Ann-Mari Satre Ahlander reports that despite the low per capita production of agricultural crops. Private ownership of property provides an incentive for good care that is lacking under government control. Jay. but the farmers had no recourse. If a resource is well cared for. If the owner allows the resource to deteriorate or be harmed by pollution. To make sure that the pilots had flown the required number of hours. But government planners had no incentive to protect it. In fact. and lawsuits can be used to protect those rights. Amanda. Such an owner would have a strong incentive to maintain the value of this property by preventing its deterioration.Cap Kritik 190/194 people waited an average of 13 years to get their Trabant 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab . Private property rights also provide the owner with legal rights against anyone (usually including a government agency) who invades—physically or by pollution—and harms the resource. Hill reports that in Bulgaria heavy metals in irrigation water lowered crop yields on Bulgarian farms. To evade detection. Central planners often measured the use of inputs to determine whether a factory or other entity was carrying out the central plan. Peter J. The fuel was assigned to a nearby Soviet military station to be used for flying practice missions. The private owner of a forest or a farm will not sit idly by if someone is cutting down trees without permission or invading the property with hazardous pollutants.the value of the lake and its surrounding land has been seriously diminished by pollution. the military superiors monitored the amount of fuel the pilots used. the farmers had no actionable claim against those causing the problems. it is now heavily polluted because Soviet planners decided to build paper mills at its edge and failed to reduce the emission of pollutants into the water. When the pilots did not want to fly the required hours.

The poor never have a chance. Clayton . 2 Only capitalism ensures a fair shot for all – strong-state will be hindered by corruption Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. pg.Cap Kritik 191/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Corruption No risk of offense – strong-state systems will be bought off by the same corporations that are allowed to control the system in capitalism* Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. Amartya Sen argues that the struggle against corruption would be a perfectly good reason for developing countries to deregulate their economies even if no other economic benefits would accrue from doing so.” If the goal is to have impartial rules and incorruptible officials. Harry. Those who have the time and knowledge to plow through bulky volumes of regulations can start up business enterprises and engage in trade. the more numerous thieves and bandits become. even if they are not the favorites of the rulers. Many will be tempted to take shortcuts. pg. and bureaucrats will oblige in return for generous bribes. The free market is the antithesis of societies of privilege. the only way of holding on to a good economic position is by improving your production and offering people good products or services. Jay. The easiest way of corrupting a nation through and through is to demand that citizens get bureaucratic permission for production. that privilege can become entrenched. especially in poor countries where salaries are low and regulatory systems more or less chaotic. all people with ideas and willpower are at liberty to try their luck. In fact. When regulation raises barriers to necessary activity. In Defense of Global Capitalism. a large portion of a firm's time—time that could otherwise be devoted to production— ends up being spent either complying with or circumventing the rules. As the Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu declared more than two and a half millennia ago. 90 That economic freedom is not an enemy of equality comes as a surprise to everyone who has been told that capitalism is the ideology of the rich and the privileged. Rothenbaum. 70 -We still get offense because resources devoted to buying off bureaucrats are inefficiently wasted and won’t produce innovations or products Such rules are also harmful in another way. Those who have the right contacts can afford to pay bribes. this is precisely backward. In a market economy. “The more laws are promulgated. not even of starting small businesses like bakeries or corner shops. people join the informal economy instead. Amanda. thereby depriving themselves of legal protection for their business dealings. Ian. for imports. DML. If this proves too burdensome. there is no better means than substantial deregulation. In Defense of Global Capitalism. Many firms will use their resources— resources that could otherwise have been used for investment— to coax politicians into adapting the rules to their needs. It is in the regulated economies. for exports. In a capitalistic society. for investments. with their distribution of privileges and monopolies to favored groups.

practical alternatives to capitalism do not seem very appealing. the question is not whether capitalism has consequences but whether its consequences are better or worse than those of some feasible economic alternative. at least to judge by the number of people who believe that inequality can be eliminated without sacrificing prosperity. Time has proved them right. contemporary radicalism ends with a rejection of the moral claims of capitalism.) And. to some significant degree. why today's radical intellectuals have embraced the more extreme forms of multiculturalism and postmodernism." I mean that production is chiefly organized on the basis of privately owned enterprises. His book was an effort to explain why "the system of natural liberty" would produce both prosperity and inequality and to defend as tolerable the inequality that was the inevitable (and perhaps necessary) corollary of prosperity. many people do not work at all and many more live lives of great luxury. rejecting the possibility of textual meaning. capitalism is arbitrary. It was this. they tend not to look so ideal. on occasion. These doctrines are an attack on the hegemony of bourgeois society and the legitimacy of bourgeois values. Ian. yet the general level of prosperity is so high that even the poorest people are better off than the richest person in a primitive society. 121.) If capitalism is an economic success and the necessary (but not sufficient) precondition for democracy. Jay. When ideals are converted into reality. The evidence is not in dispute.were sawed in two. and Vietnam . In every case. but they tend to be "so miserably poor" that they are reduced. as postmodernists pretend not to. Among prosperous nations. Inequality is a feature of every modern society. Indeed. Except for a handful of American professors. Liberal critics recognize.denying the existence of any foundation for morality. That is. after all. No. (I stress "feasible" because I tire of hearing critics compare capitalist reality to socialist . and exchange takes place primarily through voluntary markets. asserting the incommensurability of cultural forms. everyone here and abroad now recognizes that capitalism produces greater material abundance for more people than any other economic system ever invented. Not every nation with something approximating capitalism is democratic. To liberals. to killing babies and abandoning the elderly and the infirm. in evaluating consequences. by a vast margin. capitalist) nations can afford DML. Most critics of capitalism. Several nations-china. or because markets and corporations destroy culture. Rothenbaum. one must count as benefits the tendency of an economic system to produce beliefs and actions that support a prudent concern for mitigating the unreasonable costs of the system. or a set of non-cash perks. capitalist societies. every human activity has them. a ruling military elite. and so the welfare-state debate proceeds. In addition. when books were being written explaining how Fidel Castro could achieve by the use of moral incentives" what other nations achieved by employing material ones-kristol and Bell saw that the great test of capitalism would not be economic but moral. the failure of capitalism lies in its production of unjustifiable inequalities of wealth and its reckless destruction of the natural environment. Because morality is meaningless. or elevating the claims of non-western (or non-white or non-Anglo) traditions.) For people worried about inequality or environmental degradation. and capitalism was installed in one part and "socialism" in the other. by contrast. oppressive. Between unconstrained market inequality and the lesser inequality achieved by some redistribution.Cap Kritik 192/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Ethics/Morals Capitalism is comparatively the most ethical system – sparks democracy and opportunity Wilson 95 – Professor of Public Policy @ Pepperdine James. of course. the argument goes.ideals. of course.or communitarian or cooperative . because capitalism is mere power.a Soviet nomenklatura. Korea. A series of natural experiments were conducted on a scale that every social scientist must envy.at a time when socialism still had many defenders. the non-capitalist one. Adam Smith expected that it would be a particular feature of what we call capitalism. Many nations have claimed to eliminate market-based inequalities. By whatever route it travels. Clayton . everyone works and almost everyone acquires the essentials of human sustenance. Smith certainly succeeded in the first task but was less successful in the second. there is much to discuss and decide. Harry. (It was a defender of capitalism. capitalist. who reminded us that there is no such thing as a free lunch. in "the savage nations of hunters and fishers" (what we later learned to call euphemistically "native cultures" or "less-developed nations"). it only remains vulnerable on cultural and moral grounds. Capitalism may produce material abundance. Participants in this debate sometimes forget that the only societies in which such a debate can have much meaning are those that have produced wealth that can be redistributed and that have acquired a government that will do so democratically in short. (By "capitalist. one must reckon up not simply the costs but the costs set against the benefits. he began The Wealth of Nations by setting forth a puzzle that he hoped to solve. an elaborate black market. Amanda. the capitalist part out-produced. Germany. are not radicals. that. but they have done so only by creating non-market inequalities . but every nation that is democratic is. The attack takes various forms . I do not deny that capitalism has costs. Fall However one judges that debate. Moreover. it is striking that in 1970 . Similarly with respect to the environment: Only rich (that is. it has become clear during the last half century that democratic regimes only flourish in capitalist societies. Capitalism and public policy By these tests. Capitalism and morality” Public Interest. but at too high a price in human suffering and social injustice. if you are going to offer a moral criticism of capitalism. you had better believe that moral judgments are possible and can be made persuasive. or corrupting. when certain American economists (and the CIA!) were suggesting that the Soviet economy was growing faster than the American.

Or to put it simply. because it requires private property. Clayton . a profligate and self-serving elite will spring up to seize the benefits supplied by aristocratic or socialist or authoritarian or free-market systems.that is. Lacking either a truly private sector or a truly democratic regime. The division of labor can be furthered and large industrial enterprises created by statist regimes as well as by free ones. and monitor performance by people who do not like monitors. though this is "no part of his intention. until quite recently (and still quite uncertainly). grasp power. but not all. and create hierarchies. Eastern Europe had been turned into a vast toxic waste dump. and. the rise of mass markets. the advent of large-scale enterprise. it is amoral. legal action. Urbanization is the result of modernity . and the "low profligacy and vice" that will attend upon the growth of large cities. and Moscow have long been among the dozen largest cities in the world. DML. and only democratic (that is. If anyone doubted this. and moral suasion." Should they study the book more carefully. or the baker that we expect our dinner. people will flock to cities to seek opportunities conferred by socialist as well as capitalist economies." the successful merchant living in a big city will become personally licentious and politically advantaged. primitivism creates privilege. occasionally makes possible popular government and pays the bills of some publicinterest lobbies that can get on with the business of doing good. Capitalism creates privilege. a tool for the achievement of human wants that is neither good nor bad.Cap Kritik 193/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab to worry much about the environment. the incessant seeking after monopoly benefits and political privilege that will follow from the expansion of manufacturing. foundation executives. either socialist or mercantilist. No regime will make this result certain. and private-sector activists who. The average worker employed in repetitive tasks will become "stupid and ignorant. professors. of industrialization and urbanization) with the consequences of capitalism. or power. To compel people engaged in production and exchange to internalize all of the costs of production and exchange without destroying production and exchange. given a commanding position. People with these views can find much support in The Wealth of Nations. They were state-dominated economies. Ian. many will do some rather unattractive things along the way. being non-capitalist. for the most part. in the routine aspects of ordinary morality. socialism creates privilege. environmental policies in capitalist systems will vary greatly . but wrongly suppose that this is especially true of capitalist cities. or possibly even facilitates.from the inconsequential through the prudent to the loony . mercantilism creates privilege. it is more likely than its alternatives to sustain challenges to privilege. They Show people the road to wealth." of the butcher. These arise from economic rivals. Hardly anyone regards it as moral. When Smith suggested that the increased division of labor would turn most workers into unhappy copies of Charlie Chaplin in Modern Times. But they operate clumsily and imperfectly. the making of desirable public policies but reject the idea that this is because there is anything moral about it. but only democratic capitalist regimes make it at all possible. they may not operate well enough. Capitalism creates what are often called "post-material values" that lead some private parties to make environment-protecting proposals. Capitalism and the good life Many readers may accept the view that capitalism permits. giving the West its first real look at what had been hidden behind the Berlin Wall. he can be forgiven for not having foreseen the tendency of free markets to substitute capital for labor in ways that relieve many workers of precisely those mindlessly repetitive tasks that Smith supposed would destroy the human spirit. of the weakening of village ties. Capitalism. referred to them) when he drew his picture of the alienation man would suffer as a consequence of private property had confused the consequences of modernization (that is. in some careless passages. they were surely convinced when the Iron Curtain was torn down in 1989. Sao Paulo. At worst. and Smith would have had no use for any of them. they operate through market competition. Because he wrote long before the advent of modern technology. and they will rush down that road. Among the feasible systems of political economy. he thought that only public education could provide a remedy. a government will distort or destroy the former and corrupt or oppress the latter. induce action among people who do not want to act. Harry. one must be able to make proposals to people who do not want to hear such proposals. the brewer. They will recall the famous passage in which Smith points out that it is from the "interest. Amanda. and an improvement in transportation . An "invisible hand" leads him to promote the public good. and Mexico City.but they will scarcely exist in non-capitalist ones. And capitalism permits (but does not require) the emergence of democratic institutions that can (but may not) respond to such proposals. indeed. Rio de Janeiro. privately financed voluntary associations. none of these was located in a nation that could be fairly described as capitalist. Vaclav Havel explained why: A government that commands the economy will inevitably command the polity. Karl Marx. most of these states were barely democratic (the USSR not at all). At best.and modernity may have non-capitalist as well as capitalist sources. and do all of this only to the extent that the gains in human welfare are purchased at acceptable costs. it is an immoral system that glorifies greed but. even Smith) had made an error. But to the extent that a society is capitalist. and democratically elected power-holders. But Marx (and. Mexico City. Jay. Men and women everywhere will seek advantage. Americans who rightly think that high rates of crime are characteristic of big cities." not the "benevolence. would not exist in a non-capitalist regime. government regulation. by happy accident. environmental action arises out of the demands of journalists. status. Rothenbaum. need to spend some time in Moscow. had these passages in mind (and. and capitalism. sustains a distinction between the public and the private sphere and thereby provides a protected place for people to stand who wish to make controversial proposals. of these tendencies toward degradation and depravity. but. As with inequality. capitalism offers the best possibility for checking some. Rio. capitalist) nations have governments that will listen to environmentalists. they will come across passages predicting the degradation of the human spirit that is likely to occur from the division of labor. a close student of Smith's writings. And. reformist and meliorist tendencies designed to counteract the adverse consequences of massive urbanization were not much in evidence.

" It is only capitalism that recognizes this right. The answer is that capitalism is a system of virtue—the virtues of rational thought. But this is also a crucial moral principle: the principle that each man is an end in himself. Jay. Clayton . Harry. Most of today's intellectuals reflexively condemn self-interest. and pride in the value of one's own person. http://www. Ian. people are driven by loyalty to their own goals and by the ambition to improve their lives. Rothenbaum. productive work. This is the answer to the dilemma of the moral vs. the practical. not a mere cog in the collective machine to be exploited for the ends of others. The reward for these virtues—and for the political system that protects and encourages them—is an ever-increasing wealth and prosperity. Amanda.moraldefense. yet this is the same quality enshrined by our nation's founders when they proclaimed the individual's right to "the pursuit of happiness.com/Philosophy/Essays/The_Moral_and_the_Practical. They are driven by the idea that one's own life is an irreplaceable value not to be sacrificed or wasted. The Moral and the Practical.htm Stated in more fundamental terms. Under capitalism.Cap Kritik 194/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – V2L Capitalism best ensures value to life – don’t endorse sexist language Tracinski 8 – editor of the Intellectual Activist Robert. capitalism is practical because it relies on the inexhaustible motive-power of self-interest. DML. The fundamental characteristics that make capitalism practical—its respect for the freedom of the mind and for the sanctity of the individual—are also profound moral ideals.

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