INTRODUCTION It covers the anatomical crown of the tooth and varies in thickness in different areas. Enamel provides a hard durable shape for the functions of teeth and a protective cap for the vital tissues of dentin and pulp.Both color and form contribute to esthetic appearance of enamel. Much of the art of restorative dentistry comes from efforts to stimulate the color,texture,translucency and contours of enamel with synthetic dental materials. Nevertheless, the lifelong preservation of the patient s own enamel is one of the defining goals of the dentist. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

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Inorganic composition Calcium hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 is principal mineral component of enamel. Hydroxyapatite is present in the form of crystallites about 70mm in width and 25nm thick. Calcium and phosphate form major constituent of enamel. Magnesium replaces the calcium ion and strontium, radium, vanadium and carbonate replace phosphate to modify the apatite crystal. Fluoride may substitute for hydroxyl ions, conferring greater stability and resistance to acidic dissolution. Core part of crystallites differs slightly in composition from periphery being richer in magnesium and carbonate. Chloride, lead, zinc, sodium, strontium and aluminum may also substitute into the apatite lattice. Organic composition A wide variety of organic molecules occurs in enamel, ranging from free amino acid (serine, glutamic acid and glycine) to large unique proteins complexes, these protein are Amelogenins and non Amelogenins (Enamelins) .50 to 90% of matrix composed of small molecules (peptide and free amino acid). Larger molecular weight material contains components rich in carbohydrate (80-95%, sugars ) Water: The presence of water is related to the porosity of the enamel. As ions such as fluoride would, travel through the water component, its distribution is of clinical importance.

Thickness is 1mm in primary tooth. . extrinsic stains.knife edge at the neck of tooth.6o.Physical characteristics Most highly mineralized tissue in the body.The permanent upper incisors have maximum density and premolars and lower incisors have least.At the incisal ridge of incisors 1.3 to 2.(temporary loss of loosely bound water)Shade must be determined before isolation and the preparation of a tooth for a tooth colored restoration. translucent enamel. Density: Decrease from surface of the enamel to the dentine enamel junction. This forms a V-shaped escape for food during chewing Color & translucency Its color is primarily a function of its thickness and the color of the underlying dentin.8. Thickness At the cusp of premolar thickness of enamel is 2. The young anterior tooth has a translucent gray or slightly bluish enamel tint at the thick incisal edge. Enamel is semi translucent .84gm/ml. Normal physiological wear of enamel is 29µm/year. Color of enamel covered crown range from yellowish white to grayish white.5 to 3.0mm.At the cusp of molars thickness of enamel is 2.Color is determined by difference in translucency of enamel. anomalies of development.Caries and demineralization. Yellowish teeth having thin. It varies from 3. antibiotic therapy and excessive fluorides can alter the natural color of the teeth Enamel becomes temporarily whiter within minutes when a tooth is isolated from the moist oral environment. such as porcelain. Specific gravity is 2. Grayish teeth having a more opaque enamel.0mm. Thin in occlusal pit and fissures. Young enamel is white.5mm.Enamel will wear because of attrition or frictional contact opposing enamel or harder restorative materials.Refractory index of enamel is1.0 to 2.

-2Enamel is very brittle structure with a high elastic modulus and low tensile strength.Hardness make enamel brittle. Its Knoop Hardness number is 343 (68 for dentin) . which indicates a rigid structure Solubility: Enamel dissolves in acidic medium. However dentin is a highly compressive tissue that acts as a cushion for the enamel. pulpal and dentinal fluids Various fluids. The organic matrix and water contained in the enamel is in a network of microspores opening to the external surface. The dynamics of acid demineralisation. with hardness lowest at the DEJ Tensile strength and compressibility Elastic modulus of enamel is 19 x 106 psi (131 GN m-2). Enamel rods that fail to possess a dentin base because of caries or improper cavity preparation design are easily fractured away from neighboring rods. physiologic or therapeutic can diffuse through the semi permeable enamel. The microspores form a dynamic connection between the oral cavity and the systemic. Enamel requires a base of dentin to withstand masticatory forces. whether deleterious. It decreases inward . Hardness vary over the external tooth surface according to the location. all enamel rods should be supported by dentin. permeablity: Enamel is permeable for varying degrees.flouride uptake are therefore not limited to the surface but are active in 3 dimension.caries reprecipitation or remineralisation. ions and low molecular weight substances. . Surface enamel is less soluble in acidic media than deeper.Compressive strength is 76Nm.Hardness: Enamel is hardest biological tissue of the body. For maximum strength in tooth preparation.

Initiation: sites of the future teeth are established with appearance of tooth germ along an invagination of the oral epithelium called the dental lamina. Histogenesis: Differentiation of cells proceeds to give rise to the fully formed dental tissues both mineralized and non-mineralized. With preventive measures and exogenous or salivary renewal of calcium. it would shatter with occlusal forces. Gnarled Enamel acts as a functional adaptation to occlusal stress. Further subdivision of enamel rods into distinct crystals separated by a thin organic matrix provides additional relief to help prevent fracture dentinal tubules fluids. the dynamics of demineralization can be stopped or therapeutically reversed Tooth development Tooth development divided into three overlapping phases. Enamel apatite crystals offer less surface to volume exposure and little space for acid penetration between the crystals. Morphogenesis: Shape of the tooth is determined by a combination of cell proliferation and cell movement. Enamel thickness and degree of mineralization are greatest at the occlusal and incisal surfaces where masticatory contacts occurs.Demineralisation of enamel is impeded because the apatite crystals 10 times larger than those in dentin.Resiliance A substructure. . The interwoven paths and interlocked key-hole morphology of the enamel rods help control lateral cleavage. organized into discrete parallel rods with the scalloped DEJ. Carious demineralization to the point of cavitations generally takes 3-4 years. If enamel were uniformly crystalline. minimizes the transfer of occlusal stress laterally and directs it anisotropically or unidirectionally to the resilient dentinal foundation. phosphate and especially fluoride.

15:14-8. .Stages of Tooth Development For descriptive purposes. Enamel cord: Its vertical extension of the enamel knot. The cells in the concavity of the CAP become tall. since they link cell differentiation to morphogenesis. Three temporary structure are seen in Cap stage Enamel knot: The cells in the center of the enamel organ are densely packed and form enamel knot.The peripheral cells of cap stage are cuboidal cover the convexity of the CAP and are called the outer enamel (dental) epithelium. Bud stage: The enamel organ in the bud stage appears as a simple. 2001 Aug. epithelial condensation that is poorly morph differentiated and histodifferentiated. together with mesenchymal signals.Adv Dent Res. in regulating the patterning of the cusps and hence the shape of the tooth crown. It also suggest that the enamel knots are central regulators of tooth development. columnar cells and represent inner enamel epithelium. cap and bell stages according to the degree of morpho-differentiation and histodifferentiation of enamel organ. tooth germs are classified into bud. Enamel niche: Its funnel shaped depression containing connective tissue. Cap Stage By the 11th week IUL the tooth bud continues to proliferate . spherical to ovoid. Outer and inner enamel epithelium separated each other by stellate reticulum cells. functional significance is not known Enamel knots as signaling centers linking tooth morphogenesis and odontoblast differentiation the enamel knot signals have important roles.

which limits the enamel organ . Stratum intermedium: This layer 1st appear at the bell stage and consist of few layer of squamous cells between inner enamel epithelium and stellate reticulum. The enamel organ show four distinct layer External (outer) enamel epithelium Stellate reticulum Stratum intermedium Inner enamel epithelium External enamel epithelium: Outer layer of flatten low cuboidal cell. DEVELOPMENT OF ENAMEL Enamel is an epithelial product. occurs at 18th week under inductive influence of developing Ameloblasts (pre Ameloblasts). The inter cellular spaces are fluid filled. These cells are 4 to 5Qm in diameter and 40Qm high Late bell stage: Appositional stage of tooth development is associated with the formation of the dental hard tissues. Borderline b/w IEE& connective tissue of dental papilla is DEJ---determines the occlusal/incisal aspect of crown .cells of this layer contain centrally placed nuclei Stellate reticulum: The cells are star shaped with long processes that anastomose with adjacent cells.Bell stage divided into two stages Early bell stage: By the 14th week of IUL further morphodifferentiation and histo-differentiation of the tooth germ leads to the early bell stage. Inner enamel epithelium: Cells of this layer are consists of single layer which differentiate prior to amelogenesis into tall columnar cells called Ameloblasts. Other hard tissues are derived from connective tissue.

Because Ameloblasts are distant from bv.Wide intercellular spaces. organizing /differentiation 3.As IEE traced coronally cells become tall columnar and their nuclei become aligned at the proximal end of the cells.of MC which help in active transport. Are essential for enamel formation.morphogenic 2.Outer enamel epithelium Highest convexity of enamel organ.Decreasein thickness when first layer of dentin is laid Stratum intermedium Cells of this show mitotic division even after cells of IEE cease to divide. Functionally associated with Amelogenesis. Cervical loop cells are low columnar . Capillaries in contact with OEE shows area of thin walls Stellate reticulum Cells are star shaped . Function that it acts as a buffer against physical forces that might distort DEJ. Cells of OEE is irregular in shape .Cells of OEE develop villi & cp vesicles & large no:. Intense alkaline phophatase activity Inner enamel epithelium Cervical loop-at the free boarder of enamel organ the OEE &IEE are continuous.IEEaccumulate glycogen before beginning secretory activity Life cycle of Ameloblasts Life span of IEE divided into 6 stages 1.formative /secretory 4.maturative .

Distance between capillaries & Stratum intermedium and Ameloblasts is decreased. Fine actin containing filament radiate from junctional complex into cytoplasm of Ameloblasts & can be distinguished as forming proximal &distal . Ameloblasts become polarised cell with organelles distal to nucleus. First appearance of dentin is critical in the lifecycle of Ameloblasts.desmolytic Morphogenic stage Before the Ameloblasts are fully differentiated and produce enamel they interact with adjacent mesenchymal cells.5. When dentin forms it cuts of the Ameloblasts from original source of nourishment .During the terminal phase of organizing stage the formation of the dentin by the odontoblasts begins . probably because of elongation of epithelial cell towards the papilla. IEE separated from connective tissue of dental papilla layer is a cell free zone containing fine argyrophil fibers and the cytoplasmic process of the superficial cells of dental papilla. protective 6. Mitochondria cluster in proximal region. The clear cell free zone between the IEE &the dental papilla disappears. Organizing Cells of IEE & their nuclei shift proximally towards Stratum intermedium.Then they are supplied by capillaries that surround & may even penetrate the OEE. Golgi apparatus & centrioles move to the proximal end. Mitochondria is evenly distributed in CP.This reversal of nutritional source is characterized by & gradual disappearance of Stratum reticulum. Cells are short & columnar with large oval nuclei that almost fill the cell body. Thus the epithelial cells come into close contact with the of connective tissue dental papilla which differentiate into odontoblasts .As long as IEE is in contact with of connective tissue dental papilla.RER increases. determining the shape of DEJ & crown. Ameloblasts are connected by junctional complexes. it receives nutrient materials from the blood vessel of this tissue. Golgi complex increase its volume & migrate to centre.

Synthesis of enamel protein occur inRER passed on to Golgi complex . Infilling forms enamel rod. After the first structure less enamel is formed.terminal web. Cytoplasm of Ameloblasts continue into tomes process Distinction between process&cell body marked by distal terminal web jnal complex. No time lapse between secretion of enamel matrix &mineralization.Enter formative stage after first layer of dentin has formed. These walls enclose a pit into which tomes process fits. Decrease in volume and organelle content. They migrate to distal extremity of cell contents are released against newly formed mantle dentin. the Ameloblasts begin to move away from dentin surface &as they do each cell form a conical projection Tomes process just into newly forming enamel.TP persist until final few layer of sturctureless increments of enamel is laid MATURATION STAGE Decrease in height of Ameloblasts occurs. giving the junction b/w enamel & Ameloblasts a PICKETFENCED/SAW TOOTHED APPERANCE. Wall becomes interrod. Cells of IEE (Ameloblasts) begins to secrete enamel matrix which becomes immediately partially mineralized seen as deep staining layer in demineralized H&E section. Cell Process has secretory granules &small vesicles. The basal lamina supporting Ameloblasts disintegrate after deposition of predentin &differentiation of Ameloblasts Secretory stage Ameloblasts maintain same length & arrangement .There they are Condensed and packed into secretory granules.When Tomes process is established the sec of enamel pr becomes confined &staggered to two points. Excess organelles phagocytosed by autophagic vesicles containing lysozyme enzyme. Organelles shift to distal part of cell. Cell body has synthetic organelles. Secretion from first site with Ameloblasts forms enamel matrix wall. Ameloblasts become . Ameloblasts migrate away from dentin surface and tomes process formed. Secretion from second site later fills the pit with matrix. Hydroxyapatite are randomly packed in the first formed enamel &interdigitate with crystals of dentin. As this first increment of enamel is formed. They have ability to change the functional role to leaky or tight.

and extracellular mechanisms employed by the enamel-forming cells. This review summarizes the intra. to maintain pH homeostasis and. Cell is still able to modify enamel function . Calcif Tissue Int. Ameloblasts. protective As enamel maturation near completion . Premature degeneration of REE prevent eruption of teeth Regulation of pH During Amelogenesis.It protects mature enamel from connective tissue till tooth erupts.Epithiliail cells elaborate enzyme that destroy connective tissue fibers by desmolysis. DESMOLYTIC REE proliferates&induce atrophy of connective tissue separating it from oral epithelium leading to fusion of epithelium. Connective tissue if it comes in contact with enamel cementum is deposited. Ameloblasts with stratified epithelium (OEE+SI+SR ) forms REE. Inorganic is introduced in ruffled boarder. Water & organic material is selectively removed from enamel to form smooth boarder.Hemidesmosomes attach Ameloblasts to enamel surface important for establishment of DENTOGINGIVAL. also. Crystal growth is modulated by changes in the pH of the enamel microenvironment that is critical for proper enamel biomineralization .the Ameloblasts secrete basal lamina between flattened distal ends of cells &enamel surface. Cyclical nature is reflected in Ameloblasts morphology with cell altering between ruffled &smooth boarder . discusses the enamel phenotypes associated with disruptions to genes involved in pH regulation. 2010 Feb. fluoride if available is incorporated into enamel.mutations to genes involved in pH regulation may result in severely affected enamel structure.involved in cyclical process.86(2):91-103. highlighting the importance of pH regulation for normal enamel development. Amelogenesis .

histidine. phophatase. As enamel deposition proceeds thin continuous layer of enamel is formed along the dentin termed dentino enamel membrane.aspartic acid.sreine Enamelin-2% amelin -5-10% Tuftelin-intiation of mineralization. ability to flow under pressure Enamelin -molecular weight 48-70KDa.l.acidic .hydrophobic .ENAMEL MATRIX FORMATION[differentiation of IEE into Ameloblast.enamel protein. They are then retained in mature enamel in enamel tufts Molecular mechanisms of dental enamel formation. Organic matrix sec consists of. MINERALIZATION & MATURATION OF ENAMEL MATRIX ENAMEL MATRIX FORMATION Ameloblasts begin their secretory activity when a small amount of dentin laid is down.tuftelin. sulfated & phosphorelated noncollagenous protein in calcifying connective tissue Enamel proteins 90%amelogenins --10%enamelin.rich in proline. metalloproteinase.rich in gutamine acid.Formation secretion of enamel matrix] II. Four Ameloblasts involved in synthesis of each enamel rod. traces of protein analogues to various glycosylated .amelin Amelogenins-molecular weight-22-30kda . . glutamine. Enamelins are secreted first &linked to formation of hypermineralized enamel first deposited on dentin. an array of enzyme-serine protease.

(Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. which involves production of entire volume of enamel.The consistent arrangement of rod sheath. 1995. Structural analyses of recombinant Amelogenins are consistent with a functional role in establishing and maintaining the spacing between enamel crystallites. Intial mineralization is thought to be achieved by nucleation from apatite crystals located within the dentin . Other enamel proteins may regulate crystal habit by binding to specific faces of the mineral and inhibiting growth. with . surface layer of 15 micron which mineralize slowly IV. Rod sheath-boundary where crystals of rod meet those of interrod at sharp angles . starts from innermost layer to surface.After formation of partially mineralized enamel matrix. Enamel protein is labile.6(2):84-108). The rods are cylindrical in shape and are made of crystals with their long axes running for the most part parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rods. mineralization starts at the enamel surface proceeds into deeper layer until it reaches innermost layer III. crystal are arranged in different direction.Formation of partially mineralize en matrix(30%) II.Outer layer mineralize heavily & rapidly becoming the most mineralized STRUCTURE OF ENAMEL ENAMEL RODS The basic structural unit of enamel. a process of maturation begins. Interrod an area surrounding each rod. Mineralization &maturation As soon as enamel protein is secreted by Ameloblasts it is instantly mineralized.Tuftelin is an acidic enamel protein that concentrates at the DEJ and may participate in the nucleation of enamel crystals. the rods owes its existence to the highly organized pattern of crystal orientation. Continued influx of mineral and removal of protein&water final consistency is achieved Mineralization involves 4 stages I.

The rods vary in number from 5 million for a mandibular incisor to about 12 million for a maxillary molar . STRUCTURE OF HYDROXYAPATITE CRYSTALS . but deviating from horizontal to a more apical direction in the cervical region. Diameter of rods increases from DEJ towards the surface of the enamel at the ratio of about 1:2 ROD INTERRELATIONSHIP Rods run in a direction nearly perpendicular to the surface of dentin . The susceptibility of these crystallites to acid. ENAMEL PRISM The structural components of the enamel prism are millions of small. the tail regions and the periphery of the head regions are relatively resistant to acid attack. in cross studies rod. Whereas the dissolution process occurs in the head regions of the rod. Tail is1micrometer wide. either from an etching procedure or caries. The long axis of the apatite crystallites within the central region of the head(body) is aligned almost parallel to the long axis of rod .In deciduous tooth the rods run horizontally at the central and cervical part of the crown becoming increasingly oblique to almost vertical at the tip of cusps and incisal edges.From the DEJ the rods run in a tortuous course to the surface of the tooth.The crystallites incline with increasing angles (up to 65 degree)to the prism axis in the tail region.appears to be correlated with their orientation. The crystallites are tightly packed in a distinct pattern of orientation that gives strength and structural identity to the enamel prisms. In permanent tooth the rod arrangement is similar in occlusal 2/3 of the crown. the thickest part of the enamel are longer than those at the cervical areas of the tooth. elongated apatite crystallites. accounts for the fish scale appearance of enamel matrix in demineralized/etched ground sections. Rods located in the cusps.Enamel rod approximates the size of RBC . interrod appear to have SHAPE OF KEY HOLE Enamel rod head is 5micrometer wide.the protein content. Rod length is 9microm.

40 CELLS WIDE AND 20 CELLS THICK INCREMENTAL LINES OF RETZIUS Are incremental growth lines successive apposition of enamel in discrete increments during formation of crown. Line of Retzius is due to any of the following reasons:-Variations in organic structure. a series of alternating grooves called.LENGTH 1600 Å WIDTH 200 400 Å EACH APPATITE CRYSTALS HAVE THOUSANDS OF UNIT CELLS THAT HAS HIGHLY ORDERED ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS. Boundary is marked by accentuated incremental line of Retzius. In longitudinal sections it surround tip of dentin. Intermittent alteration of rod course.CRYSTALLITE MAY BE 300 UNIT CELLS LONG. Abrupt change in environment & nutrition of newborn infants is the reason. In horizontal sections they appear as concentric rings. Disturbances in rhythm of mineralizations. When these circles are incomplete at the enamel surface. In cervical region it run obliquely. Cross striations shows daily variation in secretory activity of Ameloblasts. Prenatal en is better Cross striations En form at rate of ~4microm/day. the imbrication lines of pickerill are formed .Formed as a result of temporary constriction of Tomes process associated with secretory phase forming interrod enamel. From DEJ to surface it deviate occlusally. Incremental line of Retzius shows weekly rhythm . Scanning electron microscope reveals constriction & expansion of rods. Ground section shows periodic bands of 4micromi intervals across rods. It traverse the cuspal and incisal areas in symmetric arc pattern. Enamel rod bend as they cross incremental line NEONATAL LINE En of deci tooth develops partly before & partly after birth.

The bands of prism cut longitudinally are known as parazones and those cut transversely as diazones.(reach into dentin) Type C: Lamellae arising in erupted teeth where cracks are filled---org matter from saliva (reach into dentin) En lamellae-cells in depth degenerate.Rods arranged radially in horizontal rows. They consist mostly of organic material which is a weak area predisposing a tooth to entry of bacteria and dental caries. where rods cross such a plane. a short segment of the rod may not fully calcify. Three type of lamellae are founded Type A: Type B: Lamellae composed of poorly calcified rod segment. This type of enamel formation does not yield readily to the pressure of bladed. They are regarded as functional adaptation . ENAMEL LAMELLAE They are thin. hand cutting instruments in tooth preparation. Lamellae may develop in plane of tension.minimising the risk of cleavage in the axial direction under the influence of occlusal masticating forces Gnarled enamel Especially near dentin in the region of cusp or incisal edges rods appear twisted . In the sections cut parallel to long axis of the tooth. surface may remain vital-hornified cuticle . TheOriginate at the DEJ and pass outward ending at some distance from the outer enamel surface.(restricted to en) Lamellae consisting of degenerated cells. leaf life structures extend from the enamel surface toward the DEJ they extend to and sometimes penetrate the dentin.Rods undulate back & forth with in rows. change in the direction of rod responsible for the appearance of the hunterschreger bands. Rods surround long axis of tooth like a washer .HUNTER SCHREGER BANDS These are alternating dark and white band of varying widths best seen in longitudinal section under oblique reflected light.

If connective tissue invade Crack cementum is formed. Occasionally odontoblast processes pass across the DEJ into the enamel. ENAMEL TUFTS They are hypo-mineralized structures of enamel rods and inter-prismatic substance arise at the DEJ and reach into the enamel to about 1/5th to 1/3rd of its thickness. Contain greater con of enamel protein-Enamelin.after eruption it is filled by organic substance .in unerupted tooth it is filled by cells .Crack if develops disturbance is severe . Their ends are thickened and are termed as enamel spindles. It is hyper mineralized and 30µm thick interdigitation contributes to a firm attachment between dentin and enamel ENAMEL SPINDLE Their direction similar to Ameloblasts . They seem to originate from processes of odontoblasts that extended into the enamel epithelium before hard substances were formed. In gs org content replaced by air & dark in trans light CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: HAS PAIN RECEPTORS WHICH EXPLAINS ENAMEL SENSITIVITY DURING CAVITY PREPARATION IN SOME PERSONS . in ground section resemble tuft of grass.SEM shows it to be a series of ridges that increase the surface area and probably enhance the adhesion between enamel and dentin. They extend into the enamel in the direction of the long axis of the crown may be involved in the spread of dental caries.right angle to surface of dentin. The convexities of the scallops are directed toward the dentin. Tufts are believed to occur developmentally because of abrupt changes in the direction of groups of rods that rise from different regions of scalloped DEJ DENTINOENAMEL JUNCTION The interface of the enamel and dentin is scalloped in outline.

SITE OF WEAKNESS THAT INITIATE DENTAL CARIES ENAMEL CUTICLE NASMYTH S MEMBRANE OR PRIMARY ENAMEL CUTICLE IT IS BASAL LAMINA SECRETED BY AMELOBLASTS WHEN ENAMEL FORMATION IS COMPLETED Ameloblasts cell degenerates following formation of enamel rod. Layer is heavily mineralized. There are no prism outlines visible.EXTERNAL MANIFESTATIONS OF STRIAE OF RETZIUS ROD ENDS CONCAVE AND VARY IN DEPTH AND SHAPE SHALLOWEST IN CERVICAL REGIONS AND DEEPEST AT INCISAL EDGES CRACKS NARROW FISSURE LIKE STRUCTURESAND RUN AT RIGHT ANGLES TO DEJ. The final act of Ameloblasts cell is the secretion of a membrane covering the end of the enamel . and apatite crystals are parallel to one another and perpendicular to straie of Retzius.OUTER EDGES OF LAMELLAE CONSIST OF ORGANIC MATERIAL .seen in70% permanent teeth and all deciduous teeth. PERIKYMATA TRANSVERSE WAVELIKE GROOVES PARALLEL TO EACH OTHER AND TO CEJ. Most commonly toward the cervical area and less often on cusp tips.Surface structures Structure less enamel Perikymata Rod ends cracks STRUCTURELESS OUTER LAYER OF ENAMEL It is about 30µm thick .

ATTRITION OR WEAR OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE AND PROXIMAL CONTACTS MESIAL MIGRATION. ABRASION. it becomes progressively worn away in the regions of masticatory area. MAMELLONS ARE LOST. a potential precursor of dental caries AGE CHANGES Enamel is a non-vital tissue that is incapable of regeneration. The pellicle reforms within hours after an enamel surface is mechanically cleaned. Microorganisms may invade the pellicle to form bacterial plaque. . Wear facets are increasingly pronounced in older people.rod. ATTRITION. It may be due to addition of organic material to enamel from the environment or may be due to the deepening of dentin color seen through the progressively thinning layer of translucent enamel. Other age changes seen are discoloration and reduced permeability. This membrane covers the entire crown of newly erupted tooth but is probably soon removed by mastication and cleaning PELLICLE An organic deposit called pellicle covers the erupted enamel. FRACTURE OR CRAZE LINES.SEVERE ATTRITION RESULTS IN REVERSE CUSPING . EROSION.Water content of enamel also decreases. LOSS OF ROD ENDS AND PERIKYMATA.ARRESTED CARIES Enamel caps and focal holes (depression): Small elevations 10-15Qm of depression (focal holes) are found particularly on lateral surfaces. With age. Linked to these changes there is an apparent reduction in incidence of caries. Teeth darken with age. It is a precipitate of salivary proteins.

In about 10% of teeth. cementum meets the cervical end of enamel in a relatively sharp line. MORPHOLOGICAL TYPE OF OCCLUSAL FISSURES: V Wide at top and gradually narrowing towards the bottom (34%) U Almost same width from top to bottom (14%) IK Hourglass. This occurs when the enamel epithelium degenerates at its cervical termination. In 30% of all teeth. cementum overlaps the cervical end of enamel for a short distance. extremely narrow slit associated with a large space at the bottom (26%).reticular material termed afibrillar cementum. it progresses over medial inclines of the cusps towards centre of the tooth. permitting connective tissue to come in direct contact with the enamel surface. Because secretory activity ceases in these compressed cells. . 30-50Qm in diameter. also occur occasionally and consists of radiating group of crystal. CEMENTOENAMEL JUNCTION The relation between enamel and cementum at the cervical region of the tooth is variable. Inverted Y. enamel and cementum do not meet. electron dense . bifurcating at the bottom (7%). Pits and Fissure: Pits and fissures are defects in the enamel surfaces usually associated with developmental grooves that mark the line of fusion between cusp or other major division of crown .As enamel formation proceed from these centers.Enamel broches: Larger surfaces elevations. Electron microscopic evidence indicates that when connective tissue cells. Strangulation occurs when Ameloblasts from adjacent cusp literally collide as they retract from DEJ. In 60% of the teeth. cement oblasts come in contact with enamel they produce a laminated. a fissured defects in the enamel results.

I Extremely narrow slit (19%) .

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