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Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

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Constant Acceleration Model

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from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Ramp and Cart Experiment

Sketch and label the experiment setup:

What could we measure? How could we measure it?

Make sketches of the graphs that the motion sensor and Data Studio make. Do this only after your teacher gives you the OK upon checking your computer screen. Remember to do several trials before asking your teacher to check.

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Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Ramp & Cart Experiment (Post-Lab)

Unit I Constant Velocity Model

Unit III Constant Acceleration Model

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from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

From Minds-On Physics

Walk-A-Graph

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

(1) A marble is rolled at constant speed along a horizontal surface toward the origin. The marble is released at a distance of 1 meter away from the origin. (2) A block sits at rest on a table 1 meter above the ﬂoor. Take the origin to be the level of the ﬂoor. (3) A ball is dropped from a height of 2 meters above the ﬂoor. Take the origin to be the point from which the ball is released. (4) A ball is rolled along a horizontal surface. The ball strikes a wall and rebounds toward the origin. (5) A car is parked on a steep hill.

(1) A block is dropped from rest with a height of 1 meter above the ﬂoor. Take the origin to be at the level of the ﬂoor. (2) A marble is released from the top of an inclined plane. Assume that positive x is measured down the plane. (3) A ball is thrown straight up into the air. Take the origin to be at the level of the ﬂoor. (4) A ball rolls along a horizontal surface without changing speed. The ball strikes a wall and rebounds toward the origin at approximately the same speed as before. (5) A marble rolls on to a piece of felt, eventually stopping.

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Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Worksheet 1: Graphs of Motion with Changing Velocity

1. Consider the velocity-vs-time graphs and describe the motion of the objects.

Object A

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8
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-4
-8
-12
-16
v (m/s)

t (s)

Object B

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12
8
4
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-8
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v (m/s)

t (s)

 Determine the displacement between 4 and 8 seconds. Show work! Determine the average acceleration during the ﬁrst 3 seconds. Show work! Describe the motion in words. Sketch a motion map. Be sure to include both velocity and acceleration vectors.

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2. Use the velocity-vs-time graph to analyze the motion of the object.

a. Give a written description of the motion.

b. Sketch a motion map. Be sure to include both velocity and acceleration vectors.

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

c. Determine the displacement of the object from t = 0 s to t = 4 s.

d. Determine the displacement of the object from t = 4 s to t = 8 s.

e. Determine the displacement of the object from t = 2 s to t = 6 s.

f. Determine the object’s acceleration at t = 4 s.

g. Sketch a possible position-vs-time graph for the motion of the object. Explain why your graph is only one of many possible graphs.

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Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Reading: Two Methods to Find the Slope

Consider a puck for which we take the position and time data shown on the right. A quick glance at the data table tells us that the puck is mov- ing farther in each equal time interval of 0.42 s. A graph of the data, shown just below the table allows us to say even more about the motion: the dis- tance the puck moves in equal intervals of time is increasing smoothly. While we can’t ﬁnd a straight segment of the curve in order to ﬁnd a slope, we can estimate the velocity of the puck right at a certain time, even if the puck is changing velocity. We go about making this estimate two ways:

1. We can, using the graphed position and time data, draw a good es- timate of the tangent line to the data at the instant of interest. For example, let’s say we want to estimate the velocity of the puck at 2.0 s. The slope of this tangent line, shown drawn the the lower ﬁgure, is then the estimated velocity of the object at that instant. We ﬁnd the slope of the tangent line at t = 2.0 s to be 0.29 m/s. This graphical method is called the tangent slope method, and it relies on being able to draw a reasonably accurate tangent line. Clearly, the velocity determined this way is an estimate.

2. We can use the position and time data table to calculate the slope of the smallest segment of graph surrounding a particular instant of interest. We do this by taking the data from one time interval before and one time interval after the instant for which we are estimating the velocity. Such a calculation, called the double interval method, is shown in the table below, using the original data table for our puck’s motion. The ﬁrst two rows show the full calculation (take close note of these calculations) and the other rows show only the results. Note that this method is also an estimate of the velocity.

 Clock Reading Position Velocity (s) (m) (m/s) 0.00 0.000 — 0.42 0.018 ( .060 − .000 ) m ( 0.84 − 0.0 ) s = 0.07 m/s 0.84 0.060 ( .125 − .018 ) m ( 1.26 − 0.42 ) s = 0.127 m/s 1.26 0.125 0.178 1.68 0.210 0.238 2.10 0.325 0.298 2.52 0.460 0.351 2.94 0.620 0.410 3.36 0.805 —
Clock
Position
(s)
(m)
0.00
0.000
0.42
0.018
0.84
0.060
1.26
0.125
1.68
0.210
2.10
0.325
2.52
0.460
2.94
0.620
3.36
0.805
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
1
2
3
4
position m

time s

Figure 1: The position vs. time graph made from the data in the table above. Note that the slope of this graph is not constant!

0.58 m
0.8
v
0.29 m s
2.0 s
t 2.0 s
0.6
0.4
x 0.58 m
0.2
0.0
0
1
2
3
4
position m

time s

Figure 2: To ﬁnd the velocity of the puck at 2.0 s, we draw a tangent line that just touches the curve at 2.0 s. Then we ﬁnd the slope of that line using any convenient points along the tangent line.

The tangent slope method is so-named because one must ﬁrst draw a tangent, then ﬁnd the tangent line’s slope. The double interval method is so-named because one uses a duration twice that of the data interval to calculate the velocity at each time. That is, if position data were taken every one second, you would use time intervals of two seconds to calculate the velocity at each point.

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from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Worksheet 2: Changing Velocities

3. The table shows some position and time data.

a. Use the double interval method to calculate the velocity at t = 0.030 s. Show your calculation below.

b. Use the double interval method to calculate the velocity at each time and ﬁll in the rest of the table.

4. Consider the velocity-vs-time graph.

 Time (s) Position (cm) Velocity (cm/s) 0.000 0.0 — 0.030 1.2 0.060 2.2 0.090 3.0 0.120 6.0 0.150 8.1 —

a. During which time interval(s) is the acceleration positive? During which time interval(s) is the acceleration negative? How do you know?

b. At what time or times is the acceleration zero? How do you know?

30
25
20
15
10
5
20
40
60
80
100
Velocity m s

Time s

c. Use the tangent slope method to calculate the acceleration at time t = 10.0s.

d. Describe the motion of the object in words. In your complete sentences, you might want to use phrases like speeding up, slowing down, in the positive direction, in the negative direction, reverses direction, starting from rest.

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Acceleration cm s 2

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

5. The acceleration-vs-time graph for a cart moving along a straight-line track is shown below.

a. Calculate the change in velocity over the ﬁrst 3.0 s of motion.

b. Calculate the change in velocity over the entire 8.0 s of motion.

3

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1

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8

Time s

c. Given that the cart starts with an initial velocity of +2.0 m/s, plot the velocity-vs-time graph for this motion. (Yep, this is a bit tricky… go for it!! Break the a-t graph into useful parts.)

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Velocity cm s

Time s

d. Describe the motion of the object in words based on the velocity graph that you drew.

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Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Stacks of Kinematics Curves

Given the following position vs time graphs, sketch the corresponding velocity vs time and acceleration vs time graphs. For each problem (or part of problem), tell whether the forces on the object must be balanced or unbalanced. If they are unbalanced, say whether they are unbalanced in the positive or negative direction.

x
x
x
x
t
t
t
t
v
v
v
v
t
t
t
t
a
a
a
a
t
t
t
t
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
x
x
x
x
t
t
t
t
v
v
v
v
t
t
t
t
a
a
a
a
t
t
t
t
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)

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Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

For the following velocity vs time graphs, draw the corresponding position vs time and acceleration vs time graphs. For each problem (or part of problem), tell whether the forces on the object must be balanced or unbalanced. If they are unbalanced, say whether they are unbalanced in the positive or negative direction.

x
x
x
x
t
t
t
t
v
v
v
v
t
t
t
t
a
a
a
a
t
t
t
t
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
x
x
x
x
t
t
t
t
v
v
v
v
t
t
t
t
a
a
a
a
t
t
t
t
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)
Balanced or
Unbalanced? (+ / –)

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from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

!
v (m/s)
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(a)
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v (m/s)
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(d)
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t (s)

t (s)

v (m/s)
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t (s)

(g)

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(b)

t (s)

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(e)

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(h)

t (s)

t (s)

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(c)

v (m/s)
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(f)

t (s)

t (s)

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(i)

t (s)

6. Rank the situations (a through i) based on the total distance traveled for the object during the time shown on the graph. Write your answers on a single line using the > and = signs to show the relationships.

Explain the reason for your ranking. Try to make a single, clear statement that applies to every case rather than enumerating the work for each case.

7. Rank the situations based on the maximum absolute value of acceleration during the time shown on the graph.

Explain the reason for your ranking. Try to make a single, clear statement that applies to every case rather than enumerating the work for each case.

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!

!

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

The following situations illustrate the position of two different balls at different times. The ﬁrst ball (a through f) rolls with constant velocity across a horizontal surface, while the second ball (g through l) rolls with constant acceleration down an inclined ramp. Both objects are at position zero at time = 0, and both are at position = d at time = 6 s.

!

(a) t = 0s, pos = 0m

!

(b) t = 2s

(c) t = 4s

!

!

(d) t = 6s, pos = d

(e) t = 8s

!

!

(f) t = 10s

(g) t = 0, x = 0, v = 0

(h) t = 2s

(i) t = 4s

!
(j) t = 6s, pos = d
!
(k) t = 8s

(l) t = 10s

!

!

8. Rank each situation (a through l… yes, all 12 together, not two separate lists) according to the position along the surface of the ball at the indicated time. Write your answer on a single line, using the > and = signs to show the relationships. NOTE: The pictures are not drawn to scale, so you cannot rely on them to show which ball is ahead.

Explain the reason for your ranking. Try to make a single, clear statement that applies to every case rather than enumerating the work for each case.

Rank each situation (a through l) according to the instantaneous velocity of the ball at the indicated time. Write your answer on a single line, using the > and = signs to show the relationships. NOTE: The pictures are still not necessarily drawn to scale.

Explain the reason for your ranking. Try to make a single, clear statement that applies to every case rather than enumerating the work for each case.

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travels for 20

For each of the three above

none of

9.

 I. A II. A dune buggy
 III. A driver sees a deer 20 seconds. a. applies, or whether b. For each problem situation. Choose the c. Using the units.

Honors Physics

the

m/s in

/ Unit 03 / CAPM

applies.

whether CAPM

to illustrate

stop from 8.5

Model (CVPM)

to a

and/or graphs

car slows

useful.

20 seconds.

diagrams

three

ﬁnd most

8.5 m/s.

of 8.5 m/s in

Apply the Model

apply, and explain

for any

unknown

quantities.

Show your

work

and use

a speed

model, solve

consider if the Constant Velocity Particle

models

reaches

ahead and applies the brakes. The

particle

seconds at a speed of

problems, say whether CVPM applies, whether BFPM applies,

those

diagrams and graphs that you

Mac Truck starts from rest and

constant acceleration

Worksheet 4:

Read the following three problems and

where CAPM applies, draw at least

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Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

For the following problems, a complete solution will consist of

 (a) at least three diagrams and/or graphs to represent the situation. (Use the ones you ﬁnd most useful.) (b) a determination of the quantities for which it is possible to solve. (c) a clear presentation of the procedure used to produce a numerical answer for each unknown quantity, with units. 10. A car whose initial speed is 30 m/s slows uniformly to 10 m/s in 5 seconds. 11. A bear spies some honey 10 m away and takes off from rest, accelerating at a rate of 2.0 m/s 2 .

!

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!

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Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

CAPM Model Summary

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