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2K views16 pagesAttribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Name: ________________________________

Physical Quantity Description Symbol Units

Sketch and label the experiment setup:

Make sketches of the graphs that the motion sensor and Data Studio make. Do this only after your teacher gives you the OK upon checking your computer screen. Remember to do several trials before asking your teacher to check.

Unit I Constant Velocity Model Unit III Constant Acceleration Model

Walk-A-Graph

From Minds-On Physics

(1) A marble is rolled at constant speed along a horizontal surface toward the origin. The marble is released at a distance of 1 meter away from the origin. (2) A block sits at rest on a table 1 meter above the oor. Take the origin to be the level of the oor. (3) A ball is dropped from a height of 2 meters above the oor. Take the origin to be the point from which the ball is released. (4) A ball is rolled along a horizontal surface. The ball strikes a wall and rebounds toward the origin. (5) A car is parked on a steep hill.

A block is dropped from rest with a height of 1 meter above the oor. Take the origin to be at the level of the oor. A marble is released from the top of an inclined plane. Assume that positive x is measured down the plane. A ball is thrown straight up into the air. Take the origin to be at the level of the oor. A ball rolls along a horizontal surface without changing speed. The ball strikes a wall and rebounds toward the origin at approximately the same speed as before. (5) A marble rolls on to a piece of felt, eventually stopping.

1. Consider the velocity-vs-time graphs and describe the motion of the objects. Object A

16 12 8 4 0 -4 -8 -12 -16 16 12 8 4 0 -4 -8 -12 -16

Object B

v (m/s)

v (m/s)

t (s)

t (s)

Determine the average acceleration during the rst 3 seconds. Show work!

Sketch a motion map. Be sure to include both velocity and acceleration vectors.

2.

Use the velocity-vs-time graph to analyze the motion of the object. a. Give a written description of the motion.

b. Sketch a motion map. Be sure to include both velocity and acceleration vectors.

c.

e.

f.

g. Sketch a possible position-vs-time graph for the motion of the object. Explain why your graph is only one of many possible graphs.

Consider a puck for which we take the position and time data shown on the right. A quick glance at the data table tells us that the puck is moving farther in each equal time interval of 0.42 s. A graph of the data, shown just below the table allows us to say even more about the motion: the distance the puck moves in equal intervals of time is increasing smoothly. While we cant nd a straight segment of the curve in order to nd a slope, we can estimate the velocity of the puck right at a certain time, even if the puck is changing velocity. We go about making this estimate two ways: 1. We can, using the graphed position and time data, draw a good estimate of the tangent line to the data at the instant of interest. For example, lets say we want to estimate the velocity of the puck at 2.0 s. The slope of this tangent line, shown drawn the the lower gure, is then the estimated velocity of the object at that instant. We nd the slope of the tangent line at t = 2.0 s to be 0.29 m/s. This graphical method is called the tangent slope method, and it relies on being able to draw a reasonably accurate tangent line. Clearly, the velocity determined this way is an estimate. 2. We can use the position and time data table to calculate the slope of the smallest segment of graph surrounding a particular instant of interest. We do this by taking the data from one time interval before and one time interval after the instant for which we are estimating the velocity. Such a calculation, called the double interval method, is shown in the table below, using the original data table for our pucks motion. The rst two rows show the full calculation (take close note of these calculations) and the other rows show only the results. Note that this method is also an estimate of the velocity. Clock Reading (s) 0.00 0.42 0.84 1.26 1.68 2.10 2.52 2.94 3.36 Clock Reading (s) 0.00 0.42 0.84 1.26 1.68 2.10 2.52 2.94 3.36

0.8 0.6

Position (m) 0.000 0.018 0.060 0.125 0.210 0.325 0.460 0.620 0.805

position m

0.4

0.2

0.0 0

Figure 1: The position vs. time graph made from the data in the table above. Note that the slope of this graph is not constant!

0.8 v 0.58 m 2.0 s 0.29 m s

time s

position m

0.6

t2.0 s

0.4

x 0.58 m

Position (m) 0.000 0.018 0.060 0.125 0.210 0.325 0.460 0.620 0.805

(.125.018) m (1.260.42) s

0.2

0.0 0

Figure 2: To nd the velocity of the puck at 2.0 s, we draw a tangent line that just touches the curve at 2.0 s. Then we nd the slope of that line using any convenient points along the tangent line.

time s

The tangent slope method is so-named because one must rst draw a tangent, then nd the tangent lines slope. The double interval method is so-named because one uses a duration twice that of the data interval to calculate the velocity at each time. That is, if position data were taken every one second, you would use time intervals of two seconds to calculate the velocity at each point.

3. The table shows some position and time data. a. Use the double interval method to calculate the velocity at t = 0.030 s. Show your calculation below. Time (s) 0.000 0.030 0.060 0.090 b. Use the double interval method to calculate the velocity at each time and ll in the rest of the table. 0.120 0.150 Position (cm) 0.0 1.2 2.2 3.0 6.0 8.1 Velocity (cm/s)

(e) Describe the motion in words. Choose from among the following phrases to construct your complete sentence description. speeding up slowing down in the positive direction in the negative direction reverses direction starting from rest

4.

Consider the velocity-vs-time graph. a. During which time interval(s) is the acceleration positive? During which time interval(s) is the acceleration negative? How do you know?

Velocity m s

30 25 20 15 10 5

20

40 Time s

60

80

100

10. The table below represents the velocity and time coordinates for the motion depicted in the graph of problem 9. Compute the accelerations at each time using the double interval method. Do the accelerations approximately agree with our answers for parts a, b, and c of problem 9? Time Velocity Acceleration (s) (m/s) (m/s2 ) 0 0.0 5 5.0 0.98 10 9.8 15 13.7 20 17.0 0.60 25 19.7 0.48 30 21.8 d. Describe the motion of the object in words. In your complete sentences, you might want to use phrases like 35 23.3 0.25 speeding up, slowing down, in the positive direction, in the negative direction, reverses direction, starting from rest. 40 24.3 0.14 45 24.7 0.03 50 24.6 -0.15 55 23.2 -0.47 60 19.9 65 18.2 -0.25 70 17.4 75 17.1 -0.01 80 17.3 0.09 from Modeling Workshop Project 2006 ! 8 85 18.0 90 20.0

c. Use the tangent slope method to calculate the acceleration at time t = 10.0s.

1 11. The straight-line track graph for cart moving 5. The acceleration-vs-time graph for a cart moving along aacceleration versus time is shownabelow.

a. Calculate the change in velocity over the rst 3.0 s 0 of motion.

Acceleration cm s2

3

Acceleration cm s2

1 2 3 b. Calculate the change in velocity over the entire4 Time s 8.0 s of motion.

2 1 2 3

(a) Calculate the change in velocity over the rst 3.0 s of motion. (b) Calculate the change in velocity over the entire 8.0 s of motion.

4 Time s

(c) Given that the cart starts with an initial velocity the change inm/s plot the entire 8.0 s of motion. (b) Calculate of + 2.0 velocity over the velocity c. Given that the cart starts with an initial velocity of +2.0 m/s, plot the velocity-vs-time graph for this motion. vs. time graph for this motion and describe thethat the cartin words. an initial velocity of + 2.0 m/s plot the velocity (c) Given motion starts with

(Yep, this is a bit tricky go for it!! Break the a-t graph into useful parts.) and describe the motion in words. vs. time graph for this motion

(a) Calculate the change in velocity over the rst 3.0 s of motion.

8 6

8 6

Velocity cm s

4 2 0 2

Velocity cm s

4 2 0 2 1 2 3

4 Time s

(d) Plot the velocity vs. time graph if the carts initial velocity were +5.0 m/s. Describe this motion in words.

4 Time s

d. Describe the motion of the object in words based on the velocity graph that you drew.

(d) Plot the velocity vs. time graph if the carts initial velocity were +5.0 m/s. Describe this motion in words.

Given the following position vs time graphs, sketch the corresponding velocity vs time and acceleration vs time graphs. For each problem (or part of problem), tell whether the forces on the object must be balanced or unbalanced. If they are unbalanced, say whether they are unbalanced in the positive or negative direction.

x x x x

t

v v

t

v

t

v

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

x x

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

x

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

x

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

t

v v

t

v

t

v

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / ) 10

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

For the following velocity vs time graphs, draw the corresponding position vs time and acceleration vs time graphs. For each problem (or part of problem), tell whether the forces on the object must be balanced or unbalanced. If they are unbalanced, say whether they are unbalanced in the positive or negative direction.

x x x x

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

x x

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

x

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

x

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / )

Balanced or Unbalanced? (+ / ) 11

!

v (m/s) 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -1 -2 -3 -4

t (s)

v (m/s) 3 2 1 0 1 2 -1 -2 -3 -4

! v (m/s)

3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

3 4 5

t (s)

1 2

3 4 5

t (s)

(a) !

v (m/s) 3 2 1 0 1 2 -1 -2 -3 -4

(b)

(c)

! v (m/s)

3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

! v (m/s)

3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

3 4 5

t (s)

1 2

3 4 5

t (s)

1 2

3 4 5

t (s)

(d) !

(e) !

(f)

v (m/s) 3 2 1 0 1 2 -1 -2 -3 -4

v (m/s) 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 -1 -2 -3 -4

t (s)

v (m/s) 3 2 1 0 1 2 -1 -2 -3 -4

3 4 5

t (s)

3 4 5

t (s)

(g)

6.

(h)

(i)

Rank the situations (a through i) based on the total distance traveled for the object during the time shown on the graph. Write your answers on a single line using the > and = signs to show the relationships.

Explain the reason for your ranking. Try to make a single, clear statement that applies to every case rather than enumerating the work for each case.

7.

Rank the situations based on the maximum absolute value of acceleration during the time shown on the graph.

Explain the reason for your ranking. Try to make a single, clear statement that applies to every case rather than enumerating the work for each case.

12

The following situations illustrate the position of two different balls at different times. The rst ball (a through f) rolls with constant velocity across a horizontal surface, while the second ball (g through l) rolls with constant acceleration down an inclined ramp. Both objects are at position zero at time = 0, and both are at position = d at time = 6 s. ! ! (c) t = 4s

(a) t = 0s, pos = 0m

(b) t = 2s

(e) t = 8s

!!

(f) t = 10s

(g) t = 0, x = 0, v = 0

(h) t = 2s

(i) t = 4s

!

(j) t = 6s, pos = d

!

(k) t = 8s

(l) t = 10s

8.

Rank each situation (a through l yes, all 12 together, not two separate lists) according to the position along the surface of the ball at the indicated time. Write your answer on a single line, using the > and = signs to show the relationships. NOTE: The pictures are not drawn to scale, so you cannot rely on them to show which ball is ahead.

Explain the reason for your ranking. Try to make a single, clear statement that applies to every case rather than enumerating the work for each case.

Rank each situation (a through l) according to the instantaneous velocity of the ball at the indicated time. Write your answer on a single line, using the > and = signs to show the relationships. NOTE: The pictures are still not necessarily drawn to scale.

13

9. Read the following three problems and consider if the Constant Velocity Particle Model (CVPM) applies. I. A Mac Truck starts from rest and reaches a speed of 8.5 m/s in 20 seconds. II. A dune buggy travels for 20 seconds at a speed of 8.5 m/s. III. A driver sees a deer in the road ahead and applies the brakes. The car slows to a stop from 8.5 m/s in 20 seconds. a. For each of the three above problems, say whether CVPM applies, whether BFPM applies, whether CAPM applies, or whether none of those models apply, and explain your reasoning.

b. For each problem where CAPM applies, draw at least three diagrams and/or graphs to illustrate the situation. Choose the diagrams and graphs that you nd most useful.

c.

Using the constant acceleration particle model, solve for any unknown quantities. Show your work and use units.

14

For the following problems, a complete solution will consist of (a) at least three diagrams and/or graphs to represent the situation. (Use the ones you nd most useful.) (b) a determination of the quantities for which it is possible to solve. (c) a clear presentation of the procedure used to produce a numerical answer for each unknown quantity, with units. 10. A car whose initial speed is 30 m/s slows uniformly to 10 m/s in 5 seconds.

11. A bear spies some honey 10 m away and takes off from rest, accelerating at a rate of 2.0 m/s2.

15

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