RESTRICTED T h « infoTztutlon glT*n In this d o e n n M l i* Bot t c b « c a m m n n l c a t e d , e i t h e r d l r v o t l y o r I n d i r e c t l y , to ( h e P r e s s o r to ftny p e r s o B n o ) a s l h o r t z e d to r e c e i T « I t .

WO CODE N O .

9097

26/CS T r j PublJcations/:25fi

AFV RECOGNITION INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
1956

This pamphlet supersedes AJ-'V Recognition lnstriictor*s Guide (WO Code No. 8217) Crown Copyright Reserved

Prepared under the direction of The Chief of the Imperial General Staff.
THE WAR OfFiCE.

August, 1956.

AMENDMENTS

Amendment Number

,

By whom amended

Date of insertion

DISTRIBLTION (See Catalogue of War Office Publications, Part U) As Appendix B to ACI 471 of 1954.

What to look for from the ground 7. Syllabus and forecast 19 APPENDICES A. Characteristics by countries 5. Easy recognition AFV characteristics 20 .CONTENTS CHAPTER 1—GENERAL SECnON PACE 1 1 4 6 1 . Training aids 13. Technique of instruction 1 0 . Part names of AFVs 4 . Tests 12 13 CHAPTER 4—USE O F T R A I N I N G AIDS A N D 1 1 . Construction of training aids 14. Aerial recognition 8 11 12 C H A P T E R 3—INSTRUCTION 9. The effect of changes in light intensity CHAPTER 2 — R E C O G N I T I O N F R O M G R O U N D A N D AIR 6. Camouflage and external stowage 8. General 12. General introduction 2 . The lay-out of a recognition room EQUIPMENT 14 14 16 17 C H A P T E R 5—ORGANIZATION O F T R A I N I N G 15. Factors affecting recognition 3 .

Ball mounting 8.. Cupola 3.U S T FJO N O . Sprocket.. G u n mantlets—internal and external 4.The cupola 6. One man hull 21. Hull contained within the tracks 20. Hull built out over the tracks 19. The turret 5. The hull 12.Smoke dischargers 10. 9. OF ILLUSTRATIONS L Cast and angular turrets 2. Exhausts 13. Construction of glacis plate 23. Oscillating turret 11. The range-finder 7.Layout of AFV recognition room . idler and top rollers 15. Broadside view—turret centrally placed on hull 18. Horns 16. Bogey assembly 14. Two man hull 22. Broadside view—turret forward on hull 17. External bins .

1i) This pamphlet is for the use of Instructors in AFV Recog­ nition. . 8863) and the numerous AFV Recognition Training Charts now available. the Tank Translator (WO Code N o . It should be used in conjunction with the A F V Recognition Handbook (WO Code N o . 8757).

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It has a definitely recognizable shape. SECTION 2—FACTORS AFFECTING RECOGNITION Why things arc seen I. which may be considerably altered by external fittings. however. In all walks of life recognition of one kind or another has become an instinctive process carried out without apparent effort. contrast in colours and tones will reveal it. If it does not. hut incorrect identi­ fication can cause casualties to our own AFVs and a complete loss of confidence between supporting arms. 1956 CHAPTER 1~GEN£RAL SECTION ). or has n o vertical background. The need for quick and accurate identification of AFVs remains as vital as ever. There are many reasons why an AFV is seen but it must be appreciated that in war the enemy will do the utmost to make recognition difficult. (b) Silhoiielfe An AFV will be easily seen if it is against a skyline.—GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. It should be borne in mind that the direction of the natural source of light is con­ tinually changing and that surfaces which reflect light vary according to this direclion. (c) Background An AFV must blend with the background. 3 . (d) Reflection All metal surfaces reflect light. Considerable tactical advantage can be obtained by correct information regarding types of enemy AFVs located. little effort is required to maintain proficiency in AFV recognition. The main factors are:— (a) Shape and oul/ine An AFV has some sharp edges and will form a contrast against a background. Once the basic principles have been thoroughly understood. . and reflection from glass objects may be visible from a great distance. It is possible t o recognize immediately one's own car in a crowded car park or t o spot a friend in a group of people. The shepherd is able to recognize his sheep individually. 2.RESTRICTED - AFV RECOGNITION INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE. The extensive technical equipment now in use by the armed forces and the consequent necessity for teaching a large nimiber of subjects uncormected with recogmtion makes it difficult to give each subject a fair share during training.

. Broadside 3. Fig 1 (iii) Cupola.— Rounded or an­ gular {see Fig 2) a n d position. (g) Spacing AFVs should not be placed in a uniform manner unless they conform with objects in the area. camouflage which may be most effective at one time of the day. may later prove ineffective or even accentuate the position of the AFV. In some conditions movement causes a tell tale dust cloud to rise.Scale AFVs should not be located in positions where they contrast with much larger or smaller objects in the same vicinity. and serve as a basis for recognizing any AFV. Open hatches will produce shadows of a definite shape. (ii) Type. They are the essential points to look for when time allows. (f) Shadows These may be cast by the shape of the AFV. (i) Movement AFVs in movement are difficult to camouflage. (h) Change of light A s the position of the source of natural light is constantly changing. These main details are condensed below. On the other hand if an A F V is at close range it may be possible to see all of its recognition details. (e) " 2. Type.{*aJ Turret (i) Position on hull.—Cast or angular {see Fig 1).

(c) . Suspension (i) Nimtber of road wheels. Note. (ii) Spacing of road wheels. (iv) External additions. (b) Hull (i) Type of driver's front plate. (c) Tracks • (i) Whether contained in hull.—On pages 4. etc. (iii) Number of top rollers. Head on 4.(iv) Gun mantlet. shape of mudguard. (ii) Shape of top and sides. (a) Turret (i) Type. (iii) Air intakes. and 11 the above details are shown with the aid of diagrams.— External or in­ ternal {see Fig 3) Fig 3 (v) Stowage bins. (ii) Cupola. (iv) If armoured car. 5. (ii) Type of glacis plate. (iii) Gun mantlet. 10. etc. (b) Hull (i) Deep or shallow. exhausts. It must be realized that not always will all the above details be seen.

(c) Ball mourning for MG (Fig 7 ) .—PART N A M E S O F AFVs 1. Fig 7 S (d) Stowage bins (Fig 8 ) . The basic turret. Turret 2. Other arms of the service are not so fanuliar with the part names of APVs as the Royal Armoured Corps. should be taught where necessary. and in order to assist the instructor in explaining the recognition features. . and may or may not have any of the following features. Fig 5 (b) Rangefi/ukr (F\g 6).SECTION 3. the following part names.— Fig 4 ia) Cupola—situated on the roof (Fig S). mounted on a turret ring is shown in Fig 4. peculiar to AFVs.

—Generally mounted towards the rear of the ve­ hicle (Fig 12).—A positions.—For supporting the gun in position. Fig 9 Armameot 3. nose plate and lower nose plate are shown as a. Is always in front of the turret. giving elevation and depression.(e) Smoke dischargers (Fig 9). b and c respectively in Fig I I . (b) Ball lype mounting.—Mounted towards the rear of the vehicle.— A particular type of turret on certain foreign AFVs. Fig 10 Hall 4. The hull is that portion of the tank which houses the engine and crew Glacis plate.— (a) Mimtlet. . (c) Oscillating turret. Main and subsidiary armament may be mounted in tlie following ways. method of mounting the MG in various UDofQ) X (h) Air louvres. Fig II (a) Exhausts.

—A toothed wheel carry­ ing the drive from engine to tracks.—^That part of the track or tracks projecting beyond the front of the hull (Fig 15). Fig 13 /b) Driving sprocket.— Wheels in pairs with heavy cormecting bracket (Fig 13). (a) A stepped appearance seen from head or tail-on due to stowage bins on . .—Support the track between the sprocket and the idler wheel.—Supports the track at the opposite end to the sprocket. It may be at the front or rear (Fig 14).track guards.-^CIfARACTERISTlCS BY C O U N T R I E S ^British I. Fig 15 SECTION 4. Fig 14 (c) Idler wheel. (d) Top rollers.—Part or all of the above mentioned suspension features may •be obscured by an armoured skirt or skirting plates. (e) Horns. Suspensions of tanks are very varied and may embody any of the following:— (a) Bogey assemblies. /c) Bins on the turret sides. Note. (b) G u n mantlets. Spme pf these are internal.Suspension 5.

The heavy AFVs embody a Joseph Stalin chassis.but are sufficient to denote Russian origin if seen. . and the medium a T34 chassis.(g) Fuel tanks.—Most Russian AFVs use jettison fuel tanks carried on either side of the hull. One of the outstanding features in relation to the recognition of Russian AFVs is the policy of standardization which has been followed for a number of years. Note. This cannot be relied upon as a recognition feature as ihey are generally used on an approach march and then jettisoned. Others have actual hatches. Only the Russian SU 100 has a prominent cupola similar to the American type.—Some AFVs have only a thin slit for the driver's vision. (a) High cupola. (b) Track guard. With the exception of the SU 76.—^Not all the following details will be found on one or ail AFVs . JS 3—V shaped.—When shape. . •(f) Turret bins.—This is an outstanding featiire.—These /d) are external.—This turret. SU 100—Composite front superstructure and glacis plate.—It is rare to see turret bins on the turrets of Russian AFVs. is conical in shape and is found on top of the fb) Inspection plates.—JS 1 and 2—Concave shape.-Vmerican 2. they are all the same unmistakable (c) Turret bins. JS 122 and 152—Very shallow. vertical armour will not be found on any Russian AFV. . A stowage grill is sometimes fitted at the rear of the turret. As a result of this most of the AFVs may be classi­ fied as either heavy or medium. The one exception to this general classification is the SU 76.(h) Glacis plates. fitted. (a) Periscope.—On most AFVs there are either one or two inspection or access plates situated at the rear slope of the hull adjoining the engine deck. (c) Gun mantlets. a light SP which still retains certain features common to both the JS and the T34.—With the exception of the rear of the fighting compartment of the SU 76 both turret and hull armour on Russian AFVs is sloping.(e) Sloping armour. Drivers^ hatches. Russian 3.—Few AFVs have bins. .

Every little recess appears as a sharply defined black shadow and every projection as a brilliant highlight. Although ihis makes AFV recognition more difficult this dark mass will always produce. bins etc. eg. This is especially true in the early morning. Care should be taken to shield them from any direct lighting. In viewing an object in poor light. and therefore in shadow. They may be sloping or flat. . Given such conditions remarkable results can be obtained at quite long ranges. and the possible distraction of a heat haze. the dome shaped variety as a mound of reflected light. with the source of light very low. The use of the eyes is all important. CHAPTER 2—RECOGNITION TO LOOK FROM FOR GROUND FROM THE AND AIR SECTION 6 . some visible whatever the prevailing conditions eg. that early dawn and sunset. Recognition is very largely made up of the results obtained by the light falling on different shaped or angled surfaces. is a practical proposition. (b) Outline. only the dark shape of the tank will be seen. never directly at it. or the deepest recesses standing out in the general darkness. a further com­ plication arising out of the presence of irmumerable items of outstanding stowage. It is necessary to point out that under very bright conditions some unusual effects can be seen.— (a) Shape. in conjunction with a detailed knowledge of the minutest features. some recessed or under cut. it is always advisable to look slightly t o one side or the other. 3. Under ideal conditions. catching the maximum amount of light. and thus preserve their adaption to the general dim illumination. some sharply defined. Under certain conditions a vertical surface may well appear almost black.SECTION 5 — T H E E F F E C T O F C H A N G E S I N L I G H T I N T E N S I T Y 1. 2. the recognition of an AFV by the effects of light and shade on the different surfaces. when an added complication of morning mist may give a more ghost-like effect. in conjunction with a darkened recess of distinctive outline. 4. In view of the modem trend towards sloping surfaces. the vertical sided cupola may appear as a shallow black band on the roof of the turret. Instead of seeing suspension. The value of the shadow­ graph will be apparent for showing the outline of an AFV. will not always give quite the same effects as the mid-day sun. Only the more prominent sur­ faces or projections will be recognizable and provide any concrete clue to identification. The range at which an AFV is normally engaged is not close enough for small details of recognition to be seen distinctly. the deep shadows under armoured car mudguards. some only dis­ tinctive when the source of light is coming from one particular quarter. — W H A T GROUND I. It seems obvious then. a vehicle may well be identified by nothing more than two highlights of varying intensity and shape. a bright day with slightly overcast sky.

—At a great distance these tend to look like part of the turret. external and internal. 5. the value of highlights and shadowra on rounded or angular surfaces and the visual effect of irregularly spaced suspension etc. (b) Angular construction—light is in patches of varying intensity. Whilst the actual armament of a vehicle is not generally considered a recognition feature. . Ground 3. 6. Turret 4. Stowage bins and racks. particularly in head-on view and the shape may also differ.2. the latter creating a dark recess. 7. They may be situated on sides or rear. Position in relation to the hull:— (a) Broadside view: ward (Fig 16). the following method of systematic analysis is the first stage in recognition which later becomes instinctive. in nearly all cases the mantlet does possess a distinc­ tive appearance falling into one of two. In addition. These are (he two main factors on which to concentrate all A F V recognition training. Types:— (a) Cast construction—light is diffused over surface. The former may be either rounded or angular and recognizable as such. Without dealing with the individual recognition features of those AFVs now in current use. must always be used as confirmation where possible. for- Fig 16 (b) Central (Fig 17). main categories. Armament 8. Cupolas:— Position is often a distinctive feature. -f Fig 17 [j (c) Head-on view: central.

Fig 19 (c) One man hull (Fig 20).Hull 9. viz:— (a) Built out over tracks (Fig 18). Viewed from broadside the distinctive feature of the hull is indicated by its depth between trackguard and turret. . the ^3 Fig 18 -t (h) Contained within the tracks (Fig 19). In the head-on view there are various aspects to consider.

It is therefore necessary that the student should appreciate the difficulties to be faced.(d) Two man hull (Fig 21). While it is possible to pick out all the features and details of an AFV as turned out from the factory it is realized that through camouflage and addition of external stowage. etc^ little of the original AFV may be visible. may be distributed over the vehicle. track plates. brushwood. especiaily as many may not have had any opportunity of seeing AFVs on the battlefield and may be misled by the apparent simplicity of recognition from ordinary photographs. gives him the final clue. . This. suspension does provide a good recognition feature when the opportunity occurs. painting and nets. In conclusion it should be-explained that in the early stages each individual point must be analysed to be fully appreciated. in conjunction with the detailed recognition features. taking into account the depth of nose of a front drive vehicle (Fig 22). SECTION 7 . Fig 21 (e) The construction of the glacis plate in rela­ tion to the nose plate. and in some cases is very distinctive. — C A M O U F L A G E 1. etc. Although rarely seen. all manner of other items such as additional stowage bins. After suitable practice this effect of light and shade on these features enables (hem to be recognized instantly and helps to give the student an immediate general impression. Apart from basic camouflage. :3 Fig 22 AND EXTERNAL STOWAGE 10. 11.

is a pure plan view obtained. It should also be remembered that recognition is the defeat of camou­ flage. therefore. (c) Aerial photograph. (b) The effect of open lops and recesses. The result is a dark shape being seen. Any questions. any questions. crew and armament. and the introduction of new types of enemy AFVs. Remove photograph and interrogate on all views. — A E R I A L RECOGNITION 1. be of a standard equal to that in camouflage. . (a) Length/width ratio. Training in recognition must. and the necessity for split second decisions. generally of distinctive outline. any questions. main features. Head-on view.—This aspect of recognition is more specializedand is generally carried out by those trained in the subject. (b) Photographs Method 2. which may help in recog­ nition. head-on and rear views. Broadside view. Details of weight. iriain features.(a) Epidiascope. of conducting lesson Introduction to AFV. any questions.—The length in proportion to the width of the vehicle is often a distinctive feature giving. CHAPTER 3—INSTRUCTION OF INSTRUCTION SECTION 9 . an immediate impression of the vehicle as a whole. In view of the very high speed at which m o d e m aircraft operate. ~ T E C H N I Q U E Kit required i. SECTION 8 . Remove photograph and interrogate class. Rear view. Generally an oblique air view is seen in which all the features previously mentioned may be visible. Broadside view and main features. as it does. speed. if ever. there are additional features which may further assist air crews in recognition. All the points of ground recognition are applicable to the aerial view since seldom. (a) (b) {c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (j) of individual AFV—broadside. particularly in high altitude photography.2.—Two main types of ofwn topped vehicles may be encountered. those with an open topped turret. or n o turret at all. general view. These photographs often give information of the location and strength of known types.

Since there are only a limited number of vehicles to learn. should arouse interest. SECTION 10. (ej By frequent interrogation. The following points Bhould be borne in mind when preparing for instruction. " Most turrets have a flat top sloping to the front". (c) At first. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 169—2 Silhouette spotting.3. Tests should be progressively luirder throughout the course. and assist in recognition to a very great degree. (f) Carry out as many quizzes as time pemuts. when it was taken intoservicc and how successful it was. eg. a quiz should be arranged. (b) Avoid repeating features common to most AFVs eg. to confirm the students' Imowledge. and as each country's AFVs are covered the quiz and test method should be increased to bring out comparisons and contrasts. Written examination. Although such comparisons may cause himiom-ous comment when first mentioned. but if carried out intelligently and on competitive lines. Try and make each vehicle unique by an analogy eg. 4. working up to a climax at the end. bring out from the class those salient points which appear to them to be the key to recognition of any individual vehicle. . (g) Be brief. Quiz boards—see page \5. are a sotirce of interest. Tests are not only a means of ascertaining the extent of the student's knowledge. Epidiascope test. 2. Tombola game—^^ee page 15. There is great scope for tests in recognition and any of the following methods of testing are suggested:— (a) Tank Translator (Quiz). (a) The introduction to the AFV. though brief. (d) The instructor must prossess sufficient enthusiasm about his subject to enable him to infuse this same enthusiasm into his students. Tests should be held at regular intervals throughout the course to check the progress of the individual students. they will be remembered. the broadside view of the Chaffee can be likened to a squashed cottage loaf.—TESTS 1. When all AFVs of one country have been covered. most students will tend to think that AFVs generally look alike. these must be known thoroughly.

Therefore. If the unit does not possess one. G o o d use can be made of the excellent photographs in the AFV Recognition Handbook and may b e used t o further advantage by being projected on t o a screen by an epidiascope. Silhouettes 4. These are an essential aid to instructors.3. 4. however. the time allowed for texts should be pro­ gressively reduced throughout the course. which are used generally in conjunction with the shadowgraph. namely. Photographs should n o t exceed 5-in x 2i-in if the complete AFV is t o be projected. Visual training equipment in units is limited. with a time limit. The technique of using a pointer such as a pencil on the ' p a n ' of the epidiascope so that the pointer is reflected on the screen is easily acquired by a n instructor after a Uttle experience. that the student will be required to identify vehicles with absolute certainty and the minimum of delay. Scale of issue to units is laid down in Appendix B of ACT 471 of 1954. Epidiascope 3. assistance can usually be obtained from the nearest Army Education Centre. an epidiascope is essential. with a little resource and imagination t o supplement the available equipment and to make the best use of it. the tank translator a n d the " Yellow Back " training charts. A great deal can be improvised.—TRAINING AIDS Photographs 1. F o r planned recognition courses. These charts suitably displayed are a source of interest and have a great instructional value. Using the projector. the main A F V characteristics can be pointed out by the instructor clearly and methodically. SECTION 12. The written examination should be in the form of questions requiring answers of only one or two words. CHAPTER 4 ~ U S E O F TRAINING AIDS A N D E Q U I P M E N T SECTION 11. Some ideas of construction of aids are included at the end of this chapter.—GENERAL 1. 2. The photographs on them are clear and large. These are made by blocking out photographs or good drawings made from them. . but they are not always easy to obtain. It consists mainly of the A F V Recognitioa Handbook. The aim of the course must always be borne in mind. Training charts 2.

Method 1. Instructor. any student must cover the appropriate AFV if it is on his card. Students are issued with translators and handbooks for the jjeriod of the lesson. .—The instructor. with the answers to the '* quiz " placed under a flap or some other concealed position. aim. Obtain a number of stiff cards and on each stick a variety of different photographs of AFVs. when the tank translator is used need not in fact know very much about AFV recognition but will supervise the class working. The aim of the tank translator is to T E A C H rather than test. The first student lo fill his card is the winner. The student must then complete the two photographs as a jigsaw puzzle. Instead of a bag of numbers. (b) Why things are seen. As he calls out the name of the AFV on the ticket.Quiz board 5.—The tank translator should not be used for initial lessons on AFV recognition. Tombola game 6. The student will in time use the Handbook less and less until he is actually recognizing the AFVs in the translator. The student should if possible first be given:— (a) Introduction. To make the best use of this aid. Care must be taken that the cards are carefully checked for correct results.—^The translator can be set as a classroom lesson under the usual conditions of discipline for a definite period. a board should be erected or mounted on a wall. Methods of using translator 10. AFV jigsaws 8. (c) What to look for (recognition details). the instructor has a box or bag of tickets bearing the names of AFVs. To exercise the students in quick recognition of AFVs. Initial lessons. Photographs or good drawings of two AFVs may be cut into small pieces and mixed in an envelope. Main outline characteristics and names of parts are subconsciously acquired by this practice. this well known game may be adapted to test them later in the course. The student compares the photographs in the translator with those in the AFV Recognition Handbook. The tank translator 9. 7. Nimibered photographs of AFVs or parts of AFVs may then be exhibited on the board. necessity. 5 .

(v) D r a w in all the lines on the vehicle. (a) Trace off the silhouette drawing in the "AFV Recognition Hand­ book ".—Translators can be used during the last 10 minutes of a period on A F V recognition as a quiz. Method 3. Notes:— 1. Accuracy at first is more important than speed. . the number of a selected AFV is given by the instructor. (d) Paint with suitable water colours. (iv) Adjust the focus of the epidiascope and the distance between the blackboard and the lens until a clear picture is obtained. (b) Transfer to plywood or thick card.—CONSTRUCTION O F TRAINING AIDS Silhouettes 1. SECTION 13. When the student has become proficient in translating from the translator progress a stage further with ideas as already stated in this book. Only issue the student with the AFV recognition handbook and translator. (ii) On a sheet of paper draw two vertical lines the same distance apart. (e) D r a w in the vehicle's lines in Indian ink. Should the l/48th scale drawings be found to be too small. (c) Cut out with fretsaw.Method 2. fitting exactly between the two vertical lines. Later on students may be exercised " against the clock " . 3. with a view to a test on these AFVs at a further stated date and time. (f) Finish with a coat of flat varnish. the size may be doubled as follow:— (i) Place the drawing in the epidiascope. (iii) Pin the paper to a blackboard in front of the epidiascope. 2. The student's results must be carefully checked at first to ensure that he is translating correctly.—Give the students the translator and AFV recognition hand­ book or " key " to study in their spare time. The class can be divided into two teams. as double the length of the silhouette. and each crew member writes down the name of the AFV. and check essential measurements.

Given a restful background with the different instructional aids. etc. suitably arranged to the best advantage. (See Fig 23). to be rolled dovm when epi­ diascope and film strip projector are employed. it being appreciated that the lay-out must. (b) Blacken the lower half of the linen.—THE LAY-OUT O F A RECOGNITION ROOM 1. f c) The screen rolled up to the top front of the stage when not in use. hung in prominent positions round the wall to attract attention. blackboard and silhouette in relation to source of light. Shadowgraph 3. carrying also a foreground painting sufficiently deep to conceal a shallow trolley. be very elastic depending on the type of room and other facilities available. and with the aid of an endless string it can be pulled backwards and forwards. it can go a long way towards promoting that interest in the subject so essential for successful instruction. giving free access to the runway. models. SECTION 14. A suggested plan is given on page 18. The following points should be noted:— fa) Position of students. In a static unit an improvement can be effected by using an cndess belt and a winding handle. 2. of necessity. (b) Place a broadside silhouette or a l/48th scale model on the trolley.Runway 2. (a) Stretch a piece of white linen across a wooden frame of sufficient length to accommodate the largest silhouette. From the psychological point of view the lay-out of an attractive instructional room is all important. . (c) Use the shadowgraph by holding it in front of the source of light. with the silhouette held against the rear of the linen. -photographs. (c) Mount a '* Snap target pull-up " on the board for use with head-on sihouettes. fb) Use of photographs and wall charts. This may be improved by mounting the frame in a suitable box. fitting a sliding shutter and arranging an electric bulb in a tin. so thai light is emitted through a small slot. either wholly or with only the turret showing. fa) Affix a suitably painted background to a piece of board about 6 feet long and 6 inches wide.

ROLLEO-UP LIGHTING EPIDIASCOPE SCREEM SHELF FOR MODELS S I L H O U E T T E S ETC TABLE FOR INSTRUCTOR'S KIT 1NSTRUCTOH BLACKCOARO SILHOUETTE O N STAND SHADOWGRAPH PHOTOGRAPHS.—Layout of A F V recognition room .BACK­ GROUND & RUNWAY S H E L F FOR MODELS S I L H O U E T T E S ETC. O H WALLS MODELS ON RAISED P L A T F O R M i'b" HIGH -WINDOWS FILM STRIP PROJECTOR "—EPIDIASCOPE PLAN SCREEN ROLLED-UP EPIDIASCOPE STAGE FRONT LANDSCAPE. ELEVATION Fig 23. CHARTS ETC.

or teach any new vehicles. what is one of the main tilings to look for7 How many types of cupola are there? Name any vehicles with prominent exhaust boxes in the rear view? What vehicles have distinctive armoured skirts? What SP guns arc completely open topped (seen from the air)? . The first is the original groundwork required to give the student a basic know­ ledge.—SYLLABUS AND FORECAST 1. more especially AFV quizzes in various forms. Initial instruction Introduction. and should be covered as part of his individual training. to ensure that knowledge is being maintained. etc Tank translator Periods 1 I 2 1 1 3 3 2 Periods to be of 40 mins duration Revision 4. Suggested questions for revision or written test 5. This. The syllabus shown below is suggested for the initial instruction in individual training. necessity and why things are seen What to look for British AFVs American AFVs French AFVs Russian AFVs Revision. competitions. The syllabus on this subject may be divided into two categories. 3. When scanning a turret roof in the head-on view. 2. and is based on the minimum time required.CHAPTER 5—ORGANIZATION O F TRAINING SECTION 15. with the iiiclusion of any special periods to refresh the students' memory. aim. Periods of revision may mclude any of those mentioned above. should be amended to suit the training equipment and aids available. the second is the subsequent revision from time to time to maintain his knowledge and keep it up to date.

(b) Ejection hole at rear of turret. SEXTON (a) Stepped shaped hull. Sherman type suspension. CENTURION (a) Skirting plates. V shaped angular hull. M 10 (a) (b) (cj (d) Counter weight in turret rear. (c) Angular mud guards. (b) Semi-circular mud guards. DAC (a) Concertina or sugar bowl shaped hull. CHARIOTEER (a) Cromwell hull with new type angular turret. (c) Right angle formed by side of turret and top of track guard (Head and tail on view). f b) Small angular turret central on hull. . (b) CoflBn shaped hull. (c) Air Louvre and intake.APPE^fDIX *A' EASY RECOGNITION AFV CHARACTERISTICS CHURCHILL (a) Boat shape hull. COMET (a) Lip under gun mantlet. AEC (a) Appears top heavy. (b) Air louvre and air intake. Flat top hull. (c) Raised engine deck. (c) Prominent external recuperator. (bj Overhanging bins on turret. (b) Sherman type suspension. (c) Suspension.

(b) Suspension.SARACEN (a) Six road wheels. J S U 122 (a) Hull and suspension similar to JS I. FERRET I (a) Similar to Daimler Scout Car. (e) MG ball mounting rear of turret. (c) Driver's visor only. Front slope of turret and glacis plate are all in the same slope. (c) Very short glacis plate. (b) Large bulbous gun mantlet. (c) V shaped glacis plate. J S I and n (a) These vehicles are very similar. fb) Semi circular turret. (b) Driver's hatch position on glacis plate. SU76 (a) (b) SU 100 (a) (b) (c) (d) Vertical rear to fighting compartment. (c) One inspection plate with exhaust either side on rear slope of hull. Large cupola overhanging right side of turret. (b) Lower outline. 169—3 . Cc) Small turret forward on compartment. (d) 2 Inspection plates on rear slope of hull. T34/85 (a) Hul! and suspension simitar to Charioteer. JS m (a) Suspension. One inspection plate with exhaust either side on rear slope of hull. (b) Box like compartment for passengers. Hull and suspension similar to T 34. (d) 2 inspection plates on rear slope of hull with gun crutch between. Larger gun mantlet and recoil housing. (d) Two inspection plates on rear slope of hull.

(b) Larger gun with multi baffle muzzle brake.JSU 152 (a) Very similar to JSU 122. Gp 531 . (b) Suspension. (d) Driver's hatch similar position to SU 76. The Patton M 47 is similar to the 48. (e) Semi circular gun mantlet. The Patton M 46 is similar to Ihe Pershing. P A N H A R D A/C (a) Long low hull. (c) Coffin shaped appearance of hull. (b) Section hole at rear of turret.S00 10/56 B & M L t d . (c) Suspension. (d) Binocular shaped exhaust. (b) Four road wheels with four tractor wheels. (c) Low turret. (d) Semi-circular cupola. (b) Suspension. AMX 13 (a) Larg^ overhang of rear of turret. (e) Front and rear of hull are almost identical. G E N E R A L P E R S H I N G M 26 (a) Large overhang at rear of turret. (c) Semi-circular ramp usually found on glacis plate underneath gun mantlet. (e) Twin exhaust underneath turret overhang. P A T T O N M 48 (a) Large overhang at rear of turret. BA 64 (a) Angular hexagonal body small hexagonal turret. (b) Angular m u d guards. fc) Frame on right side of turret. (d) Armoured range finder window each side of turret. (c) Grid on rear of turret. 169 W t 43541/6135 I2.

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