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nDGeo Preamble

nDGeo is exclusively developed to the geological domain with unique and distinguishing characteristics: nDGeo offers a holistic approach integrating data of various forms. nDGeo offers a point by point best solution of the target parameter. nDGeo extracts the knowledge from the data. nDGeo does not impose any pre-supposed formulations on the data.

Geological data have a specific nature and characteristic in measuring and defining the physical/geological system. Geological applications have challenges on both fronts of domain knowledge and data collection. Geological data collection is a major challenge pertaining to the environmental conditions and instrumental limitations. In such scenarios the data collected is a partial representation of the physical/geological system. Hence the data represents partial truth and is not complete. Geological domain knowledge is essential, but traditional knowledge cannot completely explain the data set with its inherent inter-dependencies nor what is buried within the data set. To address this very issue MYTHRI developed nDGeo, specifically to resolve this domain problem. nDGeo n-Dimensional Geological Characterisation nDGeo solves the domain issue by a holistic approach of integrating various forms of data to get a better understanding and analysis of the Geological domain.

nDGeo mathematical approach

nDGeo is using a mathematical approach that is proven and tested in the domains of computational hydro dynamics, aerodynamics and astrophysics.
The basis of the method is that 1 or 2 (or more) wells exist which describe the geological system comprehensively in the form of data. We call these SYSTEM WELLS as they define the geological system and provide the knowledge set about the geological environment we want to investigate. The data set can comprise a range of information like mud-gas data, drilling data, logging tool measurements, core data etc., alongside interpreted and calculated elements like facies description, fracture analysis, porosity, saturation etc. enriching the knowledge base. The user selects the relevant properties using his/her geological domain knowledge. The information (tracs) from the system wells are extracted and incorporated into a database. The database, hence created, corresponds to a holistic relationship between an INPUT data set and the OUTPUT / TARGET property. This can be viewed as a MODEL for the TARGET property. Due to the inherent non-linearity, the functional relationship is dynamic, and is fundamentally different to conventional methods, which define a single global relationship.

In mathematical terms the INPUT dataset is a matrix of n-dimensions with each column representing a specific property. The number of rows in the matrix is guided by the sample interval selected along the borehole. The sampling interval does not have to be constant but can vary in order to ensure most geological variations are captured and incorporated in the model. Each row in the matrix is a representation of the target property, i.e. each data point of the target property is described by a set of relevant properties from the corresponding row of the INPUT. This can be described by the generic function (solved by PDE);

An example of a Porosity MODEL, relating some mudlog properties to porosity is shown in matrix form below;

A PREDICTION well is where we want to apply the MODEL in order to calculate for the TARGET property. The prediction well should be geologically analogues to the system wells. In other words, the MODEL should be appropriate and representative of the PREDICTION well. The prerequisite is that the PREDICTION well has an INPUT dataset with properties corresponding to the MODEL. A typical example of a PREDICTION matrix corresponding to the porosity evaluation is as shown below;

Note the one to one correspondence of properties between MODEL and PREDICTION matrices.

The matrices are transformed into the different domain of parameters and solved numerically. The method addresses the issues pertaining to numerical flow, non-linearity and ill-condition datasets effectively and efficiently. The solution hence derived will then be transformed from a parametric space to real space. The laws of matrix multiplication govern the solution process as shown below.

The number of rows in the PREDICTION well can vary from that of the MODEL providing flexibility in the investigation. Usually the number of rows or points for the PREDICTION well is larger because it is desirable to calculate for every sample point along the borehole, for example every foot.
The optimum solution is found by numerical method execution (finite difference method is adopted). The computation is highly intensive and the numbers of iterations are in the order of millions and millions. nDGeo provides solutions in minutes using standard available processors and memory.