Stimulants (also called psychostimulants) are psychoactive drugs which induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical function or both. Examples of these kinds of effects may include enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion, among others. Due to their effects typically having an "up" quality to them, stimulants are also occasionally referred to as "uppers". Depressants or "downers", which decrease mental and/or physical function, are in stark contrast to stimulants and are considered to be their functional opposites. Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines and as illicit substances of recreational use or abuse.

Effects Stimulants (Analeptics) produce a variety of different kinds of effects by enhancing the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common effects, which vary depending on the substance in question, may include enhanced alertness, awareness, wakefulness, endurance,productivity, and motivation, increased arousal, locomotion, heart rate, and blood pressure, and the perception of a diminished requirement forfood and sleep. Many stimulants are also capable of improving mood and relieving anxiety, and some can even induce feelings of euphoria. It should be noted, however, that many of these drugs are also capable of causing anxiety and heart failure, even the ones that may paradoxically reduce it to a degree at the same time. Stimulants exert their effects through a number of different pharmacological mechanisms, the most prominent of which include facilitation of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and/or dopamine activity (e.g., via monoamine transporter inhibition or reversa), adenosine receptor antagonism, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonism. Indications Stimulants are used both individually and clinically for therapeutic purposes in the treatment of a number of indications, including the following:  To counteract lethargy and fatigue throughout the day while at work or while doing other activities.  To reduce sleepiness and to keep the person awake when necessary, as well as to treat narcolepsy.  To decrease appetite and promote weight loss, as well as to treat obesity.  To improve concentration and focus while at work or school, especially for those with attentional disorders such as ADHD.  Occasionally, they are also used to treat clinical depression.

and numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of drugs such asAdderall in controlling symptoms associated with ADD/ADHD. and to a lesser degree. In rare cases. the more important mechanism by which amphetamines cause stimulation is through the direct release of these catecholamines from storage vesicles in cells. ADD/ADHD patients who are not responding sufficiently to traditional amphetamines are prescribed Dextrorotarymethamphetamine. Pure caffeine tablets are also widely available. particularly energy drinks. which is available in many forms. It is included in many soft drinks. known by its common street name "Ecstasy". where subjects do not respond well to tradition SSRImedications. usually for the purpose of enhancing the effect of the primary ingredient. y Nicotine Nicotine is the active chemical constituent in tobacco. incocoa or chocolate. Caffeine is the world's most widely used psychoactive drug and by far the most common stimulant. cigars.Types y Caffeine Caffeine is a mild stimulant compound that is found naturally in coffee. amphetamine increases the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain via reuptake inhibition. however. It had a medical application as a treatment for depression until 1985 when studies showed unrecoverable serotonin levels when used as daily prescription. or powder/crystal form. Due to their availability and fast-acting effects. The vast majority (over 85%) of people in the United States consume caffeine on a daily basis. capsule. Few jurisdictions restrict its sale and use. amphetaminesare prime candidates for abuse. y MDMA ("Ecstasy") Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). or reducing one of its side effects (especially drowsiness). chewing tobacco. Amphetamines are often used for their therapeutic effects. Amphetamines are known to cause elevated mood and euphoria as well as rebound depression and anxiety. After one . Like NDRIs. is an illicit substance that typically comes in either tablet. Nicotine is used widely throughout the world for its stimulating effects. Amphetamines y Amphetamines are a group of phenylethylamine stimulants such as amphetamine and methamphetamine. physicians occasionally prescribeamphetamines to treat major depression. andsmoking cessation aids such as nicotine patches and nicotine gum. including cigarettes. tea. Caffeine is also included in some medications.

though it is less potent. Cocaine is a stimulant but is not normally prescribed therapeutically for its stimulant properties. and increased perspiration. The most well known NDRI is bupropion (Wellbutrin. and narcolepsy. insomnia (or enhanced wakefulness). It belongs to the piperidine class of compounds and increases the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain through reuptake inhibition of the monoamine transporters. Many of these compounds are used as ADHD medications and antidepressants. The stimulant effects of MDMA include hypertension. or Methylin) is a drug approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. and in some parts of Asia. and Peru. and. Ritalin. It also increases the release of dopamine and norepinephrine. anorexia (appetite loss). particularly in ophthalmology. social disinhibition. Methylphenidate y Methylphenidate (MPH. its pharmacological effects are even more closely related to those of cocaine . the most common form of cocaine is a white crystalline powder. although it sees clinical use as a local anesthetic. resulting in increased extracellular levels and therefore enhanced neurotransmission. postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. y NRIs & NDRIs These drugs inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine and/or dopamine. and the two most well known NRIs are atomoxetine (Strattera) and reboxetine(Edronax). increased arousal. among others.year of use consisting of two tablets biweekly. In Europe. Colombia. MPH possesses structural similarities to amphetamine. improved energy. ultimately producing a stimulant effect. and so its sale and possession are strictly controlled in most jurisdictions. North America. Concerta. Most cocaine use is recreational and its abuse potential is high. MDMA is also unique and very popular for itsentactogenic properties. Metadate. MDMA is said to be a cross between an amphetamine stimulant and a psychedelic hallucinogen. Other tropane derivative drugs related to cocaine are also known such as troparil and lometopane but have not been widely sold or used recreationally. Many of these drugs have a considerably lower abuse potential in comparison to other stimulants like the amphetamines and cocaine. the levels were stable. euphoria. Zyban). Cocaine y Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca shrub. Notably. which grows in the mountain regions of South American countries such as Bolivia.

Parkinson's Disease. and Armodafinil Modafinil (Provigil/Alertec/Modavigil) is an analeptic drug approved by the (FDA) for the treatment of narcolepsy. depression. Abuse Abuse of central nervous system stimulants is common. psychiatric andpsychosocial deterioration. Serum and urine are the common sources of testing material although saliva is sometimes used. Commonly used tests include chromatography. which is sold as a general stimulant in Russia under the brand name Phenotropil. shift work sleep disorder. These stimulants tend to increase alertness without the peripheral (body) effects or addiction/tolerance/abuse potential of the traditional stimulants. Modafinil has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). schizophrenia. oreugeroics. producing a class of chemicals known as ampakines. y Ampakines Recently. and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea. increases the release of monoamines but also elevates hypothalamic histamine levels. Testing The presence of stimulants in the body may be tested by a variety of procedures. Armodafinil is a new version of Modafinil. and do not cause rebound hypersomnolence or "come down" effects. like other stimulants. Adrafinil. dependence. . leading some researchers to consider Modafinil a "wakefulness promoting agent" rather than a classic amphetamine-like stimulant. Modafinil. there have been improvements in the area of stimulant pharmacology.y Modafinil. Drug tolerance. immunologic assay and mass spectrometry. Another compound with similar effects to these drugs is carphedon. Ampakines such as ampalex and CX717 have been developed but are still in clinical trials and have not yet been sold commercially. y Yohimbine Yohimbine is a psychoactive drug of the tryptamine chemical class with stimulant and aphrodisiac effects. They have minimal effect on sleep structure. and is metabolized into it in about one hour. sensitisation as well as a withdrawal syndrome can occur. Addiction to CNS stimulants can quickly lead to medical. Adrafinil is the prodrug of Modafinil. cocaine addiction. shift workers' sleep disorder and disease-related fatigue. (good arousal). when taken on an empty stomach.

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