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History of air pollution
The origin of air pollution on the earth can be traced from the times when man started using firewood as a means of cooking and heating. Hippocrates has mentioned air pollution in 400 BC. With the discovery and increasing use of coal, air pollution became more pronounced especially in urban areas. It was recognized as a problem 700 years ago in London in the form of smoke pollution, which prompted King Edward I to make the first antipollution law to restrict people from using coal for domestic heating in the year 1273. In the year 1300 another Act banning the use of coal was passed. Defying the law led to imposition of capital punishment. In spite of this air pollution became a serious problem in London during the industrial revolution due to the use of coal in industries. The earliest recorded major disaster was the London Smog that occurred in 1952 that resulted in more than 4000 deaths due to the accumulation of air pollutants over the city for five days. In Europe, around the middle of the 19th century, a black form of the Peppered moth was noticed in industrial areas. Usually the normal Peppered moth is well camouflaged on a clean lichen covered tree. However the peppered pattern was easily spotted and picked up by birds on the smoke blackened bark of trees in the industrial area, while the black form remained well camouflaged. Thus while the peppered patterned moths were successful in surviving in clean non-industrial areas, the black coloured moths were successful in industrial areas. With the spread of industrialization, it has been observed that the black forms are not only see in Peppered moth, but also in many other moths. This is a classic case of pollution leading to adaptation. Air pollution began to increase in the beginning of the twentieth century with the development of the transportation systems and large-scale use of petrol and diesel. The severe air quality problems due to the formation of photochemical smog from the combustion residues of diesel and petrol engines were felt for the first time in Los Angeles. Pollution due to auto-exhaust remains a serious environmental issue in many developed and developing countries including India. The Air Pollution Control Act in India was passed in 1981 and the Motor Vehicle Act for controlling the air pollution, very recently. These laws are intended to prevent air from being polluted. The greatest industrial disaster leading to serious air pollution took place in Bhopal where extremely poisonous methyl isocyanide gas was accidentally released from the Union Carbides pesticide manufacturing plant on the night of

December 3rd 1984. The effects of this disaster on human health and the soil are felt even today. The present-day atmosphere is quite different from the natural atmosphere that existed before the Industrial Revolution (circa 1760 ), in terms of chemical composition. If the natural atmosphere is considered to be clean, then this means that clean air cannot be found anywhere in todays atmosphere. The chemical composition of the pre-industrial (i.e., before the 18th century), natural global atmosphere is compared to current compositions in Table 1:

Defining air pollution is not simple. One could claim that air pollution started when humans began burning fuels. In other words, all man-made (anthropogenic) emissions into the air can be called air pollution, because they alter the chemical composition of the natural atmosphere. The increase in the global concentrations of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 , and N2O (shown in Table 1), can be called air pollution using this approach, even though the concentrations have not found to be toxic for humans and the ecosystem. One can refine this approach and only consider anthropogenic emissions of harmful chemicals as air pollution. However, this refined approach has some drawbacks. Firstly, one has to define what harmful means. Harmful could mean an adverse effect on the health of living things, an adverse effect on anthropogenic or natural non-living structures, or a reduction in the airs

visibility. Also, a chemical that does not cause any short-term harmful effects may accumulate in the atmosphere and create a long-term harmful effect. For example, anthropogenic emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were once considered safe because they are inert in the lowest part of the atmosphere called the troposphere. However, once these chemicals enter the stratosphere, ultraviolet radiation can convert them into highly reactive species that can have a devastating effect on stratospheric ozone. Similarly, anthropogenic CO2 emissions from combustion processes were considered safe because they are not toxic, but the long-term accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere may lead to a climate change, which could then be harmful to humans and the ecosystem. Another drawback of this approach is that it does not consider natural emissions as air pollution even though they can be very harmful, such as gases and particles from volcanic eruptions, and smoke from forest fires caused by natural processes (lightning strikes). So besides anthropogenic emissions, it is useful to also consider geogenic emissions and biogenic emissions as contributors to air pollution. Geogenic6 emissions are defined as emissions caused by the non-living world, such as volcanic emissions, sea-salt emissions, and natural fires. Biogenic emissions come from the living world; such as volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests and CH4 emissions from swamps7. Human activity can also influence geogenic and biogenic emissions. For example, human applications of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture can result in increased biogenic emissions of nitrogen compounds from the soil. Also, humans can affect the biogenic emissions of VOC by cutting down trees or planting trees. Lastly, geogenic emissions of dust from the earths surface can be altered if the surface is changed by human activity. So taking all of the above into account, we can define an air pollutant as any substance emitted into the air from an anthropogenic, biogenic, or geogenic source, that is either not part of the natural atmosphere or is present in higher concentrations than the natural atmosphere, and may cause a short-term or long-term adverse effect.

Structure of the atmosphere

The atmosphere is normally composed of 79 percent nitrogen, 20 percent oxygen and one percent as a mixture of carbon dioxide, water vapour and trace amounts of several other gases such as neon, helium, methane, krypton, hydrogen and xenon. The general structure of the atmosphere has several important features that have relevance to environmental problems. The atmosphere is divided into several layers. The innermost layer the troposphere extends 17 kilometers above sea level at the equator and about 8 kilometers over the poles. It contains

about 75 percent of the mass of the earths air. The fragility of this layer is obvious from the fact that if the earth were an apple this particular layer would be no thicker than an apples skin. Temperature declines with altitude in the troposphere. At the top of the troposphere temperatures abruptly begin to rise. This boundary here this temperature reversal occurs is called the tropopause. The tropopause marks the end of the troposphere and the beginning of the stratosphere, the second layer of the atmosphere. The stratosphere extends from 17 to 48 kilometers above the earths surface. While the composition of the stratosphere is similar to that of the troposphere it has two major differences. The volume of water vapour here is about 1000 times less while the volume of ozone is about 1000 times greater. The presence of ozone in the stratosphere prevents about 99 percent of the suns harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earths surface thus protecting humans from cancer and damage to the immune system. This layer does not have clouds and hence airplanes fly in this layer as it creates less turbulence. Temperature rises with altitude in the stratosphere until there is another reversal. This point is called the stratopause and it marks the end of the stratosphere and the beginning of the atmospheres next layer, the mesosphere. In the mesosphere the temperature decreases with altitude falling up to 110 oC at the top. Above this is a layer where ionization of the gases is a major phenomenon, thus increasing the temperature. This layer is called the thermosphere. Only the lower troposphere is routinely involved in our weather and hence air pollution. The other layers are not significant in determining the level of air pollution.

CHAPTER 2 Primary and Secondary Pollutants

Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary pollutants are substances that are directly emitted into the atmosphere from sources. The main primary pollutants known to cause harm in high enough concentrations are the following: Carbon compounds, such as CO, CO2, CH4, and VOCs Nitrogen compounds, such as NO, N2O, and NH3 Sulfur compounds, such as H2S and SO2 Halogen compounds, such as chlorides, fluorides, and bromides Particulate Matter (PM or aerosols), either in solid or liquid form, which is usually categorized into these groups based on the aerodynamic diameter of the particles: 1. Particles less than 100 microns, which are also called inhalable since they can easily enter the nose and mouth. 2. Particles less than 10 microns (PM10, often labeled fine in Europe). These particles are also called thoracic since they can penetrate deep in the respiratory system. 3. Particles less than 4 microns. These particles are often called respirable because they are small enough to pass completely through the respiratory system and enter the bloodstream. 4. Particles less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5, labeled fine in the US). 5. Particles less than 0.1 microns (PM0.1, ultrafine). Sulfur compounds were responsible for the traditional wintertime sulfur smog in London in the mid 20th century. These anthropogenic pollutants have sometimes reached lethal concentrations in the atmosphere, such as during the infamous London episode of December 195213. Secondary pollutants are not directly emitted from sources, but instead form in the atmosphere from primary pollutants (also called precursors). The main secondary pollutants known to cause harm in high enough concentrations are the following: NO2 and HNO3 formed from NO Ozone (O3) formed from photochemical reactions of nitrogen oxides and VOCs Sulfuric acid droplets formed from SO2 and nitric acid droplets formed from NO2 Sulfates and nitrates aerosols (e.g., ammonium (bi)sulfate and ammonium nitrate) formed from reactions of sulfuric acid droplets and nitric acid droplets with NH3, respectively

Organic aerosols formed from VOCs in gas-to-particle reactions In the 20th century, it was recognized that petroleum products are responsible for a new type of smog, a photochemical summertime smog composed of secondary pollutants such as ozone, that is quite different from the winter sulfur smog described earlier. This smog has been labeled Los Angeles smog, to differentiate from the London smog described before. Photochemical smog14 was first recognized15 in the city of Los Angeles in the 1940s. After decades of research, the smog was identified as the product of photochemical reactions involving precursors (nitrogen oxides and VOC) and sunlight, with the production of ozone and other secondary chemicals. While nitrogen oxides are emitted by a wide variety of sources, automobiles mostly emit VOCs, even though contributions can be found from vegetation and common human activities, such as bakeries16. Some secondary pollutants sulfates, nitrates, and organic particles can be transported over large distances, such as hundreds and even thousands of miles. Wet and dry deposition of these pollutants contributes to the acid deposition problem (often called acid rain), with possible damage to soils, vegetation, and susceptible lakes.

What happens to pollutants in the atmosphere?

Once pollutants enter the troposphere they are transported downwind, diluted by the large volume of air, transformed through either physical or chemical changes or are removed from the atmosphere by rain during which they are attached to water vapour that subsequently forms rain or snow that falls to the earths surface. The atmosphere normally disperses pollutants by mixing them in the very large volume of air that covers the earth. This dilutes the pollutant to acceptable levels. The rate of dispersion however varies in relation to the following aspects: Topography Normally as the earths surface becomes warmed by sunlight the layer of air in contact with the ground is also heated by convection. This warmer air is less dense than the cold air above it, so it rises. Thus pollutants produced in the surface layer are effectively dispersed. However on a still evening, the process is reversed. An hour or two before sunset after asunny day, the ground starts to lose heat and the air near the ground begins to cool rapidly. Due to the absence of wind, a static layer of cold air is produced as the ground cools. This in turn induces condensation of fog. The morning sun cannot initially penetrate this fog layer. The cold air being dense cannot rise and is trapped by the warm air above. It cannot move out of the area due to the surrounding hills. The topographic features resemble a closed chemical reactor in which the pollutants are trapped. This condition often continues through the cool night and reaches its maximum intensity before sunrise. When the morning sun warms the ground the air near the ground also warms up and rises within an hour or two. This may be broken up by strong winds. In cold regions this situation can persist for several days. Such a situation is known as smog (smoke + fog).

The most well known example is that of the London Smog that occurred in 1952. The city used large quantities of sulphur containing coal for domestic heating that released smoke, along with smoke from thermal power plants and other industrial establishments. This used to lead to the generation of high levels of smoke containing sulphur oxides. Due to a sudden adverse meteorological condition air pollutants like smoke and sulphur oxides started to build-up in the atmosphere. The white fog accumulated over the city turned black forming apea-soup smog with almost zero visibility. Within two days of the formation of this smog, people started suffering from acute pulmonary disorders which caused irritation of bronchi, cough, nasal discharges, sore throat, vomiting and burning sensations in the eyes. This event lead to several deaths. Meteorological conditions The velocity of the wind affects the dispersal of pollutants. Strong winds mix polluted air more rapidly with the surrounding air diluting the pollutants rapidly. When wind velocity is low mixing takes place and the concentration of pollutants remains high.

When sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are transported by prevailing winds they form secondary pollutants such as nitric acid vapour, droplets of sulfuric acid and particles of sulphate and nitrate salts. These chemicals descend on the earths surface in two forms: wet (as acidic rain, snow, fog and cloud vapour) and dry (as acidic particles). The resulting mixture is called acid deposition, commonly called acid rain. Acid deposition has many harmful effects especially when the pH falls below 5.1 for terrestrial systems and below 5.5 for aquatic systems. It contributes to human respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and asthma, which can cause premature death. It also damages statues, buildings, metals and car finishes. Acid deposition can damage tree foliage directly but the most serious effect is weakening of trees so they become more susceptible to other types of damage. The nitric acid and the nitrate salts in acid deposition can lead to excessive soil nitrogen levels. This can over stimulate growth of other plants and intensify depletion of other important soil nutrients such as calcium and magnesium, which in turn can reduce tree growth and vigour.


CHAPTER 3 Health, environmental and climatic effects of air pollution

Air pollution can affect our health in many ways. Numerous scientific studies have linked air pollution to a variety of health problems including: (1) Aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (2) Decreased lung function (3) Increased frequency and severity of respiratory symptoms such as difficulty breathing and coughing (4) Increased susceptibility to respiratory infections (5) Effects on the nervous system, including the brain, such as IQ loss and impacts on learning, memory, and behaviour (6) Cancer (7) Premature death. Some sensitive individuals appear to be at greater risk for air pollution-related health effects, for example, those with pre-existing heart and lung diseases (e.g., heart failure/ischemic heart disease, asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis), diabetics, older adults, and children. In 2008, approximately 127 million people lived in counties that exceeded national air quality standards. Environmental effects : Air pollution also damages our environment. Ozone can damage vegetation, adversely impacting the growth of plants and trees. These impacts can reduce the ability of plants to uptake CO2 from the atmosphere and indirectly affect entire ecosystems. Visibility is reduced by particles in the air that scatter and absorb light. Typical visual range in the eastern U.S. is 15 to 30 miles, approximately one-third of what it would be without man-made air pollution. In the West, the typical visual range is about 60 to 90 miles, or about one-half of the visual range under natural conditions. Pollution in the form of acids and acid-forming compounds (such as sulfur dioxide [SO2] and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]) can deposit from the atmosphere to the Earths surface. This acid deposition can be either dry or wet. Wet deposition is more commonly known as acid rain. Acid rain can occur anywhere and, in some areas, rain can be 100 times more acidic than natural precipitation. Acid deposition can be a very serious regional problem, particularly in areas downwind from high SO2- and NOx-emitting sources (e.g., coal burning power plants, smelters, and factories). Acid deposition can have many harmful ecological effects in both land and water systems. While acid deposition can damage tree foliage directly, it more


commonly stresses trees by changing the chemical and physical characteristics of the soil. In lakes, acid deposition can kill fish and other aquatic life. Climatic effects : Air pollution can also impact the Earths climate. Different types of pollutants affect the climate indifferent ways, depending on their specific properties and the amount of time they stay in the atmosphere. Any pollutant that affects the Earths energy balance is known as a climate forcer. Some climate forcers absorb energy and lead to climate warming, while others reflect the suns rays and prevent that energy from reaching the Earths surface, leading to climate cooling. Climate forcers can either be gases or aerosols (solid or liquid droplets suspended in the air) and include many traditional air pollutants, such as ozone and different types of particle pollution. Under normal conditions, most of the solar radiation reaching the Earths surface is radiated back toward space. However, atmospheric greenhouse gaseslike CO2 , CH4 , and ozone can trap this energy and prevent the heat from escaping, somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are necessary to life as we know it because they keep the planets surface warmer than it would otherwise be. However, as the concentrations of these gases continue to increase in the atmosphere, largely due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil, the Earths temperature is climbing above past levels. Such changes in temperature, along with changes in precipitation and other weather conditions due to climate change, may lead to even higher air pollution levels. In addition to GHGs, other pollutants contribute to climate change. Black carbon (BC), a component of particle pollution, directly absorbs incoming and reflected solar radiation and reduces reflection of sunlight off of snow and ice. In these ways, BC contributes to increased absorption of energy at the Earths surface and warming of the atmosphere. Recent studies suggest that BC may be having a significant impact on the Earths climate. Other types of particlesparticularly sulfates, nitrates, and some types of directly emitted organic carbon are largely reflective and therefore have a net cooling impact on the atmosphere. Particles can also have important indirect effects on climate through impacts on clouds and precipitation. The longer a pollutant stays in the atmosphere, the longer the effect associated with that pollutant will persist. Some climate forcing pollutants stay in the atmosphere for decades or centuries after they are emitted, meaning todays emissions will affect the climate far into the future. These pollutants, like CO2 , tend to accumulate in the atmosphere so their net warming impact continues over time. Other climate forcers, such as ozone and BC, remain in the atmosphere for shorter periods of time so reducing emissions of these pollutants may have beneficial impacts on climate in the near term. These short-lived climate forcers originate


from a variety of sources, including the burning of fossil fuels and biomass, wildfires, and industrial processes. Short-lived climate forcing pollutants and their chemical precursors can be transported long distances and may produce particularly harmful warming effects in sensitive regions such as the Arctic.



The Greenhouse Effect

Atmospheric changes induced by pollution contribute to global warming, a phenomenon which is caused due to the increase in concentration of certain gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, methane and CFCs. Observations of the earth have shown beyond doubt that atmospheric constituents such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides and Chloro Fluro Carbons trap heat in the form of infra-red radiation near the earths surface. This is known as the Greenhouse Effect. The phenomenon is similar to greenhouse allows solar radiation to enter which is absorbed by the objects inside. These objects radiate heat in the form of terrestrial radiation, which does not pass out through the glass. The heat is therefore trapped in the greenhouse increasing the temperature inside and ensuring the luxuriant growth of plants.

There could be several adverse effects of global warming. With a warmer earth the polar ice caps will melt causing a rise in ocean levels and flooding of coastal areas. In countries like Bangladesh or the Maldives this would be catastrophic. If the sea level rises by 3m., Maldives will disappear completely beneath the waves. The rise in temperature will bring about a fall in agricultural produce. Changes in the distribution of solar energy can bring about changes in habitats. A previously productive agricultural area will suffer severe droughts while rains will fall in locations that were once deserts. This could bring about changes in the species of natural plants, agricultural crops, insects, livestock and micro-organisms. In the polar regions temperature rises caused by global warming would have disastrous


effects. Vast quantities of methane are trapped beneath the frozen soil of Alaska. When the permafrost melts the methane that will be released can accelerate the process of global warming.


CHAPTER 4 Air pollution control

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) One of the major causes of both indoor and outdoor air pollution are Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). VOCs are found within a wide range of consumer products, including solvent-based paints, printing inks and petrol products. Due to the proven contribution of VOCs to air pollution (and ultimately smog) VOC control regulations are enforced around the world to protect the environment against them. Activated Carbon Activated Carbon is a popular air pollution control method. One of the most common forms of carbon treatment in air pollution control is carbon adsorption. This method sees the use of dry chemical scrubbing media such as carbon filters for the adsorption of fumes from the air. Biofilters: Clearing the Air Biofiltration is a method of pollution control in which process pollutants are biologically degraded using microorganisms. The most common air pollution control application of biofilters is the microbiotic oxidation of contaminants in the air. Biofilters use living materials to degrade pollutants when immobilized in the biofilm. Applications of this method include treatment of the off-gas from wastewater treatment plants, after painting and during the manufacture of food products. Although capable of treating large airflows, one of the disadvantages of biofilters is the requirement of a large amount of physical space. In recent years efforts have been made to reduce the amount of space needed, meaning that footprint reductions have been seen. Various systems are used to ensure that sufficient moisture levels are maintained throughout the system. Air is humidified before entry to the bed using humidification chambers, bioscrubbers and water spray systems. Biofilters are cost-effective and straightforward options for pollutants capable of biodegrading reasonably easily. The absence of further pollution from biofilters is another positive associated with this method of air pollution control.


Driving Towards Cleaner Emissions Car engine emissions are recognized as one of the leading causes of air pollution. Catalytic Oxidizers are placed in the exhaust system of cars to reduce emissions from the exhaust pipe. The ideal byproducts of a cars engine are carbon dioxide, some water and nitrogen. However in reality engines continue to release unburned hydrocarbons which damage the environment. Catalytic oxidizers now oxidize many of the unburnt hydrocarbons from an engine, leading to cleaner emissions from cars. The Big Problem: CO2 Emissions One of the challenges associated with catalytic oxidizers is the necessary operation speed to catch the unburnt hydrocarbons before they leave the exhaust pipe. Standards of catalytic oxidizers are increasing each year, although carbon dioxide emissions still pose a problem. It is not possible to oxidize CO2 emissions into anything less harmful to the environment. Weve all seen Gas Flares (or flare stacks) burning off unwanted substances and releasing them into the environment. Gas flares burn excess and flammable gases and liquids from plant equipment in an elevated chimney. Examples of gas flare usage include chemical plants, landfills and oil rigs. Their most common purpose is to protect against unplanned over-pressuring of the plant equipment. The gases we see leaving the chimneys are released automatically whenever any piece of plant equipment becomes over-pressurised. The released substances are burned as they exit the flare stacks. One of the worlds largest gas flaring sites (and a major source of concern for environmentalists) is the Niger Delta, which sees more natural gas flaring during crude oil production than any other country.

Acid Gas Control - SO2 Several systems for dry scrubbing are available, including Spray Dryer Absorbers (SPAs) and Dry Sorbent Injectors (DSIs). Usually known as spray dryers, SPAs remove the presence of acid gases from the environment through absorption in the dryer.


Air pollution in India

The World health Organization (WHO) which rates only mega cities of the world has rated Delhi the fourth most polluted city ion the world. However compared to other cities in India, Delhi is not at the top of the list of polluted cities. Our country has several pollution hotspots. The recent release from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Parivesh, January 2003 states that Ahmedabads air is most noxious flowed by levels (PM10) 3-4 times the standard of 60 microgram per cubic meter (mg/m3). The report has ranked 29 cities according to Respirable Particulate Matter (RSPM) levels recorded during the year 2000. This report thus confirms the fact that Indian cities show high particulate pollution with 14 cities hitting critical levels. Nitrogen dioxide levels in most major cities are generally close to the acceptable annual standard of 60 mg/m3. However sharp increases have been noticed in a few cities with heavy vehicular traffic and density as in a few locations in Kolkata and Delhi indicating stronger impact of traffic. The CPCB indicates vehicles as one of the predominant sources of air pollution. However the impact of hard measures implemented in Delhi over the last few years such as introduction of Euro II standards, lowering the sulphur content in fuel to 500 ppm and implementing Compressed Natural Gas program has succeeded in improving the quality of air. Rapid urbanization of smaller cities especially those situated near the big commercial centers have an enormous increase in traffic load especially in the most polluted segment such as two and three wheelers and diesel vehicles combined with poor quality fuel contribute to the deteriorating air quality in a big way. It is alarming to note that residential locations in India are fast outpacing industrial locations in air pollution implying that vehicular fumes are responsible for this trend. The Supreme Courts order of April 5, 2002 has directed the Central Government for an action plan for other polluted cities. Absence of any local initiatives for action and delay in air pollution control measures will only make the situation worse. The Supreme Court also played a vital role protecting the Taj Mahal. Being exposed to sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate matter, the Taj had contracted marble cancer, a fungal growth that corroded its surface giving it a yellowish tinge. The SPM deposits blackened it. Shri MC Mehta an environmental lawyer filed a public interest litigation in 1984 expressing concern over the havoc the polluting units in Agra were wreaking on the Taj Mahal. Twelve years later the Supreme Court ordered 292 industries in the vicinity to either adopt pollution control measures or shut


down. It also made it mandatory for these units to either switch over to eco friendly fuels like natural gas or shift out of the area. Air quality monitoring India does not presently have a well established system of monitoring air pollution. When air quality monitoring began in India in the late 1960s planners focused only on a few pollutants namely sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and suspended particulate matter. Other pollutants such as carbon monoxide and lead were monitored only on a limited scale. The threat from other air toxins such as benzene, ozone, other small particulates is not known as these are not monitored at all. A database on ambient air quality in Indian cities has been prepared by the monitoring networks of the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) initiated its own national Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQM) program in 1985.

Data to the NAAQM is supplied by the respective state pollution control boards, which is then transmitted to the CPCB. Experts feel that the present air quality-monitoring network cannot capture the true profile of urban air pollution due to the lack of adequate monitoring stations. Moreover critical toxins have still not been included in the list of pollutants to be monitored. Legal aspects of air pollution control in India The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was legislated in 1981. The Act provided for prevention, control and abatement of air pollution. In areas notified under this Act no industrial pollution causing activity could come up without the permission of the concerned State Pollution Control Board. But this Act was not strong enough to play a precautionary or a corrective role. After the Bhopal disaster, a more comprehensive Environment Protection Act (EPA) was passed in 1986. This Act for the first time conferred enforcement agencies with necessary punitive powers to restrict any activity that can harm the environment. To


regulate vehicular pollution the Central Motor Vehicles Act of 1939 was amended in 1989. Following this amendment the exhaust emission rules for vehicle owners were notified in 1990 and the mass emission standards for vehicle manufacturers were enforced in 1991 for the first time. The mass emission norms have been further revised for 2000. Air quality management as a well-defined program has yet to emerge in India. We need a much more strengthened air quality management with continuous monitoring of air if we are to have a better quality of air. This would also need an integrated approach with strict air pollution control laws. Some of the suggestions for doing this include: Putting a greater emphasis on pollution prevention rather than control Reducing the use of fossil fuels Improving the quality of vehicular fuel Increasing the use of renewable energy ROLE OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN PREVENTION OF POLLUTION There are a host of environmental problems caused by human actions on the environment. If we are to respond to these problems we have to recognize that each of us is individually responsible for the quality of the environment we live in. Our personal actions can either worsen or improve our environmental quality. Several people may feel that environmental problemscan be solved with quick technological fixes. While a majority of individuals would want a cleaner environment, not many of them want to make major changes in their lifestyle that could contribute to a cleaner environment. Decisions and actions taken by individuals to a very large extent determine the quality of life for everyone. This necessitates that individuals should not only be aware of various environmental issues and the consequences of their actions on the environment but should also make a firm resolve to develop environmentally ethical lifestyles. With the help of solar energy, natural processes developed over billions of years can indefinitely renew the topsoil, water, air, forests, grasslands and wildlife on which all forms of life depend, but only as long as we do not use these potentially renewable resources faster than they are replenished. Some of our wastes can be diluted, decomposed and recycled by natural processes indefinitely as long as these processes are not overloaded. Natural processes also provide services of flood prevention, erosion control at no costs at all. We must therefore learn to value these resources and use them sustainably. Concepts that help individuals contribute towards a better quality of our environment and human life. Develop respect or reverence for all forms of life.


Each individual must try to answer four basic questions: Where do the things that I consume come from? What do I know about the place where I live? How am I connected to the earth and other living things? What is my purpose and responsibility as a human being? Try to plant trees wherever you can and more importantly take care of them. They reduce air pollution. Reduce the use of wood and paper products wherever possible. Manufacturing paper leads to pollution and loss of forests which releases oxygen and takes up carbon dioxide. Try to recycle paper products and use recycled paper wherever possible. From the mail you receive reuse as many envelopes that you can. Do not buy furniture, doors, window frames made from tropical hardwoods such as teak and mahogany. These are forest based. Help in restoring a degraded area near your home or join in an afforestation program. Use pesticides in your home only when absolutely necessary and use them in as small amounts as necessary. Some insect species help to keep a check on the populations of pest species. Advocate organic farming by asking your grocery store to stock vegetables and fruits grown by an organic method. This will automatically help to reduce the use of pesticides. Reduce the use of fossil fuels by either walking up a short distance using a car pool, sharing a bike or using public transport. This reduces air pollution. Shut off the lights and fans when not needed. Dont use aerosol spray products and commercial room air fresheners. They damage the ozone layer. Do not pour pesticides, paints, solvents, oil or other products containing harmful chemicals down the drain or on the ground. Buy consumer goods that last, keep them as long as possible and have them repaired as far as possible instead of disposing them off. Such products end up in landfills that could pollute ground water. Buy consumer goods ages in refillable glass containers instead of cans or throwaway bottles. Use rechargeable batteries. Try to avoid asking for plastic carry bags when you buy groceries or vegetables or any other items. Use your own cloth bag instead.


Use sponges and washable cloth napkins, dish towels and handkerchiefs instead of paper ones. Dont use throwaway paper and plastic plates and cups when reusable versions are available. Recycle all newspaper, glass, aluminum and other items accepted for recycling in your area. You might have to take a little trouble to locate such dealers. Set up a compost bin in your garden or terrace and use it to produce manure for your plants to reduce use of fertilizers. Try to lobby and push for setting up garbage separation and recycling programs in your localities. Choose items that have the least packaging or no packaging Start individual or community composting or vemicomposting plants in your neighbourhood and motivate people to join in. Do not litter the roads and surroundings just because the sweeper from the Municipal Corporation will clean it up. Take care to put trash into dustbins or bring it back home with you where it can be appropriately disposed. You must realize that you cannot do everything and have solutions for every problem in the world. You can however concentrate on issues that you feel strongly about and can do something about. Focusing your energy on a particular issue will help you get better results. You could join any of the several NGOs that exist in our country or become volunteers. Organize small local community meetings to discuss positive approaches of pollution prevention. Learn about the biodiversity of your own area. Understand the natural and cultural assets. This would help you to develop a sense of pride in your city/town/village and will also help you understand the problems facing their survival. You cannot improve your world by not voting. You have the option to make a choice rather than complain later on. It is important that you do not get discouraged at the first sign of trouble. Do not dwell on the negative aspects. But take positive actions wherever you can to make the world a better place to live in. When talking to elected officials always be courteous and reasonable. You may disagree with a particular position but be respectful in doing so as you will gain little by being hostile and brash.



During the 70s and 80s Delhi, the national capital, saw an unprecedented growth in population, vehicles and small scale industries, which caused serious ecological imbalance and environmental degradation. The problem got further aggravated by increasing migration from neighbouring states as shown in Figure 1. The core of Delhis growth problems lie in its rapid urbanization and its ability to offer opportunities for employment. What was essentially an administrative center with a population of 1.45 million in 1951 became a huge urban metropolis with a population of 13.78 million as per the 2001 Census. Compare this with a population of 9.42 million in 1991. Figure 2 shows an all time high decennial growth of 46.31% between 1991-2001. During the same period, the corresponding national level growth was 21.34%.

The period between 1989 1996 saw a rapid increase in pollution levels. Infact, 1996 is considered the peak year in terms of air pollution load. The transport, industrial and the domestic sectors were the major contributors towards the rising ambient air pollution levels, in addition to the presence of natural dust due to meteorological conditions. Figure 3 indicates the contribution from various sectors to ambient air pollution. The contribution


from the vehicular sector increased from 23% in the year 1970/71 to as much as 72% by the year 2001.

Meteorological Conditions Besides anthropogenic sources, climate and natural sources too play an important role in the build-up of pollution levels. Delhi has a semi-arid climate, with an extremely hot summer, average rainfall and very cold winters. Mean monthly temperatures range from 14.3 C in January (minimum 3 C) to 34.5 C in June (maximum 47 C). The annual mean temperature is 25.3 C (WMO 1971). Dust storms occur frequently during summer months leading to build-up of particulate matter in the atmosphere. The monsoon season witnesses the least pollution due to frequent washout of pollutants along with rains. Mixing height is one of the important parameters that influences the dilution of pollutants. It follows diurnal and seasonal variations. During winter, ground-based temperature inversions are a regular feature that restrict mixing height to low levels. Lower temperatures, calm conditions, lower mixing height, and temperature inversions during winter is to restrict and confine pollutant dispersion and dispersal (CPCB 1993/94 and CPCB 2000). The monsoon rain scrubs the atmosphere regularly in a yearly cycle. Winter evenings, have higher pollution build-up because of


frequent calm conditions with temperature inversions resulting in poor natural ventilation and high emission loads due to evening traffic peaks. The situation in Delhi during winter is therefore more critical as compared to Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata as the effect of natural sea breeze is absent resulting in virtually no dilution of pollutants. In the summer season, there are frequent premonsoon dust storms, when strong westerly winds from Rajasthan desert deposit large concentration of dust particles in Delhi's atmosphere. Vehicular Pollution Delhi has experienced an exponential growth in the number of personalized vehicles over the last two decades. The rising trend in air pollution load from vehicular exhaust can also be noticed from the rise in the consumption of both major auto fuels i.e. petrol and diesel. By 1996, emission load in Delhi was much greater than the emission load in other metropolitan cities such as Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai as illustrated in Table 1.

All this was happening in spite of widening of roads and an increased network of roads. The city continued to grow, the number of vehicles on the roads kept increasing, traffic became more chaotic and congested. The poor road condition had also to cope with overloaded public transport vehicles since more and more people needed to commute for longer distances. Generally, petrol-driven vehicles (cars and those motorcycles, scooter etc. that use the more efficient four stroke engine) emit more of unburnt petrol and carbon monoxide whereas diesel


powered vehicles (buses and lorries) emit more of soot (the technical term for which is suspended particulate matter) and oxides of nitrogen. Autoricksaws, scooters, motorcycles, mopeds, and so on that run on two stroke engines use petrol mix with lubricant oil emit large quantities of unburnt oil and, as a result, emit large quantities of unburnt petrol besides Carbon Monoxide and soot. Industrial Pollution The other major source of air pollution load in Delhi was the fuel combustion by both large scale and small-scale industries. Among the large-scale industries, thermal power plants were the most prominent contributors to air pollution. Three coal based thermal power plants namely Rajghat, I. P. and Badarpur Power Plant, which have a total generation capacity of 1087 MW were responsible for as much as 10% (approx.) of the air pollution load in 2001. These thermal power plants are located in the heart of the city. Particulate emissions from the I.P. Power Station (Unit no. 5) in 1998 reached an all time high of 422 mg/Nm3 as against the national standard of 150 mg/Nm3 .By 1996, the total number of small-scale industries in Delhi grew to a record number of 1,26,000 and unfortunately, most of the growth was witnessed in the pollution intensive areas and sectors. In addition, significant pollution was also caused by a large number of Diesel Generating (DG) Sets, which were installed in various commercial and industrial establishments. The erratic power supply was the raison detre for the phenomenal increase in the number and use of DG sets.


Vehicular Pollution The main source of vehicular pollution is the fuel itself. The way it undergoes combustion inside the engine determines the amount of pollutant emissions from the engine. Any strategy then has to aim at the use of cleaner fuel, reduction in fuel consumption, adoption of efficient engines and installation of pollution control device at the tail end pipes of vehicles. A part of mitigation measures started in 1996, with the introduction of reduced concentration of lead in petrol from 0.56 g/l to 0.15 g/l, reduction of benzene to 5 % and reduction of sulphur from 1.0% to 0.5%. Over the next four years, the quality of fuel further improved as explained in Table 2 with further reduction in sulphur in diesel and lead in petrol.


On July 28, 1998, while hearing a Public Interest Litigation the Honble Supreme Court directed, among other things, the replacement of all pre 1990 auto-rickshaws and retrofitting all the post - 1990 auto-rickshaws and taxis with devices running on clean fuels. In addition to this, the Honble Court also directed the withdrawal of buses which were more than eight years old and conversion of the rest of the citys bus fleet to CNG based vehicles and setting up of more CNG filling stations. This was based on the recommendations of


Environment Pollution (Prevention & Control) Authority (EPCA), also known as Bhure Lal Committee, set up by the Ministry of Environment & Forests. The Govt of Delhi explored all possibilities for using CNG, by holding discussions with vehicle manufacturers and other public transport agencies. Vehicle manufacturers were asked to bring CNG technology into the country. The Gas Authority of India Ltd. was requested to lay underground pipelines for setting up of new CNG stations. From 1999 onwards, the Govt. of NCT of Delhi persuaded the Govt. of India for bringing converted CNG vehicles under permit and tariff jurisdiction of the Govt., for which an amendment had to be made in the Motor Vehicles Act during September, 2001. The co-ordinated measures for effecting the switchover were put in place by the Govt. of Delhi through multipronged action as different agencies were responsible for ensuring the environment friendliness of public transportation namely Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC), Indraprasth Gas Ltd. (IGL), Dept. of Transport, and Dept. Of Environment. Certainly, this was a challenging task, which was never undertaken on such a massive scale anywhere in the world. Following the orders of the Honble Supreme Court to move all public transport on CNG by March 31, 2001, the transporters went on strike and removed their buses from the road. Looking at the problem, Delhi Govt. approached the Court for extending the deadline but the Honble Court did not accept the same. The problem became manufacturers were forthcoming nor the owners of the buses were willing for the switchover to CNG as they had doubts about the technical and economical suitability of the CNG buses. It was in late 2001 that the Delhi Govt. prepared a phase out plan for diesel buses, which was approved by the Honble Supreme Court. Underthis plan, 800 diesel buses per month were to be phased out every month between April, 2002 and November, 2002. Following this plan, the entire public city bus fleet was converted to CNG for which, Govt. of Delhi provided adequate funds. Apart from buses, all pre-1990 auto-rickshaws were also to be replaced with new autorickshaws and post-1990 auto-rickshaws were to be retrofitted with CNG kits. Inspite of the constraints like non-availability of CNG autorickshaws and retrofitment kits, Delhi Govt. Was instrumental in getting 47000 auto-rickshaws replaced. This was done by giving incentives like Sales-Tax exemption and interest subsidy on loans to the auto rickhsaw owners. Besides this,2.4 million vehicles were checked for pollution during the year 2002-03. While there were around 1000 CNG vehicles in April 1998, by 2003, there were 70,249 vehicles including : taxis, auto-rickshaws and 9000 buses plying exclusively on CNG. Nowhere in the world, has any agency responsible for meeting the travel needs of an urban


metropolis converted its entire fleet to run on CNG. DTC now has the distinction of being the worlds largest eco-friendly CNG bus service. With CNG accepted as an alternative fuel, the stage is now set for expanding the network to areas bordering Delhi, comprising the National Capital Region (NCR). CNG is also the cheapest of auto-fuels, as per the prevailing prices in May 2003, CNG compares favorably with diesel and petrol. However, use of clean fuels by the public transport system is only a part of the solution. Small-Scale Industries The excessive increase in the number of small scale industries in Delhi was also responsible for an increase in the pollution levels in Delhi. In 1996, Honble Supreme Court while hearing a Public Interest Litigation passed various orders to close down the 1328 H category units, i.e., Hot mix plants, lead smelting units, stone crushers, pesticides, heavy foundries, steel rolling mills etc. Subsequently, DPCC also issued closure orders in respect of 118 industrial units which were engaged in H category. In 2000, Honble Supreme Court ordered the closure of polluting industrial units in non-conforming/industrial areas under the supervision of Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India as a Nodal Agency. Based on the criteria of polluting industries, evolved by the Nodal Agency and Expert Committee constituted by the Govt. of Delhi, 5046 units have been closed down by Govt. Of Delhi. Acting on similar lines, Delhi Pollution Control Committee has also identified 557 such industries and ordered their closure. Apart from above, Delhi Pollution Control Committee directed several industrial units to install pollution control devices, which were found polluting during the course of action of implementation of Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. In order to check the pollution from D G Sets, Govt. of Delhi, on 10th December, 2001 authorised all Deputy Commissioners, SDMs and other Police Officers to implement the norms pertaining to DG Sets. These officers were asked to ensure that the D G Sets above 5 KVA capacity do not operate in residential areas, between 10.00 PM to 6.00 AM (except Group Housing Societies & Multi Storied Complexes) and ensure that these D G Sets meet the prescribed emission norms. Other Measures Green areas like parks, forests, and gardens are more than just pastoral views or recreational spots. Vegetation cleans the air and acts as a climate moderator. One hectare of wood land (1000 trees) absorbs as much as 3.7 tonnes of CO2 from the atmosphere and gives out 2.5


tonnes of life sustaining oxygen. The city forests that are spread in various parts of the city, like the Ridge area, which are an extension of the Aravalli range of protected and reserve forests an admixture of both indigenous and exotic species of flora & fauna. Delhis fast expanding forest cover however remains unrecognized for its role in reducing the level of air pollution, toxicity and ambient concentrations. The latest State of Forest Report 2001, released by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, confirms what was otherwise becoming clearly visible: Delhis forest cover has increased to 111 sq. Kms in 2001 from 88 sq. Kms that existed two years back in 1999. Jumping from 5.9 per cent in 1999 to 7.5 per cent in 2001, the expansion of forest cover remains a remarkable achievement in afforestation. Add to this, the tree cover that exists along the roadsides, streams, vacant lands falling outside the forest cover in Delhi which constitutes 40sq. Km. The total tree cover & forest cover is now 151 sq. Kms which is 10.2 percent of the total geographical area. Delhi is indeed getting greener. Mass awareness No environment programme can succeed without mass awareness among the people. By launching various action programs and a number of public awareness activities, we can go a long way in the protection of the environment. Children are the future citizens of the country. Involvement of school children in environmental awareness programs was ensured by forming Eco-Clubs in schools of Delhi. So far, about 1500 Eco-Clubs have been set-up in various schools and colleges of Delhi. Under this programme, various campaigns like- Say no to fire crackers, Greening Delhi were successfully conducted with the active involvement and co-operation of these Eco-Clubs and the citizens of Delhi. PRESENT SCENARIO The fight against air pollution in the capital, which began in right earnest in 1997, finally started yielding results. Statistics have shown that not only has the rising trend in pollution level been checked, but the level of various pollutants in the ambient air are also coming down. One of the renowned experts has stated, what Britain took 30 years to accomplish, we have done in 5 years. Though Delhi remains a polluted city, there is not much of chemical pollution. The period between 1989-96 saw a rapid increase in pollution levels. The Year 1996 may be considered as the peak year. But in the wake of use of CNG as an alternate fuel, the contribution of vehicular sector towards air pollution has been reduced in the subsequent years. This is also


supported by the fact that there is a significant improvement in the air quality. The best place to witness this change is the busy ITO traffic intersection, where toxic fumes no longer irritate the eyes as earlier. Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Lead and Sulphur Dioxide levels have all shown a declining trend. The annual average of 42 mg/m3 of Sulphur Dioxide in the year 1996 came down to as much as 18 mg/m3 during 2002 at ITO Intersection, whereas NO2 came down from 75 mg/m3 in 1996 to 59 mg/m3 in 2000. Further, there has been a marked decline in the annual Lead levels after introduction of unleaded petrol in1998. Also, the results show a significant improvement in the overall air quality of the city. The concentration of Carbon Monoxide has fallen by 32 per cent; Sulphur Dioxide levels have fallen by 39 per cent in 2002 as compared to 1997. The concentration of other pollutants like Lead and Benzene have also registered a marked decline. Despite the phenomenal growth in vehicular population, the levels of Nitrogen Dioxide have remained more or less constant, this can be attributed to the phasing out of old commercial vehicles.


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