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1_ Aldosterone acts on: a. parietal cells in the stomach b. podocytes in the glomerulus c. juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney d.

parafollicular in the thyroid e. collecting ducts in the kidney 2_ Which of the following is synthesized in the adrenal cortex: a. insulin b. cortisol c. glucagon d. adrenaline e. adrenocorticotrophic hormone 3_ Anti diuretic hormone (ADH) is stimulated by all the following EXCEPT: a. standing b. stress c. hypotension d. hypovolemia e. alcohol 4_ Hyperthyroidism is characterized by: a. irritability b. bradycardia c. cold intolerance d. increased intestinal motility e. mask face 5_ Prolactin: a. is not found in males b. is secreted by acidophils of the white blood cells c. antagonizes gonadotropins d. increases milk ejection e. inhibits secretion of estrogen during pregnancy 6_ Growth hormone is: a. hypocalcemic b. katabolic c. hypoglycemic d. lipolytic e. proteolytic 7_ The parathyroid hormone is stimulated by: a. low phosphate b. high calcium c. low glucose d. high chloride e. low magnesium 8_Aldosterone is directly stimulated by: a. hyponatremia b. hypertension c. renal ischemia

d. angiotensin II e. renin enzyme 9_ Cushing's disease is characterized by: a. anemia b. hyperglycemia c. acidosis d. hyperkalemia e. low GFR 10_ Calcitonin: a. is produced by the parathyroid gland b. inhibits calcium mobilization from bone c. inactivates vitamin D in the kidney d. inhibits calcium absorption in the intestine e. excess causes hypocalcemia 11_ Hypocalcaemia results in: a. higher release of calcitonin b. renal stones c. enhanced neurotransmitter release at the synapse d. increased cortisol secretion e. increased activation of vitamin D 12_ Features of diabetes mellitus do NOT include: a. polydipsia b. fatiguability c. hypoventilation d. weight loss e. polyuria 13_ Diagnosis of pregnancy depend s on detection of this hormone in urine: a. LH b. FSH c. Estrogen d. Progesterone e. hCG 14_ Cerebellar lesions result in: a. failure to initiate movement b. blindness c. paralysis d. loss of balance e. loss of sensation 15_ Basal ganglia lesions result in: a. failure to initiate movement b. blindness c. paralysis d. loss of balance e. loss of sensation 16_ Concerning pain sensation, which of the following is not true:

a. b. c. d. e.

it is a protective sensation it is perceived at or even below the thalamus it is carried through the dorsal column tract visceral pain is not well localized somatic pain can be referred

17_ Concerning touch sensation, which of the following is not true: a. it is a rapidly adapting sensation b. it is perceived at the level of the cerebral cortex c. it is carried through both the spinothalamic and the dorsal column tracts d. receptors are usually free nerve ending receptors e. afferents are rapidly conducting neurons