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ASSIGNMENTS- MBA SEM-III Subject code: MB0034 Subject Name: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Set 1 & Set 2

Submitted By: Mr. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. No. 540911500

Mr. Mohammed Ali Akbar

Reg. No: 540911500

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Q. 1. Give examples of specific situations that would call for the following types of research, explaining why – a) Exploratory research b) Descriptive research c) Diagnostic research d) Evaluation research.
Answer: Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the

methods. According to the intent, research may be classified as: Basic (aka fundamental or pure) research is driven by a scientist's curiosity or interest in a scientific question. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge, not to create or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result from basic research. For example, basic science investigations probe for answers to questions such as: • How did the universe begin? • • • What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of? How do slime molds reproduce? What is the specific genetic code of the fruit fly?

Most scientists believe that a basic, fundamental understanding of all branches of science is needed in order for progress to take place. In other words, basic research lays down the foundation for the applied science that follows. If basic work is done first, then applied spin-offs often eventually result from this research. As Dr. George Smoot of LBNL says, "People cannot foresee the future well enough to predict what's going to develop from basic research. If we only did applied research, we would still be making better spears." Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. One might say that the goal of the applied scientist is to improve the human condition. For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to: • Improve agricultural crop production • • Treat or cure a specific disease Improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportation

Mr. Mohammed Ali Akbar

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Some scientists feel that the time has come for a shift in emphasis away from purely basic research and toward applied science. This trend, they feel, is necessitated by the problems resulting from global overpopulation, pollution, and the overuse of the earth's natural resources.

a) Exploratory research:- provides insights into and comprehension of an
issue or situation. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist . Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature: E.g., RSS feeds efficiently supply researchers with up-to-date information; major search engine search results may be sent by email to researchers by services such as Google Alerts; comprehensive search results are tracked over lengthy periods of time by services such as Google Trends; and Web sites may be created to attract worldwide feedback on any subject. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Although the results of qualitative research can give some indication as to the "why", "how" and "when" something occurs, it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many." Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to the population at large. A defining characteristic of causal research is the random assignment of participants to the conditions of the experiment; e.g., an Experimental and a Control Condition... Such assignment results in the groups being comparable at the beginning of the experiment. Any difference between the groups at the end of the experiment is attributable to the manipulated variable. Observational research typically looks for difference among "in-tact" defined groups. A common example compares smokers and non-smokers with regard to health problems. Causal conclusions can't be drawn from such a study because of other possible differences between the groups; e.g., smokers may drink more alcohol than nonsmokers. Other unknown differences could exist as well. Hence, we may see a relation between smoking and health but a conclusion that smoking is a cause would not be warranted in this situation. (Cp)

Mr. Mohammed Ali Akbar

Reg. No: 540911500

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b) Descriptive Research:- It also known as statistical research, describes
data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how. Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. But there are always restrictions to that. Your research must have an impact to the life of the people around you. For example, finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus; more people will live a healthy life.

c) Diagnostic study:- It is similar to descriptive study but with different focus. It
is directed towards discovering what is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance.

d) Evaluation Studies:- It is a type of applied research. It is made for
assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It is concerned also with change over time.

Q. 2. In the context of hypothesis testing, briefly explain the difference between a) Null and alternative hypothesis b) Type 1 and type 2 error c) Two tailed and one tailed test d) Parametric and nonparametric tests.
Answer: Some basic concepts in the context of testing of hypotheses are

explained below –
Mr. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. No: 540911500 Page 4

If the rejection of a certain hypothesis when it is actually true involves great risk. we often talk about null and alternative hypotheses.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 11) Null Hypotheses and Alternative Hypothesis:. then it is known as an alternative hypothesis. No: 540911500 Page 5 . while the alternative hypothesis represents all other possibilities. we should conclude that something else is true. then we are rejecting Ha and if we reject H0. Then we would say that the null hypothesis is that the population mean is equal to the hypothesized mean 100 and symbolically we can express it as: H0: µ= µ H0=100 If our sample results do not support this null hypothesis. If we accept H0. Thus a null hypothesis represents the hypothesis we are trying to reject.ASSIGNMENTS. For H0: µ= µ H0=100.. The alternative hypothesis is usually the one. These are symbolically represented as: Null hypothesis = H0 and Alternative hypothesis = Ha Suppose we want to test the hypothesis that the population mean is equal to the hypothesized mean (µ H0) = 100. On the other hand. we may consider three possible alternative hypotheses as follows: Alternative Hypothesis Ha: µ≠µ H0 Ha: µ>µ H0 Ha: µ< µ H0 To be read as follows (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is not equal to 100 i. If we are to compare the superiority of method A with that of method B and we proceed on the assumption that both methods are equally good.e. and the null hypothesis is the one that is to be disproved. the following considerations are usually kept in view: 1a. then we are accepting Ha. which is to be proved. because then the probability of rejecting it when it is true is α (the level of significance) which is chosen very small. then this assumption is termed as a null hypothesis. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. In the choice of null hypothesis.In the context of statistical analysis. What we conclude rejecting the null hypothesis is known as an alternative hypothesis. it may be more or less 100) (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is greater than 100) (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is less than 100) The null hypotheses and the alternative hypotheses are chosen before the sample is drawn (the researcher must avoid the error of deriving hypotheses from the data he collects and testing the hypotheses from the same data). if we think that method A is superior. 4 Mr. it is taken as null hypothesis. 2 3b.

In case we take the significance level at 5%.e. keeping the alternative hypothesis in view. which is known as a decision rule. Thus the significance level is the maximum value of the probability of rejecting H0 when it is true and is usually determined in advance before testing the hypothesis.ASSIGNMENTS.e. if H0 is that a certain lot is good (there are very few defective items in it). but this cannot be done if we proceed with alternative hypotheses. It is always some percentage (usually 5%). reject Ha) or reject H0 (i. This sort of basis is known as a decision rule.Given a hypothesis Ha and an alternative hypothesis H0. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. also called as level of significance of test. then we must decide the number of items to be tested and the criterion for accepting or rejecting the hypothesis.This is a very important concept in the context of hypothesis testing.. Why so? The answer is that on the assumption that the null hypothesis is true. observed evidence) has a less than 0. we will accept H0. Generally. We may reject H0 when H0 is true and we may accept H0 when it is not true. and Type II error is denoted by β(beta). there are basically two types of errors that we can make. which should have been rejected. 44) Type I & II Errors:. then this implies that H0 will be rejected when the sampling result (i. which should have been accepted.e. In other words. thought and reason. otherwise we will reject H0 (or accept Ha).MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 5c. that the lot is not good (there are many defective items in it). Mr.e. which should be chosen with great care.. the 5% level of significance means that the researcher is willing to take as much as 5% risk rejecting the null hypothesis when it (H0) happens to be true. In other words. 2 33) Decision Rule or Test of Hypothesis:. according to which we accept H0 (i. and Type II error means accepting of hypotheses. accept Ha). one can assign the probabilities to different possible sample results. we make a rule. Type I error is denoted by α (alpha). it should not state an approximate value.. The former is known as Type I and the latter is known as Type II. For instance. against Ha. We might test 10 items in the lot and plan our decision saying that if there are none or only 1 defective item among the 10.. in hypothesis testing. Hence the use of null hypotheses (at times also known as statistical hypotheses) is quite frequent. Type I error means rejection of hypotheses.05 probability of occurring if H0 is true.In the context of testing of hypotheses. No: 540911500 Page 6 . we proceed on the basis of the null hypothesis. 12) The Level of Significance:. The null hypothesis should always be a specific hypothesis i.

Mr. in that case we shall accept the null hypothesis. the probability of the rejection area will be 0. say.05 (equally split on both tails of the curve as 0.95. it means there are about 5 chances in 100 that we will reject H0 when H0 is true. then in such a situation one should prefer a type I error to a type II error. one must set a very high level for type I error in one’s testing techniques of a given hypothesis. A one-tailed test would be used when we are to test.In the context of hypothesis testing. whereas type II error means taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned. If type I error involves time and trouble of reworking a batch of chemicals that should have been accepted. If type I error is fixed at 5%. But with a fixed sample size n. No: 540911500 Page 7 . For instance. these two terms are quite important and must be clearly understood. We can control type I error just by fixing it at a lower level. But there are situations when only a one-tailed test is considered appropriate. Decision makers decide the appropriate level of type I error by examining the costs of penalties attached to both types of errors. Hence.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Decision Accept H0 Reject H0 H0 (true) Correct decision Type I error (α error) Ho (false) Type II error (β error) Correct decision The probability of Type I error is usually determined in advance and is understood as the level of significance of testing the hypotheses. Such a test is inappropriate when we have H0: µ= µ H0 and Ha: µ≠µ H0 which may µ>µ H0 or µ<µ H0. As a result. A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if.025) and that of the acceptance region will be 0. when we try to reduce type I error. the probability of committing type II error increases. 15) Two Tailed Test & One Tailed Test:. say. 2 Parametric statistics is a branch of statistics that assumes data come from a type of probability distribution and makes inferences about the parameters of the distribution most well known elementary statistical methods are parametric. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Both types of errors cannot be reduced simultaneously.ASSIGNMENTS. If we take µ = 100 and if our sample mean deviates significantly from µ. one must make all possible efforts to strike an adequate balance between Type I & Type II error. if we fix it at 1%.01. we will say that the maximum probability of committing type I error would only be 0. the sample mean is significantly higher or lower than the hypothesized value of the mean of the population. If significance level is 5 % and the two-tailed test is to be applied. in testing of hypotheses. since there is a trade-off in business situations. whether the population mean is either lower or higher than some hypothesized value.

availability. and wavelets. Data Envelopment Analysis provides efficiency coefficients similar to those obtained by Multivariate Analysis without any distributional assumption. For that reason they are often not considered robust. Making them happy makes the money. Q. What are the possible reasons for a correlation between two variables. parametric methods can produce more accurate and precise estimates. with an example of each. if those assumptions are incorrect. They are said to have more statistical power.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Generally speaking parametric methods make more assumptions than nonparametric methods. Answer: Correlation:. splines. and styles.The correlation is knowing what the consumer wants. and let friends and family know where they got it. 3. Marketing research looks at trends in sales and studies all of the variables. On the other hand. parametric formulae are often simpler to write down and faster to compute.e. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Mr. price. Casual relationship Marketing was first defined as a form of marketing developed from direct response marketing campaigns. Because parametric statistics require a probability distribution. If those extra assumptions are correct. However. rather than a dominant focus on sales transactions. Explain the difference between a causal relationship and correlation. i. and the best way to give the customer what he or she wants. If you can give the customer what they want. but definitely not all cases. they will buy. The term nonparametric is not meant to imply that such models completely lack parameters but that the number and nature of the parameters are flexible and not fixed in advance. No: 540911500 Page 8 . especially if care is taken to examine diagnostic statistics. and providing it. Nonparametric regression and semi parametric regression methods have been developed based on kernels. parametric methods can be very misleading.ASSIGNMENTS. which emphasizes customer retention and satisfaction. In some. their simplicity makes up for their non-robustness. they are not distribution-free. Kernel density estimation provides better estimates of the density than histograms. Non-parametric models differ from parametric models in that the model structure is not specified a priori but is instead determined from data. color.

and technology work in synergy to increase profitability. attract. nurture and retain those the company already has. entice former clients back into the fold. synchronize business processes (principally sales and marketing activities) and most importantly. it does not completely characterize the dependence structure (for example. When an implementation is effective. people. No: 540911500 Page 9 . today. however. The correlation coefficient completely defines the dependence structure only in very particular cases. it generally denotes a company-wide business strategy embracing all client-facing departments and even beyond. processes. (See diagram above. Relationship Marketing is a broadly recognized. The information given by a correlation coefficient is not enough to define the dependence structure between random variables.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY As a practice.Chance association. Once simply a label for a category of software tools. (the relationship is due to chance) or causative association (one variable causes the other). Distance correlation and Brownian covariance / Brownian correlation [8] [9] were introduced to address the deficiency of Pearson's correlation that it can be zero for dependent random variables. and win new clients. and reduce the costs of marketing and client service. for example when the distribution is a multivariate normal distribution. PR. Relationship Marketing has continued to evolve and move forward as technology opens more collaborative and social communication channels.ASSIGNMENTS. Just like Customer relationship management(CRM). This includes tools for managing relationships with customers that goes beyond simple demographic and customer service data. automate those marketing and communication activities on concrete marketing sequences that could run in autopilot (also known as marketing sequences). Relationship Marketing differs from other forms of marketing in that it recognizes the long term value of customer relationships and extends communication beyond intrusive advertising and sales promotional messages. zero distance correlation and zero Brownian correlation imply independence. Mr. It also involves using technology to. widely-implemented strategy for managing and nurturing a company’s interactions with clients and sales prospects. Relationship Marketing extends to include Inbound Marketing efforts (a combination of search optimization and Strategic Content). Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. and reduce operational costs Reasons for a correlation between two variables:. With the growth of the internet and mobile platforms. The overall goals are to find. organize. Social Media and Application Development. a multivariate t-distribution's degrees of freedom determine the level of tail dependence).) In the case of elliptic distributions it characterizes the (hyper-) ellipses of equal density.

I would also argue that the typical use of college students in much psychological research is primarily a matter of Mr. We can divide non-probability sampling methods into two broad types:  Accidental or purposive:Most sampling methods are purposive in nature because we usually approach the sampling problem with a specific plan in mind. No: 540911500 Page 10 . Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Briefly explain any two factors that affect the choice of a sampling technique. What are the characteristics of a good sample? Answer: The difference between non-probability and probability sampling is that non-probability sampling does not involve random selection and probability sampling does. The most important distinctions among these types of sampling methods are the ones between the different types of purposive sampling approaches. Accidental. we consider a wide range of non-probabilistic alternatives. researchers prefer probabilistic or random sampling methods over non probabilistic ones. We are able to estimate confidence intervals for the statistic. and consider them to be more accurate and rigorous. Q. or the entropy-based mutual information/total correlation which is capable of detecting even more general dependencies. The polychoric correlation is another correlation applied to ordinal data that aims to estimate the correlation between theorized latent variables. The latter are sometimes referred to as multimoment correlation measures. practical or theoretically sensible to do random sampling. now it's probably the "person on the street") interviews conducted frequently by television news programs to get a quick (although non representative) reading of public opinion. But it does mean that nonprobability samples cannot depend upon the rationale of probability theory. Does that mean that non-probability samples aren't representative of the population? Not necessarily. I would include in this category the traditional "man on the street" (of course. and it will often be hard for us to know how well we've done so. Here. we may or may not represent the population well. Haphazard or Convenience Sampling:One of the most common methods of sampling goes under the various titles listed here. In general. However. we know the odds or probability that we have represented the population well.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The correlation ratio is able to detect almost any functional dependency. At least with a probabilistic sample. With non-probability samples.ASSIGNMENTS. One way to capture a more complete view of dependence structure is to consider a copula between them. 4. in applied social research there may be circumstances where it is not feasible. in comparison to those that consider only 2nd moment (pairwise or quadratic) dependence.

age. the mode is the most frequently occurring value in a distribution. education. They might be looking for Caucasian females between 30-40 years old. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. we sample simply by asking for volunteers. There are a number of problems with this sampling approach. but you are also likely to overweight subgroups in your population that are more readily accessible. (You don't really believe that psychologists use college students because they believe they're representative of the population at large. In many research contexts. we sample with a purpose in mind. We might sample for specific groups or types of people as in modal instance. But. for instance.are the only or even the most relevant for classifying the typical voter? What if religion or ethnicity is an important discriminator? Clearly. We usually would have one or more specific predefined groups we are seeking. In a lot of informal public opinion polls. expert.  Modal Instance Sampling:In statistics. we are sampling the most frequent case. educational level. modal instance sampling is only sensible for informal sampling contexts. Or. They size up the people passing by and anyone who looks to be in that category they stop to ask if they will participate.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY convenience. First. All of the methods that follow can be considered subcategories of purposive sampling methods. No: 540911500 Page 11 . or quota sampling. In all of these methods we know what we want -. they interview a "typical" voter. With a purposive sample. In sampling. We might sample for diversity as in heterogeneity sampling. the problem with all of these types of samples is that we have no evidence that they are representative of the populations we're interested in generalizing to -. Mr. as in snowball sampling.we are sampling with a purpose. For instance. Clearly. you are likely to get the opinions of your target population. we might use clients who are available to us as our sample. have you ever run into people in a mall or on the street who are carrying a clipboard and who are stopping various people and asking if they could interview them? Most likely they are conducting a purposive sample (and most likely they are engaged in market research). And.and in many cases we would clearly suspect that they are not. we might capitalize on informal social networks to identify specific respondents who are hard to locate otherwise. and income in the population. when we do a modal instance sample. Purposive Sampling:In purposive sampling. do you?). One of the first things they're likely to do is verify that the respondent does in fact meet the criteria for being in the sample. it's not clear that using the averages of these is the fairest (consider the skewed distribution of income. or the "typical" case. income -.ASSIGNMENTS. how do we know what the "typical" or "modal" case is? We could say that the modal voter is a person who is of average age. In clinical practice. for instance). Purposive sampling can be very useful for situations where you need to reach a targeted sample quickly and where sampling for proportionality is not the primary concern. how do you know that those three variables -.

For instance. wrong. if you've already got the 40 women for your sample. not identifying the "average" or "modal instance" ones. you simply want to have enough to assure that you will be able to talk about even small groups in the population. you will not sample them because you have already "met your quota. and we aren't concerned about representing these views proportionately.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  Expert Sampling:Expert sampling involves the assembling of a sample of persons with known or demonstrable experience and expertise in some area. First. So. age. For instance. and that you want a total sample size of 100. religion. Often. No: 540911500 Page 12 . Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.  Quota Sampling:In quota sampling." There are actually two reasons you might do expert sampling. In this method. we convene such a sample under the auspices of a "panel of experts. Will it be by gender. and often are.  Heterogeneity Sampling:We sample for heterogeneity when we want to include all opinions or views.? Non-proportional quota sampling is a bit less restrictive. Another term for this is sampling for diversity. education race. expert sampling is essentially just a specific sub case of purposive sampling." The problem here (as in much purposive sampling) is that you have to decide the specific characteristics on which you will base the quota. we would use some form of heterogeneity sampling because our primary interest is in getting broad spectrum of ideas. if you know the population has 40% women and 60% men. etc. But the other reason you might use expert sampling is to provide evidence for the validity of another sampling approach you've chosen. The advantage of doing this is that you aren't out on your own trying to defend your decisions -. because it would be the best way to elicit the views of persons who have specific expertise. In many brainstorming or nominal group processes (including concept mapping).you have some acknowledged experts to back you. you will continue to sample men but even if legitimate women respondents come along. you specify the minimum number of sampled units you want in each category. This method is the non-probabilistic analogue of stratified random sampling in that it is typically used to assure that smaller groups are adequately represented in your sample. There are two types of quota sampling: proportional and non proportional. In this case. Here. you will continue sampling until you get those percentages and then you will stop. You might convene an expert panel consisting of persons with acknowledged experience and insight into that field or topic and ask them to examine your modal definitions and comment on their appropriateness and validity. you select people non-randomly according to some fixed quota.ASSIGNMENTS. you're not concerned with having numbers that match the proportions in the population. let's say you do modal instance sampling and are concerned that the criteria you used for defining the modal instance are subject to criticism. The disadvantage is that even the experts can be. but not the sixty men. Instead. In effect. what Mr. In proportional quota sampling you want to represent the major characteristics of the population by sampling a proportional amount of each.

not the population of people who have the ideas. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. in order to get all of the ideas. Heterogeneity sampling is. Clearly. For instance. You then ask them to recommend others who they may know who also meet the criteria. Where a high degree of precision of results is desired. 2 32.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY we would like to be sampling is not people. We imagine that there is a universe of all possible ideas relevant to some topic and that we want to sample this population. almost the opposite of modal instance sampling. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous. Although this method would hardly lead to representative samples. where the research objective requires statistical inference. if you go to that area and identify one or two. Degree of Precision:. Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population. The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. Characteristics of good Sample:. but ideas. you may find that they know very well whom the other homeless people in their vicinity are and how you can find them. No: 540911500 Page 13 . then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected. Measurability:. However.The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. we have to include a broad and diverse range of participants. 4 53.ASSIGNMENTS. Where even crude results would serve the Mr.The decision process is a complicated one. you begin by identifying someone who meets the criteria for inclusion in your study. probability sampling should be used. you are not likely to be able to find good lists of homeless people within a specific geographical area.Should the results of the survey be very precise. the sample should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling method. or could even rough results serve the purpose? The desired level of precision is one of the criteria for sampling method selection. and especially the "outlier" or unusual ones. The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique are: 11. Snowball sampling is especially useful when you are trying to reach populations that are inaccessible or hard to find. there are times when it may be the best method available. Hence. if you are studying the homeless. Only probability samples allow such computation.  Snowball Sampling:In snowball sampling. in this sense.

No: 540911500 Page 14 . Of course. even simple random sampling will give a representative sample. The Nature of the Population:. or multi-stage cluster sampling.How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are available. there is no alternative but to give up the proposed survey. marketing surveys. or even quota sampling as a compromise. an appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. Time Limitation:. multi-stage cluster sampling would be appropriate. instead of single-stage sampling of elements.g. as a compromise. Then an exploratory study with nonprobability sampling may be done to gain a better idea of the population. the precision has to be sacrificed to some extent. is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population. 85. However. any convenient non-random sampling like quota sampling would be enough.. or Mr. Economy:.The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method. single stage probability sampling methods could be used.It should be another criterion in choosing the sampling method. After gaining sufficient knowledge about the population through the exploratory study. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population :. it may become necessary to choose less time consuming methods like simple random sampling. Then. it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling. Information about Population:. 6 74. 118. 96. if the objectives of the study and the desired level of precision cannot be attained within the stipulated budget. If the population is heterogeneous. instead of stratified sampling/sampling with probability proportional to size.If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large.If the available finance is limited. 107. But if the area and the size of the population are small. a researcher can choose the most appropriate method of sampling that fits the research objective and the nature of population.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY purpose (E. A sample is economical if the precision per unit cost is high.ASSIGNMENTS. it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. Where the finance is not a constraint. stratified random sampling is appropriate.In terms of the variables to be studied. Financial Resources:. 129. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. readership surveys etc). Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.

Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information. No: 540911500 Page 15 . such as government agencies (e. instead of unduly elaborate and complicated techniques. Primary data is first hand information collected through various methods such as surveys. brand preference. The advantages of primary data are –  It is unique to a particular research study.ASSIGNMENTS.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY the cost per unit of variance is low. Mr. inventory records. e. which has been collected and compiled for another purpose. 5. it represents a compromise between idealism and feasibility. in the form of a marketing information system. for the purposes of the project immediately at hand. They may also be external sources. The above criteria frequently conflict with each other and the researcher must balance and blend them to obtain a good sampling plan. published sources (annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India. Q. minutes of meetings and other information that is available within the firm. publications of international organizations such as the UN. such as annual reports. One should use simple workable methods. and brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior.g. The chosen plan thus represents an adaptation of the sampling theory to the available facilities and resources. etc.  It requires trained interviewers and investigators. trade and financial journals. compared to gathering information from available sources. financial statements. from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. Answer: Primary Sources of Data:- Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that has not been previously collected. Secondary Sources of Data:These are sources containing data.).  Data collection is a time consuming process. experiments and observation. sales reports. trade associations (e.. unlike published information that is already available The disadvantages are –  It is expensive to collect. Secondary sources may be internal sources.g. reports of government departments). Chambers of Commerce) and commercial services (outside suppliers of information).g. World Bank and International Monetary Fund. That is.  It is recent information. census reports. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness.

opinion polls.ASSIGNMENTS. required data is not available from secondary sources and it has to be directly gathered from the primary sources. It is a field study. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. 1. There are various methods of primary data collection. viewing surveys. observation and experiments. radio listening and T. inadequate or obsolete.  It can cover a very large population. including surveys. attitudinal surveys. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methods of Data Collection:The researcher directly collects primary data from its original sources. audits and panels. for several types of social science research. A survey involves the following steps  Selection of a problem and its formulation  Preparation of the research design  Operation concepts and construction of measuring indexes and scales  Sampling  Construction of tools for data collection  Field work and collection of data  Processing of data and tabulation Mr. business management studies etc. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions.  It may include an extensive study or an intensive study  It covers a definite geographical area. It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample at a particular time. Yet. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities. Survey Research:A survey is a fact-finding study.  It seeks responses directly from the respondents. It includes: socio economic surveys. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. No: 540911500 Page 16 . Primary data has to be gathered in cases where the available data is inappropriate. the researcher can collect the required data precisely according to his research needs and he can collect them when he wants and in the form that he needs it. In this case.V. leadership studies. A survey has certain characteristics:  It is always conducted in a natural setting. farm management studies. marketing research.

It may be defined as a two-way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. It permits the investigator to seek clarifications and brings to the forefront those questions. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data. Once rapport is established. Interviewing is appropriate when qualitative information is required. People are usually more willing to talk than to write. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioral context of the data furnished by the respondents. values. Mr. which for some reason or the other the respondents do not want to answer. or probing is necessary to draw out the respondent fully. Personal Interview:Personal interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. even confidential information may be obtained. personal interview is feasible. Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. No: 540911500 Page 17 . Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. The participants – the interviewer and the respondent – are strangers. facial expressions and pauses. Interviewing as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. but also learning from the respondent’s gestures. initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person’s opinions.ASSIGNMENTS. hence. experiences and future intentions. the investigator has to get himself/herself introduced to the respondent in an appropriate manner. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Where the area covered for the survey is compact. It involves not only conversation. beliefs. Interview can add flesh to statistical information.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  Analysis of data  Reporting There are four basic survey methods. which include:  Personal interview  Telephone interview  Mail survey and  Fax survey 2. attitudes. and his environment. They are: 1. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions.

It can also be conducted with a group of persons. it need not be limited to a single respondent. the interviewer should try to be closer to the social-economic level of the respondents. The interview proper is a fleeting. The interview is not a mere casual conversational exchange. obtaining information relevant to a study. Although the interview is usually a conversation between two persons. his perception of the thrust of the questions and his own personal needs. 3. The relationship between the participants is a transitory one. gestures.ASSIGNMENTS. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent need not necessarily be on a face-to-face basis. e. 4. momentary experience for them. Interviewing is not a standardized process like that of a chemical technician. It may be used as a major method or as a supplementary method. or a group of children. viz. 10.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2. It will be useful in the following situations: 11. business Mr. When the universe is composed of those persons whose names are listed in telephone directories. Telephone Interviewing:Telephone interviewing is a non-personal method of data collection.g. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. or a group of customers. behavior. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent depends upon how they perceive each other. The interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to questions put verbally. 8. psychological process. The respondent reacts to the interviewer’s appearance. 6. it is rather a flexible. No: 540911500 Page 18 . 9. It has a fixed beginning and termination points. 7. The interview is an interactive process. but a conversation with a specific purpose. depending on the requirements of the study. 5.. This poses a problem of seeing that recording does not interfere with the tempo of conversation. because the interview can also be conducted over the telephone. facial expression and intonation. As far as possible. 3. The investigator records information furnished by the respondent in the interview. such as family members.

14. Free discussion is encouraged on some aspect of the subject under study. 5. a survey relating to a profession conducted by the concerned professional association. beliefs. When the respondents are widely scattered and when there are many call backs to make. The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can easily understand the questions and answer them. When the subject is interesting or important to respondents. 13. e. In particular. The desired information may be obtained through self-administered questionnaire or interview. It should preferably contain mostly closed-ended and multiple choice questions. business professionals. The group may consist of about six to eight individuals with a common interest. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is selfadministered by the respondents themselves and the responses are Mr. clubs and other organized groups.ASSIGNMENTS. he must be aware that a single comment by a member can provide important insight. The discussion leader stimulates the group members to interact with each other. doctors and other 12. 15. intentions and opinions among individuals in the group.g. a radio or television program survey. 4. the interviewers look for evidence of common elements of attitudes. provided the units of study are listed in the telephone directory.g. In a personal interview. with the discussion serving as a guide to ensure consideration of the areas of concern. This can be used in the case of educated respondents only.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY houses. When the survey must be conducted in a very short period of time. The interviewer acts as the discussion leader. Mail Survey:The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post. a survey relating to trade conducted by a trade association or a chamber of commerce. At the same time. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. executives. Group Interviews:A group interview may be defined as a method of collecting primary data in which a number of individuals with a common interest interact with each other. e. the flow of information is multi dimensional. so that it could be completed within a few minutes. No: 540911500 Page 19 . When the study requires responses to five or six simple questions. Samples for group interviews can be obtained through schools.

Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. It must explain to the respondent the purpose of the study and the importance of his cooperation to the success of the project. They are: 11. After a few days from the date of mailing the questionnaires to the respondents. Quality printing: The questionnaire may be neatly printed on quality light colored paper. 43. it is not desirable to reveal it. It does not involve face-to-face conversation between the investigator and the respondent. a disguised organization name may be used. by collecting the addresses from the telephone directory of the association or organization to which they belong. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. a covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire. The progress in return may be watched and at the appropriate stage. so as to attract the attention of the respondent. (d).MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY recorded by them and not by the investigator. The response rate in mail surveys is generally very low in developing countries like India. Advance information: Advance information can be provided to potential respondents by a telephone call. Mr. Anonymity must be assured. so as to attract and hold the interest of the respondent. No: 540911500 Page 20 . The following procedures should be followed – (a). 1 (e). stamps for collection and other incentives are also used to induce respondents to complete and return the mail questionnaire. or by a letter. 2 32. (c). A self-addressed stamped envelope should be enclosed in the covering letter.ASSIGNMENTS. However. The researcher should prepare a mailing list of the selected respondents. Incentives: Money. The sponsor’s identity may be revealed. In this case. Such preliminary contact with potential respondents is more successful than follow-up efforts. Communication is carried out only in writing and this requires more cooperation from the respondents than verbal communication. (b). It must anticipate objections and answer them briefly. Covering letter: The covering letter should be couched in a pleasant style. It is desirable to address the respondent by name. as in the case of personal interview method. follow-up efforts can be made. when such information may bias the result. 54. or advance notice in the newsletter of the concerned organization. the researcher can expect the return of completed ones from them.

You may read about certain findings and notice that a certain field was not covered. Larger sample size: A larger sample may be drawn than the estimated sample size. 6. Research can thus be aimed at clarifying or substantiating an existing theory. There are many problem situations that may give rise to research. A second source could be scientific literature. at least 20 years prior to Music Television (MTV) or the Internet. in order to ascertain reader habits and interests. media research scholars1 began to focus their studies on young adult readers' decreasing interest in newspaper content. Develop a title for the study.ASSIGNMENTS. at clarifying contradictory findings. 9 10Q. the news about newspapers and young readers has been mostly bad for the newspaper industry. This could lead to a research problem. This may help the researcher to secure an effective sample size closer to the required size. a sample of 1500 may be drawn. Own experience or the experience of others may be a source of problem supply. confused and ill at ease. Follow-up-contacts: In the case of respondents belonging to an organization. Theories could be a third source.For more than 35 years. The concern over a declining Mr. at correcting a faulty methodology. 7 86. if the required sample size is 1000. It is the demarcation of a problem area within a certain context involving the WHO or WHAT. the WHERE. Long before any competition from cable television or Nintendo. they may be approached through someone in that organization known as the researcher. No: 540911500 Page 21 . Case Study: You are engaged to carry out a market survey on behalf of a leading Newspaper that is keen to increase its circulation in Bangalore City. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Answer: Title: Newspaper reading choices Research problem:. American newspaper publishers were worrying about declining readership among the young. at correcting the inadequate or unsuitable use of statistical techniques. Shortcomings in theories could be researched. As early as 1960. at reconciling conflicting opinions.A research problem is the situation that causes the researcher to feel apprehensive. the WHEN and the WHY of the problem situation.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 65. define the research problem and the objectives or questions to be answered by the study. For example. Three sources usually contribute to problem identification. or at solving existing practical problems Types of questions to be asked:.

The study discovered that overall newspaper readership was positively related to students' focus on entertainment.16 Younger readers showed increased interest in national news. including electronic mail and computer networks.ASSIGNMENTS. The study found that newspaper subscribers preferred print formats over electronic. and classified advertisements over the decade between 1984 and 1994. and books. Brian Brooks and James Kropp found that electronic newspapers could persuade children to become news consumers. or by gender. population growth is occurring more rapidly than newspaper readership in most communities.17 He reported that computer-related technologies. David Atkin explored the influence of telecommunication technology on newspaper readership among students in undergraduate media courses. and food advertisements higher. and marriages. In an exploration of leisure reading among college students. Even where circulation has grown or stayed stable. In a study of younger. school-age children. Gerald Stone and Timothy Boudreau found differences between readers ages 18-34 and those 35plus. Interest in international news and letters to the editor was less among younger readers. Leo Jeffres and Atkin assessed dimensions of interest in newspapers. while older readers ranked weather. However. One of the underlying concerns behind the decline in youth newspaper reading is the question of how young people view the newspaper. magazines. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. the students' preference for reading as a leisure-time activity was related only to a public affairs focus. non-media leisure. This study looks at trends in newspaper readership among the 18-to-34 age group and examines some of the choices young adults make when reading newspapers. and public affairs. and academic major on newspaper content preferences. A number of studies explored how young readers evaluate and use newspaper content. sports. editorials. Mr. though there was a slight correlation between age and the public affairs readership index. defined as the percentage of occupied households in a geographic market that are served by a newspaper. The researchers found no significant differences in readership among various academic majors. Comparing reader content preferences over a 10-year period. obituaries. job / travel information. with older readers more interested in news about public affairs. while older readers showed less interest in reports of births.19 exploring the influence of media use. Content preferences for newspapers and other print media were related. weather.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY youth market preceded and perhaps foreshadowed today's fretting over market penetration. No: 540911500 Page 22 .2 Simply put. there is rising concern over penetration. but that young readers would choose an electronic newspaper over a printed one. were unrelated to newspaper readership.

Approximately six students asked to take the questionnaires home to finish. two students declined. five (1. Procedure:After two pre-tests and revisions. The goal of this sampling procedure was to reach a crosssection of students representing various fields of study. Ages ranged from 17 to 56. two (.9 percent) African/Native American. In each of the eight classes.8 percent) Native American.and 200-level English courses at a mid-western public university. A total of 157 participants (58. A basic studies course is one that is listed within the core curriculum required for all students. juniors. seniors. 45 (16. 16 (6 percent). 65 (24.3 percent) were female.4 percent). Of the 267 students who participated in the study. 59 (22. and one (. the researcher introduced herself to the students as a journalism professor who was conducting a study on students' use of newspapers and other media. with a mean age of 23. Courses that comprise the framework for this sample were selected because they could fulfill basic studies requirements for all majors.8 percent) Hispanic. two (.ASSIGNMENTS. questionnaires were distributed and collected by the investigator.6 years. with some individual students taking as long as an hour. The class rank breakdown was: freshmen.8 percent) said they were of the Caucasian race. 15 (5. This mean does not include the 32 respondents who declined to give their ages. In all. 133 (49. A total of 25 participants chose not to divulge their genders. 33 (12.1 percent) African American. The students' participation was voluntary. and graduate students.3 percent) were male and 177 (66.8 percent). sophomores. Most (214) of the students were enrolled full time. The researcher provided pencils and was available to answer questions if anyone needed further assistance. The average time spent on the questionnaires was 20 minutes. The researcher obtained permission from seven professors to distribute questionnaires in the eight classes during regularly scheduled class periods.8 percent) Asian. whereas a few (28) were part-time students. 53 majors were represented. 10 (3.9 percent). Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Each questionnaire included a cover letter with the researcher's name.6 percent). No: 540911500 Page 23 .4 percent) Arabic. Mr. address.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methodology:Sample:Participants in this study (N=267) were students enrolled in 100. They returned the questionnaires to the researcher's mailbox within a couple of day. and phone number.

They are: 1) Personal delivery.2 Q. Alternatively. 2) Attaching the questionnaire to a product. Advertising the questionnaire:. and 4) News-stand inserts. For example. Answer: There are some alternative methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents. the completed questionnaires can be collected from them. it combines the advantages of the personal interview and the mail survey. 3) Advertising the questionnaire in a newspaper or magazine.ASSIGNMENTS. Newsstand inserts:.The researcher or his assistant may deliver the questionnaires to the potential respondents. This method may be useful for large-scale studies on topics of common interest.This method involves inserting the covering letter. questionnaire and self addressed reply-paid envelope into a random sample of newsstand copies of a newspaper or magazine.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ASSIGNMENT SET. No: 540911500 Page 24 . Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents of a study. tears it out and mails it to the advertiser. Attaching questionnaire to a product:. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.A firm test marketing a product may attach a questionnaire to a product and request the buyer to complete it and mail it back to the firm. the questionnaires may be delivered in person and the respondents may return the completed questionnaires through mail. Personal delivery:.The questionnaire with the instructions for completion may be advertised on a page of a magazine or in a section of newspapers. The potential respondent completes it. the committee of Banks Customer Services used this method for collecting information from the customers of commercial banks in India. with a request to complete them at their convenience. A gift or a discount coupon usually rewards the respondent. Often referred to as the self-administered questionnaire method. Advantages and Disadvantages:Mr. 1. After a day or two.

For example. it enables an economics researcher to study how employment. However. there is no guarantee that the emerging panel would be representative.  The panel method offers a good way of studying trends in events. income and expenditure of agricultural laborers change from month to month. the risk that repeated interviews may sensitize the panel members and they become untypical. Persons with similar characteristics may replace the dropouts. In the course of the study. a cross sectional study of employees may show an association between their attitude to their jobs and their positions in the organization.  This method makes it possible to have before and after designs made for field based studies. a panel enables a market researcher to study how brand preferences change from month to month. periodic training of investigators and supervisors.  It facilities depth interviewing. For example. The selection of panel members. the payment of premiums. a political scientist can study the shifts in inclinations of voters and the causative influential factors during an election.. No: 540911500 Page 25 . A panel study can provide data for finding an answer to this question.favorable attitude or promotion. the effect of public relations or advertising campaigns or welfare measures can be measured by collecting data before.e.  It is often difficult to set up a representative panel and to keep it representative. during and after the campaign. behavior or attitudes. because under this method. the event or action is reported soon after its occurrence. The major limitations or problems of Questionnaire method are: This method is very expensive. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. but it does not indicate as to which comes first . For example. For example.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The advantages of Questionnaire are:  This method facilitates collection of more accurate data for longitudinal studies than any other method. It is also possible to find out how the constituency of the various economic and social strata of society changes through time and so on.ASSIGNMENTS. Many persons may be unwilling to participate in a panel study. and the costs involved in replacing dropouts.  A real danger with the panel method is “panel conditioning” i. the Mr.  A panel study also provides evidence on the causal relationship between variables. because panel members become well acquainted with the field workers and will be willing to allow probing interviews. there may be frequent dropouts. all add to the expenditure. as a result of being on the panel.

Number of touchdown passes. shows the number of touchdown (TD) passes thrown by each of the 31 teams in the National Football League in the 2000 season. due to decreasing interest. In such cases. what is the difference between measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion? What is the most important measure of central tendency and dispersion? Answer: Measures of Central tendency:- Arithmetic Mean:The arithmetic mean is the most common measure of central tendency.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY members of a panel study of political opinions may try to appear consistent in the views they express on consecutive occasions. It simply the sum of the numbers divided by the number of numbers. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. As an example. m= ΣX N = 634 31 =20. No: 540911500 Page 26 .4516 as shown below.4516 Mr. One possible safeguard to panel conditioning is to give members of a panel only a limited panel life and then to replace them with persons taken randomly from a reserve list.ASSIGNMENTS. the mean of the numbers 1+2+3+6+8= 20 5 =4 regardless of whether the numbers constitute the entire population or just a sample from the population. Q. The mean number of touchdown passes thrown is 20. after a panel has been in operation for some time. 2. The formula for m is shown below: m= ΣX N Where ΣX is the sum of all the numbers in the numbers in the sample and N is the number of numbers in the sample. the panel becomes untypical of the population it was selected to represent. The table. Cheating by panel members or investigators may be a problem in some cases. The symbol m is used for the mean of a population. The symbol M is used for the mean of a sample.  The quality of reporting may tend to decline. In processing data.

MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 37 33 33 32 29 28 28 23 22 22 22 21 21 21 20 20 19 19 18 18 18 18 16 15 14 14 14 12 12 9 6 Table 1: Number of touchdown passes Although the arithmetic mean is not the only "mean" (there is also a geometric mean). For example. This means you are in the lower half of the class. the median of 2. Computation of the Median: When there is an odd number of numbers. it is assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean. Student You John's Maria's Shareecia's Luther's Table 2: Three quiz Dataset 1 Dataset 2 Dataset 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 5 1 possible datasets for the 5-point make-up For Dataset 1. Let's return to the made up example of the quiz on which you made a three discussed previously in the module Introduction to Central Tendency and shown below. 12 is 4+7 2 Mr. or some other mean. the same as your score. the median of the numbers 2. The median is the midpoint of a distribution: the same number of scores is above the median as below it. the median is the mean of the two middle numbers. No: 540911500 Page 27 . When there is an even number of numbers. For Dataset 2. your score is below the median. and 7 is 4. Therefore. 4. Number of touchdown passes. 4.ASSIGNMENTS. the median is three. 7. the geometric mean. the median is 4. Median:The median is also a frequently used measure of central tendency. there are 31 scores. For this dataset. For the data in the table. the median is 2. it is by far the most commonly used. your score is above the median and therefore in the upper half of the distribution. Thus. if the term "mean" is used without specifying whether it is the arithmetic mean. the median is simply the middle number. Finally for Dataset 3. Therefore. The 16th highest score (which equals 20) is the median because there are 15 scores below the 16th score and 15 scores above the 16th score. The median can also be thought of as the 50th percentile. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.

Therefore the mode of continuous data is normally computed from a grouped frequency distribution. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. in which capacity they are called estimates of scale. the mode is 18 since more teams (4) had 18 touchdown passes than any other number of touchdown passes. Number of touchdown passes. The Grouped frequency distribution table shows a grouped frequency distribution for the target response time data. if the measurements have units.5. the measure of dispersion has the same units. Such measures of dispersion include: • • • • • • • Standard deviation Inter quartile range Range Mean difference Median absolute deviation Average absolute deviation (or simply called average deviation) Distance standard deviation These are frequently used (together with scale factors) as estimators of scale parameters. Mr.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY = 5. the mode is the middle of that interval (650).A measure of statistical dispersion is a real number that is zero if all the data are identical. No: 540911500 Page 28 . With continuous data such as response time measured to many decimals. Mode:The mode is the most frequently occurring value. In other words. and increases as the data becomes more diverse.ASSIGNMENTS. Most measures of dispersion have the same scale as the quantity being measured. For the data in the table. Range 500-600 600-700 700-800 800-900 900-1000 1000-1100 Table 3: distribution Frequency 3 6 5 5 0 1 Grouped frequency Measures of Dispersion:. such as meters or seconds. Since the interval with the highest frequency is 600-700. It cannot be less than zero. the frequency of each value is one since no two scores will be exactly the same (see discussion of continuous variables).

it is less common to measure dispersion by a single number. even there. Each phenomenon must be examined to see if it warrants such a simplification. as well as linear in scale. Some measures of dispersion have specialized purposes.. So if a random variable X has a dispersion of SX then a linear transformation Y = aX + b for real a and b should have dispersion SY = |a| SX. among them the Allan variance and the Hadamard variance. and that the variation between measurements is due to observational error. These include: • • • Coefficient of variation Quartile coefficient of dispersion Relative mean difference.e. See qualitative variation. this assumption is false: the variation observed might be intrinsic to the phenomenon: distinct members of a population differ greatly. Sources of statistical dispersion:In the physical sciences. Other measures of dispersion are dimensionless (scale-free). This is also seen in the arena of manufactured products. One measure that does so is the discrete entropy.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY All the above measures of statistical dispersion have the useful property that they are location-invariant. One may assume that the quantity being measured is unchanging and stable. equal to twice the Gini coefficient There are other measures of dispersion: • • Variance (the square of the standard deviation) — location-invariant but not linear in scale. the meticulous scientist finds variation.ASSIGNMENTS. they have no units even if the variable itself has units. reproducible. For categorical variables. such variability may result only from random measurement errors: instrument measurements are often not perfectly precise. Mr. Variance-to-mean ratio — mostly used for count data when the term coefficient of dispersion is used and when this ratio is dimensionless. In the biological sciences. i. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. as count data are themselves dimensionless: otherwise this is not scale-free. The simple model of a stable quantity is preferred when it is tenable. In other words. No: 540911500 Page 29 .

Cook and Campbell (1979) list a number of common plausible alternative explanations (or. While standard designs may sometimes fit real-life situations. we cannot be confident that the presumed causeeffect relationship is correct. threats to internal validity). we might wish to know whether a new educational program causes subsequent achievement score gains. For example. For example. whether a special work release program for prisoners causes lower recidivism rates. Cook and Campbell (1979) argue that three conditions must be met before we can infer that such a cause-effect relation exists: 1. we should observe some change in the outcome measures. treatment. or. The reader is referred to standard research methods texts for more detailed discussions of threats to validity. The presumed cause must be the only reasonable explanation for changes in the outcome measures. No Plausible Alternative Explanations. whether a novel drug causes a reduction in symptoms. No: 540911500 Page 30 . changes in record keeping or measurement systems which occur at the same time as the program might be falsely attributed to the program. Any number of factors other than the treatment or program could cause changes in outcome measures. it will often be necessary to "tailor" a research Mr. Answer: Good research design: Much contemporary social research is devoted to examining whether a program. it may be that some historical event which occurs at the same time that the program or treatment is instituted was responsible for the change in the outcome measures. which these designs rule out or minimize. emphasis on the selection of an available design rather than on the construction of an appropriate research strategy. or change the level of a treatment or program. The presumed cause must occur prior to the presumed effect. In most social research the third condition is the most difficult to meet. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Standard social science methodology textbooks (Cook and Campbell 1979. Judd and Kenny. Campbell and Stanley (1966) and later. This tends to foster a "cookbook" approach to research design . if we introduce. What are the characteristics of a good research design? Explain how the research design for exploratory studies is different from the research design for descriptive and diagnostic studies. 1981) typically present an array of research designs and the alternative explanations. If there are other factors. Temporal Precedence. Changes in the presumed cause must be related to changes in the presumed effect. or manipulation causes some outcome or result. 2. Co-Variation. remove. This paper is primarily heuristic in purpose. 3. and so on. Thus. which could be responsible for changes in the outcome measures.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Q.

if one is studying the effects of special mathematics training on math achievement scores of children. a study of the effects of an advertising campaign on subsequent sales of a particular product. If there is no change in these measures coincident with the onset of the advertising campaign. it might be useful to observe everyday classroom behavior in order to verify that students were not receiving any additional math training to that provided in the study. which follows. Mr. ruling out a potential threat to validity by argument alone will be weaker than the other approaches listed below. No: 540911500 Page 31 . the removal of a competing product from the market.Here.. In such a study. By Design:. depending on the situation. This topic will be discussed in more detail below. the major emphasis is on ruling out alternative explanations by adding treatment or control groups. these threats would be considerably minimized. one of which is by research design: By Argument:. But such explanations may be ruled out or minimized in a number of ways other than by design. or other such factors. one might argue that an instrumentation threat is not likely because the same test is used for pre and post test measurements and did not involve observers who might improve. This paper takes a structural approach to research design.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY design to minimize specific threats to validity.The most straightforward way to rule out a potential threat to validity is to simply argue that the threat in question is not a reasonable one. the most plausible threats in a study should not. Such an argument may be made either a priori or a posteriori. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. In most cases. Furthermore.ASSIGNMENTS. for example. While this is by no means the only strategy for constructing research designs.e. One might attempt to minimize such threats by measuring local economic indicators and the availability and sales of competing products. it helps to clarify some of the basic principles of design logic. be ruled out by argument only. The discussion. Consider. history (i. the occurrence of other events which might lead to an increased desire to purchase the product) would be a plausible alternative explanation. For example. Minimizing Threats to Validity:Good research designs minimize the plausible alternative explanations for the hypothesized cause-effect relationship.In some cases it will be possible to rule out a threat by measuring it and demonstrating that either it does not occur at all or occurs so minimally as to not be a strong alternative explanation for the causeeffect relationship. a change in the local economy. or similar events could cause an increase in product sales. except in unusual cases. By Measurement or Observation:. outlines five ways to minimize threats to validity. As a result. and the like. For example. an understanding of the logic of design construction in general will improve the comprehension of these standard approaches. even if standard textbook designs are used. although the former will usually be more convincing than the latter. Similarly. waves of measurement.

auditing methods and quality control can be used to track potential experimental dropouts or to insure the standardization of measurement. Where both effects occur.There are a number of ways to rule out alternative explanations using statistical analysis. Several actions can be taken to minimize the effects of these attitudes including offering the program to the comparison group upon completion of the study or using program and comparison groups which have little opportunity for contact and communication. it is likely that the comparison group would feel jealous or demoralized. one plausible alternative explanation might be the status of local economic conditions.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY By Analysis:. One factor in this study would be the original treatment group designations (i."perfect" covariates do not exist in most social research and the use of imperfect covariates will not completely adjust for potential alternative explanations. By Preventive Action:. it might be possible to construct a measure of economic conditions and include that measure as a covariate in the statistical analysis.ASSIGNMENTS. In general. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. program vs. Mr.When potential threats are anticipated some type of preventive action can often rule them out. In addition. One must be careful when using covariance adjustments of this type -. dropout vs. One interesting example is provided by Jurs and Glass (1971). make use of multiple methods for reducing threats. A good research plan should. if the program is a desirable one.e. A main effect on the attrition factor would be indicative of a threat to external validity or generalizability. Here.. The five categories listed above should not be considered mutually exclusive. The choice of which strategy to use for any particular threat is complex and depends at least on the cost of the strategy and on the potential seriousness of the threat. nondropout group). where possible. The inclusion of measurements designed to minimize threats to validity will obviously be related to the design structure and is likely to be a factor in the analysis. comparison group). in a study of the effects of "workfare" programs on social welfare caseloads. No: 540911500 Page 32 . it is reasonable to infer that there is a threat to both internal and external validity.e. while an interaction between group and attrition factors would point to a possible threat to internal validity. The plausibility of alternative explanations might also be minimized using covariance analysis. reducing a particular threat by design or preventive action will probably be stronger than by using one of the other three approaches. For example. while the other factor would be attrition (i. For example. They suggest that one could study the plausibility of an attrition or mortality threat by conducting a two-way analysis of variance. Nevertheless causal assertions are likely to be strengthened by demonstrating that treatment effects occur even after adjusting on a number of good covariates.. The dependent measure could be the pretest or other available pre-program measures.

Mr. Similarly. if the same set of measures is given at every point in time in this study. Time:. the manner in which groups are assigned to the conditions can be indicated by an appropriate symbol at the beginning of each line.. "N" will depict a group. each group is indicated on a separate line. we can keep the programs distinct by using subscripts such as "X1" or "X2". Typically.whatever symbol is used to indicate the presumed cause would be placed to the left of the symbol indicating measurement of the effect. by its very nature. implies that some time has elapsed between the occurrence of the cause and the consequent effect. Thus..The final design element consists of the intact groups or the individuals who participate in various conditions. which was nonrandom assigned (i. 4. Program(s) or Treatment(s):. However. While for some phenomena the elapsed time might be measured in microseconds and therefore might be unnoticeable to a casual observer. if different measures are given at different times it is useful to subscript the "O" to indicate which measurement is being given at which point in time. Here. In design notation we indicate this temporal element horizontally .ASSIGNMENTS. Complex designs might involve a lengthy sequence of observations and programs or treatments across time. as we read from left to right in design notation we are reading across time. we normally assume that the cause and effect in social science arenas do not occur simultaneously.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Design Construction:Basic Design Elements:.e. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. For a comparison group (i. the "O" can be used to depict the entire set of measures.The presumed cause may be a program or treatment under the explicit control of the researcher or the occurrence of some natural event or program not explicitly controlled. then this "O" will be sufficient.Measurements are typically depicted in design notation with the symbol "O". which was randomly assigned. a nonequivalent group or cohort) and a "C" will indicate that the group was assigned using a cutoff score on a measurement. "R" will represent a group. If the same measurement or observation is taken at every point in time in a design.e. No: 540911500 Page 33 . one which does not receive the program under study) no "X" is used.Most research designs can be constructed from four basic elements: 1. there will be one or more program and comparison groups. Groups or Individuals:. When multiple programs or treatments are being studied using the same design. Observation(s) or Measure(s):.A causal relationship. 3. 2. Furthermore. In design notation we usually depict a presumed cause with the symbol "X". In design notation.

solicit input during the development. writing them for their review usually results in more compelling material. Mohammed Ali Akbar .Rather than asking the customer to draft their quotes. learning how to write a case study takes time. Like other marketing communication skills. • Write all customer quotes for their review:. How is the Case Study method useful in Business Research? Give two specific examples of how the case study method can be applied to business research. writing case studies without careful planning usually results in sub optimal results? Savvy case study writers increase their chances of success by following these ten proven techniques for writing an effective case study: Involve the customer throughout the process:. Answer: While case study writing may seem easy at first glance. Reg.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Q. Obtain customer permission before writing the document.Involving the customer throughout the case study development process helps ensure customer cooperation and approval. What’s more. 4.ASSIGNMENTS. and secure approval after drafting the document. and results in an improved case study. developing an effective case study (also called a success story) is an art. No: 540911500 Page 34 Mr.

how the solution resolves a commonly faced issue. Visually. • Start with a bang .Use action verbs and emphasize benefits in the case study title and subtitle. describe how the customer benefited from the particular solution (more on this below).In the problem section. use the opposite sequence. but not impossible. Use the general-to-specific-to-general approach . and ensures that the document looks. offering a specific example demonstrates. ZZZ after just 6 months of implementation. procedurally. This natural story-telling sequence resonates with readers. employees at Customer Y have realized a ZZ% increase in productivity as measured by standard performance indicators. and concluding more generally allows the reader to understand how the solution can also address their problem. “Thanks to Solution X. in a concrete way. “Using Solution X saved Customer Y over $ZZZ. then indicate how it can also help resolve this issue more broadly within the industry. the template helps build the brand. For example. No: 540911500 Page 35 • • • Mr. and benefits .Regardless of length. Before beginning work. the time-tested. most effective organization for a case study follows the problem-solution-benefits flow. Quantify benefits when possible .MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Case Study Writing Ideas • Establish a document template . describe how the solution solved this specific problem. and stick to them. The goal should be to tease the reader into wanting to read more. define 3-5 specific elements to include in every case study. Then. describe the business and/or technical problem or issue. Beginning more generally draws the reader into the story. Reg. formalize those elements.A template serves as a roadmap for the case study process. Then. describe the solution to this problem or resolution of this issue. solution. next.No single element in a case study is more compelling than the ability to tie quantitative benefits to the solution. In the solution section. finally. Include a short (less than 20-word) customer quote in larger text.” or. First. If benefits cannot be quantified. it simplifies the actual writing. attempt to develop a range of qualitative benefits. the latter can be quite compelling to readers as well. First. Organize according to problem. and reads consistently.” Quantifying benefits can be challenging.ASSIGNMENTS. summarize the key points of the case study in 2-3 succinct bullet points. feels. Mohammed Ali Akbar . The key is to present imaginative ideas to the customer for ways to quantify the benefits. begin with a general discussion of the issue that faces the relevant industry. and remain flexible during this discussion. describe the specific problem or issue that the customer faced.

provide a pdf. Q. Reward the customer . • Writing a case study is not easy. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. and marketing experience that these documents require. The observer must be in vantage point to see clearly the objects to be observed. ideally using the solution. If a qualified internal writer is unavailable. Answer: Observation means viewing or seeing. No: 540911500 Page 36 . Another idea is to frame a copy of the completed case study and present it to the customer in appreciation for their efforts and cooperation. as well as printed copies.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • Use photos . Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon on its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study. a talented writer can mean the difference between an ineffective case study and one that provides the greatest benefit. 5.After receiving final customer approval and finalizing the case study. The shots need not be professionally done. • Recording should be accurate and complete. a case study is doomed to failure if the writer lacks the exceptional writing skills. which will permit accurate results. The distance and the light must be satisfactory. • Observation must cover a sufficient number of representative samples of the cases. Observation is classical method of scientific study. Even with the best plan. technical savvy. consider outsourcing the task to professionals who specialize in case study writing. Mr. “homegrown” digital photos sometimes lead to surprisingly good results and often appear more genuine. The mechanical devices used must be in good working conditions and operated by skilled persons. What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate. The pre-requisites of observation consist of: • Observations must be done under conditions. Photos further personalize the story and help form a connection to readers. in fact. In many cases.ASSIGNMENTS.Ask the customer if they can provide shots of personnel. to the customer.

Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. No: 540911500 Page 37 . There is no such artificiality in observational studies especially when the observed persons are not aware of their being observed. studies of children. Advantages of observation:o The main virtue of observation is its directness it makes it possible to study behavior as it occurs.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • The accuracy and completeness of recorded results must be checked. The validity of what men of position and authority say can be verified by observing what they actually do. Mechanical devices may be used for recording data in order to secure more accurate data and also of making continuous observations over longer periods. o o o o o o Mr. birds etc. Observations in more suitable for studying subjects who are unable to articulate meaningfully e. Observations improve the opportunities for analyzing the contextual back ground of behavior. The researcher needs to ask people about their behavior and interactions he can simply watch what they do and say. A certain number of cases can be observed again by another observer/another set of mechanical devices as the case may be. For example only observation can be providing an insight into all the aspects of the process of negotiation between union and management representatives. Other methods introduce elements or artificiality into the researched situation for instance in interview the respondent may not behave in a natural way. tribal animals. Observation is less demanding of the subjects and has less biasing effect on their conduct than questioning. It is easier to conduct disguised observation studies than disguised questioning. o Data collected by observation may describe the observed phenomena as they occur in their natural settings. Observations make it possible to capture the whole event as it occurs. If it is feasible two separate observers and set of instruments may be used in all or some of the original observations. The results could then be compared to determine their accuracy and completeness. Furthermore verbal resorts can be validated and compared with behavior through observation.ASSIGNMENTS.g.

Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Academic interviews . Questions are likely to center on your academic history to date. Their purpose is to give the interviewer(s) a chance to assess your suitability for the role and for you to demonstrate your abilities and personality. Recruitment Manager. The Cooperative Group. 5. examines whether or not you have evidence of possessing these. Be aware that you are still being assessed.ASSIGNMENTS. in an interview. 4.’ The organization determines the selection criteria based on the roles they are recruiting for and then. Questions may focus on your final year project or on real or hypothetical technical problems. As this is a two-way process. You should be prepared to prove yourself.These are structured to reflect the competencies or qualities that an employer is seeking for a particular job. 6. Interview format:Interviews take many different forms. it is likely that you will be asked technical questions or has a separate technical interview. 1. and asks all the candidates the same questions. Formal/informal interviews . which will usually have been detailed in the job specification or advert.If the role is within the arts.interviewers are interested in your thought process and logic.If you have applied for a job or course that requires technical knowledge. it is also a good opportunity for you to ask questions and to make sure the organization and position are right for you. Portfolio based interviews . Do not worry if you do not know the exact answer . Structured interviews . 3.The interviewer has a set list of questions. media or communications industries. you may be asked to bring a portfolio of your Mr. The interviewer is looking for evidence of your skills and may ask such things as: ‘Give an example of a time you worked as part of a team to achieve a common goal.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Interviews are a crucial part of the recruitment process for all Organizations.Some interviews may be very formal. Competency / Criteria based interviews . while others will feel more like an informal chat about you and your interests. 2. however informal the discussion may seem. Technical interviews . It is a good idea to ask the organization in advance what format the interview will take. No: 540911500 Page 38 . but also to admit to what you do not know and stress that you are keen to learn.These are used for further study or research positions.

ASSIGNMENTS. Personality is not as important to the screener as verifying your qualifications. No: 540911500 Page 39 . screeners tend to dig for dirt. Screening interviewers often have honed skills to determine whether there is anything that might disqualify you for the position. For this reason. and to have an in-depth discussion about the pieces you have chosen to include. it is helpful to have note cards with your vital information sitting next to the phone. Computer programs are among the tools used to weed out unqualified candidates. Give a range.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY work to the interview."  If the interview is conducted by phone.g. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.These ranges from straightforward scenario questions (e. 7. Some tips for maintaining confidence during screening interviews:  Highlight your accomplishments and qualifications. you will be able to switch gears quickly. and try to avoid giving specifics by replying. whether the interviewer catches you sleeping or vacuuming the floor. Specific types of interview:The Screening Interview:Companies use screening tools to ensure that candidates meet minimum qualification requirements. how you identify the key issues. Screeners will hone in on gaps in your employment history or pieces of information that look inconsistent. You will be evaluated on your analysis of the problem. Save your winning personality for the person making hiring decisions!  Be tactful about addressing income requirements. only whether you are not a match. Mr. Answer questions directly and succinctly. Senior/case study interviews . how you pursue a particular line of thinking and whether you can develop and present an appropriate framework for organizing your thoughts. They also will want to know from the outset whether you will be too expensive for the company.  Get into the straightforward groove. "I would be willing to consider your best offer. See our resume center for help. ‘What would you do in a situation where…?’) to the detailed analysis of a hypothetical business problem.) Sometimes human professionals are the gatekeepers. That way. Remember-they does not need to know whether you are the best fit for the position. (This is why you need a digital resume that is screening-friendly.

During an informational interview.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The Informational Interview On the opposite end of the stress spectrum from screening interviews is the informational interview. are often open to informational interviews.  Do not relinquish complete control of the interview. If the interviewer does not ask you for information that you think is important to proving your superiority as a candidate. or you might find the conversation develops naturally. Either way. You might feel like you are being steam-rolled. feel flattered by your interest. they can more readily compare the results.ASSIGNMENTS.  Gain references to other people and make sure that the interviewer would be comfortable if you contact other people and use his or her name. or esteem the mutual friend that connected you to them. The Directive Style In this style of interview. A meeting that you initiate. the interviewer has a clear agenda that he or she follows unflinchingly. following his or her lead. Job seekers ostensibly secure informational meetings in order to seek the advice of someone in their current or desired field as well as to gain further references to people who can lend insight. Employers that like to stay apprised of available talent even when they do not have current job openings.  Give the interviewer your card. remember:  Flex with the interviewer. the informational interview is underutilized by job-seekers who might otherwise consider themselves savvy to the merits of networking. although you should keep an eye open for these if the interviewer would be your supervisor. politely interject it. Mr. Directive interviewers rely upon their own questions and methods to tease from you what they wish to know. No: 540911500 Page 40 . Their style does not necessarily mean that they have dominance issues. but be intentional nonetheless:  Come prepared with thoughtful questions about the field and the company. This takes off some of the performance pressure. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.  Write a thank you note to the interviewer. Sometimes companies use this rigid format to ensure parity between interviews. the jobseeker and employer exchange information and get to know one another better without reference to a specific job opening. when interviewers ask each candidate the same series of questions. especially if they like to share their knowledge. contact information and resume.

Critiquing rather than merely listing each item a good literature review is led by your own critical thought processes . If he or she becomes more directive during the interview.  Remain alert to the interviewer. relies on you to lead the discussion. take each group in turn and really think about what you want to achieve in presenting them this way. open-ended question before falling into silence. What type of research report would be most appropriate? Develop an outline of the research report with the main sections. This is your opportunity for showing that you did not take all your reading at face is not simply a catalogue of what has been written. Once you have established which authors and ideas are linked. remain respectful of the interviewer's role. Do not rely on the interviewer to spark your memory-jot down some notes that you can reference throughout the interview.ASSIGNMENTS. The interviewer might ask you another broad. which are helpful for any interview. 6. are particularly important when interviewers use a non-directive approach:  Come to the interview prepared with highlights and anecdotes of your skills. No: 540911500 Page 41 . This interview style allows you tactfully to guide the discussion in a way that best serves you.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The Meandering Style This interview type. The following strategies. running with your own agenda and dominating the conversation means that you run the risk of missing important information about the company and its needs. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg." which you can use to your advantage. It might begin with a statement like "tell me about yourself. Answer: There are four major interlinking processes in the presentation of a literature review: 1. adjust. in order to ascertain reader habits and interests.  Ask well-placed questions. Case Study: You are engaged to carry out a market survey on behalf of a leading Newspaper that is keen to increase its circulation in Bangalore City. Q. Even if you feel like you can take the driver's seat and go in any direction you wish. usually used by inexperienced interviewers. Mr. but that you have the knowledge and skills to interpret the authors' meanings and intentions in relation to each other. Although the open format allows you significantly to shape the interview. qualities and experiences.

As you begin to group together the items you read. for example:  An historical survey of theory and research in your field. ideas and authors into firm categories as they relate more obviously to your own study. language. Knowing what you want to convey will help you decide the most appropriate structure. grouping linked items. the direction of your literature review will emerge with greater clarity. A review can take many forms. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.  A synthesis of several paradigms.ASSIGNMENTS.  A process of narrowing down to your own topic. with your own intentions and conceptual framework in mind.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY particularly if there are conflicting views or incompatible findings in a particular area. This is a good time to finalize your concept map. In the early stages of your research you cannot be expected to have a fully developed appreciation of the implications of all findings. you will eventually reach a final decision as to your own topic and research design. As you get used to reading at this level of intensity within your field you will find it easier and more purposeful to ask questions as you read:            What is this all about? Who is saying it and what authorities do they have? Why is it significant? What is its context? How was it reached? How valid is it? How reliable is the evidence? What has been gained? What do other authors say? How does it contribute? So what? 2. Mr. No: 540911500 Page 42 . Rest assured that developing a sense of critical judgment in the literature surrounding a topic is a gradual process of gaining familiarity with the concepts. Structuring the fragments into a coherent body through your reading and discussions with your supervisor during the searching and organizing phases of the cycle. terminology and conventions in the field. Now you can plan the structure of your written literature review.

paraphrasing and summarizing) You can treat published literature like any other data. As with all academic writing. The first paragraph or two of each section mentions the major authors in association with their main ideas and areas of debate. No: 540911500 Page 43 Mr. a literature review needs:  An introduction  A body  A conclusion The introduction sets the scene and lays out the various elements that are to be explored. when you come to write the discussion chapter of your thesis. Later. The section then expands on these ideas and authors.' When using published data. 3. A short conclusion at the end of each section presents a synthesis of these linked ideas. Mohammed Ali Akbar . for example: o 'Table 2 shows that sixteen of the twenty subjects responded positively. usually as a series of headed sections and subsections. you are likely to present the results with reference to their source.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY It is likely that your literature review will contain elements of all of these. and how the debate informs your understanding of the topic.' Reg. The body takes each element in turn. Controlling the 'voice' of your citations in the text (by selective use of direct quoting. you should be able to relate your findings in one-to-one correspondence with many of the concepts or questions that were firmed up in the conclusion of your literature review. The final conclusion of the literature review ties together the main points from each of your sections and this is then used to build the framework for your own study. but the difference is that it is not data you generated yourself. When you report on your own findings.ASSIGNMENTS. you would say: o 'Positive responses were recorded for 80 per cent of the subjects (see table 2). showing how each relates to the others.

the author's name and publication details must be associated with the words in the text. you would naturally substitute the name. this is significant in the assessment of the merit and rigor of your work. date and page number for 'table 2'. using an approved referencing system. which determines how strong the wall will be. If you don't do this you would be in severe breach of academic convention. it appears that the majority of subjects responded positively. Overuse or simple 'listing' of quotes can substantially weaken your own argument by silencing your critical view or voice. and it must be an identical copy of the original in every respect. with no loss of the author's intended meaning: Mr. and might be penalized. page 27). You could see this process as building a wall: you select and place the 'bricks' and your 'voice' provides the ‘mortar’. Direct quoting repeats exact wording and thus directly represents the author: o 'Rain is likely when the sky becomes overcast' (Smith 1988. No: 540911500 Page 44 . Paraphrasing is repeating an idea in your own words.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY o 'From the results shown in table 2. Had you found the same results on page 17 of a text by Smith published in 1988. There are three ways to combine an idea and its source with your own voice: • • • Direct quote Paraphrase Summary In each method. single quotation marks are used to enclose it. In each case it would be your voice introducing a fact or statement that had been generated somewhere else. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. If the quotation is run in with your text.' In these examples your source of information is table 2.ASSIGNMENTS. In turn. Your field of study has its own referencing conventions you should investigate before writing up your results.

Paraphrasing allows you to organize the ideas expressed by the authors without being rigidly constrained by the grammar.ASSIGNMENTS. o Once you have established a good structure with appropriate headings for your literature review. The good use of language depends on the quality of the thinking behind the writing. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Which tense should I use? Mr. 4. Smith (1988) predicted the likelihood of rain. rain may well be indicated by the presence of cloud in the sky. However. you can help yourself in several ways: o o o Ask for feedback on your writing from friends. You need to conform to discipline-specific requirements. colleagues and academics Look for specific language information in reference materials Access programs or self-paced learning resources which may be available on your campus Grammar tips practical and helpful The following guidance on tenses and other language tips may be useful. Summarizing means to shorten or crystallize a detailed piece of writing by restating the main points in your own words and in the order in which you found them. tense and vocabulary of the original. and on the context of the writing. If you have doubts about your confidence to use the English language well. and once you are confident in controlling the voice in your citations. You retain a degree of flexibility as to whose voice comes through most strongly. No: 540911500 Page 45 .MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY o As Smith (1988) pointed out in the late eighties. Using appropriate language: Your writing style represents you as a researcher. and it is your own voice that is predominant: Referring to the possible effects of cloudy weather. and reflects how you are dealing with the subtleties and complexities inherent in the literature. o Smith (1988) claims that some degree of precipitation could be expected as the result of clouds in the sky: he has clearly discounted the findings of Jones (1986). you should find that your writing becomes more lucid and fluent because you know what you want to say and how to say it. The original writing is 'described' as if from the outside. there may still be some points of grammar and vocabulary you would like to improve.

.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Use present tense:o o o o For generalizations and claims:  The sky is blue... No: 540911500 Page 46 ..  Use compound (joined simple) sentences to write about two or more ideas which may be linked with 'and'. might... which exist for the reader at the time of reading:  I think therefore I am. In referring to components of your own document:  Table 2 shows.. Don't try to use an intellectual tone for the sake of it. could. Other Language tips  Convey your meaning in the simplest possible way. and do not rely on your reader to read your mind!  Keep sentences short and simple when you wish to emphasise a point. Use simple past tense for: o Completed events or actions:  Smith (1988) discovered that... 'but'. which can then be compared on equal terms with others:  Smith (1988) suggests that. especially theories.. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Use past perfect tense for: o Events which occurred before a specified past time:  Prior to these findings.. would. this would imply that.. should) to: o Convey degrees of doubt  This may indicate that . 'because'. Use modals (may. For authors' statements of a theoretical nature. Use present perfect tense for: o Recent events or actions that are still linked in an unresolved way to the present:  Several studies have attempted to. it had been thought that.ASSIGNMENTS.. Mr. To convey ideas. 'whereas' etc..

etc).ASSIGNMENTS. and nouns carry information more densely than verbs. have to say that Mr.  Keep punctuation to a minimum.  Verbs are more dynamic than nouns. I wanted to investigate something in particular. qualitative/quantitative.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  Use complex sentences when you are dealing with embedded ideas or those that show the interaction of two or more complex elements. Use it to separate the elements of complex sentences in order to keep subject. Findings/results:What had I found? What did the tables/graphs/categories etc. verb and object in clear view. I knew I would have to analyse the raw data. Methodology:I decided on the number and description of my subjects. I established exactly where my investigation would fit into the big picture. As part of the analysis. and with my research question clearly in mind. I reduced the data (by means of my preferred form of classification) to manageable thematic representation (tables. Then I carried out the research study and recorded all the data in a methodical way according to my intended methods of analysis. categories. and began to realize at this stage how my study would be different from anything done previously. so I made sure that the instrument and my proposed method(s) of analysis were compatible right from the start.  Avoid densely packed strings of words. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.  Select active or passive verbs according to whether you are highlighting the 'doer' or the 'done to' of the action. designed my own investigation process. particularly nouns. graphs. using certain known research methods (and perhaps some that are not so common). Review of Literature:So I read everything I could find on the topic . The Total Process:- The story of a research study:Introduction I looked at the situation and found that I had a question to ask about it.what was already known and said and what had previously been found. Then I devised my research instrument to get the best out of what I was investigating. I began with the broad decision about which research paradigm I would work within (that is. It was then that I began to realise what I had found. No: 540911500 Page 47 . critical/interpretive/ empiricist).

just the facts. Research design and implementation. which. reflect.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY could be pinned down? It was easy enough for me to see the salient points at a glance from these records. after all? There were some obvious limitations to my study. succinct sentences. That way. Conclusion:We'll take a long hard look at this study from a broad perspective. Reading. b.. revise. I knew that I wanted my results to be as watertight and squeaky clean as possible. applying tests of significance where appropriate to ensure both reliability and validity. c. For each display of results. the fascinating byways sadly left behind. How does it rate? How did I end up answering the question I first thought of? The conclusion needs to be a few clear. I'll know that I know what I'm talking about. cyclical writing process: draft.. The more you find out. redraft. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. even so. They would carry a great deal more credibility. so where do we all go from here? Three stages of research:a. What did I find in the results that answered my original research question? Why was I so sure I had some answers? What about the unexplained or unexpected findings? Had I interpreted the results correctly? Could there have been any other factors involved? Were my findings supported or contested by the results of similar studies? Where did that leave mine in terms of contribution to my field? Can I actually generalise from my findings in a breakthrough of some kind. No: 540911500 Page 48 . I wrote a corresponding summary of important observations relating only elements within my own set of results and comparing only like with like. how I speculate. but in writing my report. Use an active.ASSIGNMENTS. I also spelled out what I had found truly significant to make sure my readers did not miss it. I was careful not to let my own interpretations intrude or voice my excitement just yet. I'll defend to the hilt. Discussion:Now I was free to let the world know the significance of my findings. the more questions arise. or do I simply see myself as reinforcing existing knowledge? And so what. I wanted to state the facts .. I dealt correctly with all inferential statistical procedures. But I won't become over-apologetic about the things left undone. strength and thereby academic 'clout' if I took no shortcuts and remained both rigorous and scholarly. OK. check. or the abandoned analyses. Writing up the research report or thesis. Mr. and whatever implications have arisen in my mind as a result of doing this thing at all. I have my memories.. I'll wrap up with whatever generalizations I can make. How I wonder what you are .

Keep a systematic log of technical records of your experimental and other research data. decisions. note-taking and referencing records. Discuss your ideas with your supervisor and interested others. and noting any discrepancies or unexpected occurrences at the time you notice them. m. No: 540911500 Page 49 . Be systematic with your reading.ASSIGNMENTS. h. Be thoughtful and think ahead about the way you will consider and store new information as it comes to light. i. l. state of mind. Keep a research journal to reflect on your processes. Know how you will analyze data so that your formats correspond from the start.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Establishing good practice:d. Mr. Train yourself to select what you do need and reject what you don't need. f. reactions to experimental outcomes etc. changes of mind. Design your research approaches in detail in the early stages so that you have frameworks to fit findings into straightaway. Keep your research question always in mind. Read widely to collect information. Read widely to establish a context for your research. k. e. remembering to date each entry. j. particularly to your hypothesis or research question. which may relate to your topic. 3Keep going back to the whole picture. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. g.