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MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
ASSIGNMENTS- MBA SEM-III Subject code: MB0034 Subject Name: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Set 1 & Set 2
Submitted By: Mr. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. No. 540911500 Mohd.email@example.com
Mr. Mohammed Ali Akbar
Reg. No: 540911500
ASSIGNMENTS- MBA Sem-III
MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
ASSIGNMENT SET- 1
Q. 1. Give examples of specific situations that would call for the following types of research, explaining why – a) Exploratory research b) Descriptive research c) Diagnostic research d) Evaluation research.
Answer: Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the
methods. According to the intent, research may be classified as: Basic (aka fundamental or pure) research is driven by a scientist's curiosity or interest in a scientific question. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge, not to create or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result from basic research. For example, basic science investigations probe for answers to questions such as: • How did the universe begin? • • • What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of? How do slime molds reproduce? What is the specific genetic code of the fruit fly?
Most scientists believe that a basic, fundamental understanding of all branches of science is needed in order for progress to take place. In other words, basic research lays down the foundation for the applied science that follows. If basic work is done first, then applied spin-offs often eventually result from this research. As Dr. George Smoot of LBNL says, "People cannot foresee the future well enough to predict what's going to develop from basic research. If we only did applied research, we would still be making better spears." Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. One might say that the goal of the applied scientist is to improve the human condition. For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to: • Improve agricultural crop production • • Treat or cure a specific disease Improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportation
Mr. Mohammed Ali Akbar
Reg. No: 540911500
ASSIGNMENTS- MBA Sem-III
MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Some scientists feel that the time has come for a shift in emphasis away from purely basic research and toward applied science. This trend, they feel, is necessitated by the problems resulting from global overpopulation, pollution, and the overuse of the earth's natural resources.
a) Exploratory research:- provides insights into and comprehension of an
issue or situation. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist . Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature: E.g., RSS feeds efficiently supply researchers with up-to-date information; major search engine search results may be sent by email to researchers by services such as Google Alerts; comprehensive search results are tracked over lengthy periods of time by services such as Google Trends; and Web sites may be created to attract worldwide feedback on any subject. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Although the results of qualitative research can give some indication as to the "why", "how" and "when" something occurs, it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many." Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to the population at large. A defining characteristic of causal research is the random assignment of participants to the conditions of the experiment; e.g., an Experimental and a Control Condition... Such assignment results in the groups being comparable at the beginning of the experiment. Any difference between the groups at the end of the experiment is attributable to the manipulated variable. Observational research typically looks for difference among "in-tact" defined groups. A common example compares smokers and non-smokers with regard to health problems. Causal conclusions can't be drawn from such a study because of other possible differences between the groups; e.g., smokers may drink more alcohol than nonsmokers. Other unknown differences could exist as well. Hence, we may see a relation between smoking and health but a conclusion that smoking is a cause would not be warranted in this situation. (Cp)
Mr. Mohammed Ali Akbar
Reg. No: 540911500
ASSIGNMENTS- MBA Sem-III
MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
b) Descriptive Research:- It also known as statistical research, describes
data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how. Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. But there are always restrictions to that. Your research must have an impact to the life of the people around you. For example, finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus; more people will live a healthy life.
c) Diagnostic study:- It is similar to descriptive study but with different focus. It
is directed towards discovering what is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance.
d) Evaluation Studies:- It is a type of applied research. It is made for
assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It is concerned also with change over time.
Q. 2. In the context of hypothesis testing, briefly explain the difference between a) Null and alternative hypothesis b) Type 1 and type 2 error c) Two tailed and one tailed test d) Parametric and nonparametric tests.
Answer: Some basic concepts in the context of testing of hypotheses are
explained below –
Mr. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. No: 540911500 Page 4
we may consider three possible alternative hypotheses as follows: Alternative Hypothesis Ha: µ≠µ H0 Ha: µ>µ H0 Ha: µ< µ H0 To be read as follows (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is not equal to 100 i.ASSIGNMENTS. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. then we are rejecting Ha and if we reject H0. then it is known as an alternative hypothesis. because then the probability of rejecting it when it is true is α (the level of significance) which is chosen very small. The alternative hypothesis is usually the one. Then we would say that the null hypothesis is that the population mean is equal to the hypothesized mean 100 and symbolically we can express it as: H0: µ= µ H0=100 If our sample results do not support this null hypothesis. On the other hand. then this assumption is termed as a null hypothesis.e. the following considerations are usually kept in view: 1a. In the choice of null hypothesis.In the context of statistical analysis. we often talk about null and alternative hypotheses.. For H0: µ= µ H0=100. while the alternative hypothesis represents all other possibilities. 2 3b. Thus a null hypothesis represents the hypothesis we are trying to reject.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 11) Null Hypotheses and Alternative Hypothesis:. then we are accepting Ha. If we are to compare the superiority of method A with that of method B and we proceed on the assumption that both methods are equally good. it may be more or less 100) (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is greater than 100) (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is less than 100) The null hypotheses and the alternative hypotheses are chosen before the sample is drawn (the researcher must avoid the error of deriving hypotheses from the data he collects and testing the hypotheses from the same data). and the null hypothesis is the one that is to be disproved. These are symbolically represented as: Null hypothesis = H0 and Alternative hypothesis = Ha Suppose we want to test the hypothesis that the population mean is equal to the hypothesized mean (µ H0) = 100. which is to be proved. if we think that method A is superior. If the rejection of a certain hypothesis when it is actually true involves great risk. 4 Mr. What we conclude rejecting the null hypothesis is known as an alternative hypothesis. No: 540911500 Page 5 . If we accept H0. we should conclude that something else is true. it is taken as null hypothesis.
which is known as a decision rule.This is a very important concept in the context of hypothesis testing. Generally.05 probability of occurring if H0 is true. also called as level of significance of test.Given a hypothesis Ha and an alternative hypothesis H0. Why so? The answer is that on the assumption that the null hypothesis is true.e. For instance. which should have been rejected. We may reject H0 when H0 is true and we may accept H0 when it is not true. 12) The Level of Significance:. It is always some percentage (usually 5%). In other words.ASSIGNMENTS.e. reject Ha) or reject H0 (i. there are basically two types of errors that we can make. we make a rule. No: 540911500 Page 6 .. thought and reason. but this cannot be done if we proceed with alternative hypotheses.. we proceed on the basis of the null hypothesis. then this implies that H0 will be rejected when the sampling result (i. then we must decide the number of items to be tested and the criterion for accepting or rejecting the hypothesis. The former is known as Type I and the latter is known as Type II. and Type II error means accepting of hypotheses. 44) Type I & II Errors:. that the lot is not good (there are many defective items in it). accept Ha). it should not state an approximate value. Hence the use of null hypotheses (at times also known as statistical hypotheses) is quite frequent. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Thus the significance level is the maximum value of the probability of rejecting H0 when it is true and is usually determined in advance before testing the hypothesis.. if H0 is that a certain lot is good (there are very few defective items in it). 2 33) Decision Rule or Test of Hypothesis:. against Ha. one can assign the probabilities to different possible sample results.e. and Type II error is denoted by β(beta). Type I error means rejection of hypotheses. in hypothesis testing. The null hypothesis should always be a specific hypothesis i.In the context of testing of hypotheses. which should have been accepted. we will accept H0. keeping the alternative hypothesis in view. Type I error is denoted by α (alpha).e. according to which we accept H0 (i. In case we take the significance level at 5%.. otherwise we will reject H0 (or accept Ha). the 5% level of significance means that the researcher is willing to take as much as 5% risk rejecting the null hypothesis when it (H0) happens to be true. which should be chosen with great care. We might test 10 items in the lot and plan our decision saying that if there are none or only 1 defective item among the 10. Mr. This sort of basis is known as a decision rule.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 5c. In other words. observed evidence) has a less than 0.
If type I error involves time and trouble of reworking a batch of chemicals that should have been accepted.In the context of hypothesis testing. We can control type I error just by fixing it at a lower level. But with a fixed sample size n. Such a test is inappropriate when we have H0: µ= µ H0 and Ha: µ≠µ H0 which may µ>µ H0 or µ<µ H0. then in such a situation one should prefer a type I error to a type II error. since there is a trade-off in business situations.01.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Decision Accept H0 Reject H0 H0 (true) Correct decision Type I error (α error) Ho (false) Type II error (β error) Correct decision The probability of Type I error is usually determined in advance and is understood as the level of significance of testing the hypotheses. If we take µ = 100 and if our sample mean deviates significantly from µ. 15) Two Tailed Test & One Tailed Test:. say. when we try to reduce type I error. if we fix it at 1%. As a result. we will say that the maximum probability of committing type I error would only be 0. For instance. whereas type II error means taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned.95.ASSIGNMENTS. say. Hence. the probability of committing type II error increases. these two terms are quite important and must be clearly understood.05 (equally split on both tails of the curve as 0. If significance level is 5 % and the two-tailed test is to be applied. whether the population mean is either lower or higher than some hypothesized value. one must set a very high level for type I error in one’s testing techniques of a given hypothesis. A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if. If type I error is fixed at 5%. in testing of hypotheses. No: 540911500 Page 7 . Mr. Decision makers decide the appropriate level of type I error by examining the costs of penalties attached to both types of errors. one must make all possible efforts to strike an adequate balance between Type I & Type II error. it means there are about 5 chances in 100 that we will reject H0 when H0 is true. the sample mean is significantly higher or lower than the hypothesized value of the mean of the population. in that case we shall accept the null hypothesis. the probability of the rejection area will be 0. Both types of errors cannot be reduced simultaneously. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.025) and that of the acceptance region will be 0. A one-tailed test would be used when we are to test. But there are situations when only a one-tailed test is considered appropriate. 2 Parametric statistics is a branch of statistics that assumes data come from a type of probability distribution and makes inferences about the parameters of the distribution most well known elementary statistical methods are parametric.
availability. 3. especially if care is taken to examine diagnostic statistics. What are the possible reasons for a correlation between two variables. and providing it. parametric methods can be very misleading. Kernel density estimation provides better estimates of the density than histograms. and let friends and family know where they got it. They are said to have more statistical power. If those extra assumptions are correct. No: 540911500 Page 8 . with an example of each. and wavelets. Because parametric statistics require a probability distribution. which emphasizes customer retention and satisfaction. parametric methods can produce more accurate and precise estimates. Nonparametric regression and semi parametric regression methods have been developed based on kernels. and the best way to give the customer what he or she wants. For that reason they are often not considered robust. color. i. but definitely not all cases. Marketing research looks at trends in sales and studies all of the variables. Answer: Correlation:. The term nonparametric is not meant to imply that such models completely lack parameters but that the number and nature of the parameters are flexible and not fixed in advance. If you can give the customer what they want.e. their simplicity makes up for their non-robustness. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. if those assumptions are incorrect. parametric formulae are often simpler to write down and faster to compute. On the other hand. Mr.ASSIGNMENTS. Casual relationship Marketing was first defined as a form of marketing developed from direct response marketing campaigns. However. and styles.The correlation is knowing what the consumer wants. Non-parametric models differ from parametric models in that the model structure is not specified a priori but is instead determined from data. Explain the difference between a causal relationship and correlation. they are not distribution-free. In some. they will buy. Q. Data Envelopment Analysis provides efficiency coefficients similar to those obtained by Multivariate Analysis without any distributional assumption. Making them happy makes the money. rather than a dominant focus on sales transactions. price.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Generally speaking parametric methods make more assumptions than nonparametric methods. splines.
people. and reduce the costs of marketing and client service. for example when the distribution is a multivariate normal distribution. attract. a multivariate t-distribution's degrees of freedom determine the level of tail dependence). entice former clients back into the fold. organize. (See diagram above.ASSIGNMENTS. Relationship Marketing differs from other forms of marketing in that it recognizes the long term value of customer relationships and extends communication beyond intrusive advertising and sales promotional messages. Relationship Marketing has continued to evolve and move forward as technology opens more collaborative and social communication channels. and reduce operational costs Reasons for a correlation between two variables:. Relationship Marketing is a broadly recognized. Once simply a label for a category of software tools. The information given by a correlation coefficient is not enough to define the dependence structure between random variables. it does not completely characterize the dependence structure (for example.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY As a practice. automate those marketing and communication activities on concrete marketing sequences that could run in autopilot (also known as marketing sequences). Just like Customer relationship management(CRM). nurture and retain those the company already has. and win new clients. No: 540911500 Page 9 . however. Mr. today. Relationship Marketing extends to include Inbound Marketing efforts (a combination of search optimization and Strategic Content). The correlation coefficient completely defines the dependence structure only in very particular cases. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. widely-implemented strategy for managing and nurturing a company’s interactions with clients and sales prospects. (the relationship is due to chance) or causative association (one variable causes the other). PR. it generally denotes a company-wide business strategy embracing all client-facing departments and even beyond.) In the case of elliptic distributions it characterizes the (hyper-) ellipses of equal density. This includes tools for managing relationships with customers that goes beyond simple demographic and customer service data.Chance association. Distance correlation and Brownian covariance / Brownian correlation   were introduced to address the deficiency of Pearson's correlation that it can be zero for dependent random variables. It also involves using technology to. and technology work in synergy to increase profitability. When an implementation is effective. processes. synchronize business processes (principally sales and marketing activities) and most importantly. zero distance correlation and zero Brownian correlation imply independence. Social Media and Application Development. With the growth of the internet and mobile platforms. The overall goals are to find.
I would also argue that the typical use of college students in much psychological research is primarily a matter of Mr. However. We are able to estimate confidence intervals for the statistic. and it will often be hard for us to know how well we've done so. or the entropy-based mutual information/total correlation which is capable of detecting even more general dependencies. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. No: 540911500 Page 10 .ASSIGNMENTS. practical or theoretically sensible to do random sampling. and consider them to be more accurate and rigorous. in comparison to those that consider only 2nd moment (pairwise or quadratic) dependence. Does that mean that non-probability samples aren't representative of the population? Not necessarily. now it's probably the "person on the street") interviews conducted frequently by television news programs to get a quick (although non representative) reading of public opinion.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The correlation ratio is able to detect almost any functional dependency. We can divide non-probability sampling methods into two broad types: Accidental or purposive:Most sampling methods are purposive in nature because we usually approach the sampling problem with a specific plan in mind. researchers prefer probabilistic or random sampling methods over non probabilistic ones. we consider a wide range of non-probabilistic alternatives. What are the characteristics of a good sample? Answer: The difference between non-probability and probability sampling is that non-probability sampling does not involve random selection and probability sampling does. At least with a probabilistic sample. The latter are sometimes referred to as multimoment correlation measures. Accidental. Here. we may or may not represent the population well. One way to capture a more complete view of dependence structure is to consider a copula between them. But it does mean that nonprobability samples cannot depend upon the rationale of probability theory. Briefly explain any two factors that affect the choice of a sampling technique. With non-probability samples. in applied social research there may be circumstances where it is not feasible. 4. The polychoric correlation is another correlation applied to ordinal data that aims to estimate the correlation between theorized latent variables. Haphazard or Convenience Sampling:One of the most common methods of sampling goes under the various titles listed here. The most important distinctions among these types of sampling methods are the ones between the different types of purposive sampling approaches. Q. In general. we know the odds or probability that we have represented the population well. I would include in this category the traditional "man on the street" (of course.
MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY convenience. In sampling. we sample with a purpose in mind. In clinical practice.ASSIGNMENTS. education. as in snowball sampling. for instance. There are a number of problems with this sampling approach. For instance. or quota sampling. when we do a modal instance sample. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.age. we might use clients who are available to us as our sample. income -. it's not clear that using the averages of these is the fairest (consider the skewed distribution of income. we are sampling the most frequent case. how do you know that those three variables -. the problem with all of these types of samples is that we have no evidence that they are representative of the populations we're interested in generalizing to -. modal instance sampling is only sensible for informal sampling contexts. have you ever run into people in a mall or on the street who are carrying a clipboard and who are stopping various people and asking if they could interview them? Most likely they are conducting a purposive sample (and most likely they are engaged in market research). you are likely to get the opinions of your target population. One of the first things they're likely to do is verify that the respondent does in fact meet the criteria for being in the sample. Mr. for instance). Clearly. In many research contexts. But. Purposive sampling can be very useful for situations where you need to reach a targeted sample quickly and where sampling for proportionality is not the primary concern. Purposive Sampling:In purposive sampling. and income in the population. but you are also likely to overweight subgroups in your population that are more readily accessible. (You don't really believe that psychologists use college students because they believe they're representative of the population at large. educational level. Or.and in many cases we would clearly suspect that they are not. And.are the only or even the most relevant for classifying the typical voter? What if religion or ethnicity is an important discriminator? Clearly. No: 540911500 Page 11 . do you?). They might be looking for Caucasian females between 30-40 years old. we might capitalize on informal social networks to identify specific respondents who are hard to locate otherwise. First. With a purposive sample. We might sample for specific groups or types of people as in modal instance. or the "typical" case. we sample simply by asking for volunteers. expert. the mode is the most frequently occurring value in a distribution. All of the methods that follow can be considered subcategories of purposive sampling methods. In a lot of informal public opinion polls. Modal Instance Sampling:In statistics. They size up the people passing by and anyone who looks to be in that category they stop to ask if they will participate. We usually would have one or more specific predefined groups we are seeking. they interview a "typical" voter. We might sample for diversity as in heterogeneity sampling. In all of these methods we know what we want -.we are sampling with a purpose. how do we know what the "typical" or "modal" case is? We could say that the modal voter is a person who is of average age.
For instance." There are actually two reasons you might do expert sampling. No: 540911500 Page 12 . But the other reason you might use expert sampling is to provide evidence for the validity of another sampling approach you've chosen. because it would be the best way to elicit the views of persons who have specific expertise. wrong. Instead. you select people non-randomly according to some fixed quota. if you've already got the 40 women for your sample. Here. In this method. and often are. etc. The advantage of doing this is that you aren't out on your own trying to defend your decisions -. In many brainstorming or nominal group processes (including concept mapping). In effect. First. and that you want a total sample size of 100." The problem here (as in much purposive sampling) is that you have to decide the specific characteristics on which you will base the quota. expert sampling is essentially just a specific sub case of purposive sampling. Heterogeneity Sampling:We sample for heterogeneity when we want to include all opinions or views. you will not sample them because you have already "met your quota. So. Will it be by gender.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Expert Sampling:Expert sampling involves the assembling of a sample of persons with known or demonstrable experience and expertise in some area. religion. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. you will continue sampling until you get those percentages and then you will stop.? Non-proportional quota sampling is a bit less restrictive. if you know the population has 40% women and 60% men. This method is the non-probabilistic analogue of stratified random sampling in that it is typically used to assure that smaller groups are adequately represented in your sample. You might convene an expert panel consisting of persons with acknowledged experience and insight into that field or topic and ask them to examine your modal definitions and comment on their appropriateness and validity. In this case. you're not concerned with having numbers that match the proportions in the population. and we aren't concerned about representing these views proportionately.ASSIGNMENTS. There are two types of quota sampling: proportional and non proportional. education race. what Mr. let's say you do modal instance sampling and are concerned that the criteria you used for defining the modal instance are subject to criticism. not identifying the "average" or "modal instance" ones. we convene such a sample under the auspices of a "panel of experts. Often. we would use some form of heterogeneity sampling because our primary interest is in getting broad spectrum of ideas.you have some acknowledged experts to back you. but not the sixty men. The disadvantage is that even the experts can be. you simply want to have enough to assure that you will be able to talk about even small groups in the population. In proportional quota sampling you want to represent the major characteristics of the population by sampling a proportional amount of each. For instance. you specify the minimum number of sampled units you want in each category. Quota Sampling:In quota sampling. Another term for this is sampling for diversity. you will continue to sample men but even if legitimate women respondents come along. age.
you begin by identifying someone who meets the criteria for inclusion in your study. For instance. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. there are times when it may be the best method available. or could even rough results serve the purpose? The desired level of precision is one of the criteria for sampling method selection. 4 53. 2 32. Measurability:. Although this method would hardly lead to representative samples. we have to include a broad and diverse range of participants. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected.ASSIGNMENTS.Should the results of the survey be very precise. Heterogeneity sampling is. in order to get all of the ideas. but ideas. depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous.The decision process is a complicated one.The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. the sample should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling method. You then ask them to recommend others who they may know who also meet the criteria. Where a high degree of precision of results is desired. not the population of people who have the ideas. Snowball Sampling:In snowball sampling. almost the opposite of modal instance sampling. probability sampling should be used. in this sense. The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. Snowball sampling is especially useful when you are trying to reach populations that are inaccessible or hard to find. The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique are: 11. However. you are not likely to be able to find good lists of homeless people within a specific geographical area. Where even crude results would serve the Mr. you may find that they know very well whom the other homeless people in their vicinity are and how you can find them.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY we would like to be sampling is not people. Hence. Degree of Precision:. if you go to that area and identify one or two. Characteristics of good Sample:. Clearly. where the research objective requires statistical inference. No: 540911500 Page 13 . We imagine that there is a universe of all possible ideas relevant to some topic and that we want to sample this population. if you are studying the homeless. Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population. Only probability samples allow such computation. and especially the "outlier" or unusual ones.
Then an exploratory study with nonprobability sampling may be done to gain a better idea of the population.The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method. 107. or multi-stage cluster sampling. instead of stratified sampling/sampling with probability proportional to size. 96. Economy:. even simple random sampling will give a representative sample. it may become necessary to choose less time consuming methods like simple random sampling.g. instead of single-stage sampling of elements. If the population is heterogeneous. The Nature of the Population:. However. Then. an appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. 129. Information about Population:. 6 74. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. the precision has to be sacrificed to some extent. multi-stage cluster sampling would be appropriate. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population :. or even quota sampling as a compromise.It should be another criterion in choosing the sampling method. 118. it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. Time Limitation:. readership surveys etc). if the objectives of the study and the desired level of precision cannot be attained within the stipulated budget. it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling.If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large.In terms of the variables to be studied. as a compromise. is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population. Of course.If the available finance is limited. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. 85. Where the finance is not a constraint. After gaining sufficient knowledge about the population through the exploratory study. Financial Resources:. A sample is economical if the precision per unit cost is high. stratified random sampling is appropriate. or Mr. marketing surveys. any convenient non-random sampling like quota sampling would be enough.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY purpose (E. single stage probability sampling methods could be used.ASSIGNMENTS. No: 540911500 Page 14 . there is no alternative but to give up the proposed survey.. a researcher can choose the most appropriate method of sampling that fits the research objective and the nature of population.How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are available. But if the area and the size of the population are small.
for the purposes of the project immediately at hand.g. 5. It requires trained interviewers and investigators. experiments and observation.g. One should use simple workable methods. e. They may also be external sources. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness. in the form of a marketing information system. such as annual reports. The advantages of primary data are – It is unique to a particular research study. That is.g. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. which has been collected and compiled for another purpose. Secondary Sources of Data:These are sources containing data. brand preference. trade and financial journals. Answer: Primary Sources of Data:- Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that has not been previously collected. Data collection is a time consuming process. Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information. World Bank and International Monetary Fund. and brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior. inventory records. such as government agencies (e. Primary data is first hand information collected through various methods such as surveys. minutes of meetings and other information that is available within the firm. instead of unduly elaborate and complicated techniques. Chambers of Commerce) and commercial services (outside suppliers of information). The chosen plan thus represents an adaptation of the sampling theory to the available facilities and resources. published sources (annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India. from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. It is recent information. The above criteria frequently conflict with each other and the researcher must balance and blend them to obtain a good sampling plan. financial statements. it represents a compromise between idealism and feasibility.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY the cost per unit of variance is low. Mr. etc. reports of government departments). census reports. No: 540911500 Page 15 . Secondary sources may be internal sources. publications of international organizations such as the UN.ASSIGNMENTS. trade associations (e. compared to gathering information from available sources. unlike published information that is already available The disadvantages are – It is expensive to collect.. Q. sales reports.).
for several types of social science research. Primary data has to be gathered in cases where the available data is inappropriate. A survey has certain characteristics: It is always conducted in a natural setting. marketing research. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities. observation and experiments. including surveys. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. business management studies etc. It may include an extensive study or an intensive study It covers a definite geographical area. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. opinion polls. radio listening and T.V. farm management studies. Yet. the researcher can collect the required data precisely according to his research needs and he can collect them when he wants and in the form that he needs it. audits and panels. A survey involves the following steps Selection of a problem and its formulation Preparation of the research design Operation concepts and construction of measuring indexes and scales Sampling Construction of tools for data collection Field work and collection of data Processing of data and tabulation Mr. inadequate or obsolete. 1. It can cover a very large population.ASSIGNMENTS. It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample at a particular time. It is a field study. attitudinal surveys. viewing surveys. It seeks responses directly from the respondents. It includes: socio economic surveys. No: 540911500 Page 16 . leadership studies. Survey Research:A survey is a fact-finding study. In this case. There are various methods of primary data collection. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. required data is not available from secondary sources and it has to be directly gathered from the primary sources.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methods of Data Collection:The researcher directly collects primary data from its original sources.
experiences and future intentions. Where the area covered for the survey is compact. the investigator has to get himself/herself introduced to the respondent in an appropriate manner. values. personal interview is feasible. or probing is necessary to draw out the respondent fully. People are usually more willing to talk than to write. Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. No: 540911500 Page 17 .MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Analysis of data Reporting There are four basic survey methods. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. even confidential information may be obtained. beliefs. Interview can add flesh to statistical information. The participants – the interviewer and the respondent – are strangers. facial expressions and pauses. and his environment. which for some reason or the other the respondents do not want to answer. Interviewing as a method of data collection has certain characteristics.ASSIGNMENTS. It may be defined as a two-way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. Once rapport is established. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioral context of the data furnished by the respondents. Personal Interview:Personal interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. hence. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. but also learning from the respondent’s gestures. attitudes. or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. It permits the investigator to seek clarifications and brings to the forefront those questions. initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. which include: Personal interview Telephone interview Mail survey and Fax survey 2. Mr. It involves not only conversation. from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person’s opinions. Interviewing is appropriate when qualitative information is required. They are: 1.
3. it need not be limited to a single respondent. 8. such as family members. obtaining information relevant to a study.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2. the interviewer should try to be closer to the social-economic level of the respondents. because the interview can also be conducted over the telephone. 4. 5. it is rather a flexible.g. 10.ASSIGNMENTS. momentary experience for them. 6. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. 7. It can also be conducted with a group of persons. Although the interview is usually a conversation between two persons. It may be used as a major method or as a supplementary method. his perception of the thrust of the questions and his own personal needs. The interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to questions put verbally. It has a fixed beginning and termination points. The investigator records information furnished by the respondent in the interview. The respondent reacts to the interviewer’s appearance. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent depends upon how they perceive each other. 3. Interviewing is not a standardized process like that of a chemical technician. The interview proper is a fleeting. but a conversation with a specific purpose. The interview is not a mere casual conversational exchange. depending on the requirements of the study. facial expression and intonation. psychological process. 9. e.. When the universe is composed of those persons whose names are listed in telephone directories. The relationship between the participants is a transitory one. behavior. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent need not necessarily be on a face-to-face basis. or a group of children. or a group of customers. This poses a problem of seeing that recording does not interfere with the tempo of conversation. gestures. business Mr. No: 540911500 Page 18 . Telephone Interviewing:Telephone interviewing is a non-personal method of data collection. The interview is an interactive process. viz. It will be useful in the following situations: 11. As far as possible.
MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY houses. he must be aware that a single comment by a member can provide important insight. When the survey must be conducted in a very short period of time. so that it could be completed within a few minutes. provided the units of study are listed in the telephone directory. doctors and other 12. The group may consist of about six to eight individuals with a common interest. Mail Survey:The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post. Group Interviews:A group interview may be defined as a method of collecting primary data in which a number of individuals with a common interest interact with each other. The interviewer acts as the discussion leader. In particular. a radio or television program survey. 14. clubs and other organized groups. 4. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. intentions and opinions among individuals in the group. In a personal interview. with the discussion serving as a guide to ensure consideration of the areas of concern. This can be used in the case of educated respondents only. 13.g.g. executives. the interviewers look for evidence of common elements of attitudes.ASSIGNMENTS. At the same time. When the respondents are widely scattered and when there are many call backs to make. the flow of information is multi dimensional. The desired information may be obtained through self-administered questionnaire or interview. It should preferably contain mostly closed-ended and multiple choice questions. No: 540911500 Page 19 . e. a survey relating to a profession conducted by the concerned professional association. 5. The discussion leader stimulates the group members to interact with each other. When the study requires responses to five or six simple questions. Free discussion is encouraged on some aspect of the subject under study. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is selfadministered by the respondents themselves and the responses are Mr. business professionals. The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can easily understand the questions and answer them. 15. beliefs. When the subject is interesting or important to respondents. a survey relating to trade conducted by a trade association or a chamber of commerce. Samples for group interviews can be obtained through schools. e.
Quality printing: The questionnaire may be neatly printed on quality light colored paper. a disguised organization name may be used. so as to attract the attention of the respondent. It must explain to the respondent the purpose of the study and the importance of his cooperation to the success of the project. when such information may bias the result. The researcher should prepare a mailing list of the selected respondents. stamps for collection and other incentives are also used to induce respondents to complete and return the mail questionnaire. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. The response rate in mail surveys is generally very low in developing countries like India. No: 540911500 Page 20 . Anonymity must be assured. The progress in return may be watched and at the appropriate stage. the researcher can expect the return of completed ones from them. Covering letter: The covering letter should be couched in a pleasant style. In this case. (b). as in the case of personal interview method. The following procedures should be followed – (a). Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. (c). Mr. It is desirable to address the respondent by name. or by a letter. It does not involve face-to-face conversation between the investigator and the respondent. However. a covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire. 43. 2 32. follow-up efforts can be made.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY recorded by them and not by the investigator.ASSIGNMENTS. 1 (e). It must anticipate objections and answer them briefly. 54. it is not desirable to reveal it. so as to attract and hold the interest of the respondent. A self-addressed stamped envelope should be enclosed in the covering letter. Advance information: Advance information can be provided to potential respondents by a telephone call. (d). They are: 11. or advance notice in the newsletter of the concerned organization. Incentives: Money. Communication is carried out only in writing and this requires more cooperation from the respondents than verbal communication. by collecting the addresses from the telephone directory of the association or organization to which they belong. The sponsor’s identity may be revealed. Such preliminary contact with potential respondents is more successful than follow-up efforts. After a few days from the date of mailing the questionnaires to the respondents.
You may read about certain findings and notice that a certain field was not covered. Shortcomings in theories could be researched. It is the demarcation of a problem area within a certain context involving the WHO or WHAT. Three sources usually contribute to problem identification. the news about newspapers and young readers has been mostly bad for the newspaper industry. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. a sample of 1500 may be drawn. at clarifying contradictory findings. Own experience or the experience of others may be a source of problem supply. Answer: Title: Newspaper reading choices Research problem:.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 65. at reconciling conflicting opinions. media research scholars1 began to focus their studies on young adult readers' decreasing interest in newspaper content. or at solving existing practical problems Types of questions to be asked:. Theories could be a third source. the WHEN and the WHY of the problem situation. Long before any competition from cable television or Nintendo. As early as 1960. Case Study: You are engaged to carry out a market survey on behalf of a leading Newspaper that is keen to increase its circulation in Bangalore City. There are many problem situations that may give rise to research. confused and ill at ease. the WHERE. The concern over a declining Mr. 7 86. they may be approached through someone in that organization known as the researcher. For example. This may help the researcher to secure an effective sample size closer to the required size. No: 540911500 Page 21 . in order to ascertain reader habits and interests. American newspaper publishers were worrying about declining readership among the young. Larger sample size: A larger sample may be drawn than the estimated sample size.ASSIGNMENTS. 6. at correcting a faulty methodology.For more than 35 years. 9 10Q. define the research problem and the objectives or questions to be answered by the study. Follow-up-contacts: In the case of respondents belonging to an organization. A second source could be scientific literature. Develop a title for the study. Research can thus be aimed at clarifying or substantiating an existing theory. if the required sample size is 1000. at least 20 years prior to Music Television (MTV) or the Internet. at correcting the inadequate or unsuitable use of statistical techniques. This could lead to a research problem.A research problem is the situation that causes the researcher to feel apprehensive.
The study found that newspaper subscribers preferred print formats over electronic. A number of studies explored how young readers evaluate and use newspaper content. non-media leisure. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. school-age children.19 exploring the influence of media use. editorials. magazines.16 Younger readers showed increased interest in national news. Leo Jeffres and Atkin assessed dimensions of interest in newspapers. defined as the percentage of occupied households in a geographic market that are served by a newspaper. or by gender. In a study of younger. while older readers ranked weather. while older readers showed less interest in reports of births. Mr. including electronic mail and computer networks. obituaries. Content preferences for newspapers and other print media were related. and food advertisements higher. No: 540911500 Page 22 . and classified advertisements over the decade between 1984 and 1994. and books.ASSIGNMENTS.17 He reported that computer-related technologies. were unrelated to newspaper readership. and academic major on newspaper content preferences. However. and marriages. Brian Brooks and James Kropp found that electronic newspapers could persuade children to become news consumers. Comparing reader content preferences over a 10-year period. weather. The study discovered that overall newspaper readership was positively related to students' focus on entertainment.2 Simply put. job / travel information. sports. with older readers more interested in news about public affairs. In an exploration of leisure reading among college students. Even where circulation has grown or stayed stable. David Atkin explored the influence of telecommunication technology on newspaper readership among students in undergraduate media courses. but that young readers would choose an electronic newspaper over a printed one. One of the underlying concerns behind the decline in youth newspaper reading is the question of how young people view the newspaper. The researchers found no significant differences in readership among various academic majors. This study looks at trends in newspaper readership among the 18-to-34 age group and examines some of the choices young adults make when reading newspapers. Gerald Stone and Timothy Boudreau found differences between readers ages 18-34 and those 35plus. the students' preference for reading as a leisure-time activity was related only to a public affairs focus. population growth is occurring more rapidly than newspaper readership in most communities. Interest in international news and letters to the editor was less among younger readers. and public affairs. there is rising concern over penetration. though there was a slight correlation between age and the public affairs readership index.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY youth market preceded and perhaps foreshadowed today's fretting over market penetration.
and 200-level English courses at a mid-western public university. and one (. The average time spent on the questionnaires was 20 minutes.8 percent) Asian. 133 (49.6 years. A total of 157 participants (58. In all.8 percent) Native American. two students declined. with some individual students taking as long as an hour. 59 (22.ASSIGNMENTS.9 percent). The researcher obtained permission from seven professors to distribute questionnaires in the eight classes during regularly scheduled class periods. two (. seniors.6 percent). A total of 25 participants chose not to divulge their genders.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methodology:Sample:Participants in this study (N=267) were students enrolled in 100. 53 majors were represented. 33 (12. juniors.9 percent) African/Native American.8 percent) Hispanic.1 percent) African American. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. The students' participation was voluntary. The researcher provided pencils and was available to answer questions if anyone needed further assistance. Most (214) of the students were enrolled full time.3 percent) were female. The class rank breakdown was: freshmen. address.8 percent) said they were of the Caucasian race. the researcher introduced herself to the students as a journalism professor who was conducting a study on students' use of newspapers and other media. A basic studies course is one that is listed within the core curriculum required for all students.3 percent) were male and 177 (66.4 percent) Arabic. In each of the eight classes. Each questionnaire included a cover letter with the researcher's name. and phone number. 65 (24. 16 (6 percent). Of the 267 students who participated in the study. Mr.8 percent). with a mean age of 23. Courses that comprise the framework for this sample were selected because they could fulfill basic studies requirements for all majors. Ages ranged from 17 to 56. They returned the questionnaires to the researcher's mailbox within a couple of day. 45 (16. and graduate students.4 percent). 10 (3. five (1. Procedure:After two pre-tests and revisions. sophomores. questionnaires were distributed and collected by the investigator. This mean does not include the 32 respondents who declined to give their ages. Approximately six students asked to take the questionnaires home to finish. whereas a few (28) were part-time students. No: 540911500 Page 23 . two (. 15 (5. The goal of this sampling procedure was to reach a crosssection of students representing various fields of study.
Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents of a study. with a request to complete them at their convenience. Answer: There are some alternative methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents. They are: 1) Personal delivery. Advantages and Disadvantages:Mr. Personal delivery:. questionnaire and self addressed reply-paid envelope into a random sample of newsstand copies of a newspaper or magazine.A firm test marketing a product may attach a questionnaire to a product and request the buyer to complete it and mail it back to the firm. After a day or two. the committee of Banks Customer Services used this method for collecting information from the customers of commercial banks in India. Advertising the questionnaire:.The researcher or his assistant may deliver the questionnaires to the potential respondents.The questionnaire with the instructions for completion may be advertised on a page of a magazine or in a section of newspapers. it combines the advantages of the personal interview and the mail survey. Often referred to as the self-administered questionnaire method. The potential respondent completes it.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ASSIGNMENT SET. Newsstand inserts:. No: 540911500 Page 24 . 3) Advertising the questionnaire in a newspaper or magazine.This method involves inserting the covering letter. This method may be useful for large-scale studies on topics of common interest. and 4) News-stand inserts. Alternatively. 2) Attaching the questionnaire to a product. 1. tears it out and mails it to the advertiser.ASSIGNMENTS. Attaching questionnaire to a product:.2 Q. A gift or a discount coupon usually rewards the respondent. the completed questionnaires can be collected from them. the questionnaires may be delivered in person and the respondents may return the completed questionnaires through mail. For example. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.
as a result of being on the panel. it enables an economics researcher to study how employment. A panel study can provide data for finding an answer to this question..ASSIGNMENTS. the Mr. For example. For example. The major limitations or problems of Questionnaire method are: This method is very expensive. and the costs involved in replacing dropouts. No: 540911500 Page 25 . This method makes it possible to have before and after designs made for field based studies. during and after the campaign. Persons with similar characteristics may replace the dropouts. there may be frequent dropouts. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. income and expenditure of agricultural laborers change from month to month. It facilities depth interviewing. a political scientist can study the shifts in inclinations of voters and the causative influential factors during an election. because panel members become well acquainted with the field workers and will be willing to allow probing interviews. a panel enables a market researcher to study how brand preferences change from month to month. However. but it does not indicate as to which comes first . For example. It is also possible to find out how the constituency of the various economic and social strata of society changes through time and so on. Many persons may be unwilling to participate in a panel study. The selection of panel members. because under this method. behavior or attitudes. a cross sectional study of employees may show an association between their attitude to their jobs and their positions in the organization. In the course of the study. the effect of public relations or advertising campaigns or welfare measures can be measured by collecting data before.e. A panel study also provides evidence on the causal relationship between variables. the event or action is reported soon after its occurrence. the risk that repeated interviews may sensitize the panel members and they become untypical.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The advantages of Questionnaire are: This method facilitates collection of more accurate data for longitudinal studies than any other method. A real danger with the panel method is “panel conditioning” i. The panel method offers a good way of studying trends in events. For example. all add to the expenditure. It is often difficult to set up a representative panel and to keep it representative. the payment of premiums.favorable attitude or promotion. periodic training of investigators and supervisors. there is no guarantee that the emerging panel would be representative.
The symbol M is used for the mean of a sample. As an example. In processing data. what is the difference between measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion? What is the most important measure of central tendency and dispersion? Answer: Measures of Central tendency:- Arithmetic Mean:The arithmetic mean is the most common measure of central tendency. One possible safeguard to panel conditioning is to give members of a panel only a limited panel life and then to replace them with persons taken randomly from a reserve list. The symbol m is used for the mean of a population. due to decreasing interest. m= ΣX N = 634 31 =20.ASSIGNMENTS. Number of touchdown passes. after a panel has been in operation for some time. The table.4516 as shown below.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY members of a panel study of political opinions may try to appear consistent in the views they express on consecutive occasions. the panel becomes untypical of the population it was selected to represent. In such cases. Q. The quality of reporting may tend to decline.4516 Mr. It simply the sum of the numbers divided by the number of numbers. No: 540911500 Page 26 . Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Cheating by panel members or investigators may be a problem in some cases. The mean number of touchdown passes thrown is 20. shows the number of touchdown (TD) passes thrown by each of the 31 teams in the National Football League in the 2000 season. the mean of the numbers 1+2+3+6+8= 20 5 =4 regardless of whether the numbers constitute the entire population or just a sample from the population. 2. The formula for m is shown below: m= ΣX N Where ΣX is the sum of all the numbers in the numbers in the sample and N is the number of numbers in the sample.
the median of the numbers 2. the median of 2. Median:The median is also a frequently used measure of central tendency. it is assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean. if the term "mean" is used without specifying whether it is the arithmetic mean. 4. your score is below the median.ASSIGNMENTS. When there is an even number of numbers. For the data in the table. your score is above the median and therefore in the upper half of the distribution. the median is 4. Student You John's Maria's Shareecia's Luther's Table 2: Three quiz Dataset 1 Dataset 2 Dataset 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 5 1 possible datasets for the 5-point make-up For Dataset 1. Number of touchdown passes. This means you are in the lower half of the class. the same as your score. For Dataset 2. No: 540911500 Page 27 . it is by far the most commonly used. Therefore. Computation of the Median: When there is an odd number of numbers. the median is 2. Finally for Dataset 3. For this dataset. and 7 is 4. there are 31 scores. The median can also be thought of as the 50th percentile.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 37 33 33 32 29 28 28 23 22 22 22 21 21 21 20 20 19 19 18 18 18 18 16 15 14 14 14 12 12 9 6 Table 1: Number of touchdown passes Although the arithmetic mean is not the only "mean" (there is also a geometric mean). 12 is 4+7 2 Mr. Thus. For example. or some other mean. the median is simply the middle number. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. The median is the midpoint of a distribution: the same number of scores is above the median as below it. Therefore. The 16th highest score (which equals 20) is the median because there are 15 scores below the 16th score and 15 scores above the 16th score. Let's return to the made up example of the quiz on which you made a three discussed previously in the module Introduction to Central Tendency and shown below. 4. the median is the mean of the two middle numbers. the median is three. the geometric mean. 7.
In other words. in which capacity they are called estimates of scale. if the measurements have units. The Grouped frequency distribution table shows a grouped frequency distribution for the target response time data. For the data in the table. Mr.5. Number of touchdown passes. and increases as the data becomes more diverse. the measure of dispersion has the same units. No: 540911500 Page 28 . Therefore the mode of continuous data is normally computed from a grouped frequency distribution. the mode is the middle of that interval (650). the mode is 18 since more teams (4) had 18 touchdown passes than any other number of touchdown passes. such as meters or seconds.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY = 5. Since the interval with the highest frequency is 600-700. With continuous data such as response time measured to many decimals. Most measures of dispersion have the same scale as the quantity being measured.A measure of statistical dispersion is a real number that is zero if all the data are identical. Mode:The mode is the most frequently occurring value. Such measures of dispersion include: • • • • • • • Standard deviation Inter quartile range Range Mean difference Median absolute deviation Average absolute deviation (or simply called average deviation) Distance standard deviation These are frequently used (together with scale factors) as estimators of scale parameters. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.ASSIGNMENTS. It cannot be less than zero. Range 500-600 600-700 700-800 800-900 900-1000 1000-1100 Table 3: distribution Frequency 3 6 5 5 0 1 Grouped frequency Measures of Dispersion:. the frequency of each value is one since no two scores will be exactly the same (see discussion of continuous variables).
this assumption is false: the variation observed might be intrinsic to the phenomenon: distinct members of a population differ greatly. No: 540911500 Page 29 . even there. So if a random variable X has a dispersion of SX then a linear transformation Y = aX + b for real a and b should have dispersion SY = |a| SX. Some measures of dispersion have specialized purposes. among them the Allan variance and the Hadamard variance. it is less common to measure dispersion by a single number. Mr. This is also seen in the arena of manufactured products. and that the variation between measurements is due to observational error. For categorical variables. Other measures of dispersion are dimensionless (scale-free). The simple model of a stable quantity is preferred when it is tenable. In other words. These include: • • • Coefficient of variation Quartile coefficient of dispersion Relative mean difference. In the biological sciences. See qualitative variation..MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY All the above measures of statistical dispersion have the useful property that they are location-invariant. equal to twice the Gini coefficient There are other measures of dispersion: • • Variance (the square of the standard deviation) — location-invariant but not linear in scale. Each phenomenon must be examined to see if it warrants such a simplification. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. as count data are themselves dimensionless: otherwise this is not scale-free. the meticulous scientist finds variation. One measure that does so is the discrete entropy. they have no units even if the variable itself has units. as well as linear in scale.ASSIGNMENTS. reproducible. i. such variability may result only from random measurement errors: instrument measurements are often not perfectly precise. Sources of statistical dispersion:In the physical sciences. Variance-to-mean ratio — mostly used for count data when the term coefficient of dispersion is used and when this ratio is dimensionless. One may assume that the quantity being measured is unchanging and stable.e.
While standard designs may sometimes fit real-life situations. What are the characteristics of a good research design? Explain how the research design for exploratory studies is different from the research design for descriptive and diagnostic studies. whether a special work release program for prisoners causes lower recidivism rates. or change the level of a treatment or program. Cook and Campbell (1979) argue that three conditions must be met before we can infer that such a cause-effect relation exists: 1. or manipulation causes some outcome or result. it will often be necessary to "tailor" a research Mr. whether a novel drug causes a reduction in symptoms. The presumed cause must be the only reasonable explanation for changes in the outcome measures. Judd and Kenny. No: 540911500 Page 30 . treatment. If there are other factors. No Plausible Alternative Explanations. The presumed cause must occur prior to the presumed effect. 3. we should observe some change in the outcome measures. we cannot be confident that the presumed causeeffect relationship is correct. The reader is referred to standard research methods texts for more detailed discussions of threats to validity. 1981) typically present an array of research designs and the alternative explanations. which these designs rule out or minimize. threats to internal validity). we might wish to know whether a new educational program causes subsequent achievement score gains.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Q. if we introduce. Answer: Good research design: Much contemporary social research is devoted to examining whether a program. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. or. This paper is primarily heuristic in purpose. Temporal Precedence. For example. it may be that some historical event which occurs at the same time that the program or treatment is instituted was responsible for the change in the outcome measures. remove. Any number of factors other than the treatment or program could cause changes in outcome measures. Thus.an emphasis on the selection of an available design rather than on the construction of an appropriate research strategy. This tends to foster a "cookbook" approach to research design . In most social research the third condition is the most difficult to meet. Standard social science methodology textbooks (Cook and Campbell 1979. For example. Changes in the presumed cause must be related to changes in the presumed effect. changes in record keeping or measurement systems which occur at the same time as the program might be falsely attributed to the program. Campbell and Stanley (1966) and later. Co-Variation.ASSIGNMENTS. Cook and Campbell (1979) list a number of common plausible alternative explanations (or. and so on. which could be responsible for changes in the outcome measures. 3. 2.
it helps to clarify some of the basic principles of design logic. But such explanations may be ruled out or minimized in a number of ways other than by design. The discussion. This paper takes a structural approach to research design. these threats would be considerably minimized. In most cases. the most plausible threats in a study should not. As a result. an understanding of the logic of design construction in general will improve the comprehension of these standard approaches. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.The most straightforward way to rule out a potential threat to validity is to simply argue that the threat in question is not a reasonable one. a study of the effects of an advertising campaign on subsequent sales of a particular product. Similarly. a change in the local economy. In such a study. history (i. be ruled out by argument only. even if standard textbook designs are used. if one is studying the effects of special mathematics training on math achievement scores of children. the removal of a competing product from the market.e. although the former will usually be more convincing than the latter. or other such factors. No: 540911500 Page 31 . or similar events could cause an increase in product sales. ruling out a potential threat to validity by argument alone will be weaker than the other approaches listed below. it might be useful to observe everyday classroom behavior in order to verify that students were not receiving any additional math training to that provided in the study.Here. By Design:. Minimizing Threats to Validity:Good research designs minimize the plausible alternative explanations for the hypothesized cause-effect relationship. Such an argument may be made either a priori or a posteriori. and the like. outlines five ways to minimize threats to validity. While this is by no means the only strategy for constructing research designs.ASSIGNMENTS. one of which is by research design: By Argument:. depending on the situation. one might argue that an instrumentation threat is not likely because the same test is used for pre and post test measurements and did not involve observers who might improve. By Measurement or Observation:. One might attempt to minimize such threats by measuring local economic indicators and the availability and sales of competing products. This topic will be discussed in more detail below.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY design to minimize specific threats to validity. the occurrence of other events which might lead to an increased desire to purchase the product) would be a plausible alternative explanation. which follows. For example. Mr. for example. waves of measurement. the major emphasis is on ruling out alternative explanations by adding treatment or control groups.In some cases it will be possible to rule out a threat by measuring it and demonstrating that either it does not occur at all or occurs so minimally as to not be a strong alternative explanation for the causeeffect relationship. except in unusual cases.. For example. Consider. Furthermore. If there is no change in these measures coincident with the onset of the advertising campaign.
Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. comparison group).e. Where both effects occur. one plausible alternative explanation might be the status of local economic conditions. The five categories listed above should not be considered mutually exclusive. if the program is a desirable one. The inclusion of measurements designed to minimize threats to validity will obviously be related to the design structure and is likely to be a factor in the analysis. The choice of which strategy to use for any particular threat is complex and depends at least on the cost of the strategy and on the potential seriousness of the threat. Nevertheless causal assertions are likely to be strengthened by demonstrating that treatment effects occur even after adjusting on a number of good covariates. Several actions can be taken to minimize the effects of these attitudes including offering the program to the comparison group upon completion of the study or using program and comparison groups which have little opportunity for contact and communication. it is reasonable to infer that there is a threat to both internal and external validity. Mr.ASSIGNMENTS. nondropout group). auditing methods and quality control can be used to track potential experimental dropouts or to insure the standardization of measurement. By Preventive Action:. dropout vs. make use of multiple methods for reducing threats.There are a number of ways to rule out alternative explanations using statistical analysis. One factor in this study would be the original treatment group designations (i. One interesting example is provided by Jurs and Glass (1971). reducing a particular threat by design or preventive action will probably be stronger than by using one of the other three approaches. A good research plan should. where possible. In general. The plausibility of alternative explanations might also be minimized using covariance analysis. while the other factor would be attrition (i. while an interaction between group and attrition factors would point to a possible threat to internal validity. A main effect on the attrition factor would be indicative of a threat to external validity or generalizability. Here. in a study of the effects of "workfare" programs on social welfare caseloads.e. it is likely that the comparison group would feel jealous or demoralized. One must be careful when using covariance adjustments of this type -. For example. They suggest that one could study the plausibility of an attrition or mortality threat by conducting a two-way analysis of variance."perfect" covariates do not exist in most social research and the use of imperfect covariates will not completely adjust for potential alternative explanations. No: 540911500 Page 32 .. program vs..MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY By Analysis:. For example. it might be possible to construct a measure of economic conditions and include that measure as a covariate in the statistical analysis.When potential threats are anticipated some type of preventive action can often rule them out. In addition. The dependent measure could be the pretest or other available pre-program measures.
implies that some time has elapsed between the occurrence of the cause and the consequent effect. if different measures are given at different times it is useful to subscript the "O" to indicate which measurement is being given at which point in time. there will be one or more program and comparison groups. if the same set of measures is given at every point in time in this study. by its very nature. Program(s) or Treatment(s):.ASSIGNMENTS. For a comparison group (i. Similarly. Groups or Individuals:.Measurements are typically depicted in design notation with the symbol "O". Furthermore.whatever symbol is used to indicate the presumed cause would be placed to the left of the symbol indicating measurement of the effect. If the same measurement or observation is taken at every point in time in a design.. In design notation we usually depict a presumed cause with the symbol "X". the manner in which groups are assigned to the conditions can be indicated by an appropriate symbol at the beginning of each line. 4.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Design Construction:Basic Design Elements:. In design notation.e. Mr. which was randomly assigned. 2. When multiple programs or treatments are being studied using the same design. a nonequivalent group or cohort) and a "C" will indicate that the group was assigned using a cutoff score on a measurement. the "O" can be used to depict the entire set of measures. which was nonrandom assigned (i. Typically. "N" will depict a group. we normally assume that the cause and effect in social science arenas do not occur simultaneously. Thus. While for some phenomena the elapsed time might be measured in microseconds and therefore might be unnoticeable to a casual observer.e. 3. each group is indicated on a separate line.The final design element consists of the intact groups or the individuals who participate in various conditions. In design notation we indicate this temporal element horizontally . Here. "R" will represent a group. However. as we read from left to right in design notation we are reading across time. Observation(s) or Measure(s):. Time:. Complex designs might involve a lengthy sequence of observations and programs or treatments across time. No: 540911500 Page 33 .A causal relationship.Most research designs can be constructed from four basic elements: 1.. we can keep the programs distinct by using subscripts such as "X1" or "X2". Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg.The presumed cause may be a program or treatment under the explicit control of the researcher or the occurrence of some natural event or program not explicitly controlled. one which does not receive the program under study) no "X" is used. then this "O" will be sufficient.
What’s more. and results in an improved case study. Mohammed Ali Akbar . How is the Case Study method useful in Business Research? Give two specific examples of how the case study method can be applied to business research. writing case studies without careful planning usually results in sub optimal results? Savvy case study writers increase their chances of success by following these ten proven techniques for writing an effective case study: Involve the customer throughout the process:. developing an effective case study (also called a success story) is an art. Answer: While case study writing may seem easy at first glance. solicit input during the development. Reg. Like other marketing communication skills. writing them for their review usually results in more compelling material. No: 540911500 Page 34 Mr. and secure approval after drafting the document.ASSIGNMENTS. 4.Involving the customer throughout the case study development process helps ensure customer cooperation and approval.Rather than asking the customer to draft their quotes. learning how to write a case study takes time. • Write all customer quotes for their review:.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Q. Obtain customer permission before writing the document.
For example. and ensures that the document looks.Regardless of length.ASSIGNMENTS. First. finally. In the solution section. Mohammed Ali Akbar . Use the general-to-specific-to-general approach . Include a short (less than 20-word) customer quote in larger text. This natural story-telling sequence resonates with readers. the template helps build the brand. attempt to develop a range of qualitative benefits. and benefits .MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Case Study Writing Ideas • Establish a document template . First. “Thanks to Solution X. describe how the solution solved this specific problem. employees at Customer Y have realized a ZZ% increase in productivity as measured by standard performance indicators.No single element in a case study is more compelling than the ability to tie quantitative benefits to the solution. formalize those elements. The key is to present imaginative ideas to the customer for ways to quantify the benefits. then indicate how it can also help resolve this issue more broadly within the industry. use the opposite sequence. procedurally.In the problem section. Visually. Then. begin with a general discussion of the issue that faces the relevant industry. Then. summarize the key points of the case study in 2-3 succinct bullet points. but not impossible. the latter can be quite compelling to readers as well. describe the business and/or technical problem or issue. • Start with a bang . and stick to them. and concluding more generally allows the reader to understand how the solution can also address their problem.A template serves as a roadmap for the case study process. Before beginning work. solution. define 3-5 specific elements to include in every case study. ZZZ after just 6 months of implementation.” Quantifying benefits can be challenging. Beginning more generally draws the reader into the story. in a concrete way. Organize according to problem. next. and reads consistently. Reg. it simplifies the actual writing. and remain flexible during this discussion.Use action verbs and emphasize benefits in the case study title and subtitle. Quantify benefits when possible . how the solution resolves a commonly faced issue. describe the solution to this problem or resolution of this issue. If benefits cannot be quantified. describe the specific problem or issue that the customer faced. most effective organization for a case study follows the problem-solution-benefits flow. describe how the customer benefited from the particular solution (more on this below). offering a specific example demonstrates.” or. feels. the time-tested. No: 540911500 Page 35 • • • Mr. “Using Solution X saved Customer Y over $ZZZ. The goal should be to tease the reader into wanting to read more.
a case study is doomed to failure if the writer lacks the exceptional writing skills. If a qualified internal writer is unavailable.After receiving final customer approval and finalizing the case study. Even with the best plan.Ask the customer if they can provide shots of personnel. technical savvy. Observation is classical method of scientific study. as well as printed copies. and marketing experience that these documents require. Photos further personalize the story and help form a connection to readers. ideally using the solution.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • Use photos . • Observation must cover a sufficient number of representative samples of the cases. No: 540911500 Page 36 . The mechanical devices used must be in good working conditions and operated by skilled persons. The shots need not be professionally done. consider outsourcing the task to professionals who specialize in case study writing. which will permit accurate results. Answer: Observation means viewing or seeing. Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon on its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study.ASSIGNMENTS. The pre-requisites of observation consist of: • Observations must be done under conditions. Reward the customer . to the customer. • Recording should be accurate and complete. • Writing a case study is not easy. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. In many cases. The observer must be in vantage point to see clearly the objects to be observed. a talented writer can mean the difference between an ineffective case study and one that provides the greatest benefit. What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate. Another idea is to frame a copy of the completed case study and present it to the customer in appreciation for their efforts and cooperation. 5. “homegrown” digital photos sometimes lead to surprisingly good results and often appear more genuine. Q. The distance and the light must be satisfactory. in fact. Mr. provide a pdf.
The validity of what men of position and authority say can be verified by observing what they actually do. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. A certain number of cases can be observed again by another observer/another set of mechanical devices as the case may be.ASSIGNMENTS.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • The accuracy and completeness of recorded results must be checked. o o o o o o Mr. If it is feasible two separate observers and set of instruments may be used in all or some of the original observations. The results could then be compared to determine their accuracy and completeness. studies of children. Observations make it possible to capture the whole event as it occurs. The researcher needs to ask people about their behavior and interactions he can simply watch what they do and say. birds etc. tribal animals. Observations in more suitable for studying subjects who are unable to articulate meaningfully e. It is easier to conduct disguised observation studies than disguised questioning. Furthermore verbal resorts can be validated and compared with behavior through observation. Observation is less demanding of the subjects and has less biasing effect on their conduct than questioning. o Data collected by observation may describe the observed phenomena as they occur in their natural settings.g. No: 540911500 Page 37 . There is no such artificiality in observational studies especially when the observed persons are not aware of their being observed. Advantages of observation:o The main virtue of observation is its directness it makes it possible to study behavior as it occurs. Observations improve the opportunities for analyzing the contextual back ground of behavior. For example only observation can be providing an insight into all the aspects of the process of negotiation between union and management representatives. Mechanical devices may be used for recording data in order to secure more accurate data and also of making continuous observations over longer periods. Other methods introduce elements or artificiality into the researched situation for instance in interview the respondent may not behave in a natural way.
you may be asked to bring a portfolio of your Mr. 6. Be aware that you are still being assessed. Competency / Criteria based interviews . while others will feel more like an informal chat about you and your interests.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Interviews are a crucial part of the recruitment process for all Organizations. Interview format:Interviews take many different forms.The interviewer has a set list of questions. As this is a two-way process. it is also a good opportunity for you to ask questions and to make sure the organization and position are right for you. Technical interviews . Formal/informal interviews . 4.ASSIGNMENTS. No: 540911500 Page 38 . You should be prepared to prove yourself. The interviewer is looking for evidence of your skills and may ask such things as: ‘Give an example of a time you worked as part of a team to achieve a common goal. Portfolio based interviews . Questions are likely to center on your academic history to date. it is likely that you will be asked technical questions or has a separate technical interview. 2.If you have applied for a job or course that requires technical knowledge. which will usually have been detailed in the job specification or advert.’ The organization determines the selection criteria based on the roles they are recruiting for and then.If the role is within the arts.Some interviews may be very formal. but also to admit to what you do not know and stress that you are keen to learn. examines whether or not you have evidence of possessing these. in an interview. 1. however informal the discussion may seem. Do not worry if you do not know the exact answer . 3. Structured interviews . Academic interviews . Questions may focus on your final year project or on real or hypothetical technical problems. media or communications industries. 5. Their purpose is to give the interviewer(s) a chance to assess your suitability for the role and for you to demonstrate your abilities and personality.interviewers are interested in your thought process and logic. Recruitment Manager.These are used for further study or research positions. and asks all the candidates the same questions. It is a good idea to ask the organization in advance what format the interview will take.These are structured to reflect the competencies or qualities that an employer is seeking for a particular job. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. The Cooperative Group.
They also will want to know from the outset whether you will be too expensive for the company. That way. You will be evaluated on your analysis of the problem. Answer questions directly and succinctly. For this reason.g. See our resume center for help. "I would be willing to consider your best offer. Give a range. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. how you pursue a particular line of thinking and whether you can develop and present an appropriate framework for organizing your thoughts. and try to avoid giving specifics by replying.) Sometimes human professionals are the gatekeepers. Save your winning personality for the person making hiring decisions! Be tactful about addressing income requirements.These ranges from straightforward scenario questions (e. No: 540911500 Page 39 . you will be able to switch gears quickly. Specific types of interview:The Screening Interview:Companies use screening tools to ensure that candidates meet minimum qualification requirements. screeners tend to dig for dirt. Screening interviewers often have honed skills to determine whether there is anything that might disqualify you for the position. only whether you are not a match. Computer programs are among the tools used to weed out unqualified candidates. 7. and to have an in-depth discussion about the pieces you have chosen to include. Personality is not as important to the screener as verifying your qualifications. ‘What would you do in a situation where…?’) to the detailed analysis of a hypothetical business problem. Mr. it is helpful to have note cards with your vital information sitting next to the phone. Remember-they does not need to know whether you are the best fit for the position. Some tips for maintaining confidence during screening interviews: Highlight your accomplishments and qualifications. whether the interviewer catches you sleeping or vacuuming the floor.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY work to the interview. Screeners will hone in on gaps in your employment history or pieces of information that look inconsistent." If the interview is conducted by phone.ASSIGNMENTS. Senior/case study interviews . (This is why you need a digital resume that is screening-friendly. Get into the straightforward groove. how you identify the key issues.
Employers that like to stay apprised of available talent even when they do not have current job openings. A meeting that you initiate. Job seekers ostensibly secure informational meetings in order to seek the advice of someone in their current or desired field as well as to gain further references to people who can lend insight. especially if they like to share their knowledge. If the interviewer does not ask you for information that you think is important to proving your superiority as a candidate.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The Informational Interview On the opposite end of the stress spectrum from screening interviews is the informational interview. Sometimes companies use this rigid format to ensure parity between interviews. feel flattered by your interest. are often open to informational interviews.ASSIGNMENTS. politely interject it. the interviewer has a clear agenda that he or she follows unflinchingly. the jobseeker and employer exchange information and get to know one another better without reference to a specific job opening. Do not relinquish complete control of the interview. Mr. No: 540911500 Page 40 . During an informational interview. Their style does not necessarily mean that they have dominance issues. contact information and resume. The Directive Style In this style of interview. when interviewers ask each candidate the same series of questions. but be intentional nonetheless: Come prepared with thoughtful questions about the field and the company. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Either way. or you might find the conversation develops naturally. Give the interviewer your card. Directive interviewers rely upon their own questions and methods to tease from you what they wish to know. or esteem the mutual friend that connected you to them. they can more readily compare the results. the informational interview is underutilized by job-seekers who might otherwise consider themselves savvy to the merits of networking. This takes off some of the performance pressure. although you should keep an eye open for these if the interviewer would be your supervisor. You might feel like you are being steam-rolled. Write a thank you note to the interviewer. following his or her lead. Gain references to other people and make sure that the interviewer would be comfortable if you contact other people and use his or her name. remember: Flex with the interviewer.
take each group in turn and really think about what you want to achieve in presenting them this way." which you can use to your advantage. Once you have established which authors and ideas are linked. Remain alert to the interviewer. running with your own agenda and dominating the conversation means that you run the risk of missing important information about the company and its needs. Critiquing rather than merely listing each item a good literature review is led by your own critical thought processes . in order to ascertain reader habits and interests. adjust.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The Meandering Style This interview type. are particularly important when interviewers use a non-directive approach: Come to the interview prepared with highlights and anecdotes of your skills. but that you have the knowledge and skills to interpret the authors' meanings and intentions in relation to each other. Q. open-ended question before falling into silence. Although the open format allows you significantly to shape the interview. Do not rely on the interviewer to spark your memory-jot down some notes that you can reference throughout the interview. qualities and experiences. Mr. This interview style allows you tactfully to guide the discussion in a way that best serves you. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. The interviewer might ask you another broad.ASSIGNMENTS. Ask well-placed questions. This is your opportunity for showing that you did not take all your reading at face value. which are helpful for any interview. relies on you to lead the discussion. The following strategies. usually used by inexperienced interviewers. Case Study: You are engaged to carry out a market survey on behalf of a leading Newspaper that is keen to increase its circulation in Bangalore City.it is not simply a catalogue of what has been written. What type of research report would be most appropriate? Develop an outline of the research report with the main sections. No: 540911500 Page 41 . If he or she becomes more directive during the interview. 6. Answer: There are four major interlinking processes in the presentation of a literature review: 1. remain respectful of the interviewer's role. It might begin with a statement like "tell me about yourself. Even if you feel like you can take the driver's seat and go in any direction you wish.
No: 540911500 Page 42 . A process of narrowing down to your own topic. Now you can plan the structure of your written literature review. A review can take many forms. In the early stages of your research you cannot be expected to have a fully developed appreciation of the implications of all findings.ASSIGNMENTS. As you begin to group together the items you read. for example: An historical survey of theory and research in your field. grouping linked items. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. This is a good time to finalize your concept map. Structuring the fragments into a coherent body through your reading and discussions with your supervisor during the searching and organizing phases of the cycle. terminology and conventions in the field. As you get used to reading at this level of intensity within your field you will find it easier and more purposeful to ask questions as you read: What is this all about? Who is saying it and what authorities do they have? Why is it significant? What is its context? How was it reached? How valid is it? How reliable is the evidence? What has been gained? What do other authors say? How does it contribute? So what? 2. language. you will eventually reach a final decision as to your own topic and research design. the direction of your literature review will emerge with greater clarity. with your own intentions and conceptual framework in mind. Knowing what you want to convey will help you decide the most appropriate structure.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY particularly if there are conflicting views or incompatible findings in a particular area. Rest assured that developing a sense of critical judgment in the literature surrounding a topic is a gradual process of gaining familiarity with the concepts. ideas and authors into firm categories as they relate more obviously to your own study. Mr. A synthesis of several paradigms.
As with all academic writing. you are likely to present the results with reference to their source. Controlling the 'voice' of your citations in the text (by selective use of direct quoting. you would say: o 'Positive responses were recorded for 80 per cent of the subjects (see table 2).ASSIGNMENTS. a literature review needs: An introduction A body A conclusion The introduction sets the scene and lays out the various elements that are to be explored. paraphrasing and summarizing) You can treat published literature like any other data. The final conclusion of the literature review ties together the main points from each of your sections and this is then used to build the framework for your own study. Later. but the difference is that it is not data you generated yourself. and how the debate informs your understanding of the topic. usually as a series of headed sections and subsections.' When using published data. 3. you should be able to relate your findings in one-to-one correspondence with many of the concepts or questions that were firmed up in the conclusion of your literature review. A short conclusion at the end of each section presents a synthesis of these linked ideas.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY It is likely that your literature review will contain elements of all of these.' Reg. showing how each relates to the others. for example: o 'Table 2 shows that sixteen of the twenty subjects responded positively. No: 540911500 Page 43 Mr. The first paragraph or two of each section mentions the major authors in association with their main ideas and areas of debate. The body takes each element in turn. The section then expands on these ideas and authors. when you come to write the discussion chapter of your thesis. When you report on your own findings. Mohammed Ali Akbar .
and it must be an identical copy of the original in every respect. page 27). Paraphrasing is repeating an idea in your own words. In turn. Had you found the same results on page 17 of a text by Smith published in 1988. using an approved referencing system. Overuse or simple 'listing' of quotes can substantially weaken your own argument by silencing your critical view or voice. If you don't do this you would be in severe breach of academic convention. this is significant in the assessment of the merit and rigor of your work.' In these examples your source of information is table 2. it appears that the majority of subjects responded positively. with no loss of the author's intended meaning: Mr. Direct quoting repeats exact wording and thus directly represents the author: o 'Rain is likely when the sky becomes overcast' (Smith 1988.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY o 'From the results shown in table 2. In each case it would be your voice introducing a fact or statement that had been generated somewhere else. you would naturally substitute the name. No: 540911500 Page 44 . and might be penalized. single quotation marks are used to enclose it. date and page number for 'table 2'. There are three ways to combine an idea and its source with your own voice: • • • Direct quote Paraphrase Summary In each method.ASSIGNMENTS. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. Your field of study has its own referencing conventions you should investigate before writing up your results. You could see this process as building a wall: you select and place the 'bricks' and your 'voice' provides the ‘mortar’. If the quotation is run in with your text. which determines how strong the wall will be. the author's name and publication details must be associated with the words in the text.
Summarizing means to shorten or crystallize a detailed piece of writing by restating the main points in your own words and in the order in which you found them. and on the context of the writing. you should find that your writing becomes more lucid and fluent because you know what you want to say and how to say it. you can help yourself in several ways: o o o Ask for feedback on your writing from friends.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY o As Smith (1988) pointed out in the late eighties. Smith (1988) predicted the likelihood of rain. tense and vocabulary of the original. and once you are confident in controlling the voice in your citations.ASSIGNMENTS. However. Which tense should I use? Mr. Using appropriate language: Your writing style represents you as a researcher. and it is your own voice that is predominant: Referring to the possible effects of cloudy weather. The good use of language depends on the quality of the thinking behind the writing. No: 540911500 Page 45 . You retain a degree of flexibility as to whose voice comes through most strongly. You need to conform to discipline-specific requirements. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. o Once you have established a good structure with appropriate headings for your literature review. If you have doubts about your confidence to use the English language well. 4. Paraphrasing allows you to organize the ideas expressed by the authors without being rigidly constrained by the grammar. there may still be some points of grammar and vocabulary you would like to improve. and reflects how you are dealing with the subtleties and complexities inherent in the literature. o Smith (1988) claims that some degree of precipitation could be expected as the result of clouds in the sky: he has clearly discounted the findings of Jones (1986). colleagues and academics Look for specific language information in reference materials Access programs or self-paced learning resources which may be available on your campus Grammar tips practical and helpful The following guidance on tenses and other language tips may be useful. The original writing is 'described' as if from the outside. rain may well be indicated by the presence of cloud in the sky.
Use simple past tense for: o Completed events or actions: Smith (1988) discovered that. Use present perfect tense for: o Recent events or actions that are still linked in an unresolved way to the present: Several studies have attempted to.. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. would. could.. For authors' statements of a theoretical nature. this would imply that. and do not rely on your reader to read your mind! Keep sentences short and simple when you wish to emphasise a point.. especially theories. which exist for the reader at the time of reading: I think therefore I am. In referring to components of your own document: Table 2 shows. Use modals (may. Other Language tips Convey your meaning in the simplest possible way. Mr. Don't try to use an intellectual tone for the sake of it.ASSIGNMENTS. Use past perfect tense for: o Events which occurred before a specified past time: Prior to these findings. 'because'. 'but'. 'whereas' etc. No: 540911500 Page 46 ...MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Use present tense:o o o o For generalizations and claims: The sky is blue.. should) to: o Convey degrees of doubt This may indicate that . Use compound (joined simple) sentences to write about two or more ideas which may be linked with 'and'. it had been thought that. To convey ideas.. might.... which can then be compared on equal terms with others: Smith (1988) suggests that.....
particularly nouns. etc).MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Use complex sentences when you are dealing with embedded ideas or those that show the interaction of two or more complex elements. graphs. No: 540911500 Page 47 . Then I devised my research instrument to get the best out of what I was investigating. Select active or passive verbs according to whether you are highlighting the 'doer' or the 'done to' of the action. The Total Process:- The story of a research study:Introduction I looked at the situation and found that I had a question to ask about it. It was then that I began to realise what I had found. have to say that Mr. Methodology:I decided on the number and description of my subjects. I wanted to investigate something in particular. Avoid densely packed strings of words. Verbs are more dynamic than nouns. qualitative/quantitative.what was already known and said and what had previously been found. Review of Literature:So I read everything I could find on the topic . verb and object in clear view. and nouns carry information more densely than verbs. Keep punctuation to a minimum. As part of the analysis. I knew I would have to analyse the raw data. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. I began with the broad decision about which research paradigm I would work within (that is. and began to realize at this stage how my study would be different from anything done previously. critical/interpretive/ empiricist). and with my research question clearly in mind. designed my own investigation process.ASSIGNMENTS. Then I carried out the research study and recorded all the data in a methodical way according to my intended methods of analysis. I reduced the data (by means of my preferred form of classification) to manageable thematic representation (tables. Findings/results:What had I found? What did the tables/graphs/categories etc. using certain known research methods (and perhaps some that are not so common). Use it to separate the elements of complex sentences in order to keep subject. categories. I established exactly where my investigation would fit into the big picture. so I made sure that the instrument and my proposed method(s) of analysis were compatible right from the start.
. how I speculate. check. I have my memories. No: 540911500 Page 48 . even so. after all? There were some obvious limitations to my study. redraft. The more you find out.ASSIGNMENTS. What did I find in the results that answered my original research question? Why was I so sure I had some answers? What about the unexplained or unexpected findings? Had I interpreted the results correctly? Could there have been any other factors involved? Were my findings supported or contested by the results of similar studies? Where did that leave mine in terms of contribution to my field? Can I actually generalise from my findings in a breakthrough of some kind. the fascinating byways sadly left behind. I'll know that I know what I'm talking about. I'll wrap up with whatever generalizations I can make. Writing up the research report or thesis. I'll defend to the hilt. b. strength and thereby academic 'clout' if I took no shortcuts and remained both rigorous and scholarly. succinct sentences. so where do we all go from here? Three stages of research:a. Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. I knew that I wanted my results to be as watertight and squeaky clean as possible. That way.. or do I simply see myself as reinforcing existing knowledge? And so what. I wanted to state the facts .. I also spelled out what I had found truly significant to make sure my readers did not miss it. Reading. For each display of results. cyclical writing process: draft. the more questions arise. How I wonder what you are . I dealt correctly with all inferential statistical procedures. They would carry a great deal more credibility. Research design and implementation. But I won't become over-apologetic about the things left undone.just the facts. revise. I was careful not to let my own interpretations intrude or voice my excitement just yet. which.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY could be pinned down? It was easy enough for me to see the salient points at a glance from these records. or the abandoned analyses. Use an active. OK. c. How does it rate? How did I end up answering the question I first thought of? The conclusion needs to be a few clear. Mr. reflect. Discussion:Now I was free to let the world know the significance of my findings.. and whatever implications have arisen in my mind as a result of doing this thing at all. applying tests of significance where appropriate to ensure both reliability and validity. Conclusion:We'll take a long hard look at this study from a broad perspective. I wrote a corresponding summary of important observations relating only elements within my own set of results and comparing only like with like. but in writing my report.
Design your research approaches in detail in the early stages so that you have frameworks to fit findings into straightaway. k. Be thoughtful and think ahead about the way you will consider and store new information as it comes to light. Keep a systematic log of technical records of your experimental and other research data. Mr. Know how you will analyze data so that your formats correspond from the start. e. h.MBA Sem-III MB0034 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Establishing good practice:d. note-taking and referencing records. decisions. 3Keep going back to the whole picture.ASSIGNMENTS. j. state of mind. Keep your research question always in mind. i. Read widely to establish a context for your research. m. f. remembering to date each entry. changes of mind. Train yourself to select what you do need and reject what you don't need. Be systematic with your reading. Read widely to collect information. Discuss your ideas with your supervisor and interested others. reactions to experimental outcomes etc. and noting any discrepancies or unexpected occurrences at the time you notice them. Keep a research journal to reflect on your processes. No: 540911500 Page 49 . Mohammed Ali Akbar Reg. l. particularly to your hypothesis or research question. g. which may relate to your topic.