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Instructional Design: The Big Picture
Peter E. Doolittle, Virginia Tech

General Goal

Specific Learning Specific Learning Specific Learning Objectives Objectives Objectives

Instruction d Instruction d Instruction

Assessment

Inference Educational Decision

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Planning for Instruction
from Freiberg, H. & Driscoll, A. (2000). Universal teaching strategies. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Functions of Planning: 1. Planning gives an overview of instruction.

2. Planning facilitates good management and instruction.

3. Planning makes learning purposeful.

4. Planning provides for sequencing and pacing.

5. Planning ties classroom instruction events with community resources.

6. Planning reduces the impact of intrusions.

7. Planning economizes time.

8. Planning makes learner success more measurable, which assists in re-teaching.

9. Planning provides for a variety of instructional activities.

10. Planning creates the opportunity for higher-level questioning.

11. Planning assists in ordering supplies.

12. Planning guides substituted teachers.

13. Planning provides documentation of instruction.

14. Planning establishes a repertoire of instruction.

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Instructional Planning: Introduction
from Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional planning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Instructional Planning: Preparation for teaching and learning, including the construction of goals, objectives, and instructional and assessment methodology. Systematic planning, developing, evaluating, and managing the instructional process based on principles of learning and instruction. The big picture of “what to teach” and “how to teach it.” Key Principles: 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify general goals and specific objectives Plan instructional activities Develop assessment instruments Revise instruction

Identify Instructional Goals

Identify Instructional Objectives

Plan Instructional Activities

Choose Instructional Media

Develop Instructional Assessment

Implement Instructional Activities

Revise Instruction

Why use systematic instructional planning? • • • • better instruction occurs more efficient learning results better evaluation occurs students become better self-evaluators

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Identifying Instructional Goals
from Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional planning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Instructional Goals: Instructional goals are general statements of intended student learning outcomes and the starting point for all subsequent instructional planning. • • • • Instructional goals are general in nature, focus on the action of the student, and designed to be implemented over the long term. Instructional goals are established through legislation, accrediting agencies, local school boards, special interest groups, curriculum supervisors, administrators, textbooks, and teachers. Instructional goals are used for developing curricula, for informing the public of school foci, for guiding assessment programs, and for providing direction for subsequent instructional activities. Instructional goals should be designed with student characteristics in mind, including students’ ability, prior knowledge, and attitudes.

Purpose of Instructional Goals: Instructional goals are designed to provide an overarching focus on learning outcomes. These general learning outcomes must then be interpreted through the use of specific learning objectives.

Three Components of an Instructional Goal: 1. Focuses on general learning outcomes 2. Focuses on student performance 3. Must be further defined by specific learning objectives Examples: • • • • • The student will comprehend the meaning of relevant terms. The student applies the scientific method to new situations. The student distinguishes between valid and invalid assessments. The student identifies the relevant information in word problems. The student comprehends mathematical concepts and processes.

Example of an Instructional Goal with Subsequent Instructional Objectives: 1. The student will comprehend instructional goals. 1.1 TSWBAT write 3-component instructional goals. 1.2 TSWBAT use 3-component instructional goals within a lesson plan. 1.3 TSWBAT evaluate instructional goals for appropriate format & content.

Boston: Allyn and Bacon Instructional Objectives: A behavioral objective identifies the specific learning outcomes that the student must demonstrate so that the teacher may infer that they have or have not learned a particular skill or knowledge set. rule application. Motor Skills: Motor skill objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect any physical activity requiring the movement of all or part of the body.5 Identifying Instructional Objectives from Reiser. the student will be able to write the names of at least 40 states within the correct state’s boundaries. Condition – the setting in which the student must demonstrate the behavior 3. excluding trivial movements. Attitudes: Attitude objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect personal feelings or dispositions. Short Forms of Objectives: While objectives have traditionally be written using the 3component format. & Dick. such as concept learning.. Behavior – the specific behavior to be exhibited by the student 2. W. Behavior: Write the name of states within the correct state’s boundaries. Instructional planning. Intellectual Skills: Intellectual skill objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect mental processing. What are the 3 Components of a Traditional Instructional Objective? 1. Performance Level: At least 40 states. Performance Level – criteria to determine fulfillment of the objective Example: Given a map of the United States. Domains of Learning within Instructional Objectives – Part I: • • • • Knowledge: Knowledge objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect memorization or recall of specific facts. R. The condition or performance level components are included only when absolutely necessary for the clear understanding of the objective. and problem solving. . Condition: Given a map of the United States. Example: TSWBAT compose a 5 sentence expository paragraph. (1996). a new trend in writing objectives has focused on including only the “behavior” component.

Judges value of work. judges. describes. Applies laws & theories. defends. distinguishes. computes. Estimates data. Integrative problem solving. Application: refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. generalizes. Understands facts.6 A Closer Look at the Cognitive Domain – Bloom’s Taxonomy: Major Category in Cognitive Domain Knowledge: defined as the remembering of previously learned material. predicts. Constructs charts & graphs. Analyzes structures. Condition: Behavior: Performance: Domain of Learning: Level of Bloom’s: . Analysis: refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Evaluation: refers to the ability to judge the value of material for a given purpose. the student will be able to write a three page essay on the use of metaphor according to the guidelines expressed in the Essay Scoring Rubric. states Converts. Given a list of ten terms. diagrams. selects. estimates. Interprets verbal material. Solves math problems. labels. Interprets charts & graphs. justifies. Knows principles. Knows specific facts. Knows methods. separate. Demonstrates methods. creates. distinguishes Categorizes. summarizes Changes. Recognizes fallacies. Evaluation outcomes are considered the highest level in the cognitive domain as they contain elements of all other levels. manipulates. Knows basic concepts. lists. combines. After reading Chapter 2 of Thoreau’s Walden. with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures. Analysis outcomes require understanding that includes both content and structural relationships. Condition: Behavior: Performance: Domain of Learning: Level of Bloom’s: 2. predicts. outlines. plans. infers. New object classification. the student will able to alphabetize all ten terms. concludes. Writes an organized theme. discovers. Examples: 1. Synthesis: refers to the ability to put parts of material together in a new way to form a new whole. criticizes. demonstrates. Judges material consistency. solves. reproduces. discriminate. Vague Objectives Knows common terms. infers. Application outcomes require a higher level of understanding than comprehension outcomes. supports Comprehension: defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material. composes. generates. gives examples. prepares Breaks down. reorganizes. Distinguishes facts/opinions. Plans a new experiment. Judges value of art. divides. Applies concepts. uses. Recognizes assumptions. Comprehension represents the lowest level of understanding in the cognitive domain. Judges data adequacy. matches names. identifies. Illustrative Verbs Defines. shows. Justifies methods. compares. differentiates. compiles. Synthesis outcomes stress creative behaviors. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. outlines. relates Appraises. modifies.

7 Planning Instructional Activities from Reiser.. Instructional Methods: the general instructional techniques used during instructional activities (e. & Dick. (1996). 4. 3. cooperative learning. 2. 6. 5. direction instruction). Boston: Allyn and Bacon Instructional Activities: the events.g. General Outline of Instructional Activities: 1. R. or steps designed and later implemented during instruction whose purpose is to foster the development and completion of the specific instructional objectives. reciprocal teaching. Instructional planning.. • Motivating students Informing students of goals and objectives Helping students recall prerequisite knowledge or skills Presenting information and examples Providing practice and feedback Summarizing the lesson Motivating students • Informing students of goals and objectives • Helping students recall prerequisite knowledge or skills • Presenting information and examples • Providing practice and feedback • Summarizing the lesson . W. procedures.

time efficient. Practicality: Is the intended media practical in that the media is available. CD-ROMs. pens. overhead. chalk. two-way audio/video. and interactive video conferencing. & Dick. Instructional planning.8 Instructional Media from Reiser. Internet.. pencils. R. (1996). DVDs. Instructional Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the planned instructional strategy? Will the media allow for the presentation of the proposed lesson in an efficient and effective manner? Will the media facilitate the students’ acquisition of the specific learning objectives? . and paper. as well newer materials such as computers. cost efficient. W. Student Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the developmental and experiential levels of the students? 7. and understood by the instructor? 6. This may include traditional materials such as chalkboards. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Instructional Media: Instructional media encompasses all the materials and physical means an instructor uses to implement instruction. Criteria for Adopting Instructional Media: 5.

although not definitely. Assessment of Student Achievement. (1998). Boston: Allyn and Bacon Essential Terms: Assessment: A general term used to denote the systematic collection and interpretation of data that is to be used in the making of educational decisions. Monitoring students' progress. Evaluation: The placing of value or interpretation of a measurement. Assigning grades. • • • . Assessing students formatively allows the teacher the opportunity to determine whether or not a student is making adequate progress toward desired instructional outcomes. Determining one's own instructional effectiveness. N.9 Instructional Assessment from Gronlund. If students are achieving the desired instructional outcomes. Assessing a student's strengths allows the teacher the opportunity to avoid (re)addressing known material and skills. Test: An instrument or formal process that presents tasks that yield a specific type of measurement. quality. or feature. Assessing students can provide teachers with information related to teaching effectiveness. Assessing a student's weaknesses allows the teacher the opportunity to remediate those weaknesses. Reasons Why We Assess: • Diagnosing student's strengths and weaknesses. An assessment is broad term that denotes the use of tests to obtain measures of specific student characteristics that are then evaluated for various purposes. Evaluation encompasses the inferences that are drawn from measurements. Measurement: The explicit quantification of the results obtained through testing that is designed to determine the degree of presence or absence of a particular characteristic. then teaching is likely. effective. including enhancing instruction. Assessing students provides the teacher with at least one type of evidence to assist in assigning grades.

An assessment is used to measure a specific characteristic relative to that situation or performance. at least in part. or essay answer (e. Restricted Performance Assessment: Assessments that require a student to complete a limited task that is highly structured (e. phrase.g. selecting the appropriate tool for a task. 16. Types of Assessment Methods: 15.. that measurement is interpreted and a decision is made based. Instruction. 17. writing a brief paragraph on a given topic).. drawing the water cycle. Referral Existing Conditions Assessment Intervention Eligibility A situation or performance indicates the need for a decision and/or change.. Finally. multiple-choice. determining the area of given rectangle.10 Planning. The main function of assessment is to inform decision-making. essay questions). true-false. writing a research report.g. 2. 18. . Goals Objectives Instruction Assessment Assessments should provide an evaluation of the degree to which the specific learning outcomes have been achieved. The main function of assessment is to improve learning.g. short answer. Supply Response Testing: Tests that use items that require the student to respond to a question with a word. Extended Performance Assessment: Assessments that require a student to complete a more comprehensive task that is less structured (e.g. & Assessment Relationship: 1. on that measurement.. creating a structure out of Lego's that will support 10 pounds). Selected Response Testing: Tests that use items that require the student to select the correct or best answer (e. matching questions).

8. When multiple types of assessments are used. Multiple choice items may sufficiently measure knowledge and comprehension outcomes. Effective assessment requires a clear conception of all intended learning outcomes. not just the objective assessments. 14. (2) detailed. All administered assessments should be used in the determination of grades. and used in pertinent ways. The assessment used must fit the specific learning outcome that it is designed to measure. and these criteria should be conveyed to the students. Assessments must be clear. and include evaluation criteria. Different types of specific learning outcomes require different assessment procedures. a sub-group or sample of these tasks must be used to infer back to the larger set of tasks. Effective assessment requires feedback to students that emphasizes strengths of performance and weaknesses to be corrected. These performance criteria are an integral component of a specific learning outcome. thus. Instruction and assessment are both based on specific learning objectives. Effective assessment requires that the procedures be fair to everyone. A sufficient number of sample tasks are necessary to be able to adequately infer the achievement of a specific learning outcome. students. 11. Assessment results should be conveyed to students and used to strengthen successful performance and assist in the remediation of weak performance. Performance criteria for success must be determine prior to the administration of the assessment. Does the assessment fit the classroom. Effective assessment requires that a variety of assessment procedures be used. . learning outcomes. 12. Effective assessment requires an adequate sample of student performance. Effective assessment must be supported by a comprehensive grading and reporting system. Effective assessment requires the specifications of criteria for judging successful performance. and the feedback one wishes to give to students. 9. Effective assessment requires that the instructional relevance of the procedures be considered. 13. These specific learning outcomes must be clearly stated. involve both lower and higher order skills. (3) emphasize strengths and weaknesses of performance. appropriate. (4) indicate remediation. and (5) should be positive in nature.11 General Guidelines for Effective Assessment: 7. while a performance assessment may be necessary to measure a skill-based outcome. unbiased. This feedback should be (1) immediate. each of these assessments should contribute to the final grade. the interpretations that one wishes to make. and teaching strategies? 10. Not all tasks that are directly related to the specific learning outcomes of concern can be measured.

. (1996). Assess all of the students. Instructional planning. Reassess the students. Yes Present the first unit of instruction to the entire class. Did students achieve mastery? No Remediate the nonmastery students. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Traditional Instruction: An instructional process whereby the time spent on achieving specific learning objectives is the same for all student. regardless of need or performance. Present the second unit of instruction to the entire class. & Dick. Mastery Approach to Instruction: Provide enrichment to students who achieve mastery. . Assess all of the students. Traditional Approach to Instruction: Present the first unit of instruction to the entire class. Present the second unit of instruction to the entire class. Mastery Instruction: An instructional process whereby the time spent on achieving specific learning objectives varies according to student need. W. R.12 Implementing Instruction from Reiser. Assess of all the students. Mastery instruction is premised on all students being able to master specific content and/or skills.

Revise/modify/discard ineffective instructional activities. Revise/modify/discard ineffective/inaccurate test items. R. Student performance on pretests and formative assessments. attitude surveys). 5.13 Revising Instruction from Reiser. .g. Information for Revising Instruction: Essential Information: • • Student performance on summative assessments. Additional Information: 4. & Dick. Observation of students during instruction. Student attitudes prior to instruction.. Revise/modify/discard ineffective practice or feedback. informal assessments. Instructional planning. (1996). Revise/modify/discard ineffective remedial activities. tests. 6. Revising Instruction: • • • • • Revise/modify/discard inappropriate specific learning objectives. Instruction is then revised based on results from this collection of data (e. Student attitudes following instruction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Revising Instruction: Revising instruction involves the collect of data relative to the performance of both the students and the teacher/instruction.. W.

14 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction Table of Contents Introduction The Big Picture: General 1 The Big Picture: Specific 2 Instructional Design Needs Assessment 3 Learner Characteristics 5 Context Assessment 7 Content Assessment 9 Instructional Objectives 11 Instructional Sequence 13 Instructional Strategy 15 Instructional Media 18 Achievement Assessment 20 Instructional Assessment 22 .

.. Instructional Objectives. evaluating.” Instructional Design Models are an iconic representation of the systematic processes of instructional design and serve as a set of visual directions for progressing through the processes. ix) –— A Generic Model of Instructional Design would include four basic components: Instructional Needs. The design model must be flexible to accommodate the demands of the job. and Instructional Assessment. & managing the instructional process. The big picture concerning “what to teach and how to teach it.15 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction The Big Picture: General Instructional Design involves systematically planning. Instructional Strategies. An effective instructional design model is both flexible and adaptable. yet produce an effective product. 1998. Instructional Needs: Instructional Objectives: Instructional Strategies: Instructional Assessment: Why is instruction needed? What problems need to be addressed? Is instruction an effective means to address the problem? What is an individual supposed to learn as a result of the instruction in order to satisfy the instructional needs? What instructional methods will be used to achieve the instructional objectives and satisfy the instructional needs? How will an instructor know what students have achieved the instructional objectives and satisfied the instructional needs? Instructional Need(s) Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategy Instructional Assessment Revision . based on principles of learning and instruction. & Ross. (Kemp..Our experience has shown that projects start and end at different places in the design process. Morrision. No two designers will approach a problem in the same manner and no two problems are exactly alike. developing.

The model below is a synthesis of various models (see Dick. . 2001. & Ross. however. This model. each model addresses the process of instructional design similarly. in its many forms. Morrison.16 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction The Big Picture: Specific There are many instructional design models from several authors. 1998. and its ten component processes. will be explicated in the following sections. Smith & Ragan. Support Services Instructional Assessment Needs Assessment Internet Based Achievement Assessment Learner Assessment Instructional Media Context Assessment Instructional Strategy Content Assessment Learning Theory Instructional Sequence Instructional Objectives Course Revision The ultimate goal of instruction and instructional design is effective and efficient student learning. Kemp. Carey & Carey. 1993).

or designer answers "yes" to one or several of these questions. 2. • • • • • • Insufficient: Inefficient: Uninteresting: perseverance? Ineffective: Incomplete: Inappropriate: Are there learning goals that are not being met by students? Is exiting instruction being delivered inefficiently? Is instruction unappealing and impeding learners' motivation. Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives When is a Needs Assessment Essential? According to Smith & Ragan (1993) there are six typical questions that may indicate the necessity for a Needs Assessment. prioritizes these gaps. administrator. identifying learner characteristics. completing a performance analysis. and the occurrence of specific and significant event (critical incident needs) (Burton & Merrill. including performance comparisons with national norms (normative needs). and Are unattained learning goals already being addressed by instruction? Is the curriculum to be expanded through the addition of new learning goals? Has there been a change in the composition of the learner population? Steps in Completing a Needs Assessment typically include identifying a possible need. identifying instructional goals. performance comparisons with local. interest. A needs assessment clearly delineates the goals and objectives of an instructional situation. it must be determined that the use or modification of instruction is the answer to the problem.17 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction Needs Assessment Needs Assessment is part of a more global process of determining the need for instruction. resource allocations. Identifying a Potential Need: The identification of a potential instructional need may come from various sources. The identification of such discrepancies leads to the possible gathering of additional data to clarify the nature of the discrepancy through the process of performance analysis. document analysis. Identifying Discrepancies: As data is gathered. Once a problem has been identified. 3. what should be. identifies gaps between the current situation. 1. critical incident analysis. performance analysis. gathering data. performance (comparative needs). or focus groups. individual desires to alter instruction (felt needs). questionnaires. behavioral evidence that expresses a desire (expressed needs). . and the desired situation. and determines which of these gaps are amenable to instructional design (Smith & Ragan. Data may be collected through interviews. anticipation of future needs (future needs). then a Needs Assessment would likely be in order. If a teacher. 1991). 1993). non-normed. identifying discrepancies. Gathering Relevant Data: The process of gathering data will reveal learners' competencies and responsibilities. and learners' characteristics. a constant comparison between the current situation and the desired or needed situation is made to recognize discrepancies. observation. what is.

instructional strategies. Information concerning learner characteristics may influence the selection of goals and objectives.18 4. academic experience. vocational experience. the identification of desired performance / current performance gaps or needs. Goal statements are broad. A critical question at this point is "Based on the identified need. is instruction the answer?" If not. and needs. there is not need to proceed with further instructional design. such as age. Completing Performance Analysis: A performance analysis is an in-depth examination of a performance discrepancy with the goal of identifying the cause of that discrepancy. Identifying Learner Characteristics: All instruction is affected by the characteristics of the learner. it is essential to prioritize the creation of solutions to these discrepancies using goal statements. and understood. attitudes. Exercise #1: • What is one possible web-based instructional need? • Upon what data is this need identified? • What is the discrepancy that identifies the need? • What is the cause of this discrepancy? • Who are your learners? • What is your instructional goal? . Identifying Instructional Goals: Once instructional discrepancies have been identified. and are able to perform. Instructional goals typically focus on student performance of general learning outcomes and are further clarified through the use of instructional objectives. following the implementation of specific instruction. described. general statements identifying the knowledge and skills that students should posses. socioeconomic background. a description of the learner's current performance level. to name but a few. and the identification of the causes of those gaps. instructional media. 6. A performance analysis includes making clear the goals or mission statements that describe the desired outcome or behavior. 5. The conclusion of a performance analysis includes recommendations for remediation of the identified gaps or needs. the delineation of the behaviors needed to complete a specific performance. or assessment mechanisms. sex.

An examination of a student's specific prior knowledge may reveal both depth of knowledge and significant misconceptions. academic. Educational and Ability Levels: Students' prior experience and expertise within the educational environment and their natural ability levels may impact the level of instruction provided and/or nature of the instructional delivery. Attitudes Toward Content and Delivery: Students' attitudes toward the topic domain and/or the delivery method may affect a student's performance. 1. high self-efficacy or interest may enhance a student's learning. For example. and vice-versa. students may also need particular experiences. and are adept at. there are eight fundamental areas that should be examined in assessing learner characteristics. social. 4. Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives What Learner Characteristics Should be Examined? According to Dick. Identifying these learner characteristics potentially influence the goals and objectives of instruction. or styles. Students that have high levels of intrinsic motivation are more likely to be successful than students with low levels. and Carey (2001). a student familiar with and comfortable within computer technology may perform well when instruction is delivered in using computer technology. of instruction with which they are comfortable. students' levels of extrinsic motivation may also affect instructional success. Prior Knowledge of Specific Domain: Adequate instruction and subsequent performance is often determined by a student's prior knowledge relative to the specific domain of instruction. and method of assessment utilized. or attitudes prior to the beginning of instruction in order to be successful. Their 2. This list is not exhaustive and one must always be willing to include other areas when circumstances necessitate. Attitudes Toward Teaching Institution: Students' attitudes toward the organization or school providing the instruction may influence their levels of participation. vocational. Is students prefer. equipment. Instructional Sequence Entry Knowledge or Skills: What prerequisite knowledge or skills should students possess prior to beginning instruction? In addition to prerequisite knowledge and skills. Academic Motivation: An important aspect of student achievement is the level and type of motivation. 3. they may be hesitant to engage in group oriented learning. direction instruction. General Learning Preferences: Students tend to gravitate toward a specific style. needs. topics addressed. while a student that is computer anxious may perform artificially poorly. and historical characteristics of individuals that warrant consideration during the instructional design process. level of topic addressed. Carey. Similarly. or effort. and interests. engagement. instructional strategies and media employed.19 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction Learner Characteristics Learner Characteristics: Leaner characteristics are those personal. Important characteristics of learners also include domains such as capabilities. • • . while low self-efficacy or anxiety may inhibit a student's learning. In addition. 1.

intrinsic motivation work commitment perceived benefit of instruction resourcefulness independence efficiency expediency Exercise #2: • What are 3 characteristics of your learners that may significantly impact their ability to be successful in your course? • What adjustments in your instruction might you be able to complete that would increase the success rates of your students in your course? .20 attitudes may also affect the effectiveness of specific media or strategies. historical. preference. Personal Sex Age Talents Culture Maturity Vocation Experience Self-Esteem Expectations Academic Grades Courses Degrees Locality Literacy Training Test Scores Experiences Cognitive Style Entry Attitudes Motivation General Skills Specific Skills Job Experience Problem Solving Profss'l Experiences General Knowledge Specific Knowledge Individual Differences Culture Interests Attributions Special Needs Belief Systems Emotional State Practical Knowledge Intelligence/Aptitude Child/Adolescent/Adult • Ways of Examining Learner Characteristics are varied. 8. and instruction. or social characteristics. written) Amount and Type of Reading Amount and Type of Incentives • • • • • • • Nature of Practice Nature of Feedback Amount of Structure Level of Abstractness Grouping of Students Amount of Scaffolding Teaching Strategies Used Characteristics of Effective Web-based Learners regardless of their age. 9. • • • • Observations Interviews Surveys Questionnaires • • • • Assessments Document Analysis Self-Descriptions Research Reviews Implications of Learner Characteristics for instructional design and delivery are varied and depend upon the nature of the needs. academic.. How heterogeneous or homogeneous is the group. gender. 11. based on relevant characteristics? What is the general demeanor of the group? Potential Learner Characteristics of Interest cover a broad arena of factors such as personal. 6. although a few types have proven to be extremely useful. and proximity to campus are synonymous with those of the successful adult learner. such as team building. learners. • • • • • • • Pace of Instruction Types of Examples Methods for Gaining Attention Medium Used for Instruction Response Mode (e. oral. The following list is only a partial list of potential characteristics. These characteristics include 5. Group Characteristics: While an analysis of the individuals is important. group work. 10. it is also beneficial to examine the group characteristics that emerge from the coherence of the individuals. 7.g. or conferencing.

Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives Instructional Context Assessment may be probed through the use of several questions. Smith and Ragan. The following questions address the efficacy and influence of the instructional context (see Dick.g. & Carey. the instructional medium (e. the social makeup. and what is their availability? What is the curricular context within which the instruction must fit? What are the characteristics of the classrooms and greater locality in which instruction will occur? What are the philosophies or taboos of the social community in which the instruction will take place? Is the instructional site compatible with the needs of instruction? Is the instructional site compatible with the performance site or workplace? Is the instructional site flexible enough to allow for diverse instruction and diverse populations? Instructional Context Control is an essential aspect of instructional design. 2001.. • • • • • • • • • What are the characteristics of the teachers and students that will be using the instructional materials? What preferences do teachers and learner have for the use of media in instruction? What media are available to the teachers and learners. the instructional materials. Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . What factors. and the physical locality of the instruction. face-to-face. Within Teacher's Control q q q q q q q q q Beyond Teacher's Control q q q q q q q q q Media Availability Seating Arrangement Physical Size of Classroom Number of Students in Class Students' Social Characteristics Students' Academic Characteristics Students' Emotional Characteristics Technology: Hardware Availability Technology: Software Availability Copyright © 2001. Peter E. The instructional context includes the learners themselves. The performance context includes the performance medium. web-based. within the instructional context. are under the control of the instructor or designer? The following is a list of factors that are common to instruction. Carey. the specific instructional equipment. the congruence between the instructional context and the performance context and the physical locality of the performance site. video conferencing). 1993). the performance equipment and materials.21 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction Context Assessment Context Assessment: Context assessment refers to both the context in which the instruction will take place and the context in which the student will be asked to demonstrate the use of their recently acquire knowledge and skills.

5. the value of instruction is demonstrated beyond the classroom. or facilities. equipment. including the type of social interaction (e. Peter E.22 Performance Context Assessment emphasizes the nature of transfer within instruction. Understanding the social context will allow instruction to address issues designed to facilitate performance within the specific social confines. or responsibility hierarchy (e. the motivation of the students. Understanding the performance context will increase the relevancy of the instruction..g. vertical versus horizontal). Exercise #3: • Describe the context in which instruction will take place? • What are 3 essential components of the instructional context? • What are 3 concerns relative to the instructional context's adequacy for instruction? • Describe the context in which the student will ultimately be asked to perform? • What are 3 essential congruencies between the instructional and performance contexts? Copyright © 2001. Beyond the mere presence of the physical resources. upon the support for using them. the new behaviors and skills are less likely to be demonstrated. Performance Support: The use of new behaviors and skills is dependent. Physical Factors: New behaviors and skills are often dependent upon the presence of specific materials. In situations where demonstrating new behaviors and skills is punished. the greater the congruence between the performance resources and the instructional resources. 3. Research in the Context of Distance Education indicates the following tentative conclusions. If these resources are not available. instruction is rarely for the sole purpose of excelling on an in-class assessment. Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . 9. Distance education learners have a better attitude toward distance education than non-distance learners. 6. While interaction seems intuitively important. 2. 8. Building collaboration and group interaction may be more important than individual participation. individual versus group orientation). That is. then students will not be able to perform.g... the greater the amount of learning transfer and performance. interaction should not be added without real purpose. Normally.g. social milieu (e. implicitly or explicitly. 4. Social Factors: There are several social factors that affect the efficacy of performance. and the transfer from class performance to extra-class performance. cooperative versus competitive). Distance education is just as effective as traditional education in regard to learner outcomes. largely. Each form of distance education technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. 10.

in order to complete this task successfully?" This single question. is a process designed to delineate the specific content to be addressed in an instructional unit. and superordinate skills. "What does the student need to know or need to be able to do. the prerequisite skills necessary to be successful. bound by perception Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . 3 Types of Content Assessments or Task Analyses include topic analyses. an expanded outline. Capacity: Unlimited. components and subcomponents). A B to be completed. procedural analyses.. Working Memory Expanded Outline I. General Outline I. Instructional Instructional Sequence Objectives Since the general approach of a task analysis is to break knowledge or skills down into components and sub-components. the topic analysis will involve at least three levels of outline. a general outline. the hierarchical approach makes these relationships apparent. Detailed Outline: Sub-headings are expanded to provide all the essential detail. in order to complete Task 1. while the arrows indicate rank or level. these three represent the main analysis types (see Kemp. and so on. Morrison.Instructional Planning 23 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction Content Assessment Content Assessment: Content assessment. Sensory Memory A. Sensory Memory II. Capacity Detailed Outline I. Typically. the content to be addressed by the instruction and the structure of the content (i. a "Task" may be either a set of knowledge to be understood or a procedure. Task 2 must be completed or known prior to engaging Task 3. mental or physical. Sensory Memory A. Determining the orientation of content involves breaking the task down into skills. Further. and critical incident analyses. Task 1 must be completed or known prior to engaging Task 2. Likewise.e. subtask 1 2 3 4 A must be completed or known. task analyses often classify the analysis according to topic analyses. subordinate skills. Topic Analysis: A Topic Analysis provides two primary pieces of information. Each of these analyses may be conducted using the hierarchical approach. procedural analyses. General Outline: Contains only major headings. in order to complete Task 3. and a detailed outline. In addition. C boxes or rectangles indicate the Task knowledge or skill. & Ross. Expanded Outline: Major headings are expanded to include essential sub-headings. While other types of analyses may be conducted. At each point in the hierarchy the designer must ask. applied at each Task or Sub-Task. and the orientation of the content relative to itself. creates the hierarchical structure. 1. In the model below. or task analysis. In each case. subtasks B and C must be completed or know. A topic analysis essentially consists of ever more detailed outlines of content. 1998). Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Content Assessment or Task Analysis Format is generally hierarchical. and critical incident analyses. Typically.

attitudes. 2. procedural analysis. Procedural Analysis: A procedural analysis is designed to reduce a mental or physical task into the discrete steps needed to complete the task. Visual: < 1 second 2. Hold gently against one's ear. Critical Incident Analysis: A critical incident analysis is used to determine the core components within a task that varies according to circumstance and the person involved. According to Kemp. Place handset by head. or a different step is needed? B. Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University .g. Similar to a topic analysis. 3. Pickup the handset. teaching. sketch out an appropriate analysis. b. Morrison. Three guiding questions for the assessment of each step are: • • • What does the learner do? What does the learner need to know to do this step? What cues inform the learner that there is a problem. Perception D. topic analysis. and the solutions to ill-structured problems.g. debating. and after the incident? 12. including relevant cues for each step. Duration: Dependent on sense 1. Long-Term Memory B. a procedural analysis is best created by first listing the major steps needed to complete a task.. Cue Phone is ringing. which type of task analysis would be most appropriate (e. Exercise #4: • When considering your need. or critical incident analysis)? • Briefly. and receiver piece by mouth.Instructional Planning 24 III. What were the conditions before. Phone cord is attached to the receiver end. selling. What did you do? 13. and sailing) also tend to have fairly stable core components that lead to success. most procedural analyses are linear in nature. Listen. This linearity allows one to use a simple listing process for each step. Events that typically have significant variations (e. Duration C. followed by a finer and finer grained analysis of what additional steps are needed. A voice is heard through the phone. Auditory: < 4 seconds 3. How did this incident help or hinder you from achieving your goals? The critical incident analysis is appropriate for analyzing interpersonal exchanges. A critical incident analysis is often completed through the use of observations or interviews. and Ross (1998) a critical incident interview is based on fundamental questions: 11. Tactile: < 5 seconds 2. the step is done. during. Place ear piece by ear. 3. Attention While it is possible to use a hierarchical structure for a procedural analysis. Sore ear indicates too much pressure.. a. The following is a partial procedural analysis for Step 1.

Instructional Planning 25 Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University .

Mager (1984) proposed the writing of objectives that have 3 essential components. instructional assessments. the behavior. The student will comprehend instructional goals. Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives What are the 3 Components of a Traditional Instructional Objective? Perhaps the most crucial aspect of an instructional objective is that it is stated in terms of specific. 1. 1. Condition: Given a map of the United States. the performance condition. the student will be able to write the names of at least 40 states within the correct state’s boundaries. Performance – the criteria used to determine fulfillment of the objective Example: Given a map of the United States. Example: TSWBAT compose a 5 sentence expository paragraph Goal-Objectives: While Mager-style and short form objectives dominate most of instructional design. performance objective. Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University .e. Short Forms of Objectives: While objectives have traditionally been written using the 3-component format. Condition – the setting or conditions in which the student must behave or perform 14. and learner expectations. Performance Level: At least 40 states.1 TSWBAT write 3-component instructional goals. 1. Instructional objectives serve as a foundation from which to create appropriate instructional strategies. Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence 12. a new trend in writing objectives has focused on including only the “behavior” component. observable.Instructional Planning 26 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction Instructional Objectives Instructional Objectives: An instructional objective (i. The condition or performance level components are included only when absolutely necessary for the clear understanding of the objective. a third type of objective relates the broader goal to the defining objectives. and measurable student behaviors that reflect a desired instructional goal. Example: 1. Behavior: Write the name of states within the correct state’s boundaries. observable behavior to be exhibited by the student 13. Behavior – the specific.. behavioral objective) identifies the specific learning outcomes that students must demonstrate so that the teacher may infer that they have or have not learned a particular skill or knowledge set.2 TSWBAT use 3-component instructional goals within a lesson plan.3 TSWBAT evaluate instructional goals for appropriate format & content. and the performance criteria.

Domains of Learning within Instructional Objectives typically address three areas. rule application. Attitude: Attitude objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect personal feelings or dispositions. and write them using either the 3-component method of writing objectives or the short form method of writing objectives. from any domain. Exercise #5: • Create three objectives. and emotions (e. enjoying.. excluding trivial movements. psychomotor objectives. Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . mental processing. Psychomotor: Psychomotor objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect any physical activity requiring the movement of all or part of the body. such as concept learning.g. and problem solving. Each of these domains uses a specific taxonomy to classify objectives. conserving. and attitude objectives. such as appreciations. and respecting). values.Instructional Planning 27 Why use instructional objectives? Instructional objectives have been supported as providing for: • • • • better instruction better evaluation more efficient learning increases in students' level of self-evaluation and metacognition. cognitive objectives. • • • Cognitive: Cognitive objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect memorization or recall of specific facts.

front to back. The order of teaching would depend directly on the learner Teach skills that are developmentally appropriate The order of teaching would depend directly on the learner Teach prerequisite skills prior to teaching a main task. Teach mean. smooth to rough Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . Instruction designed to address the creation of a web page would proceed step-bystep. or event and the instruction.the order in which knowledge or skills will be presented or experienced by the learner. Finally. Often there are several different obvious sequences. familiarity. outside to inside addressing knowledge or skills based on time factors. and mode prior to teaching deviations and t-tests Teach skills that are more familiar/known before unfamiliar/unknown 2. person. Typically. A forth sequence may be added to this list of three using Gagné's prerequisite method or hierarchical-related sequence. creating a web page. prerequisites.Instructional Planning 28 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction Instructional Sequence Instructional Sequence: Once an instructor understands the nature of their content and has created specific instructional objectives. instructional designers. interest. difficulty. world-related sequences may be classified as spatial. where each step corresponds to an action that is necessary to the completion of the task. Spatial: Temporal: Physical: attributes addressing knowledge or skills based on spatial location. and students would all be different. Teach HTML before XML Teach more interesting skills before less interesting skills. Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence 1. Difficulty: Interest: Development: The order of teaching would depend directly on the learner Teach easier skills before more difficult skills. Thus. third step. temporal. large to small. Instruction related to web-based instruction delivered to technicians. or physical. it is time to create an instructional sequence . Prerequisites: Familiarity: skills. and development. Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives 4 Sequencing Schemes have been proposed by Posner and Strike (1976). a world-related sequence and a conceptrelated sequence. first step. there is one-to-one relation between the real-world object. second step. top to bottom. Learning-Related Sequence: Learning-related sequences are based on the application of five factors. World-Related Sequence: World-related sequences are based on the needs of a target audience and may vary from audience to audience. light to dark. and include a learning-related sequence. instruction related to web-based instruction may vary depending on the perspective of the audience. fast to slow addressing knowledge or skills based on commonalties in physical hard to soft. historical/chronological. while at other times the sequence of instruction may be rather fixed. median. left to right.

propositional relations. then teaching the main concept teaching cellular structures. then teaching specific instances of the concept teaching the concept of strategy before teaching inquiry or cooperative learning Propositional Relations: teaching specific instances of the concept. Hierarchical-Related Sequence: Hierarchical-related sequences simply start at the bottom of a task analysis hierarchy and teach sub-tasks then tasks. These characteristics may be used as the foundation for sequencing instruction based on the nature of the concept. or simple concepts. class relations.Instructional Planning 29 3. abstract. Concept-Related Sequence: Concept-related sequences are based on four characteristics of concepts. then teaching organ function Sophistication: teaching easy. Class Relations: teaching the main concept first. or complex teaching t-test analyses. concrete. then difficult. sophistication. Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . then teaching ANOVA analyses Logical Prerequisite: teaching the foundational or prerequisite concepts before the main concept teaching HTML before XML 4. 1 2 3 4 A B C Exercise #6: • Order the content that was written in response to Exercise 4-2 according to an appropriate instructional sequence. and logical prerequisites.

or steps designed and later implemented during instruction whose purpose is to foster the development and completion of the specific instructional objectives. and direction instruction).. In each case. Cooperative / Group Instruction 16. 18. Lesson Strategies: Lesson strategies are broad strategies that may encompass several other activity or task strategies. Task Strategies: Task strategies are designed to foster student learning. Problem-based Instruction Questioning and Discussion Techniques Concept Development Instruction Reciprocal Teaching Advance Organizer Discovery Learning Synectics Graffiti 3. • • • • • • • Whip Around Outcome Sentences Think-Pair-Share Minute Reflections Think Aloud Entry/Exit Slips Response Cards • • • • • • • 3-Minute Standing Conversation 3-2-1 Processor Background Knowledge Probes Sudden Brainstorm KWL Connect 12 Best Choice Debate Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . content. the strategy employed should be chosen to maximize student learning given the instructional objectives. Lesson strategies are extremely flexible in their application and may be used in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes. The concept of instructional strategies is often used broadly to include instructional sequencing and the selection of instructional media. Instructional Sequence 1. Activity Strategies: Activity strategies are appropriate when addressing a specific aspect of instruction (i. 17. procedures. 21. specific content or skills). and context. Inquiry Instruction 2. and assessment (informal) within a very small timeframe.e. 15. cooperative learning. 22. Strategies often focus on the general instructional techniques used during instructional activities (e.Instructional Planning 30 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction Instructional Strategy Instructional Strategy: Instructional strategies include the events. Lesson strategies may take from an hour to several days to implement. Activity strategies may take minutes to an hour to implement. Activity strategies are narrower in scope than lesson strategies.g. therefore. reciprocal teaching. metacognition.. Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives 3 Types of Strategies for different aspects of the instructional process. 16. Task strategies are often used to supplement and provide active pauses in activity and lesson strategies. 19. a specific lesson may incorporate several different activity strategies to several different purposes. 14. Direct Instruction 15. Task Strategies may take only a couple of minutes to implement. 20. and with a variety of contents.

cooperative learning is an instructional strategy. Learning should take place in authentic and real-world environments. 2. but not identical concepts. content. Dick. behaviorism. and self-aware. while a delivery system is the means by which instruction will be provided. Students should be assessed formatively. Instructional Strategy Advance Organizers Concept Development Cooperative Learning Direct Instruction Discovery Learning Drill and Practice Games Graffiti Group Work Inquiry Instruction Microworlds Problem-Based Instruction Questioning & Discussion Reciprocal Teaching Simulations Synectics Tutorials Think-Pair-Share Jurisprudential Inquiry Role Playing Memorization Mastery Learning Programmed Instruction Critical Incident Delivery System Animation AudioConferencing AudioGraphics Bulletin Boards CD-ROM Chat Rooms Electronic Books Electronic Whiteboards Email Face-to-Face Classrooms Groupware HTML/DHTML/XML Hypermedia Listservs MOOs. Teachers serve primarily as guides and facilitators of learning. social cognitive theory. but also on one's understanding of the learning process. MUDs Print/Text Streaming Audio/Video Tape Recordings TeleConferencing Television/Cable TV/Radio/Satellite Threaded Discussions Two-Way Audio/Video Conferencing Virtual Reality Web Pages (text & graphics) Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . 5. 4. There are several learning theories (e. 8. materials. 3. 6. content. information processing theory.g. and context. not instructors. self-mediated. The following is one example of a theoretical framework from which to select or create an instructional strategy. Learning should involve social negotiation and mediation. and constructivism) and each provides tenets from which to select or create instructional strategies. Content and skills should be made relevant to the learner. Content and skills should be understood within the framework of the learner’s prior knowledge. and Carey (2001) state that an instructional strategy reflects the methods. Typical Constructivist Pedagogy 1.Instructional Planning 31 Instructional Strategies and Learning Theory are inexorably linked. Teachers should provide for and encourage multiple perspectives and representations of content. For example.. Students should be encouraged to become self-regulatory. Carey. The selection of any instructional strategy should be based not only on the instructional objectives. but implementing that strategy via classroom instruction or web-based instruction reflects the delivery system. and processes specified in learning activities. 7. Instructional Strategies and Delivery Systems are related. serving to inform future learning experiences.

Clark's conclusion identifies a serious aspect of media. Learner-Instructor Interaction: The learner-instructor interaction benefits from the instructor taking the role of facilitator. Exercise #7: • Considering your objectives. Social Interaction within web-based courses creates a sense of belonging and has the potential for providing meaningful educational experiences. what instructional strategy do you believe might be effective in providing for student learning and the achievement of you objectives? Why? Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . Moore (1996) identifies three types of interaction.Instructional Planning 32 Media Effects research examines the relationship between the delivery method employed during instruction and the eventual effect of that method. it is not the media itself that is important. but the manner in which is wielded. Learner-Content Interaction: Learner-content interaction involves the learner interacting with the content in meaningful and knowledge producing ways. however. or learner-interface interactions. that media are but "vehicles" that provide the conduit through which instruction is delivered. When learners are at ease with the use of technologies they generally perform better and have better attitudes. The exact role of social interaction in the learning process. context. and to challenge ideas among peers (as opposed to "instructors"). content. to which Kozma (1991) has added a forth. is unclear. support. address the ease or difficulty a learner has in mediating his or her instruction through the use of technology. Learner-Learner Interaction: Learner-learner interactions allow learners to view instruction from multiple perspectives. The instructor is able to provide guidance. and learners. and instruction. Clark (1994) states that media selection and implementation do not directly affect learning. to be assisted by peers. The primary reason to interact with content is to change the learners perspective relative to the content. Learner-Medium Interaction: Learner-media interactions. resources.

pencils. The amount or difficulty of this processes of media facilitation may inhibit a teacher's ability to effectively utilize the particular media. time efficient. if no appropriate materials already exist. demonstration. production difficulties. Each of these factors may facilitate the selection of instructional materials. cost efficient. and instructional appropriateness (Reiser & Dick. chalk. This may include traditional materials such as chalkboards. student appropriateness. Student Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the developmental and experiential levels of the students? 19. 17. as well newer materials such as computers. facilitation. Production Constraints: Creating quality instructional media can be a costly. Internet. 2. Instructional Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the planned instructional strategy? Will the media allow for the presentation of the proposed lesson in an efficient and effective manner? Will the media facilitate the students’ acquisition of the specific learning objectives? 3 Constraining Factors in Selecting Instructional Media include the availability of pre-existing materials. DVDs. or more broadly. two-way audio/video. however. both time and cost efficient as well as instructionally effective. 3. but often impeded the selection process (Dick. in both time and money. Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . Instructor Facilitation: Most forms of instructional media involve teacher modeling. and instructor facilitation. pens. then the instructional designer is left with the task of creating the materials. Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives 3 Criteria for Adopting Instructional Media include the media's practicality. implementation. & Carey.Instructional Planning 33 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction Instructional Media Instructional Media: Instructional media encompasses all the materials and physical means an instructor uses to implement instruction and facilitate students' achievement of instructional objectives. CD-ROMs. Carey. Practicality: Is the intended media practical in that the media is available. and interactive video conferencing. and paper. Existing Materials: The selection of existing instructional materials can facilitate the creation of instructional units. 2001). that is. and understood by the instructor? Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence 18. overhead. enterprise.. 1996). 1. A central question to answer is what level of media quality is acceptable.

Instructional Planning 34 Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University .

(c) student participation and practice exercises exist.S. Myth 2: If it does not have a copyright notice. student appropriateness. specifically. & Carey. specifically.S. (b) authenticity of materials. and (d) design of materials. 2001)." Copyright Myths and the Internet • • • • • Myth 1: A work has to be published and registered with the U. (a) feasibility of materials for one's budget. and instructional appropriateness. Goal-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materials: Goal-centered criteria focus on the content of the instruction. Myth 4: A work copyrighted in another country is public domain in the U. Copyright Office to receive copyright protection. (d) accuracy. "(a) congruence among the content in the materials and your performance objectives. it is public domain. and learners. (b) adequacy of content coverage and completeness. context. content. and instructional strategy. evaluate each according to its practicality." Context-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materials: Context-centered criteria focus on the appropriateness of the instructional materials for one's instructional and performance settings.Instructional Planning 35 Evaluating Instructional Media and Materials may be accomplished from several perspectives. what media and materials do you anticipate needing? • For each of the above medial or materials. "(a) vocabulary and language levels. (e) currency. (c) quality of materials. Exercise #8: • Considering your objectives. Myth 3: Anything on the Internet is public domain. (c) authority. (g) delivery system and media formats are appropriate for the objectives and learning context. specifically. motivational. "(a) the content sequencing is correct. Each of these perspectives on evaluating instructional media contributes to the use of valid and appropriate materials (Dick. and (h) adequate learner guidance is provided to move students from one component or activity to the next. Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . Myth 5: The doctrine of "fair use" means that copyrighted materails can be used in an educational setting without permission. (d) adequate feedback is included. (c) backgrounds and experiences. (f) adequate follow-through directions are included for enhancing memory and transfer. specifically. and interest levels. (b) developmental. (e) appropriate assessments are available. Carey." Learner-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materials: Learner-centered criteria focus on the appropriateness of the instructional materials for the specific target group. and (d) special language or other needs. and (f) objectivity. Learning-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materials: Learning-centered criteria focus on the effectiveness of the instructional materials to positively delivery the instruction. (b) motivational concerns are addressed.

matching questions). • Reliability: The consistency of results (measurement) obtained from an assessment.g. reduction. based on the control. including enhancing instruction. determining the area of given rectangle. • • Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . selecting the appropriate tool for a task. essay questions). Restricted Performance Assessment: Assessments that require a student to complete a limited task that is highly structured (e. and content. Validity always refers to the appropriate use of a measurement. • The 3 Necessities of Assessment include the reliability of the assessment processes. writing a research report. Test: An instrument or formal process that presents tasks that yield a specific type of measurement. Absence-of-bias comes in many forms and appropriate judgements must be made with specific populations in mind. or feature.Instructional Planning 36 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction Achievement Assessment Assessment: A general term used to denote the systematic collection and interpretation of data that is to be used in the making of educational decisions. true-false. context. Reliable assessments yield similar results across similar applications with similar populations. and the absence-of-bias in the entire process. and learner characteristics. appropriate. Evaluation encompasses the inferences that are drawn from measurements. writing a brief paragraph on a given topic). phrase. Evaluation: The placing of value or interpretation of a measurement. Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives Types of Assessment Methods vary and are appropriate based on congruence with instructional objectives.. the validity of the assessment results.g. and/or elimination of measurement error. instructional strategies.. Each of these components must be present for a fair. Validity: The accuracy and appropriateness of the interpretations and inferences (evaluation) drawn from the results of a test (measurement). quality.. Supply Response Testing: Tests that use items that require the student to respond to a question with a word. Absence-of-Bias: The absence of any characteristic associated with an assessment that might offend or unfairly penalize those being assessed and thus distort a student's score. drawing the water cycle. short answer. Measurement: The explicit quantification of the results obtained through testing that is designed to determine the degree of presence or absence of a particular characteristic.. creating a structure out of Lego's that will support 10 pounds). and accurate assessment of student achievement. and not the measurement itself.g.g. • • • Selected Response Testing: Tests that use items that require the student to select the correct or best answer (e. Extended Performance Assessment: Assessments that require a student to complete a more comprehensive task that is less structured (e. multiple-choice. or essay answer (e.

Instructional Planning 37 Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University .

Different types of specific learning outcomes require different assessment procedures. and teaching strategies? Effective assessment requires an adequate sample of student performance. appropriate. Effective assessment requires that the instructional relevance of the procedures be considered. as well as the delineated instructional objectives. and used in pertinent ways. (4) indicate remediation. describe the nature of an appropriate assessment of student achievement strategy. Effective assessment requires that a variety of assessment procedures be used. Effective assessment requires the specifications of criteria for judging successful performance. a subgroup or sample of these tasks must be used to infer back to the larger set of tasks. learning outcomes. 1995): • Effective assessment requires a clear conception of all intended learning outcomes. Does the assessment fit the classroom. while a performance assessment may be necessary to measure a skill-based outcome. The assessment used must fit the specific learning outcome that it is designed to measure. • • • • • • • Exercise #9: • Based on the previously stated context. Instruction and assessment are both based on the intended learning outcomes. and (5) should be positive in nature. and include evaluation criteria. These performance criteria are an integral component of a specific learning outcome. Not all tasks that are directly related to the specific learning outcomes of concern can be measured. and media. the interpretations that one wishes to make. (3) emphasize strengths and weaknesses of performance. thus. Effective assessment requires feedback to students that emphasizes strengths of performance and weaknesses to be corrected. not just the objective assessments. and these criteria should be conveyed to the students. (2) detailed.Instructional Planning 38 General Guidelines for Effective Assessment (Gronlund. 1998. and learner assessments. each of these assessments should contribute to the final grade. Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . A sufficient number of sample tasks is necessary to be able to adequately infer the achievement of a specific learning outcome. When multiple types of assessments are used. Multiple choice items may sufficiently measure knowledge and comprehension outcomes. Assessment results should be conveyed to students and used to strengthen successful performance and assist in the remediation of weak performance. Performance criteria for success must be determine prior to the administration of the assessment. involve both lower and higher order skills. Linn & Gronlund. and the feedback one wishes to give to students. strategies. Effective assessment requires that the procedures be fair to everyone. Effective assessment must be supported by a comprehensive grading and reporting system. students. This feedback should be (1) immediate. These specific learning outcomes must be clearly stated. content. All administered assessments should be used in the determination of grades. unbiased. Assessments must be clear.

The small group assessment will reveal potential areas of concern related to addressing various individual differences and group processing difficulties. The field test should be designed to be as realistic as possible to identify any problems that may arise in the actual use of the instruction. In addition. strategies. the instructional strategies themselves may be assessed by using the strategies in a pilot of the instruction with members of the target population. the content analysis may be formatively assessed by asking learners from the target population to examine the content for relevancy. relative to the instruction. The field test involves using the instruction in the real-world context in which it will ultimately be applied with representative of the target population. For example. instructional objectives. Small Group Assessment: A small group assessment typically follows a single-user assessment and after changes in the instruction have been made based on the feedback attained from the single-user assessment. The small group assessment relies on having several users engage in the instruction simultaneously. sequences. Concerns Influencing the Use of Formative Assessments should be addressed whenever possible. small group assessments. Summative assessments are evaluations that occur after the instruction has been created and implemented. In this one-on-one situation.. Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University .Instructional Planning 39 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction Instructional Assessment Instructional Assessment: Assessing the viability and effectiveness of the instructional process involves both formative assessments and summative assessments. asking the user to evaluate various aspects of the instruction and making suggestions for the improvement of the instruction. during the instructional design process itself. Formative assessments will often take the form of single user assessments. The content analysis may also be assessed by a subject-matter expert to check for technical accuracy. once a content analysis is complete. and only later will implementation be in real situations. before administering the instruction to the target audience. the instructional objectives may likewise be assessed by learners and subject-matter experts. task. the designer may probe the user's thoughts. and context analyses. While both formative and summative assessments may lead to revisions in the instruction. Single-User Assessment: A single-user formative assessment involves the designer working closely with an individual user as the user interacts with the instruction. Finally. However. a field test of the instruction is undertaken. and a field test. formative assessments will frequently begin in rather controlled situations to obtain early feedback. Field Test: Eventually. while summative assessments are used on a more global level to indicate if instruction has resulted in the satisfaction of the instructional goals. content. Formative assessments are evaluations of the instructional process (i.e. and media). formative assessments are used with the purpose of revising instruction as it is developed. Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives Formative Assessment enters almost every phase of the instructional design process. Context Concerns: In using formative assessments it is important to mimic the conditions under which the instruction will ultimately be used.

experts assess the planned instruction for its potential for effectiveness. & Carey. skills. the instruction is implemented with target population learners and evaluated for effectiveness. In the field trial phase. but also on efficiency of learning. Carey. but rather an opportunity to improve instruction. Implementation Concerns: The formative evaluation process is sometimes overlooked or shortened due to time constraints. In the expert judgement phase. it is essential to obtain as much feedback from potential users as possible. and motivation clearly evident in the materials? Feasibility Analysis: Are the materials convenient. the efficacy of the designed instruction is less than desired. Summative Assessment is focused on evaluating the overall effectiveness of the instruction in meeting or satisfying the stated instructional goals and objectives. and current? Design Analysis: Are the principles of learning. even if this must come during the first actual use of the instruction. 2001) is often used. and long-term and side-effect benefits of the program. Summative Evaluation Expert Judgement Phase Overall Decision Do the materials have the potential for meeting the organization's needs? Specific Decisions Congruence Analysis: Are the needs and goals of the organization congruent with those in the instruction? Content Analysis: Are the materials complete. This should not be seen as a failure. summative assessments tend to focus on whether or not the instruction should be used again or if new instruction needs to be designed. Ultimately it is the purpose of the formative assessment to indicate what is wrong. and satisfactory for current users? Learner Impact: Are the achievement and motivation levels of learners satisfactory following instruction? Performance Impact: Are learners able to transfer the information. accurate. cost-effective. not what is right. Outcome Concerns: Often. to assess the instruction across a wide range of learner characteristics. Summative assessments are often focused not only on learner achievement. In arriving at these decisions a two-phase model (Dick. during formative assessments. Learners should be heterogeneous. and attitudes from the instructional setting to the "job" setting or to subsequent units of related instruction? Organizational Impact: Are learners' changed behaviors making positive differences in the achievement of the organization's mission or goals? Are the materials effective with target learners in the prescribed setting? Field Trial Phase Exercise #10: • How might the designed instruction be assessed summatively? What aspects of the instruction would be most important to assess? Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . durable. In all cases. The following chart represents the key questions asked and answered during these two phases of summative assessment. cost of instruction. instruction. attitudes toward the instruction.Instructional Planning 40 Learner Concerns: The characteristics of the learners that are used in formative assessments influence the conclusions drawn from the assessments. Ultimately.

Instructional Planning 41 Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University .

F. Upper Saddle River. & Strike. (1976). Dick. O. R. K. L. J. Preparing instructional objectives. Kemp. Gustafson.. G. Review of Educational Research. Instructional design. NJ: Educational Technology Publications Clark. W. Smaldino. M. E. G. (1991).. 179-211. T. 21-29. and priorities... Morrison. & Zvacek.).. NJ: Merrill. P. J. J. Tillman (Eds. needs. Distance education: A systems view. & Ragan. L. N. S. (1991). (2001). Albright. Kozma. 42(2).Instructional Planning 42 References Burton. Gronlund. Upper Saddle River. & Carey.. NJ: Merrill. S. Instructional design: Principles and applications. G. Educational Technology Research and Development. (1984). S. E. Belmont. (1998). In L. R. & M. Reiser. E. M... 665-690.. (1993). Mager. & Ross. J. (1996). Smith. Carey. A. NJ: Merrill. A. L. K. Briggs. Englewood Cliffs... F. (1995/2000). The systematic design of instruction. M. G. Review of Educational Research. A categorization scheme for principles of sequencing content. Boston: Wadsworth. Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education. Moore. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Instructional planning: A guide for teachers. R. R. E.. Upper Saddle River.. New York: Longman. Assessment of student achievement. Simonson. W. 61. (2000). (1996). Posner. Designing effective instruction. (1998). B. Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . Boston: Allyn adn Bacon. & Gronlund. J.N. R. (1994). Linn. Upper Saddle River. CA: Pitman. & Kearsley. Learning with media. & Dick. 46. Media will never influence learning. & Merrill. R. Needs assessment: Goals. P. K. M. Measurement and Assessment in Teaching. NJ: Merrill.

M . ( 1 9 9 9 ) . ) . S .6 0 ) . B e y o n d a n d r a g o g y : S o me e x p lo r a ti o n s f o r d is ta n c e l e a r n in g d e s ig n . P e r c e p ti o n s o f i n te r a c ti o n : T h e c r it i c a l p r e d ic to r i n d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . C . T h e o r e ti c a l p r in c ip le s o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n ( p p . . C . 2 2 . G a r r is o n . ( 1 9 9 3 ) . M . B o s to n : A ll y n a n d B a c o n . R . C . T o w a r d a b r o a d e r c o n c e p tu a li z a ti o n o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . C . ( 2 0 0 1 ) . T o w a r d a n u n d e r s ta n d in g o f a c a d e mi c s e lf c o n c e p ti o n d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . 7 ( 3 ) . & S h a le . & T r o ll i p . D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n s y m p o s iu m 3 : L e a r n e r s a n d l e a r n in g ( p p . I n C . P . F L : K r ie g e r . 8 0 . G ib s o n . ) . 1 0 ( 1 ) . 8 . U p p e r S a d d le R iv e r . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . I n te r a c ti v it y i n d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n t e le v is io n : A c o n s tr u c te d r e a li t y . B . . . D . G . J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n . ( 1 9 9 3 ) . B o s to n : H o u g h to n M if f li n . P A : T h e A me r ic a n C e n te r f o r t h e S tu d y o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n . M . D . G ib s o n ( E d . P . G r a b e . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . F u lf o r d . I n te g r a ti n g t e c h n o lo g y f o r m e a n in g fu l l e a r n in g . 5 . C . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n . & Z h a n g S .H il l . . F u lf o r d . ( E d . C o n n ic k . A . G . ( 1 9 9 2 ) .3 5 . . G il b e r t. B u il d in g i n te r a c ti v it y i n to w e b c o u r s e s : T o o ls f o r s o c ia l a n d i n s tr u c ti o n a l i n te r a c ti o n . W . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n . R . N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w . W .Instructional Planning 43 Bibliography A le s s i.3 6 . U n iv e r s it y P a r k . T h e M c G r a w .2 3 . M . ( 1 9 9 7 ) .9 2 ) . & Z h a n g S . L . T h e d is ta n c e l e a r n e r ’ s g u id e . G . B r ig g s . G a g n é . & H a n c o c k . N J : P r e n ti c e H a ll . ( 1 9 9 8 ) . ( 1 9 9 8 ) . M a la b a r . B u r g e . & G r a b e . T h o mp s o n . E d u c a ti o n a t a d is ta n c e : F r o m i s s u e s t o p r a c ti c e .H il l h a n d b o o k o f d is ta n c e l e a r n in g. ) . E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y . P r in c ip le s o f i n s tr u c ti o n a l d e s ig n . L . D . R . J . & W a lt e r . 2 9 . R . M u lt i m e d ia f o r l e a r n in g : M e th o d s a n d d e v e lo p m e n t. I n D . W . P . O x f o r d : P e r g a mo n . O r la n d o : H a r c o u r t B r a c e . C h u te . C . L . . & M o o r e . M . ( 1 9 8 8 ) .2 0 . ) . K e e g a n ( E d . 3 ( 1 ) . Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . S . C . G ib s o n . ( E d s . ( 1 9 9 9 ) . 5 2 . 3 8( 3 ) . C .

N . H il l m a n D . H . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . C . ( 2 0 0 0 ) . S . N J : M e r r il l . D . N J : E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y . N . ( 1 9 9 9 ) . 4 ( 1 ) . . I n B . . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . H . N e w Y o r k : S im o n S c h u s te r M a c mi l l a n . & W il l i s . M . N J : M e r r il l . Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University .4 3 7 ) . E n g lw o o d C li f f s . J o n a s s e n . M c I s a a c . 25-34. E d u c a ti o n a l c o m p u ti n g : L e a r n in g w it h t o m o r r o w ' s t e c h n o lo g ie s . M . W e b .8 0 ) . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . . U p p e r S a d d le R iv e r . A d u lt e d u c a ti o n : C o n te x t a n d c h a ll e n g e f o r d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . U n iv e r s it y P a r k . & G u n a w a r d e n a . G . O p e n L e a r n in g . J . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n . J o h n s o n . B o s to n : A ll y n a n d Bacon. .1 5 . H a y e s . G . L . K . L e a r n in g w it h t e c h n o lo g y : A c o n s tr u c ti v is t p e r s p e c ti v e .6 . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . & B r a n c h R . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . K a h n ( E d . & G u n a w a r d e n a . J . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n . D . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . ( 1 9 9 6 ) .Instructional Planning 44 G u s ta f s o n . P e c k . K . 3 0 . B . 5 ( 3 ) . D . U p p e r S a d d le R iv e r . M . ( 1 9 9 1 ) . H a n d b o o k o f r e s e a r c h f o r e d u c a ti o n a l c o m m u n ic a ti o n s a n d t e c h n o lo g y ( p p . M o o r e . W . H il l . . . & T h o mp s o n M . T h e e ff e c ts o f d is ta n c e l e a r n in g . D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . 1 0 . M o o r e . J o n a s s e n ( E d . C . D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n t h e o r y .4 2 . L o n d o n : C r o o m H e lm . W il l i s D . L . 8 ( 2 ) . N Y : I n f o r ma ti o n R e s o u r c e P u b li c a ti o n s . D . ) . C o m p u te r s a s m in d to o ls f o r s c h o o ls . D . 1 . D is ta n c e l e a r n in g e n v ir o n me n ts v ia t h e w o r ld w id e w e b . R . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . 4 0 3 . G . ( p p . . M . M o o r e . M . P A : A me r ic a n C e n te r f o r t h e S tu d y o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n . E . ) .b a s e d i n s tr u c ti o n . . G . K e e g a n . ) . S y r a c u s e . . H . ( 2 0 0 1 ) . J o n a s s e n . 5 ( 3 ) . F o u n d a ti o n s o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n ( 3r d e d . & W il s o n . C . J . M a d d u x . C . I n D . S u r v e y o f i n s tr u c ti o n a l d e s ig n m o d e ls . R e c e n t c o n tr ib u ti o n s t o t h e t h e o r y o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . H . L e a r n e r i n te r f a c e i n te r a c ti o n i n d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n : A n e x te n s io n o f c o n te mp o r a r y m o d e ls a n d s tr a te g ie s f o r p r a c ti t i o n e r s . 7 5 .

Vrasidas. & McIsaac. 13(3). C A : J o s s e y . A . 3 6 . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n . 22-36. S a b a . & D e v e lo p m e n t. B o s to n : A ll y n a n d B a c o n . R . L . A . R o w la n d . T e c h tr e n d s . M . ( 1 9 9 9 ) . S . W a s h in g to n . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . P e r fo r m a n c e I m p r o v e m e n t Q u a r te r ly . C r e a ti n g l e a r n in g . S a n F r a n c is c o . W . S . ( 1 9 9 6 ) .1 1 5 . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . T h e r o le o f c o n te x t i n l e a r n in g a n d i n s tr u c ti o n a l d e s ig n . C. I n te r a c ti v it y f r o m a g e n ts t o o u tc o me s . D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n t h e f o u n d a ti o n s o f e ff e c ti v e p r a c ti c e .1 3 .3 8 ) . & A n d e r s o n . ( 1 9 9 1 ) . F . S a n d e r s . E . Factors influencing interaction in an online course. . Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . . . C . G . P e te r s . R . 3 5 . & L o g a n . I n s u p p o r t o f a f u n c ti o n a l d e f in it i o n o f i n te r a c ti o n . 8 5 .8 6 . D . The American Journal of Distance Education.c e n te r e d c o u r s e s f o r t h e w o r ld w id e w e b . & S h e a r e r . I n D . T e c h tr e n d s . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . 8 ( 1 ) . W a g n e r . V e r if y in g k e y t h e o r e ti c a l c o n c e p ts i n a d y n a mi c m o d e l o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . 1 9 . W a g n e r . ( 1 9 9 8 ) . L o n d o n : Kogan Page. R . ) . E . M. C . D . S ma ld in o . T . W h a t d o i n s tr u c ti o n a l d e s ig n e r s a c tu a ll y d o ? A n i n it i a l i n v e s ti g a ti o n o f e x p e r t p r a c ti c e . ( 2 0 0 1 ) . 2 2 . V e r d u in . (1999). & C la r k .3 8 . 8 ( 2 ) . 4 3( 5 ) . D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n : R e v ie w o f t h e l i t e r a tu r e. T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n .5 9 . S c h lo s s e r .2 9 . 4 1( 6 ) . . ( 1 9 9 3 ) . R e s e a r c h . ( 1 9 9 2 ) . 5 ( 2 ) . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . T h e o r e ti c a l p r in c ip le s o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n ( p p . J . O .Instructional Planning 45 M o o r e . M . 9 . T h e o r y o f t r a n s a c ti o n a l d is ta n c e . G . E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y . . 4 5( 2 ) . S. ( 1 9 9 7 ) . K e e g a n ( E d .2 6 . 6 5 . N e w D ir e c ti o n s f o r T e a c h in g a n d L e a r n in g . C . G . T e s s me r M . 6 . L e a r n in g a n d t e a c h in g i n d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n : A n a ly s e s a n d i n te r p r e ta ti o n s f r o m a n i n te r n a ti o n a l p e r s p e c ti v e . I n te r a c ti o n s a t a d is ta n c e p o s s ib le b a r r ie r s a n d c o ll a b o r a ti v e s o lu ti o n s . & R ic h e y . I n s tr u c ti o n a l d e s ig n : F o r d is ta n c e l e a r n in g . : A s s o c ia ti o n f o r E d u c a ti o n a l C o mm u n ic a ti o n s a n d T e c h n o lo g y . R e p ma n J .B a s s .. 7 1( 3 ) . N e w Y o r k : R o u tl e d g e . D .

2 7 . B . B o s to n : A ll y n a n d B a c o n . B . .3 5 . N . 3 5( 2 ) . P . 3 2 . . Z h a n g S . 2 3 . : E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y . S e le c ti n g i n s tr u c ti o n a l s tr a te g ie s . A . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . ( 1 9 9 5 ) .c e n te r e d a p p r o a c h t o d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n .2 8 8 . L . 5 7( 3 ) . & M c C o mb s . E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y . D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n : A p r a c ti c a l g u id e . C . J . . E n g le w o o d C li f f s . & C r a n to n . T e c h tr e n d s . Copyright © 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . D is ta n c e d b u t n o t d is ta n c e d a l e a r n e r .Instructional Planning 46 W a g n e r . & W e ig h t.6 4 . W e s to n . . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . H . B . W il l i s . D . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . & F u lf o r d . 3 4( 6 ) 5 8 . L . A r e i n te r a c ti o n t i m e a n d p s y c h o lo g ic a l i n te r a c ti v it y t h e s a me t h in g i n t h e d is ta n c e l e a r n in g t e le v is io n c la s s r o o m? E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y . ( 1 9 9 3 ) . L e a r n e r c e n te r e d p s y c h o lo g ic a l p r in c ip le s i n p r a c ti c e : D e s ig n s f o r d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . T h e o n li n e t e a c h in g g u id e . W h it e . K . C . 4 1( 7 ) . J o u r n a l o f H ig h e r E d u c a ti o n . ( 2 0 0 0 ) . 2 5 9 . W o lc o tt . P . E . W .

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