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HUNTSVILLE, AL,48AMA

THE MERCURY- REDSTONE PROJECT

N67-37935
(ACCESSlO]_ NUMBER) (THI_U)

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._ (NASA CR

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(PAGES) ORI TMX On A;_ NUMBIEr/)

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(CATEGORy)

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SATURN/APOLLO

SYSTEMS

OFFICE

National

Aeronautics

and

Space

Administration

MSFC

-

Focm

454

(Revised

September

1961)

THE

MERCURY-REDSTONE

PROJECT

December

1964

SATURN/APOLLO SYSTEMS OFFICE GEORGE C. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA

FOR

E WOR

D

The

purpose but

of this report complete

was

to collect, the

into a single program

volume, for the the

a

concise United ficance launch

history'of

development vehicle and and

States'

first manned

launch

to identify

signimanned

of this program vehicles.

for the

design

operation

of future

The

report

was

prepared Company Marshall

by

the Apollo for the Space

Support

Department Systems NASA, has

of the Office

General of the Alabama. from cluded

Electric George The C.

SATURN/Apollo Flight Center,

Huntsville, been obtained are in-

information of a large

contained number and

in the

report reports,

reviews in the who

of project personal

which with

Bibliography, were part

interviews

technical team. launch Some ve-

personnel of the hicle Flight poration major were

of the MERCURY-REDSTONE to the MERCURY-REDSTONE Agency, of North

contributors the Army and

Ballistic Space Task

Missile Group Division

the Marshall Chrysler American

Space CorInc.

Center and

(both of NASA),

the Rocketdyne

Aviation,

The

report

was

prepared

by

the following

General

Electric

personnel:

F.

E.

Miller,

Engineer

J.

L.

Cassidy,

Engineer

J.

C.

Leveye,

Technical

Writer

R.

I. Johnson,

Project

Leader

The

project

was

directed

by:

Dr.

J.

P.

Kuettner,

Deputy

Director,

SATURN/Apollo

Systems Project)

Office,

MSFC

(formerly

Director,

Mercury-Redstone

ii

.

5 4.6 4.CONTRIBUTIONS 9.1 9.8 2-26 SECTION 9 .4 6.2 4.3 Introduction Automatic Reliability TEST Inflight Program PROGRAM 6-1 6-1 Tests Vibrations Development 6-11 6-17 6-22 Abort Sensing System 5-1 5-1 5-31 SECTION 6 DEVELOPMENT 6.2 9.5 9.2 5.6 OPERATIONS 7-1 and Countdown 7-6 7-35 7-42 Facilities Aspects and Displays 7-44 7-73 Prelaunch Preparation Launch Organization Emergency Range Special Egress Launch Safety Operations Meteorological TEST PI_.2 3.3 8. Fuel Dispersion 4-1 4-1 4-7 4-12 4-32 4-34 4-39 4-39 4-44 Initial Design Changes Later Modifications MAN.3 9_4 9.2 g.OGRT@i SECTION 8 .3 SECTION 4 VEHICLE 4.1 6.1 7.CHECKOUT 7.3 4.1 5.9 SECTION 5 Mission Flight Mission MISSION Objectives Trajectory Profile and Sequence of Events Page 3-1 3-3 3-5 DESCRIPTION Introduction Structure Propulsion System Network Telemetry.1 4.4 4.TABLE OF CONTENTS Title SECTION SECTION SECTION 1 2 3 S_iRY INTRODUCTION D_RCURY-REDSTONE 3.1 3.2 7.from LAUNCH VEHICLES Flight Testing Flights 8-i E-2 8-1.RATI NG 5.3 7.REFERENCES .2 6.FLIGHT $.] g.5 Introduction Vehicle Special Mass Booster AND Test Program Reliability of Recovery LAUNCH Dampening Inflight System SECTION 7 .3 6. (Destruct) and Television System Control System Electrical Power Communications.4 Introduction Development Manned Operational TO Flights Changes _%_D Resulting.7 4.8 4.6 Introduction Man-Rating Design Testing Operations Conclusion 9-1 9-1 9-5 9-7 9-8 9-6 iii SECTION I0 .5 7.4 7.

) MERCURY-REDSTONE Vehicle Attitude Angle of Attack 4-29 4-19 Effects of Yaw and Pitch Hardover on 4-30 (As a function of flight time. MR-4 Mission MR-4 Mission Axial Acceleration Typical Block Booster Exploded A-7 versus Time. 3-4 3-6 Flight Profile.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Title 1-1 The REDSTONE. MR-4 Mission 3-3 3-4 Boost. MERCURY-REDSTONE Mission Sequence Diagram Units View of MERCURY-REDSTONE 3-8 4-2 of Launch Vehicle Structure 4-3 4-8 Rocket Engine Diagram Diagram Engine Engine Starting Sequence Cutoff Sequence System Control 4-10 4-11 4-13 Pneumatic Details of Booster System 4-14 4-16 4-17 Mechanics Pulse of Tilting Program for Tilting LEV-3 Stabilizer System and Center of Pressure Program MERCURY-REDSTONE MERCURY-REDSTONE Location During MERCURY-REDSTONE T = 80 Seconds MERCURY-REDSTONE Station T --60 Seconds 4-18 Time Center of Gravity of Flight Flight Bending 4-22 Distribution 4-23 4-12 Moment 4-13 Relative Free-Free Velocity Amplitude Lateral versus versus Bending Missile Modes 4-24 4-25 Natural 4-26 4-14 4-15 Maximum Design Wind Altitude Bending MERCURY-REDSTONE Frequency versus MERCURY-REDSTONE Frequency versus MERCURY-REDSTONE Free-Free Flight Time Free-Free Flight Time Comparison Lateral 4-16 Longitudinal Natural 4-27 4-17 4-18 of Angle on Vehicle of Attack Angle versus Time 4-28 Effects of Pitch and Yaw Hardover (As a function of flight time. Launch Vehicles Dynamic Velocity Pressure During JUPITER-C. and MERCURY-REDSTONE 1-4 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-11 During Boost. ) iv .

L}ST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CONT.) Figure Title 4-20 4-21 4-22 4-23 4-24 4-25 5-1 MERCURY-REDSTONE Flight Time (Worst Electrical Antenna Fuel Power Locations Effect Case) Distribution of Roll Hardover at 8Q Second 4-31 4-33 4-36 Dispersion (Destruct) System Compound in Instrument Liftoff Automatic Inflight Compartment 4-40 4-46 Installation and Adapter Ground Block Abort Thrust Strap of Dampening Section Function just After 4-47 5-3 5-8 Diagram Sensing Buildup of MERCURY-REDSTONE System Abort Responsibility MERCURY-REDSTONE 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-10 5-11 5-12 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-16 6-1! 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8 MERCURY-REDSTONE Off-the-Pad Abort Preflight Inflight Attitude Attitude Attitude Attitude Attitude Control Chamber After Abort Liftoff Assignments Mission Booster versus Flight Time for Manned 5-11 5-12 5-13 up to Normal Schematic Schematic Block Circuit Engine Cutoff 5-14 5-15 5-16 5-20 5-22 5-24 Abort Abort Error Error Rate Rate Rate Voltage Pressure Network Network Sensor Sensor Switch Switch Switch Block Diagram Diagram Diagram Diagram 5-26 5-27 Circuit Electrical Schematic Detector Sensor 5-29 5-31 MERCURY-REDSTONE MERCURY-REDSTONE Flight Vertical Aft Section Location General General Environment Test Fixtures Summary Manned System of Thrust Flight Test Unit Awareness Flow Diagram Stamp 5-41 6-2 6-12 6-13 6-14 Test of Instrument Characteristics Characteristics Vibration Compartment of Vibration of Vibration Spectra for Vibration Measurements Measurements Transducers (901) (906) Vehicles 6-19 6-20 6-21 6-22 Longitudinal ME RCURY-REDSTONE .

Auxiliary Panel Propulsion Blockhouse Blockhouse Network 56 Blockhouse Console. 5. Control Auxiliary Panel. Room Pad 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 7-13 7-14 7-15 7-16 7-17 7-18 7-19 7-20 8-1 8-2 8-3 Cape on Level 3. Canaveral VLF 56 56 Pad 5 7-41 7-45 7-47 7-48 7-49 Structure. Service Service Blockhouse Room.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CONT. Blockhouse 56 Panel.UHF Radio MR-1 Network.) Figure 6-9 6-10 6-11 6-12 6-13 6-14 Title MERCURY-REDSTONE Deceleration Release Recovery Water Booster Parachute of Deceleration Parachutes Impact Recovery Package Flight Unreefed Sequence 6-25 6-26 Parachute and Deployment of Final 6-27 6-28 6-32 Penetration Fit of Sine Accelerations Drop Test Launch in Inches Curve Measured versus Time in Seconds Showing Close 6-35 6-15 Vertically Scheduling Launch Countdown on MERCURY-REDSTONE 6-36 7-3 Organization Status 7-6 7-12 7-37 7-39 Location Complex for 56. White Blockhouse Environmental Propulsion Over-all Generator Autopilot Test Capsule Recovery and Test and Rack. Diagram of Emergency MERCURY-REDSTONE Service White Design Remote Auxiliary Inverter Structure. Structure. Panel. During MERCURY-REDSTONE Liftoff Parachute Deployment of MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-1A Second Bending Mode MR-1A Flight Oscillations in Yaw vi . 56 and Structure.3 7-66 8-4 8-8 Toward end of 8-12 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 Site Checkout MERCURY-REDSTONE Bar Chart on Vehicle Egress (Cherry Emergency Mobile Tower Time Study Picker) Equipment Launches. Blockhouse 56 56 7-56 7-57 7-59 7-60 7-62 56 7-63 7-65 High Frequency 30. VLF Platform. 56 Service of Blast Control Deflector. Network Rescue Conductor's Radio and Blockhouse . VLF 56 7-51 7-55 Measuring Panels. Panel. VLF 56. 56 Panels.

) Fibre Liftoff of MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-3 MR-3 MR-3 MR-3 Title pa e 8-19 Configuration 8-20 8-22 Track and Profile Flight Profile 8-22 8-22 8-24 8-27 MR-3 Capsule Flight Ground MERCURY-REDSTONE (Capsule No. 7) 8-6 8-7 8-8 8-9 8-10 8-11 8-12 MERCURY-REDSTONE MERCURY-REDSTONE MERCURY-REDSTONE Liftoff Flight Acceleration MR-4 of MERCURY-REDSTONE Profile for Time MR-4 History Operations for Acceleration Chart MR-4 Flight 8-27 8-27 of Recovery vii .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CONT.

A .LIST OF TABLES Table Title 3-1 4-1 4-2 5-1 5-2 5-3 MERCURY-REDSTONE Electrical Power Supplies Mission Sequence of Events 3-7 4-32 MERCURY-REDSTONE Flight Failure Analysis Booster Flight Telemetry Propulsion Measurements System 4-37 5-5 5-6 of REDSTONE Abort Angles Parameters and Rates MERCURY-REDSTONE REDSTONE Attitude Ballistic Trajectory During a Normal 5-7 Rate 5-34 5-34 5-4 Abort Sensing System Reliability Switches. Attitude Error Sensors.B Combustion 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-8 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 7-1 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 Prediction Prediction 5-36 5-36 Components 5-38 6-4 6-16 6-17 6-19 on MERCURY-REDSTONE Static Firing and Vibration System Test Propulsion Tail Flight Section Results Vibration MERCURY-REDSTONE Summary MR-1 of the Rules and Scrub Flight Priority Test Program List 7-8 8-1 8-6 MERCURY-REDSTONE of Events Priority Parameters List for Sequence MERCURY-REDSTONE Comparison of Flight of Weak MR-3 Spots and MR-4 Spacecraft 8-15 8-25 viii . Abort Sensing System Reliability Chamber Pressure Sensors MERCURY-REDSTONE MERCURY-REDSTONE Evaluation Sound of Flight Data During Test Results Measurements Mission Reliability Reliability Test Plan A for Attitude and Voltage Detectors Test Plan B for .

for the premature spacecraft mission within termination. launch to the MERCURY-REDSTONE in that presently it developed in use must still or be a continuing significance which are still for manned applicable Such vehicles systems to problems for each later planned for development. for current to manned In addition.CURY-REDSTONE to be learned summarized. • Automatic 1-1 . Section 9 summarizes launch specific vehicle the vehicles major in the contributions areas were of the MERCURY-REDSTONE design. developed include with which the equipments programs. REDSTONE approximately Project solutions those has United after of the vehicle.the years but complete States' the last development first flight manned history launch of the vehicle.SECTION SUMMARY 1 1. the launch pad • • Abort "White service impact Room" predictor enclosing structure. are still testing. Inflight abort sensing system. egress rescue launch These operations following: aerial tower and an armored Emergency emergency a mobile vehicle. extensive special developments and test investigation of a booster covery system. are are provided The by MER. the MERCURYAt this time. manned • of man-rating. system: ready for questions as the following answered • • • new manned When is a vehicle manned in the flight? event of a failure ? efforts on relia- How do we save How do we instill bility and safety the astronaut an awareness to each for of the significance in the safety integrate points of their program? event individual ground involved • • How do we provide How do we coordinate persed engineering personnel in the the of a failure of widely dis- ? and groups technically with differing efforts ? of view The this project gram answers report. as the first from the to these failures questions as well are as the described success in the in of the prore- lessons and such identified presented In addition.1 This GENERAL report presents Project three a brief . applicable and Project operations.

operations. • • Study Use communications reactions and capsule. space flight. on a duration The mission • objectives Familiarize a. hazardous than orbital flights. flight (for a period of approximately 5 minutes).• • Range safety destruct weather procedures survey and implementation. during during flight. e. and a reference. the testing. Powered Weightless Re-entry. • Evaluate a. d. of the checkout flight mission. Liftoff. in a series The payload guideline were: of design for changes and of the modifications REDSTONE • • • conversion and operations to a manned Safety. Landing. space during. flights Suborbital capsule flights during its provided return an excellent from orbit simulation even though of the their accelerations was imposed not as great. c. b. man's for man the MERCURY-REDSTONE but complete launch space vehicle were as follows: including: with a brief flight experience flight. man's the physiological astronaut Recover The adaptation of the based design tactical on ground missile and was flight made tests. of voice manual attitude b. Prelaunch techniques. and launch the vehicle design. MERCURYthe following: REDSTONE • • an opportunity design. ability to perform control as a functional of capsule unit during before. flight man-rating development As a prelude provided operations. Acceptable No marginal human factors. flight and by: Demonstrating after retrofire. subjected out and evaluate systems of an astronaut and booster and recovery less to brief periods of space flight (weight- accelerations). 1-2 . report present descriptions testing. performance. Other the sections of this program. missions Spacecraft Reactions lessness • • Launch Manned to an orbital to check program.

eliminated stabilized pressurized between instrumentation aft unit and container inflight were compartment. bracket. program. ered in greater provisions in man-rating in the report. stud. Modification after Flight Tests. REDESIGN was necessary and to adapt additions and the the REDSTONE the new to the launch as major MERCURY vehicle mission. Modification after Ground Tests. in the An antenna mounting 1-3 . booster's listed that above astronaut many to the extent abort was necessary. 1. Addition emergency of an automatic egress operations incorporated more Utilization of alcohol These detail were later as a fuel the major in lieu of the JUPITER-C. JUPITER-C following of the from shown areas in Figure were redesign considered: tanks. was the a total of over The reliability 800 changes major changes were made before plus the MERCURY-REDSTONE minor never changes Project increased completed. dis1-1. c. abort sensing system at the toxic Hydine and to the launch used are in cov- No separation Safety: and • Crew booster site.5 • Simplicity: a.3 During These MODIFICATION the vibration AFTER test GROUND several TESTS components failed or were damaged. included: • • • • • An engine An H202 The Wires abort piping bottle rate elbow. In all.2 A basic The Basic Redesign. new changes: (LEV-3 autopilot). Installed platform b. in- Increased creasing Performance: nominal engine Elongation burning of three control time major system REDSTONE 123.The implementation of the above guidelines was carried out in three major phases: • • • 1. switch roll rate mounting switch. Installed Consisted simple (ST-80). bracket.5 propellant seconds. To BASIC redesign required modifications from basic both the made physically tinguishable carry out the • REDSTONE program. section. to 143.

69.08' REDSTONE I JUPITER-C i 1 _ Figure i-1. JUPITER-C.90' 32. Launch Vehicles and MERCURY-REDSTONE 1-4 . The REDSTONE.

error due to excessive caused pivot torque on the LEV-3 an excess longitudinal cutoff of five accelerometer of 80 meters electrical to the was per leads MR-1A Use to experience of softer wire second. the The A-7 success engine of the was modifications extensive discovered Tracking of the testing. MR-BD. rate abort sensor was deleted MR-BD. of the addition The second bending mode filter noted with to reduce on flights the yaw control MR-1A and pitch loop and axis gain MR-2. chamber capability capability take • care as possible. • A scale integrating velocity of eight • factor discovered launch AFTER during attempt FLIGHT the flight proved were TESTS test program need for led to the following ground-negative Thus. Modification 1. abort roll second). these the new. solved and relocation the problem. of 10 degrees retained. was solution. of earlier set switches to the depletion c Velocity cutoff arming was predicted keeping cutoff velocity. firings combustion holes proved instability to be the to occur down static the test at 500 cps. the roll limit rates approximately since the that was of REDSTONE not after subject (8 vs 4 degrees to damage The at this roll angle however. Since firings. velocity mode (fuel LOX depletion To prevent cutoff arming a and arming) to take • The 0. thus a time-based These use later engine flights cutoff timer cutoff As a backup at 143 seconds proved was the integrating employed accelerometer functioned of the discontinued. as long of a high MR-1A. control of a network interaction was between 1-5 . depletion advanced while fuel to 131 seconds depletion pressure early than arming abort enough to at 135 seconds. fix. the combustion but removing consumption this rate. a one until foot ground modifications: all other strap was the connections separated. Pc causing switches.Similar proved test problems the value were occurred of total made. aecelerometer on MR-2 and properly. Enlarging injector of another low frequency of the test oscillation tower eventually removed this led to a study trouble.4 Problem MODIFICATION areas • MR-1 electrical added. MR-BD experienced per rate. thrust second controller before on MR-2 deactivation on the P failed of the remaining wide-open abort flights. source tower.5 similar switching were care was occurrence of the separated. in other system During components. propellant and Flights twice vehicle was MR-2. • An interaction required 6 and the 10 cps.

Since Astronaut Shepardstill noted considerable vibrations during boost on MR-3.8 powered only successful motion and of the spaceInvestigation gave stand a pre- mainstage vehicle plug vertically subsequently circuit" The inches.5 The Only ranted intervals Grissom's ing this the were path FLIGHT PROGRAM REVIEW Program flights of the were last the was originally as the flights." tests. were addedto the instrument conpartment of MR-4 1. and was launched Its on 21 November primary mission MERCURY-REDSTONE hours the EST. MR-2. the scheduled success for eight of the flight tests. only 3. flights took failures place. ing a velocity craft. proved Durand flights to be only nine period the flight. increased The final MERCURY-REDSTONE (MR-l. electrical the following line changes was were incorporated: to eliminate the "sneak ground provided 1-6 . two planned interval months capability Only program came cancellation of about flight. an additional 102pounds of the dampeningcompound. two manned (MR-3 1.Flights MR-1A. MR-BD). MR-l. (now sensing Cape system mission. X-306. through booster The ground on its network launch after booster deactivated. Program and included and the following flights: operational Four develand opmental MR-4). the two manned however. revealed mature having After that booster risen of Mach ignition a "sneak cutoff.0 and at Cape inflight at 0859 to qualify Canaveral abort Kennedy). On MR-3 these were dampenedwith 340 poundsof a lead impregnated rubber compoundaddedto the bulkhead and walls of the section. and The the Spacecraft-launch included obtain- vehicle combination MERCURY during ballistic boost a short the settled control back was mission separation occurred. warat MERCURY-REDSTONE six of the the planned attempted. and MR-BD indicated excessive adapter section vibrations. (21 November of placing the first two relatively charted in space orbital MERCURY-REDSTONE caused this number originally to four to be unmanned. Fourteen longitudinal stiffeners were also addedto the internal skin surface.6 The 1960. was MR-1 first MISSION flight vehicle. Succeeding first launch 1960 man flights attempt to 21 July was two months. automatic for the 6. MR-1A. MR-2. covering short to full intended before from to Astronaut 1961). As a result • of extensive A followup circuit.

integrating caused to be higher re-entry margin capsule ratio the effect. of the the escape rocket. in the velocity than expected MR-I. levels. the second MERCURY-REDSTONE The launch was velocity occurred slightly launch at comwas Due to problems to repeat 1115 EST the its designation The successful gyro. exlevel resulted in a LOX depletion before the normal cutoff chamber An additional Because perienced the impulse retro the capsule not fire in the by the abort firing mode. to operate of the In the A malat a follow- MERCURY-REDSTONE six weeks between of the thrust launches. measured abort mained maximum tolerable 1. rockets capsule high deceleration during re-entry. of propellant than with the the value abort below A higher remained. predicted system the mixture rate between "popgun Separation because functioning capsule greater mission re- of the lV[R-1A as expected. changes the direct at 1145 were engine cause EST. pressure was decayed. very to the right-hand impact established 1-7 .An "engine pressure switch-missile program device permission circuit" was incorporated to insure reaction to an authentic cutoff signal just prior to 135 seconds after liftoff. function higher chamber level than controller This on MR-2 malfunction caused was the ing factors: • The circuit • • • When higher was the thrust armed." All to experience was experienced. During steep aziby two flights caused (MR-1 the missile was MR-1A). with hence 1960. 1. was and launched third on 31 January several 1961. and maximum but a safe booster completed parameters was its deceleration. limit of 105 degrees range. These the first factors combined to cause and the capsule Range over to impact Safety beyond noted for that the target area. made. given did an abort signal occurred. to remain close the REDSTONE's and line that the trajectory muth the land too long safety.8 MR-2 MISSION MR-2 the second pressure expected. the MR-1A. launch causing on 19 December by a malfunction This higher of MR-1A cutoff promised than normal.7 MR-1A MISSION encountered first mission.

cated flights. that reduced The second changes oscillations mode amplitudes incorporated and frequencies were that the only control vibrations again proper angular perienced compound. booster evidence ther test. excepting recovery. the MR-2 data Shepard to the No This fur- MERCURY-REDSTONE aboard. entered the Astronaut worked As Grissom properly a result and vibracomEST. the corrective integrating were measures successful. in the and at 1230 booster which EST. in reducing proper of those dampening the velocity.I. off at 0934 MR-3 was EST MISSION the on first 5 May and no manned 1961. their This adapter MISSION was launched on 24 March 1961. 9 The The the MR-BD booster fourth MR-2 (BOOSTER development DEVELOPMENT) missile (MR-BD) evaluated vehicle bending but test. MERCURY-REDSTONE accomplished. prior to the additional next flight. flight indi- astronaut levels powered of the telemetry vibration However. during Program flight. the manned were suborbital achieved. 1. of the milestones of the MERCURY-REDSTONE Project is presented 1-8 . 1.10 MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-3. All With missions malfunction system was after but Astronaut assigned occurred. after assured in the ex- MERCURY-REDSTONE flight test cutoff. system control flight. MR-2 stiffeners flight one-half filter. instrument than previous MERCURY-REDSTONE dampening material was added vibrations. indicated proved additional The success flight partment ended had the been of MR-4 program. added July first 1961. noted. of Concluding in the and the all second mission escape its capsule malfunction the capacity capsule increased tion data weight of the dampening helicopter.11 MR-4 MISSION the MERCURY-REDSTONE successful objectives hatch beyond that effective. recovery material on 21 The was MR-4 Again capsule water all carrying systems recovery. of "man-into-space" A compilation below. step to the at Improved instrument 0720 hours. tude cating velocity velocity in the and appeared measurements. to the proved The MR-3 were lifted successfully bending accomplished mode feedback filter of second the in the network during those effectiveness reported were to lower compartment of the buffeting lower these incorporated flight. indicated section gyro in the The were gave effective cutoff at the ampliindi- of the that oscillations.

Canaveral. was assigned The Army Ballistic began production Project. an element of AOMC. informed AOMC was to proceed officially with (AOMC) met. MERCURY assigned manned-satellite 1959 January 8 NASA funded AOMC for 8 Redstones. NACA and DOD's Army a Joint Manned Satellite Group. 2.1. from Spacecraft 2 arrived at Cape 1-9 . and and 3 Jupiter missiles October November November an 8 Redstone to the missile program. Langley AeronautiNACA to con- September Research Projects Panel to formulate Agency (ARPA) established the plans of the Working October The plans of the Panel for a Manned Satellite Program were approved by the Director of ARPA and the Administrator of NASA (NACA became NASA on 1 October 1958). arrived at ABMA for July 1 20 August 3 The MERCURY-REDSTONE Project ABMA to the Marshall Space Flight MR-1 MR-1 underwent and a similar flight test was officially Center (MSFC) at MSFC. transferred of NASA. scheduling of the MERCURY-REDSTONE Project priority MERCURY rating. and booster compatibility tests. 3 26 NASA Project program. the first MERCURY capsule. The joint working group and panel then became the Space Task Group and began operations at the Langley Research Center. nation's highest 1960 January 7 The first MERCURY-REDSTONE at ABMA. Agency (ABMA). from personnel of the Propulsion Laboratory. 6 NASA and the Army Ordnance Missile Command AOMC tentatively agreed to supply 10 Redstone for the program. MR-1 receipt completed its checkout of the first MERCURY booster MR-1 was static test fired February and test program capsule. " the Missile planning and April 27 a "DX Rating. and was stored pending June 30 Spacecraft checkout No.12 1958 June MILESTONES OF THE MERCURY-REDSTONE PROJECT A Working Group was formed cal Laboratory and the Lewis sider a man-in-space program.

providing the first flight test of the MERCURY-REDSTONE. The MERCURY-REDSTONEProgram was phasedout. proving the flight worthiness of the booster design improvements. was successfully launchedaboard Flight MR-4. MR-1 failed during launch. The second man in space. carrying the 37-poundchimpanzee "Ham" into space.August 22 Erection of MR-1 was completed. Flight MR-3 successfully carried Astronaut Shepardin the planned ballistic trajectory. 1961 January 31 February March 24 Flight MR-2 (Booster MR-2 andCapsule5) was successfully launched. This flight also provided testing of the emergency egress tower andother emergency rescue ground equipments. November 21 After a third mating of the spacecraft. The decision was madeto make oneadditional booster development(BD) flight before attempting a mannedflight. he thus becamethe United States' first man in space. May 5 July 21 September 1-10 . A ground support cable connection causedpremature shutdown. MR-1 was re-erected andthe capsule mated. December19 MR-1A was successfully launched. Flight MR-BD was a successful launch. Astronaut Grissom. September26 After storage to avoid a hurricane.

noise. the relatively small quantity of propellant on these aircraft and their ability to maintain flight without propulsion indicated that the REDSTONEengineers would be required to resolve significant new problems including the following: • High explosive yield of propellants. Abort parameter limits to maximize safety without jeopardizing mission reliability. the items of greatest technical importance which may be useful for succeedingprograms is so dispersed among many technical reports that they are retained in a single location only in the memory of a few key project personnel. then. • Acceleration. However.for its mannedpayload. On-pad emergency egress of the astronaut. however. the REDSTONE. X-2. Abort sensing and implementation procedures. andX-15). • • • • • Safety for ground personnel and facilities. which points outuniquefeatures of the MERCURY-REDSTONE Project. and vibration environments. It is hopedthat this report. is to review the MERCURY-REDSTONEProject emphasizing the problems encountered. The purpose of this report. the MERCURYREDSTONEProject team encountered an entirely new scope of design problems in modifying an existing vehicle. greater tribute to the project is the fact that many of the basic solutions developedin the modification of the REDSTONEfor manned flight are valid for present andfuture launch vehicles (as evidenced by their use in the SATURN/APOLLO Program). During this brief time.SECTION2 INTRODUCTION The development modification of the first launch vehicle suitable for a mannedpayload was accomplished in less than two years. Rocket propulsion systems hadpreviously beenutilized in mannedaircraft such as the German ME-163 and the American X-series of research vehicles (X-I. suchas the recoverable booster tests as well as the failures and successes of the flight andground test programs. The short development time required and the success of the two mannedflights (the fifth and sixth launches of the series) are an indication of the dedication andcompetence which was applied to this task. X-1A. Water recovery of the payload. Often. will serve as a focal 2-1 . their resolutions and their implications and applicability to future mannedlaunch vehicles.

The first launch of a REDSTONEmissile took place on 20 August 1953. The vehicle hadto have both the reliability and performance to place a manned. the A-7. however. The second. By early 1959. an advancedmodel (Block If) of thetactical missile. This extendedperformance booster stage was coupledwith upper stages of scaled Sergeant solid propellant motors. Sincethe Block II REDSTONE. It is interesting to note that by the time of the first mannedlaunch (MR-3). the basic missile hadundergone several development changesand improvements in its design andperformance. and alcohol and LOX as propellants.a tactical surface-to-surface missile had beenunder development and testing for several years prior to its utilization in the MERCURYProgram. the configuration selected coupled the Model A-7 engine andpropellants of the Block II model with the enlarged capacity tanks of the JUPITER-C. was a multistage vehicle utilizing increased capacity tanks compared to the REDSTONE. These requirements narrowed the choice to launch vehicles which had already been developedfor a military mission. two versions of the REDSTONEdesign existed. More detailed information than could be included in this brief report can be obtainedfrom the reports listed in the References. the performance required of a launch vehicle neededfor the first phase of the manned-flight program was determined. the total reliability of all 69 previous REDSTONEflights was 81 percent. the vehicle had to be available in time to support the desired flight schedule.point for guidance of future mannedsystems project engineers.the Model A-5 engine.the most advancedand reliable version could not meet the MERCURYperformance requirements. In addition. A four stage version of the JUPITER-C placedEXPLORER I. 40 percent diethylene triamine) and LOX as propellants. During this interim. into orbit. Section3 of this report presents a discussion of the mission and launch vehicle selection. the Block II model had achieved 11 consecutive successesand the JUPITER-C had achievedseven consecutive successes. At the time of its selection in January 1959for the MERCURY Program. two-ton payload safely into a suborbital trajectory in which at least 5 minutes of weightlessness would be experienced and an apogeeof at least 100nautical miles would be attained. utilized an improved engine. which served as sources for the information presented here. the free worldts first satellite. 2-2 . The first. andthe more toxic Hydine (60 percent UDMH. the JUPITER-C. almost 8 years prior to the first mannedMERCURY-REDSTONElaunch on 5 May 1961. The REDSTONE.

mission Corporation changes panels are the REDSTONE panels capsule. satisfied the basic MERCURY Program require- ments for the suborbital flightwith regard to both performance ever. Although program there and were design hardware concepts changes during the major development alteration. the MERCURYmodifying. design and operational used of these that they so successful main agency in implementing for technical coordination in the SATURN/APOLLO Program today.it did not incorpo- rate safety features which would prevent the loss of an astronaut in the event of a mission failure. MERCURY At ABMA Program.The REDSTONE. and preCoordinamanufacturer the three established the specific to aid in redesigning. necessary for its use as a payload carrier. The modification of the vehicle design and launch operations and the development manned REDSTONE man-rating. constitute the major Program to manned technical contributions of the MERCURYThis development. involved were set and to meet up between STG and MERCURY Aircraft objectives. even though the vehicle had demonstrated and availability. between proved still the McDonnell MSFC to coordinate The operation integration design in the program. referred to as launch vehicles. • • • of new quality control and test procedures. Satisfactory operation within human-factors Adequate performance margins tolerances. was accomplished the the by the joint participation Division of the of the Marshall Army then with Development Space Task Operations Group Agency (ABMA) (STG)of the National Program Aeronautics management REDSTONE paring tion of the agencies Administration by the was Space (NASA) Task in the Group. tests. for mission reliability. (MAC). How- a high reliability. had as its three major guidelines: Safety during launch. 2-3 . the basic man-rating did not require The MERCURY-REDSTONE Space Ballistic and was Project Flight Missile Space directed Office Center mission (MSFC). The three actual phases • • • adaption and are of the treated vehicle and its operations in this report: for manned flight took place in separately prior Preliminary Modifications Modifications modification after after ground flight to application. as modified above. tests.

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nitrogen greater required addition of a seventh high-pressure 3-1 . two-ton required The vehicle of By early a launch had safely utes phase of the to have into reliability trajectory would performance of 100 nautical a manned. satisfactory operation from a human-factors performance margins. flight schedule the it would orbital to be available with the had ATLAS already in time booster. and JUPITER-C the first vehicle satellite. to launch vehicles which developed At this Missile a tactical reliability. satisfiedthe basic However. structure. the suborbital requirements of availabilityand performance. vehicle both OBJECTIVES several needed the decisions for the were first and made in regard manned to place miles In addition. and adequate To meet essary. gave the use of the elongated JUPITER-C launch vehicle tanks was necengine MERCURY-REDSTONE 20 seconds the more than a nominal of 143. This development. standpoint. the MERCURY JUPITER-C REDSTONE vehicle.5 burning seconds. apogee payload 5 min- a suborbital in which have at least of weightlessness to support These the be experienced. the Army of the Ballistic JUPITER-C a record an advanced 50 successful REDSTONE. burning This performance These time tanks requirements. its howand been the used refor I. time the original REDSTONE vehicle. during launch. been desired flights requirements for a military narrowed mission.1 MISSION 1959. did not incorporate all the necessary for itsuse as a manned safety features. ever. in its JUPITER-C modification. the mission a lighter launch States requirements. studies for placing United EXPLORER Therefore. of the choice later to the flight performance program. and further adaptawhich safety tion was necessary is sometimes launch vehicle. had as its three major guidelines: referred to as man-rating. military The verifying REDSTONE elongated could propellant The not meet tanks. missile original had for JUPITER-C The with missiles was of over were available from version flights. had conducting into orbit. Agency two surplus (ABMA). quired time. the JUPITER-C performance re-entry MERCURY.SECTION3 MERCURY-REDSTONEMISSION 3.

a program of the highest quality MERCURY. alcohol was chosen as for fuel.tank the to pressurize engine turbopump. the larger fuel tank and an auxiliary hydrogen peroxide tank topower To decrease the complexity for the basic MERCURY-REDSTONE three changes were made: • The REDSTONE for and stabilized vehicle met the guidance. mission. vehicle separa- adapter. of the to become To compensate unstable for in the this supersonic approximately of ballast after instability. use in Hence. supplied interface by including the spacecraft the arrangement simplified coordination. because diethyltriamine of alcohol and was (UDETA) considered higher However. to provide spacecraft contractor. To provide to the for maximum vehicle These crew and factors safety. The MERCURY-REDSTONE Because of the was aerodynamically payload less characteristics stable than and the the standard elongated tanks. • The were sion. guidance platform The (ST-80) LEV-3 was system of the replaced was by less the LEV-3 more autopilot reliable. guidance. containing attached separated the pressurized to the with the center payload instrument tank compartment In the terminal launch This and tactical adapter ver- permanently this unit spacecraft was the assembly. aft complex. to be with undesirable the jet con- selection time jet of alcohol caused vanes ledto greater a problem erosion the was extended initiated burning to select of these for vanes. For the ance. an an automatic egress inflight operation abort-sensing was established system for the was the added launch launch emergency primary complex. • A short tion plane. bending configuration MERCURY-REDSTONE . greater Although perform- JUPITER-C its manned vanes toxicity flights. requirements MERCURY-REDSTONE unit. Changes The 3-2 were also necessary and payload because changes of the reduced decreased the lateral bending frequencies. for trol the MERCURY-REDSTONE had was used launch unsymmetrical than the that vehicle. were considerations in man-rating REDSTONE. the unique was MERCURY-REDSTONE 88 were seconds expected liftoff. added forward instrument compartment. region 687 pounds REDSTONE.

all phases decay upper respect of flight including buildup subsequent atmosphere to the pressure. Dynamic Pressure I 100 Time/Seconds During Boost. MERCURY-REDSTONE mission. to prevent and the feedback. were also performance in the calcuat predicted lations launch dinal the booster the thrust liftoff derived and system. MR-4 Mission 3-3 150 . sus and time 3-3 for references are the typical were vertical. 6O0 500 ¢q 400 ! 300 200 100 I 5O Elapsed Figure 3-1. 3-1. As a result. testing. ver- from expected made for with All attitude 3-2.2 The FLIGHT trajectory for were after forces TRAJECTORY for the MERCURY-REDSTONE vehicle's available during the the modified during final mission propulsion was based on the Included thrust shutdown.frequencies resonance bending to one-fourth problems mode had those experienced during both by the ground control standard and flight REDSTONE. and Figures acceleration curves dynamic velocity. second appeared to be filtered out of the system 3. to engine winds launch Longituincluded.

23 Sec 4 Deployment 2 -- / Retrofire Main Parachute I 0 2 i _i 4 6 Time Jl 8 . g Units 3-2.Minutes Time. MR-4 Mission 12 B 10 Re-entry 8 LaunchVehicle Cutoff 6 2 Min. Axial Acceleration versus Mission .7000 I 6000 r 5000 4000 i 3000 En > 2000 ine Cutoff i000 I 0 50 100 150 200 I 250 Elapsed Time/Seconds Figure Acceleration. MR-4 I 10 I 12 I 14 Figure 3-4 3-3. Velocity During Boost.

prevented acceleromfor and subabort escape occurred At 131 seconds seconds off-nominal the same thus before the velocity nominal cutoff cutoff twelve or for For to allow ratio than early nominal performance depletion. path. or control included considerations design with involved to the trajectory land program time over The vehicle's liftoff system flight and was mission path remained over the Cape area for for the safety.) mission launched at 100 degrees Section 3.3. MR-1A 8. 41. grs. could was an engine This At 129. The later to 102 degrees azimuth. reducing for ground probability and of an early equipment. several important was booster activated range sequencing permitting safety points automatic officer are indicated. launch earth-fixed cutoff at engine velocity 200. folthe lowing abort presented a difficult to shut situation down the range not permitted abort resulting engine. engine initiate cutoff Thirty prior secto shut- liftoff a circuit time. propellant reasons. Prior to this only the the normal tower. injection The MERCURY-REDSTONE flight was at a nominal. down. and pressure deactivation of the early to at 137. the of north This MR-4 launch from was no other along the flight launch.3 of 6500 feet. were at 135 seconds. in a hazardous condition personnel Range trajectory made azimuth was safety considerations The standpoint changed also original that played azimuth an important selection pads were after (See the role of the in determining 105 degrees east the specified was limits. thus first thirty During seconds this the time. early eter higher sequent switches Both occur times profile.Many which aerodynamic could have studies some were undertaken influence Other to ascertain on the shaping were respect the normal of the loads trajectory with on the vehicle immediate design. the mixture chamber propellant deactivated pressure cutoff. Cape These area.5 jettisoning was armed.5 were but as a result all subsequent of MR-2. number in a subThe 6. degrees. seconds of the This shutdown circuitry armed. switch preventing were shutdown 3-4 an abort originally at normal scheduled the cutoff activation seconds. after 3-1.3 The orbital angle MISSION PROFILE AND SEQUENCE profile OF EVENTS injected the MERCURY feet and per Mach capsule second.000 was 6. Figure a typical 3-5 . shows indicated flight selected for flights. the tilt of vehicle shapin the structural ing.80 altitude cutoff maximum acceleration In Table onds abort.

Q M I O 0 # I C_ _2 3-6 .

and-4) by abort system Time After Liftoff 0 24.5 integrator arrest fuel depletion cutoff circuit (chamber pressure sensing switches changed to fuel depletion mode) cutoff time (initiated by velocity system integrator) Nominal Escape tower deactivation Capsule Nominal Nominal Nominal Nominal Booster Capsule separation and abort separation maximum maximum capsule capsule impact impact altitude altitude re-entry.5 143.5 the abort system before was capsule deactivated separation. and -2) -3.At shutdown tisoned.0 Cutoff +9.5 131. diagram (143 This seconds). main (MR-3 (MR-3 (booster) (capsule) maximum deceleration 308.0 618. (MR-BD.7 309.0 (Seconds) pressurization (MR-BD to capsule cutoff circuit only) for 8 seconds Special Arm Arm Tilt Arm arrest circuit 78 129.0 674.0 142.3 15.7 135. engine cutoff -IA.0 30. and the escape 3-5 tower jet- occurred seconds Figure is a block of the MERCURY-REDSTONE mission sequence.0 parachute only) only) unreeled 3-7 . 9.0 70.0 922.0 131.1 492. Table MERCURY-REDSTONE 3-1 Sequence of Events Mission Event Liftoff Begin Arm Stop tilt program circuit fuel tank tilt cutoff velocity program for (MR-l.

Pilot Ready Firing Signal I t [ Booster I Cutoff I i.. i I imps. Block Diagram of MERCURY-REDSTONE Mission Sequence 3-8 . I or Emergency Chute Deploy I Mission Alternative Procedures Figure 3-5.6 t I i Abort ! ! [ Booster Operation I -* Signal I I t I I Capsule Separation I I I Escape '--'_--I I Jetti son Retropack ! Rocket I I -1 I I _ire I _*_°" I I Capsule Posigrade Separation Fire Rocket ] I [ ! ! t Capsule Orientation I I Tower Separation I | I [ C°astPhase I I ! Astronaut Maneuvers I Automatic Damping Control Rate II Automatic Retrograde Programming Manual Control to Retroattitude I I t_ I I Mission Re-entry Automatic and Control Damping I Drogue Chute Deplo_ ] LEGEND Normal Abort L _nC_u_oOo_Xo.

unit was fasteners 4-1 . shows in an exploded of safety on the propellant The structural • • • • • • weights Aft Section Center Tail Ballast Dampening Blast were: 437. 4. 4.2. MERCURY These units booster and the was made up from contained several within booster them systems described section. aft and tail factor units. forward tail or container container unit with unit by 12 fasteners in compression. thrust CENTER load The was SECTION transmitted center from section the was engine to the center section this carried by a four-strut load to the from aft the skin of the designed The to transmit a name center to the unit without tactical six stringers was or pressurization.6 487 Compound 442 15 lb lb lb lb lb lb Section Section Shield With airborne equipment installed.2.35 constructed design 4-2 with the with 5052 aluminum longerons alloy for using a semisupport The monocoque in the design a ring stringer structure tanks.2 STRUC TURE 4.38-foot shown length in Figure in this of the 4-1.2 The frame.1 The INTRODUCTION over-all units. end of the attached over version.SECTION 4 VEHIC LE DESCRIPTION 4.4 1659 902. the total booster dryweight was 8195 pounds. additional view.1 The basic GENERAL vehicle skin was and primarily frame Figure was 1. attached to the The aft unit. in tension. are 83.

64" Section Aft Section -W-53.i -X Axis 0 Escape Rocket and Tower N L. Booster Units .RS Instrument LA S1_ |Ui Compartment 3 1 Aft Unit Cable Conduit T RE( El' f-.I MERCURY Capsule X-Axis Zero Sta 15" P.66" A 42:16" _¢30 AU1 BAI .._ t A +X Axis Figure 4-2 4-1.OL II Fuel Tank li ) Oxidizer Ta_ Center Section [ -Z Fin I Power Unit r|ill d 11 - 16. fl"_-i_t \\ _ Rocket Fins Engine Rudders Jet Vanes At t__.""ql l_f-|1 |1 18. Unit /._)_ Tail _ /_ ___ .00' II II II ux II II II II II q I! il +Y __ Positiy I +Z View A-A I .83' 59.8' 37 50' || Au:OI..r 8 Separation Adapter Ring Ballast Thrust Unit 139.

_ o Alcohol / Tank Center Umt Instrument Compartment .Aft Unit __ /_/_ _/_/'_.

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Exploded Vehicle View Structure of Launch _/4-4 ..d Oxygen Tank / _ Rocket Engine Tail Unit Carbon Vanes Jet (4) l Air Rudders (4) Figure 4-2.

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66 section the 139. 3.2. LOX tank and feed which through the LOX tank. above aft section. was vented volume 18. The containing section and was 53.Skin 0.3 Forward the ment was nas center AFT of the SECTION container aft section.3 psi for during a minidirection. associated in the compartment system. compartment temperature 10°and Temperature the missile was drop-off controlled plate.6 psid pressure) in the was to oxidizer direction fuel tank oxidizer 90 psid. 125 inch the fuel on the line. buckling. nominal 4. Nominal fuel oxidizer was 3348 was 19. oxidizer psig. cooling 40 ° C.64--inch-long in length. by removing regulating the air from the instrument of this air compartment by means through of a cooling temperature 4-5 . The flight.063 tail inch unit.5 at was pressure vented aft bulkhead Nominal volume pressure psig. without of 95 psid also withstand of the (differential 55. on the Glass passed fuel wool tank. bulkheads 0. gallons. ballast the compartment. 3072 gallons. was used to in- LOX tank. generated required between During 12 and preflight 15 psia during the flight by a checkout. 080 sulate thickness inch the was on the 0. controlled. the and aft unit receivers.5 32 _ 1 psig. system and the nitrogen pressurizing communication The instrument compartment Located with the abort had four access doors and was were both pressure and and temsup- perature plies try were other.5 kilowatts electronic thus be- the compartment system was approximately to maintain of heat. at 22 + 5 psig. was Positioned instrubelow it antenin of the inches was the pressurized and compartment. mum The forward The burst bulkhead bulkhead center pressure could Burst of the bulkhead center was section common was to both designed tanks to withstand and was in the fuel to fuel Nominal tank pressure and designed 25. mounted instruments angles to each on a T-shaped structure of two plates Compartment check-valve equipment an 80 cfm tween pressurization controlled within air nitrogen was maintained gas system. system. 090 inch and on the aft unit. vehicleTs destruct the system. 0. and the the command consisting instrumentation electrical system. These at right power teleme- the control system.

The second or auxiliary tank was also addedbecauseof the lengthenedburning time. The tactical missile hadtwo sets of three tanks each. The capsule was attached to the booster adapter with the capsule adapter-clamp-ring retaining device. Two hydrogenperoxide tanks used in the propulsion system were also located in this area. the rocket engine. However. The bolts were wired 4-6 . These connectionswere the last ground-vehicle connectionsto be detachedas the missile lifted off. Two connectors were located on the bottom of Fin II for mechanical and electrical power connections and grounding of the vehicle through the launch pedestal. and returning the cooled air to the compartment through a balanced distribution system.2. which varied the air flow through the cooling package. Componentsof this system were the coolant container. Located within the upper portion of the tail unit were sevenspheres containing high pressure gases for tank pressurization. did Inside eachfin and attachedto the tail unit was a servomotor used to rotate the jet vane andair rudder. The air rudders and jet vanes were also parts of the tail unit. 4. a seventh tank had to be addedduring the MERCURY-REDSTONEmodification program to provide pressurization throughout the increased burning time of the engines. air temperature sensor. vent valve. three-way valve.5 ADAPTER AND CAPSULE INTERFACE The adapter was a conical section bolted to the aft unit which provided the interface betweenthe launch vehicle and the capsule. blower. The ring had three segmentswhich were fastenedtogether by explosive bolts. ducting dehumidifier'.packagemounted on a cable mast. The servomdtor was driven by electrical signals from the control computer located in the instrument compartment. control box. This unit was designed to support the entire launch vehicle while standing freely on the launch pedestal. 4. andthermoswitches. Regulation of the air temperature was affected by a temperature sensor control valve. check valve.4 TAIL UNIT The tail unit consisted of the cylindrical section surrounding. The clamp ring secured the lower edge of the capsule to the upper edge of the adapter. but not including.2. The MERCURY-REDSTONE not use hold down arms during launch.

conducted tests and determined that this gas increased separation velocity by approximately 25 feet per second. REDSTONE The engine alcohol modifications pounds The generated and liquid of thrust turbopump The propellants by hydrogen 4-7 ethyl driven peroxide. To assure proper electrical continuity betweenthe adapter and the capsule.3.2 The ROCKET Rocketdyne ENGINE Model A-7 engine (Figure 4-3) it was was the the powerplant same powerplant to improve at sea was for the MERCURYin the efficiency REDSTONE latest and used tactical safety. to be effective. Each bolt was covered by a shield to prevent fragments of the severed bolt from striking the capsule or booster.separately to provide redundant ring cutting. 4. The physical separation of the booster and capsule was accomplished by firing the capsule's posigrade rockets. residual thrust. interface templates were used to mount two electrical plug connectors. The subsystems and components of this system are described in the following para- graphs. 4.1 The and the PROPULSION SYSTEM GENERAL system was composed and to the at the pneumatic container beginning into of the rocket engine. propellant were feed contained The was system. were launch vehicles. The posigrade rockets.3 4.000 oxygen. Zero thrust was to be expected about3. the booster had to be in the cutoff condition with little. However. Basically missiles with 78.3.2 secondsafter booster engine cutoff. as used operational level. fired into the upper endof the aft unit and filled the ballast section with gas. period system deflection end of the of the achieved of carbon inserted exhaust engine. which extendedinto the ballast section. section and the by four These thrust thrust struts. within propulsion by propulsion the tail hydrogen unit and and flight peroxide attached control vanes subsystems. NASA. if any. The Lewis Research Center. . The gas pressure further helped the separation by pushing the capsule away from the booster. Residual thrust from the LOX venting did not interfere with the separation since the LOX vented at low force and in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

A-7 Rocket Engine .Hydrogen Peroxide Auxiliary Tank Steam Generator Hydrogen Peroxide Main Tank Turbopump Chamber Pressure Se ns ing Switch Fuel Line Ignition Fuel Line Heat Exchanger Main Valve Fuel Steam Duct Mixture Control Ratio Valve Fuel Inlet Manifold Figure 4-8 4-3.

LOX and fuel passed through the turbopump. a signal started a timer in the capsule which ultimately triggered capsule separation. Maximum safe speedwas 6000 rpm. main valves. Figure 4-4 illustrates the main actions leading to mainstage burning.The engine starting sequencewas initiated from a ground source by a manual firing command signal. and two centrifugal propellant pumps.4 HYDROGENPEROXIDESUBSYSTEM The hydrogenperoxidesubsystemdrove the turbopump. The turbine ran at a nominal 4800 rpm. The steam at approximate 4-9 . Once started. main LOX. which compared the actual thrust chamber pressure with a preset electrical null and regulated the flow of hydrogenperoxide into the gas generator. engineoperation normally continueduntil the vehicle had reached a predetermined velocity. Hydrogenperoxide concentrated to 75 percent was fed at 1. As pressure in the thrust chamber decreased. Both pumps operated at the same speed. Liftoff occurred when approximately 85percent of rated thrust was attained. The turbopump consisted of a steam driven. and minimum oxidizer inlet pressure was 23 psig. an integrating accelerometer emitted a signal that initiated an automatic cutoff sequence (Figure 4-5}.3 PROPELLANT FEED SUBSYSTEM The propellant feed subsystemdelivered propellant to the engine at the required pressures and flow rates. 4. The system also included provisions for ignition fuel control. This method resulted in a controlled oxidizer-rich ignition.3. LOXat tank pressure plus static headwas mixed in the combustion chamber with pressure-controlled ignition fuel from an external ground supply. and control orifices to the engine. From their tanks.3. andfuel valves to stop the engine.28 poundsper secondfrom the H202 tanks to the steam generator where it was chemically decomposedinto steam. 4. The thrust level of the enginewas maintained at a specific magnitude by a thrust control system. This sequenceconsisted essentially of closing the peroxide. Whenthis velocity was attained. a geared speedreduction unit. During ignition. compoundturbine. Minimum allowable fuel inlet pressure was 16 psig. two stage. By controlling the flow of peroxide for producing gas the speed of the turbopump controlled the amount of propellants entering the thrust chamber.

Engine Starting Sequence Diagram .Figure 4-10 4-4.

_P DECELERATES D _ CLOSES • FLOW V TO SI_EAM _ERGIZES . ¢_ L0X TANK PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE COHTROL VALVE EMERGENCY _ UTOFF _WITCH _ANUAL) ---e¢ FUEL VALVE TANK DEE_ERGI FUEL VALVE DEE_/ERGI ZES .'TS ) FUEL Figure 4-5. VALYE CLOSES IGNITION CONBUSTION FUEL FLOW CHAMBER TO CEASES TA_iK VE_. PEROXIDE SHUTOFF VALVE CLOSES AHD GEneRATOR CEASES TURBOPUI. CLOSES (WHEN VEf{ICLE IN F_IGHT OR ON GROT_D) MAI_:STAGE AID LOCKII: RELAYS DEE[[ERGI_.CLOSES VEHICLE ON GROUND (WHEN 01_LY) TANKS VALVE ZES.!KS VENT LOX VALVE TANK PRESSURIZiHG ._ RELAY Er'[ERGIZES. CLOSES PEROXIDE TANK VENT VALVE SHIFTS TO PEROXIDE TAI.CLOSES DEENERGIZES POSITION _. CLOSES ILOX PRESSURIZING TANK PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE RELIEF FUEL TA[[K PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE OPENS DEE'_R2G_LOSES IGNITER DEF2_ERGI FUEL ZES.k H I_ : L0X VALVE CLOSES | FAILURE LINK TO OF IGNITION BURN THROUGH SENSLUG _PEROXIDE PRESSURIZING E_ERGENCY CUTOFF RELAY DEE_ERGI ENERGIZES.II_ FLIG}[T SIG_:AL FRO_ DEVICE PROGRALI CUTOF_ / I_:ITIATES / _fISSILE CUTOFF / / / / STAL_DARD CUTOF.OPENS LOX TANK PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE OPENS I ZES. Engine Cutoff Sequence Diagram 4-11 ...0PE_[ PEROXIDE SIiUTOFF VALVE CONTROL VALVE DEE_RGIZES....

and exhaustedthrough the LOX and pneumatic system heat exchanger. but inflight pressurization was maintained by LOX converted to gaseousoxygen in the heat exchanger. the reached jet vanes the rarified again exerted upper the atmosphere greater effective- controlling influence. to provide unit. four electro-mechanical actuators feedback. 4-12 . axes The and accomplished through were gave error the by establishing voltages. pitch gyro signal maintaining from roll sion any deviation and the yawpropul- the programmed gyro. to operate propellant and peroxide valves and to pressurize the peroxide tanks. was passed through the turbopump.740° F and 385psi. and with the air vanes the when the attitude of the for rocket the jet the hot exhaust gained sufficient control stability until the air rudders to become and the effective. 4. As shown. system An integrating when the two major (gyro velocity accelerometer a cutoff to the predetermined attained. control system box. 4.3. A tap on the system provided preflight and inflight fuel tank pressurization. deflected vehicle jet vanes were located utilized in the to control gases speed exhaust of the propulsion of the vehicle. LOX tank pressurization andcontrol were also maintained during preflight by gaseousnitrogen.4.1 The tude CONTROL SYSTEM GENERAL MERCURY-REDSTONE of the vehicle three throughout reference flight. Carbon rudders. coupled At liftoff. stabilizer and program sequencer. rudders lost Later. Figure the relay with 4-7 illustrates was the operation of the flight of the LEV-3 system in block system diagram control form. computer. Prior to liftoff. Launch Vehicle control This indicating. a ground source of pressurized gaseousnitrogen operated the subsystem and supplied nitrogen for the tail section purging (to remove moisture and any volatile gas accumulations) and for fuel line bubbling (to keep the fuel temperature above freezing). gyros type) had been was system maintained the proper attiand the flight.4 4. composed device. their the vehicle ness.5 PNEUMATIC CONTROL SUBSYSTEM The pneumatic control subsystem (Figure 4-6) provided gaseousnitrogen. at a nominal 580psi.

FUEL TANK PRESSURIZING VALVE VALVE VALVE TANK REPLENISHING VALVE FUELTANK VENT FUEL TANK VENT VALVE CONTROL FUEL tOX LOX TANK TANK TANK FILL AUXIN2021 YDROGEN PRESSURE VENT PEROXIDE SWITCH VALVE VALVE AND LOX GASEOUS TANK VENT DRAIN VALVE PEROXIDE VENT AND OVERFLOW VALVE MAIN PEROXIDE VALVE SWITCH NITROGEN (GN 2) STORAGE SPHERES TANK PRESSURE LINE LINE VALVE LINE VALVE COIL LOX SENSING LOX TANK PRESSURE CHECK FUEL BUBBLING CHECK PRESSURE MAIN SENSING PEROXIDE VALVE VALVE CONTROL STEAM GENERATOR RELIEF TANKS VALVE CONTROL VAiVE VALVE VALVE HEAT PRESSURE PEROXIDE EXCHANGER DOME PRESSURIZING FOUR-WAY MAIN BLEED LOX AND INJECTOR PURGE LINE CHECK VALVE FUEL BUBBLING CONTROL VALVE LOX TANK REPLENISHING VALVE CONTROL VALVE LOX TANK VENT CONTROL VALVE VALVE VALVE REGULATOR VALVE PRESSURE PRESSURE MAIN FUEL LOX TANK AUXILIARY CONTAINER IGNITER LAUNCHER PRESSURIZING VALVE SPHERES VALVE STORAGE FUEL CONTAINER PRESSURIZING PRESSURE REGULATOR SUPPLY LINE LEGEND LOX-LIQUID FUEL-ALCOHOL n 3000 600 J 31 PSi PSi PSi OXYGEN IGNITER FUEL CONTAINER PRESSURIZING AND DOME PURGE VALVE LOX TANK LINE REPLENISHING VENT VALVE VALVE CONTROL Figure 4-6. Pneumatic System 4-13 .

iil O © 0 o I i [__°° _o 4-14 .

000 rpm. (stator) and by a 400 cps power synchronous 24. 4.4.67 or multiples for degree single per thereof.4.2 The cle. system. recognizing over until shifting the vehicle zero. signal.4. degree shows The was the minimum set pulse to of one 4-9 a desired for rate Figure program A velocity velocity cle integrator was reached. to the The caused stabilization control zero position zero on the the means potentiometer attitude meter the order error was system. velocity Slip between resulting in a gyro 4-15 . was was used to signal engine a gyro signal thrust precessed through cutoff when the proper vehicle and vehipre- The sent integrator. were steps possible. an The stabilizer gyro within the integrator system were mounted.4. attitude after 4-8 tilting program. an equivalent was 2000 angular rpm.2. frame 4-10) and from consisted a shock which of pitch and yaw-roll gyros. its The to tilt pitch the wiper was gravity aligned was to the new programming axis with the vehicle made to align angle longitudinal measurement. turn trajectory to fly without of attack Tilt time allow angles required of only whole between tilting tilting. tilting second. pitch three yaw. of a synchronous rotating the field stator motor. liftoff. fields.) perpendicular were not The measured fixed rotor but referby was gyro the of deviations The (refer of potentiometer to the the rotator motor's potentiometer mechanized was also program to paragraph driven had rotator of each source. the cutoff by the pickoffs gravitational acceleration angle when the calibrated cession reached.5 seconds Figure in which powered of flight controlled of the of the vehicle the pitch the gyro. The ence means two attitude axes from gyros which established vehicle pickoffs. from by the pitch uous SYSTEM control system OPERATION was essentially an autopilot. mutually and roll was 4.3 The LEV-3 LEV-3 STABILIZER system a junction reference SYSTEM (Figure box. plane diagrammatically The causing program the this operation device occurred. tilting pulses of 0. vehicle gimballed attitude and baseplate. acceleration provided measured. device and maintained in pitch. fed a continof the point potentioby which in pitch as an of pulses to shift. shows the It did not navigate During tilting the nor guide phase was the vehi- but provided 24 seconds LEV-3 gyro series and the necessary to 131. degrees.

Pitch LEV-3 Gyro Release Mechanism Controlled by Program Device /Z Pitch Po_ntiometer %1 ---× Friction Clutch Gear Reduction _ 1 ° Of Missile Tilt I I ¥ Plane In _Xrhieh ng Occurs Y 400 cps SynchronousMotor Direction Of Flight -× Z Figure 4-16 4-8. Mechanics of Tilting Program .

2 o 0 0 \ / 0 ! 0 if) \ 0 0 0 \ _ 0 0 N 0 qoungq dalg 1V I_a!laaA paaa!qaV tuoa:I saaa_o(I aI_uv lI!& aalJV 4-17 .I if g_ \ < I¢1 0 0 / \ _ 0 X / / 0 0 0 o 0 e.

Fig_ure 4-18 4-10. MEIICURY-REDSTONE LEV-3 Stabilizer System .

4. the a measure The was indicated gravitational revolution signal through was the acceleration. power travel actuator 28 volt (de-energized limits. and error amplifiers. of the of the acceleration gyro number sustained. ele- precessed the gyros axis. The gyro per wheel weighed 1. both of revolutions and. of the gyro was latter subtracted contacts out by the control mounted flexible on the coils computer. tudinal gyro had a self-erecting the gyro were until element the spin to provide axis parallel was erection perpendicular to the earthWs prior to liftoff.4 The CONTROL computer COMPUTER was a magnetic main signals summing and the LEV-3 amplifier a power system. them. closed proper its set consisted (polarized) having The a signal sensing relay polarized received to the duty actuator signal also command of the The computer.spin equal of 22. gyro of wire case. contacts of coils 28 vdc The according in the power heavy to the velocity The polarity relay. the closed. (heavy each duty) set relay.5 The CONTROL control relay RELAY box BOX mainly relay of four and signals signals duty drove to the switches coils) sets power from and relay the (channels) distribution the control of relays. by eight 4.000 rpm. receive bending amplify preamplifiers. motor. vehicle therefore. from them Its function them signals. differentiate distribute them to obtain proper angular channels velocity to the of the control 4. Each ment Thus. passing picked from up by eight the gyro case transferred hinge line.4. The allowed the gyro precessed to be precessed was proporof the accelerated. the attitude influences. to eliminate sum relay and box. was RC to control networks.5 pounds and had an angular moment to 12. was had thereby contacts energized when heavy which supplied jet vane-air relay interrupted the actuator rudder to prevent the combination. and The The tional velocity. which supply. not necessarily surface or vehicle's longi- The tion as integrator gyro was pivoted at one end This of its pivoting spin axis and mounted within a junc- box containing the launch to the vehicle integral output switching relays. to the local This vertical. filter contained filters. the heavy duty reached preset 4-19 . actuator servo actuator fed back limit relay polarized which when overshoot. 106 gm-cm2 second.

from each feed- proportional potentiometer.5 seconds Arm Stop Arm Arm Arm pressurization. electrical The foUowing system pulses in a single were abort fuel cutoff velocity fuel train of time by means of a series sequenced system tank as follows: engine cutoff. 30 seconds 70 seconds 129. of a one horsepower and vane limit position switches and dc servomotor.8 The ROTARY actuators were energy units ACTUATORS electro-mechanical by a series of gears devices driven which by adc converted motor.4. to capsule. could A be and the the ease of this and speed 4. cutoff. energy four a vane posiinto mechanical actuator consisted potentiometer. cutoff. deflection carbon vanes degrees and +11 degrees 4-20 . tion feedback Signals back on the potentiometer.4. in the relay box to slow overshoot as it neared loop instability. 131 seconds 135 seconds depletion 4.5 drove drive.4. vehicle calibration the program tape It was device started an accurate flight flight at liftoff pulses principal changed. maximum for the air possible rudders.4. commanded preventing and control The which and carbon directly sprocket vanes and air the The rudders carbon were vanes operated and were by four coupled identical to the for the air rotary rudders actuators by a chain was +_27. electrical Each a gear of the train. to the Actuator signal back position when the was actuator fed back reached relay thus to the its control commanded computer position. clock the tilt during program master three the channel vehicleVs pulses.7 The uted flight them FLIGHT sequencer to the relay • • • • • SEQUENCER received command signals from the program device pulses and distrib- vehicleTs chain.6 The which PROGRAM program provided device DEVICE was an extremely onboard provided sequencer) unit was precise. and during (through feature the sequencing pulses. down to cancel out the input error was fed its Actuator the actuator servo velocity to the polarized position. telemeter with which the magnetic flight. velocity were obtained set at_+27 degrees.

The flight bending moment distribution is shown in Figure 4-12 and the lateral bending modes in Figure 4-13. on angle of attack in Figure 4-19. Angle of attack was calculated for both ultimate loading and that expected for a three sigma wind. Roll acceleration can cause a critical "eyes up vTcondition and attitude for the astronaut changes if the were condition. jet vane-air rudder hardovers in yaw. Therefore.4. The time at which the instability beganwould have been earlier had not 487 poundsof ballast and 442 poundsof dampeningcompoundbeen added to the aft section. These lower frequencies caused some feedback in the control system (see changes). The lateral bending frequencies are shown in Figure 4-15 and the longitudinal frequencies in Figure 4-16. The natural bending frequencies of the MERCURY-REDSTONE were lower than those experienced by the tactical missile. These wind velocities used in the calculations are shown in Figure 4-14. generally. and roll were studied. andwere assumed to build up in the most unfavorable direction from 0 to maximum velocity at a rate of 0. normal flight and control malfunctions. pitch. wouldhaveresulted in control surface hardover. maximumdynamic pressure occurred at 80 seconds after liftoff with cutoff following at 143 seconds (see paragraph 3.5 degrees) occurred at 70 seconds and that at maximum dynamic pressure (MaxQ). The three sigma plot of bending moment was based on the wind velocities expected at the Cape. and on roll acceleration in Figure 4-20. Both rigid-body and rigid-plus_lastic body calculations are shown. Figure 4-17 shows that the smallest margin (1.4. 4-21 radial acceleration because they reaches define the 6 gTs. Malfunctions in the control system which could have led to a catastrophic damagewithin theshortest time . rate Angle at which of attack the vehicle angle studied approaches a breakup .05 meter per secondper meter of altitude. Throughout this period the center of gravity andcenter of pressure shifted as shown in Figure 4-11 such that the static margin passed through zero at 89 seconds. During normal flight. The effect of hardover on attitude angle is shownin Figure 4-18.2). At this point the vehicle became aerodynamically unstable.9 VEHICLE DYNAMICS Two aspects of the vehicle dynamics are considered in this section. the margin had increased to over 2 degrees.

MERCURY-REDSTONE Pressure Location During Center Time of of Gravity Flight and Center of 4-22 .CG/D CP/D D= Diameter CP = Center CG:: Center = 70 inches of Pressure of Gravity 14 12 / 10 8 CP/D CG/D m 2 00 50 Flight Time I 100 (see) I 150 I Figure 4-11.

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Maximum ....p-I 50 N 4o 30 . 3or wind wind velocity velocity 2° t 10 0 I 20 I 40 Altitude I 60 (Feet I 80 x 1000) ] 100 ] 120 Figure 4-14.110 100 9O _9 80 70 --_ 60 8 _ "a e_ . Maximum Design Wind Velocity versus Altitude 4-25 .

I 0 20 l 40 Flight l 60 Time l 80 . MERCURY-REDSTONE Free-Free Frequency versus Flight Time Lateral Bending Natural 4-26 . m Natural Freq.Seconds I 100 l 120 l 140 Figure 4-15.Frequency 18 17 16 15 14 cps 13 12 11 i0 9 8 7 6 Second 5 4 3 2 _ First Natural Freq.

10 0 I 20 I 40 I 60 Flight Time I 80 .Frequency cps 9O 8O 7O 6O 5O 4O 3O 2O B First Natural Freq.Seconds I 100 I 120 l 140 Figure 4-16. MERCURY-REDSTONE Free-Free Natural Frequency versus Flight Longitudinal Time 4-27 .

Structural ultimate angle of attach (failureoccurs) Expected angle of attack due to 3a wind / / / 6O aULT_/ 50 / / CD 4O / / / / \ q) v _9 3O © \ < / J f 2O 10 0 50 I 60 I 70 Time I 80 .! / / / 70 aULT a3c r .Second I 90 I 100 I Ii0 I 120 Figure 4-17. 4-28 MERCURY-REDSTONE Comparison of Angle of Attack versus Time .

2 Figure 4-18. Effects of Pitch and Yaw Hardover (As a Function of Flight Time) on Vehicle Angle of Attack 4-29 .4 (Sec) From I 0.0 I 1.2 Time I 0.6 Start I 0.25 ° Yaw Hardover (60 or 80 Sec) (Starting at 60 or 80 Sec) 4 0 0.28 24 --*_25 ° Yaw Hardover at 120 Sec) ±25 _ Pitch Hardover 120 Sec) _3 _D _D b_ (Starting {at 20 _9 16 O ¢0 b_ 12 b_ ± 5 o Pitch Hardover at .8 of Malfunction I 1.

28 -25 ° Pitch 24 Starting 425 ° Pitch not not 2O critical.2 Figure 4-19.5 J 0 0. show at Hardover 120 Seconds Hardover therefore. MERCURY-REDSTONE Attitude Angle (As Effects a Function of of Yaw Flight and Time) Pitch Hardover on Vehicle 4-30 . 16 b_ / / _25 ° Yaw Hardover Starting at 120 Seconds *25 ° Yaw Starting at Hardover 60 or 80 Seconds _12 < -25 ° Pitch Starting at Hardover 60 or 80 Seconds .6 from Start I 0.4 (Seconds) 0.8 of Malfunction I 1.0 I 1.2 Time 0.

3 of Malfunction 0._ • .25 Radians/Sec 2 when all actuators fail hard over in roll (+_25°) 2O 16 .5 Figure 4-20.L 24 Angular Acceleration in Roll at 80 Seconds .Ncceke_: s . MERCURY-REDSTONE Flight Time (Worst Case) Effect of Roll Hardover at 80 Second 4-31 .4 0.r.v 0.4 b_ 12 Automatic 40 ° Limit Abort System 6g Limit •_.2 From Start 0.1 Time (Sec) 0.

Program Device. One Destruct Command Receiver 60 vdc Control Signals 5 vdc 115 vac 400 cps One 1800 volt-ampere verter and synchronizer LEV-3 Autopilot. DOVAP. Rate Switches. 72 hour standby life Instrument battery in- Equipment Powered Control Actuators. Control Computer. One Destruct Command Receiver 28 vdc General Network Inverter. ZincSilver oxide. except A cable temperature-preconditioned for the servo running terminal through compartment distributor tanks conduit both propellant Power distribution requirements connected and supplies the power are in supplies listed Figure terminal 4-1. 72 hour standby life One 2650 amp-minute battery at 10 minute rate. the tail unit. and Measuring System Prelaunch: Serving Strip Heaters. Zinc-Silver oxide.4. AZUSA. of the aft unit. The was components instrument box and the tail comprised of the of a general system were in the which operacontained middle were in a measuring in the pressurized. 72 hour standby life One 50 amp-minute battery at 10 minute rate.5 The tional ELECTRICAL electrical network system and POWER of the NETWORK MERCURY-REDSTONE network. Zinc-Silver oxide. power in Table Electrical is shown diagrammatically Table Electrical 4-1 Supplies Power Power 28 vdc Type Source One 1850 amp-minute battery at 10 Minute rate. to the below 4-21. H20 Blanket line Heating 115 vac 60 cps Ground supplied nectors Power (nonflight) through 2 conin Fin II 2 4-32 . box and distributor.

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cutoff was and receivers RECEIVERS and primary AND DECODERS were the principal system ground.6. transmitters FM carrier of audio receivers. geometrical configuration. components was to provide For positive the destruct of the command means the and decoders purpose destruction destruct of engine system direct The of this from the only a positive reliability. 4.1 The COMMUNICATIONS GENERAL launch vehicle was I TELEMETRY I AND TELEVISION equipped before with and measuring during The and flight.6. compartment.6 4. from the launch site was 36. Receiving in frequency to the retransmitted being stations. The broadcast Model frequency 0. been and tion.2 The COMMAND command system. execution of the paragraph 4. the antennas.4. Unit. for recovered combination Reference applied decoders. major equipment This capable equipment of receiving was located of: and prin- transmitting cipally in the information instrument 2 Command I DOVAP I AZUSA I Telemeter I0 Antennas. energized desired was audio received tones of relays were demodulated to the the onboard which. circuitry the com- completing 4. which was had doubled the DOVAP. from 864 the The mc. various command signals (located were at the and transmittedbyfrequencymodulating launch site) with by selected the combinations command in turn. to these sharing connections components. frequency and the the vehicle. stations allowed for transmitting determination sta- in a known coordinates. dual-comtones.3 DOVAP based and on position DOVAP (Doppler the TRANSPONDER Velocity and Position) is a long baseline continuous the instantaneous wave system velocity Doppler and principle. Receivers Transponder. ground signal Aboard station. The mand This The proper mand. (FM). accurate of trajectory 4-34 . shifted transponder due ground received to the vehicle a signal motion. vehicle redundant throughout.7. Transponder. equipment consisted Decoders. ballistic It is used trajectory to determine and point to predict of impact. package.6.

MERCURY-REDSTONE 4. made Given and on the are the launch vehicle in flight. the one megacycles one channel same tem most Model system (channel had been 15) was used the commutated successfully development of 10 revolutions firings.7 On MR-2 compartment. computer Model AZUSA TRANSPONDER high-precision. based upon the It consisted an IBM carried and a vehicle-borne B. 2 pairs. on the launch vehicle: inphase. art. their range for These measure- measurements. Figure 4-22 shows the locations of the antennas. baseline ground The electronic It was station used tied trajectory in trajectory in with measuring and impact 709 a is an automatic.6 The ANTENNAS following • • • • is a list Command DOVA P A Z USA Telemetry of the number and 1 pair. type of antennas cavity installed slot.6.6.4. AZUSA transponder.5 The ing TELEMETRY MERCURY-REDSTONE 17 standard per subcarrier second. handlebar type.4 AZUSA system prediction. wave together.5 while The sysof the a a RF carrier information of approximately continuously per second. and It consisted a power of a Model FM-FM package. 180-degree tapered tied phasing. 1 antenna.6. on the the exterior of the instrument pictures of the 4-35 phase camera transmitted . 4. interferometer of a short all-weather principle. divider. a tabulation commutated straight assignments 4. REDSTONE state of the XO-2 While it is still did not represent reliable systems latest in the available. Coherent Carrier transponder.6. guide. channel (if applicable). 3 antennas. A total ments and of 41 measurements are listed in Table of the were 4-2. 1101 power amplifier. telemetering frequencies Sixteen channels system modulating transmitted at the in early rate was a PAM-FM-FM System employ221. TELEVISION only. fed in phase. a television During the camera boost was installed of flight. each flight.

Antenna Locations .Telemetry Dovap Azusa Command I Dovap Figure 4-36 4-22.Dovap III Telemetr' Dovap / Telemetr l .

earth below. the mirrors and their mounting bracket were jettisoned by squibloaded mechanisms.Capsule Mounting RingFrequency.LEV-3 (longitudinal) Base Plate S S S S 4-37 . The camera was mounted to view upward and slightly inward.Instrument Compartment Switch Bracket (longitudinal) Vibration. (Lateral) Vibration . Skin Lateral S Low S Rate S S S S S S S C C C C C C C C C Mounting Vibration . thus mirrors were used to reflect the earth's image into the camera lens. Table 4-2 MERCURY-REDSTONEBooster Flight Telemetry Measurements Measurement Type of Flight Telemetry YIR-1 MR-1A C = Commutated Channel S = Straight Channel (continuous) MR-2 MR-BD MR-3 MR-4 Propulsion Pressure in Pressurizing Spheres (0-3500 psi) Pressure (0-700 H20 2 in H20 2 C C C C C S S C C C S S C C C S S C C C S S C C C S S Container (0-45 gallons degrees) per second) per second C S S psi) Valve Flow Position Rate (0-25 LOX Alcohol Flow Rate (0-25 gallons Pressure of Alcohol (0-60 psi) Combustion Chamber at Pump Inlet S S C C C S S C S C C C S C (0-400 psia C Pressure Error Signal of Thrust Controller (i 5 psia Combustion Chamber Pressure After Cutol _tructural Pressure-Vibration-Temperature Instrument (0-30 psi) Instrument Temperature Vibration (+ 30 g) Compartment Compartment of AZUSA .Capsule Pressure C Temperature Transponder Ring. At engine cutoff. This permitted the camera to view the separation of the capsule from the booster.

to Flight LEV-3 Sequencer (minus Program) S S C S S S S S C S S S S S C S S S S S C C C S S S C S S S S S C S S S S S S S S S S C C C C C S S S S C S C C C S S S S C S S C C S S S S C C C C C S S S S C C C C C Gyro Pitch Position (+ 15 degrees) Gyro Gyro Yaw Roll Position Position . 1 2 C C S S S S S S S C C C C S S S S S S S C C C C S C C C C C C C C C S S S S C S S C S C C S S S S C S S C S C C .5 g) SpeedPips (from gyro velocity integrator) Vehicle Tilt Input Control Program. No.Angular Velocity (+ 5 degrees per second) Abort .Jet .Yaw (J:10 degrees per second) Angular Velocity .Yaw S S S S Cutoff Cutoff (on-off) C Switch Switch No. 1 (± 15 degrees) 2 (+ 15 degrees) 3 (i 15 degrees) 4 (i 15 degrees) S C C C C C Deflection Deflection Deflection Deflection Abort Abort Abort System Bus Signal Error .Jet .5 to +0.Angular Velocity . No. No.Pitch S S S .Angular Velocity (_: 5 degrees per second) Abort .Roll (+ 12 degrees per second) AbortAbort Control from Voltage Capsule Pressure Pressure to Capsule Combustion Combustion Arm Cutoff Capsule Capsule 4-38 Separation Detached Signal Signal C .Attitude Abort .Jet . No.Jet (_: 15 degrees) (+ 15 degrees) Vane Vane Vane Vane No.Table 4-2 (Cont) MR-1 MR-1A MR-2 MR-BD MR-3 MR-4 Flight Mechanics Angular Velocity-Pitch (+ 10 degrees per second) Angular Velocity .Roll (+ 10 degrees per second) Longitudinal Acceleration (0 to 6 g) Longitudinal Acceleration (-0.

of igniting The relift- ignitor ceiver.7 FUEL DISPERSION (DESTRUCT) SYSTEM The fuel dispersion system command tanks. the destruct system. (destruct system) consisted of two redundantly connected unit. squibs The would command receipt fuel of an ignition dispersion delay range signal signal was from command to assure The engine command interlocked escape. unit employed This fire unit was upon receivers and was two separate armed prior igniter to liftoff squibs.8 INITIAL DESIGN CHANGES 4. following additions 4-39 .1 A basic The GENERAL redesign was changes necessary and to adapt were the JUPITER-C made: to the MERCURY mission. destruct engine shutdown. a remote arming The the remote prima arming cord. and prima cords placed in the propellant receivers. off.Safe (5 to 2 1/2 vdc) Fuel Dispersion .8. by the each launch either capable personnel. interlock a three-second in the for astronaut officer's shutdown circuit.5. not included safety Sequencing Figure 4-23 of the destruct illustrates and command signals is explained in paragraph 5.1.Armed (5 to 2 1/2 vdc) S S C C C S S C C C C S S C C C C S S C C C C S S C C C C C S S C C C C C 4.Table 4-2 (Cont) MR-1 MR-1A MR-2 MR-BD MR-3 MR-4 Signals Liftoff Cutoff Emergency Cutoff CommandControl Battery Voltage (45-65 vdc) Inverter Voltage (105-130vac) Fuel Dispersion . 4.

2. capsule the capsule adapter including contractor.1 Center Section To handle meet the performance. were used.2 Aft Section The military aft unit and adapter these were had been permanently separated attached with the to the center to (tank) provide section.08 inches to provide access to the capsule retrorockets. Fuel Dispersion (Destruct) System 4.8.8. the loads elongated due to the JUPITER-C capsule and propellant increased tanks propellants.8.2 STRUCTURE 4.Vehicle Interlocks Deeoder KY55/ARW] ARW-9 [ Liftoff Engine [Shutdown _3 See Delay [ ] ] [ [ I I I Remote Arming Igniter prima Cord Squib Igmter Unit I I Decoder KY55/ARVv InE_ni!i°_f!ks | Shutdown 3 Sec Delay[ ] I t Remote Arming Igniter b Prima Cord Unit Igniter Squib Figure 4-23. the version payload A short by actor. increased was varied. the To tank skin thickness 4. the This capsule placed booster responsibility separation for clamp separation ring was with supone plied contr The aft unit was lengthened 7. 4-40 .2. terminal In guidance.

8. Because and of the extra loads imposed were by the increased inner weight skin of the MERCURY capsule propellants. This was to Figure ballast To partially forward the flight 692 pounds later of steel added of the test compartment. the MERCURY-REDSTONE after liftoff (refer became unstable 4-10). the accumulation of mixture on the launch 4. A nitrogen an explosive gas purge system in the was engine added area to the while tail unit to prevent pad. the new electronic Layout components within this was the pressuri- compartment completely redesigned control and abort systems.5 seconds. stringers added to the structure of the aft unit. a the A-6 to the shortage of hardware would occurred the MERCURY-REDSTONE 4-41 . 20 seconds longer than the REDSTONE. The tank engine greater for fuel burning time required and the addition of a seventh hydrogen high pressure tank nitrogen the pressurization.3 To protect burning Tail Unit actuators steel from shields the were additional added heat generated during the longer the rotary time. an auxiliary peroxide to power turbopump.8.A fiberglass system rockets and dish was was retained added in the ballast the section electronic during initially gear from to protect the heat a booster of the recovery to protect aft posigrade which fired into the section separation. Due the to its payload and elongated tanks.2. To prevent from major changes A-7 midway model. as a result reduced to 487 pounds compound during for of the addition of dampening necessary vibration control. was in supersonic region compensate instrument program at approximately for this loss 89 seconds of stability.3 Nominal PROPULSION burning time SYSTEM was increased to 143. A change zation was and to increase cooling the of the reliability instrument to accept of critical compartment. 4. have in the program. The A-6 engine during was the engine scheduled was for immediately replacement changed and Program. stainless to the fins.

The propellant feed subsystem was modified to include a fixed LOX stand pipe and a ground computer for automatic LOX topping during prelaunch activities.8. Alcohol eroded the vanesfaster than Hydine and this coupled with the increased burning time required a selective program to obtain jet vanesof the highest quality A fuel line bubbling system was added. In addition. O-ring materials were changedin the hydrogenperoxide subsystem to reduce leakage. but its toxicity was considered undesirable for mannedflights. 4. Thus for MERCURY-REDSTONE.This early changeoveravoided a foreseeable problem area but required an accel. The JUPITER-C had used Hydine for greater performance.4 FLIGHT CONTROLSYSTEM The ST-80 REDSTONEstabilized platform was eliminated and the guidance system replaced by the LEV-3 autopilot. Chamber pressure sensing line heaters were addedto eliminate failure due to water vapor freezing in the lines.alcohol was chosen. an automatic inflight abort sensing system was addedto the booster. 4-42 . A conservative approach was taken with regard to the choice of propellants. the servo valve was modified.erated test program. the computer assembly was modified. Installation of the automatic inflight abort sensing system sensors required some modification of the other vehicle systems. Alcohol eroded the vanesfaster than Hydine and this coupledwith the increased erosion of the vanes. This selection led to a problem with the vital jet vanes. (Over-aged seals were also replaced ) 4. Within the rocket engine system: the pump volute bleed line was removed. By bubbling nitrogen gas through the fuel line during the prelaunch countdownfuel freezing was prevented during long holds. the A-7 engine had never flown with Hyaline.5 AUTOMATIC INFLIGHT ABORT SENSING SYSTEM To assure crew safety. and emergency egress operations were incorporated at the launch site.8. the main fuel and oxidizer valves were shimmed. andthe LOX pump wear ring was changedto stainless steel to eliminate sparking (by maintaining proper blade clearances).

4.9 The had which launch GROUND vehicle SUPI:_RT service room launch EQUIPMENT structure was level. were required to meet the Supporting the new instrumentation and changed ground equipment or changed to match vehicle systems.6 Changes power and ELECTRICAL to the and signal electrical path POWER power requirements were also and distribution of the new modified network equipment. systems were added to provide accurate and redundant teleme- A television MERCURY monitoring Control system was added to the aft unit to display separation to personnel. equipment was installed for the abort system and the The into capability the ground of abort support from the pad necessitated the the installation director's equipment performance of electrical abort was batteries equipment failure to maintain launch capability added in the abort in the event control center of power on the complex.8. a semi-clean protected at the capsule personnel a flame deflector firing in the of accidental of the escape Additional tional air conditioning test was added and to the additional blockhouse launch to offset personnel.8. blast shield tower. 4. AND TELEVISION Major changes were vehicle systems in the instrumentation system to reflect the changes in the and flightexperiments. indications Electronic of the to receive telemetry of the onboard 4-43 .8 The mand a safe fuel DESTRUCT dispersion and from SYSTEM system destruct the was modified to include the a three-second capsule sufficient delay time between com- destruct distance initiation booster. event modified and had so that it was remotely and controllable. to permit to separate 4. made COMMUNICATIONS.8.8. the heat of the addi- electrical equipment Additional H20 2 steam blockhouse generator monitoring subsystem. 4.7 INSTRUMENTATION. Several try and communication tracking capability.

valve. intended them are for effects in Sections the quick reference. below: Accordingly. removed occurred following during components. susceptible remounting. modifications rea- grouped 4. bracket. required and flight detests.9. Other equipments were added as described in Section 7. mounting wiring. control for monitoring center as part purposes. a low frequency oscillation The in- discovered this enlarged static test static to overcome tower firing. elbow.3 On MR-3. details concerning programs These several changes for problem occurred the areas were discovered of both the which ground used 8. 4.9. was MODIFICATIONS 340 pounds to the RESULTING of X306 (lead and FROM FLIGHT epoxy ballast TESTING polysulfide section. stud.system.2 MODIFICATIONS • An A-7 jections engine holes RESULTING burning were of the FROM instability GROUND was TESTS at 500 cps.1 During sign The GENERAL the test modifications. are given methods 6 and to improve The and listings brief system here sons are for performance. g. C. These data ground were displayed on two recorders (refer in the 7). problem. e. the as a result the need and the final modifications. switch switch bracket. 4. and poppet (LEV-3 b. of the electrical support equipment to Section An emergency egress system was added.9. On dampening MR-4 compound) impregnated of the added bulkhead walls an additional 4-44 . Modification which The lied a. Antenna Fuel Rate vent gyro mounting tubing bracket f. d. to vibrational or beefing failure up: were modi- by additional H202 Engine Abort Roll container piping rate rate bracketing.9 LATER MODIFICATIONS 4. mounting bracket).

was prevented after MR-1A by relocation of 5 of 8 electrical leads and use of softer wire on the remaining three. After MR-2 the thrust control servo valve was adjusted to a minimum of 25 percent open for smoother starting.102pounds of compoundwere added(see Figure 4-24). Velocity cutoff arming and switching of the Pc switches to the depletion mode (fuel depletion arming) were separated after MR-2. used for engine cutoff. An "Arm Cutoff to Capsule" switch was addedto the blockhouse propulsion panel after MR-1. velocity cutoff arming was advanced to 131seconds. For Flight MR-BD two jet vane deflections. a timebased cutoff at 143 seconds was employed on MR-2 and MR-BD. and oneengine chamber pressure measurement were telemetered via straight channels. onelow frequency vibration transducer. The roll-rate abort sensor was foundunnecessary and was deleted after MR-2 to increase mission success. Longitudinal stiffeners were also addedto the internal skin surface as follows: Flight MR-BD 4 stiffeners Flight MR-3 14 stiffeners Flight MR-4 14 stiffeners Prior to MR-BD the H202 pressure regulator was set at 570psig. a one foot ground strap was addedand the Fin II connector mounting modified (see Figure 4-25). and fuel depletion arming was set at 135 seconds. 4-45 . also. In addition to this accelerometer. The vibration pickup was moved from the rate switch bracket to LEV-3 baseplate after MR-1A for the remaining flights. After MR-l. A network filter was addedto the control computer to reduce control loop gain between 6 and 10 cps after MR-2. Excessive pivot torque on the LEV-3 longitudinal integrating accelerometer.

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Ground Strap Function Just After Liftoff 4-47 ._ 50 Pounds Pull Break Connection Ground Strap From Engine Is Required To k Propulsion Connector Control (60 Pin) Power Connector (4 Pin) Is Protected Blast Figure 4-25.Fin I Fin II Launcher Ground Strap Strap Has ~ 1 Ft Travel Before Connection Is Broken .

.

fect by providing of astronaut by quality of the and basic capsule separation. 5. shutdown and send 5-1 . Agency the (ABMA) Space Task received Group the (STG) go ahead requested were ABMA adaptation. flight During May and June. system first McDonnell The abort submitted flights of full test with to be installed the greatest only the to be "open During loop.2 AUTOMATIC INFLIGHT ABORT SENSING SYSTEM 5.1 The tions GE_RAL automatic which inflight could lead the abort sensing system was developed to detect safety. booster vehicle If such engine malfunca malfuncan abort to a compromise abort system would of the astronaut's the tion was sensed. of these was from further mission planned the to achieve time the highest boarding reliability vehicle. safety therefore. by adding man-rating system on increasing vehicle astronaut's necessitated an abort making those changes by mission requirements. an abort ABMA.1 The INTRODUC man-rating possible through assurance The TION program crew for safety the MERCURY-REDSTONE abort This capability was the was flights. coordination Company. on all between STG. was meetings In June 1959. and the proposal. when the REDSTONE reliability." and obtaining additional amount and system testing were possible. was still assurance the considered have program and insufficient meant was a totally based only for new manned program required could and the a reliability. booster which was had high flight. the Army The Ballistic following Missile March.2. phased 1959 quality control procedures in as permitted by the launch schedule. Aircraft system thus 1960. been for an established Section This a tactical To redesign lower 2). designed man-rating the safety increased reliability programs of the during system to improve programs success operation not only demonstrated but also by the proper by permonitor- vehicle two suborbital during each ing of the abort sensing flights. an abort ABMA held to design system.SECTION MAN-RATING 5 5. The well MERCURY developed missile for Program and had (see the was initiated at a time reliability. In January for missile 1959.

5.e. The abort action had to prevent the emergency condition from becoming a catastrophe. andthe modes of flight operation. loads was conditions an automatic not well could system develop would from too rapidly to permit an astronaut.2. shall be minimized or performance or sensor Switching eliminated.. The abort condition signal exists. a condition which gravely endangeredthe life of the astronaut. manual whose activation performance and sense all of abort. This signal activated the escapesystem through the MAYDAY relays. the capsule interface. hadto be compatible with the vehicle.2 SYSTEMCRITERIA Crew safety required immediate and decisive action in the event an emergency condition developed.2. shall be utilized Existing wherever launch vehicle possible.3 The SYSTEM guidelines • for GUIDE LINES the development system launch of this syste_u were as follows: critical performance The abort parameters sensing of the shall be tailored vehicle. shall limits be telemetered during flight in flight. 5.signal to the capsule. A block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 5-1. easily and reliably monitor the • Electrical power for the normal ac and dc supply GSE monitoring Sensor and system of sensors shall shall be taken from the launch vehicle's Loss of power shall be an abort condition. • • • be required. requirement to monitor emergency situations. under In flight relieve the established. hardware. shall be given as soon be located on the launch vehicle • as possible after an emergency • The system shall engine cutoff. sensors systems. The abort sensing systems thus. shall to the • The abort sensing system components and one signal sent to the capsule. i. • Parameters shall greatest possible be sensed which most number of malfunctions. 5-2 . for system be activated at liftoff and completely deactivated at The guidelines • design were as follows: for sensing signals. An automatic abort sensing and implementation system was selected since some emergency addition.

O. cutoff accept bus at and all becomes • a booster Prior to booster times support ground Figure 5-1..5 _10 Sensor Angular Velocity (Rate Switches) Abort Pitch: Yaw: Limits: Sensors Control Voltage Detectors Nominal Voltage: 60 Abort Limit: i--50 vdc vdc Additional Abort Sources • NASA Central Control • Launch Director Pitch: Yaw: Roll: degrees degrees degrees +5 degrees/second . the abort sensors in the are booster will abort lift-off abort supervised equipment.O. failure combustion switches to fuel capsule detection chamber changed depletion pressure from abort mode. D ] _ loss of Abort f / [ relavs_-l--_[---_ /J Bus f Combustion Chamber Not Active Until Pressure Limit: seconds 210 _ 300 psig psig +15 psi L. +30 sec. abort at lift-off. 28 capsulecapsule L.5 degrees/second L [I ' -_ (Both abort given) drop sensors can be must • Astronaut out before __ _ _ le i -7 I t'-"--""--_ -`L'T'3-'' ] !Information _12 deg/see [ Abort booster • is also 2_'dc Booster booster catastrophic Loss of booster the failure abort. initiated by ' through energizes detection vde. after calmrelays. Block Diagram Inflight Abort of MERCURY-REDSTONE Sensing System Automatic 5-3 . de-energizes strophic initiating 28 vde. Signal 2 from Capsule Telemetered Bus Signal Error Switch Abort Abort Information Signal Signals (Pitch and Signal Abort Abort Yaw) Safety Voltage Detector Abort Chamber Pressure 1 Chamber Pressure No.Attitude Abort Error Limits: +5 . i Emergency Cutoff (Range Only) Abort • • • • • • • System Abort Attitude Rate Control Combustion Signal Signal Abort Combustion No. Notes • • : The system At the normal capsule booster automatic active engine no longer signal. / _w_ 1_ /"_/ ] / _ ] Nominal Abort At 135 interface.

problem the probability an otherwise in order to overcome hazards) condition.2. All equipment shall be subjectedto a thorough qualification test program.2. All componentsof the abort sensing system shall be subjected to a thorough reliability test program. 5.The guidelines for hardware design were as follows: • • • Flight-proven equipmentshall be used to the greatest extent possible. However.1 With the ABORT SENSINGRELIABILITY General addition of an abort sensing system of a false was used to the abort in the launch signal sensing the vehicle.5 5.2. The electrical voltage limit was set just abovethe minimum required to operate the missile electrical systems. thus permitting the use of only a few basic types of sensors. a failure mode analysis was made of 60 REDSTONFtactical missile flights to determine the best choice of malfunction sensors (Table 5-I). The chamber pressure limits for abort were established by a study of the thrust buildup andnormal fluctuations. The study included a large number of componentswhich had failed or could conceivably fail and found that sensing eachcomponentand mode of failure was both impracticable and degradingto operational reliability.5. probability studies were made based on REDSTONEperformance. the probability an actual condition 5-4 . and sensors and to The Redundancy (which could also subject astronaut an actual to unnecessary emergency to reduce paragraphs probability describe of failing specifically to detect following was reject how redundancy of detecting of parameters abort employed a false to improve abort signal. The results. the study did indicate that many malfunctions led to identical results. To determine the abort limits in attitude andangular rates. (Figure 5-2).4 Prior to selecting the abort parameters. tabulated in Table 5-3. curtailing system mission reliability is decreased successful this and potential also due to the mission. The parameter sensors and limits selected are given in Table 5-2. MALFUNCTION AND PERFORMANCESTUDIES 5. led to the final selection of the abort limits.

H202 depletion. Electrical disconnect checkout . Low missile acceleration on ascent. b. Interchange of servo valves was not allowed. Vortex in H202 tank. LOX and water lead start was o a. t LOX container pressure decay. Rapid decline in combustion chamber pressure and turbine RPM. control imopera- a. was provided. firing of the boosters included tion from nominal to high and low thrust levels in 10 steps.Table 5-1 Flight Failure Analysis of REDSTONEPropulsion System Mode of Failure 1. Reliable test data became available and were used in MR calibrations. 5-5 . b. valve Improved (8073214) pressure regulator was employed. Strip heaters were installed on pressure transducer sensing lines to maintain temperature above freezing. Water froze in pressure transducer sensing line. Valve lower bearings friction. b. Probable Cause Corrective Action i Dry and slow start. I employed. were employed b. Increased pressure drop across the gas generator system during flight. test used data became available prediction in MR flight . c. Full flow 1a. Gas generators on all engines inspected for proper loading. c. Adequate H_02 Anti-vortexZbaffles in the H202 tanks. LOX vent failure. Roughcombustion Gas generator system performanc e drop. were Static operathen to o Thrust system proper tion. Improper calibration of propellant flow (human error). H202 tank pressure regulator failure. a. and preliminary data used in flight prediction analysis. were redesigned to 1 LOX depletion (cutoff earlier than predicted) High LOX flow. Reliable and were analysis. Thrust system erativp control inop- Servo trical nected valve eleccable not con(human error). Improper servo valve calibration. . Replacement limited to use of recalibrated spare only. cable to servo valve was not permitted during on MR vehicles.

Table 5-1 Flight Failure Analysis of REDSTONEPropulsion System (Cont. _5.) Mode . -0 degree 210 ±15 psig 50 +2 vdc Control Detector Voltage 28 vdc General Network Power CapsuleLaunch Vehicle Interface Connector Loss of voltage opened if connector 5-6 . missile boosters 1 and 3. Table MERCURY-REDSTONE 5-2 Abort Parameters Parameter Vehicle Attitude Pitch Yaw Roll Vehicle Angular Vel oc ity Engine Combustion Chamber Pressure 60 vdc Power Control Supply Sensor Attitude Pitch Yaw Roll Error Sensor Limit and Tolerance 5 degrees. L5. and range greater than predicted. of Recording flowmeter during tanking. which occurred during flight tests of earlier REDSTONE resulted in unsuccessful accomplishment of the booster and mission. Cause Same Corrective as 8. was employed A review of the REDSTONE propulsion system inflight malfunction and performance deviations was conducted to ascertain that necessary actions were taken to correct the possible deficiencies of the MERCURY-REDSTONE booster. Fuel depletion (cutoff earlier than predicted). Action Cutoff velocity. 5 degrees. 10 degrees. Insufficient amount fuel on board at liftoff.3.-0 degree +0. The other 8 failures were less serious and permitted the to complete their missions. Note: Failure missiles. flight time. of Failure Probable Same as 8. +1 degree +1 degree +2 degree -0 degree -0 degree -0 degree per per second second Pitch Rate Switch Yaw Rate Switch Pressure Switch +0.3. 10.

058 at 95 percent confidence* Probability less than 0.5 9.0 7.C launches.0 4. by sensors design Vehicle Malfunction in the vehicle itself.2.0 4. sensors 5-7 .2 * Probability calculated JUPITE R. system would enable the malfunction redundancy of related of the to be detected or by redundancy performance parameters in the sensor Attitude Error Sensor error axis rate and Rate failed Switches and control the vehicle axis. failure deviations Also.3 3. 028 at 95 percent c onfidenc e* Attitude Angles !(degrees) Pitch Yaw Roll Attitude Rates (degrees per second) Pitch Yaw Roll 2.9 3.7 2.0 3.7 3.2 2.9 5.9 11.155 at 95 percent confidence* Probability less than O.2 If a particular Detection sensor either of an Actual failed.0 2.8 4.5. switch in that an indication other axes normally also not limited signal _bort. from flight test data of 50 previous REDSTONE and 5.1 2.25 4.Table 5-3 REDSTONEAttitude Angles and Rates During A Normal Ballistic Trajectory " Item Predicted Maximums Probability less than 0. to one axis. the since would such in the have been If an attitude in that sensed was would vehicle by the sensor developed.3 5.

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of a False from Abort a failed Sigr_al abort sensor of high recovery were made: precludes acceleration area. Closing rate of A mechanical the switch was possible its only if the sensitive axis running above the and the set switch Control Two at a rate limits.2. an abort an attitude a loss signal piekoff of this would of the voltage have LEV-3 would been had have given. Combustion When the the Chamber combustion opened. attitude and the and the control would would have voltage not have have been gone detectors been able pickoffs vehicle still deviations rate out of since switches power would 3ource. the voltage the LEV-3 was lost.• Control If the which to sense control. initiated.3 A false and Prevention abort command the and failure. they Voltage 60 volt sensed vehicle In this powered Detectors dc control it failed. not Switches spring contacts turning kept was around the switch arm in the motor zero was rate position. Voltage control Detectors detectors drop were used value Switches pressure lock-in This increased relays. attitude case. lock-in during at mainstage and place feature thrust the engine parallel giving permitted ignition. 5.5. successful flight In order loads. abort switches switches signal in the if the prevented and switches of them did not open up to liftoff. to assure engine monitoring in the event one pressure failed. to be made inoperative. mission completion subjects astronaut from following to the hazards aerodynamic abort from a buffetting sensor • rescue the Error a certain for an off-nominal provisions to prevent Attitude Since supplied the Rate sensor Sensor voltage operation level of this and from sensor. pressure an abort ground in series before and both abort would would have have been had to voltage indicate a voltage to a preset Pressure chamber actuated circuit. in operation were by the 400 cps • Combustion Parallel Chamber switches sensor were Pressure employed Switches. buildup monitoring 5-9 .

Loss of this voltage after liftoff would have initiated an abort signal.7.7 5. initiation of engine shutdownwas limited to the RangeSafety Officer during that period.Capsule-Launch Vehicle Electrical Interface The Capsule-launchvehicle interface provided the means for the launch vehicle's 29 vdc to energize the capsule catastrophic failure detection relays.2. MERCURY-REDSTONE 5-7 Bus and (input Abort The bus. and abort 5-8 Figures Abort respectively. the circuitry. would liftoff. the booster might have fallen on land if the abort signal was permitted to shutdownthe engine in the normal manner. capsule -3. By the launch vehicle inflight abort sensing system after liftoff. Bus abort This -4) after Relay Engine signals bus from all automatic signal Prior abort sensors only through abort abort were the connected abort was relays sent to an abort (K7-1. 5. to lfftoff and the command relays via hardwire.2.2.1 The NETWORKAND SENSOR DESCRIPTIONS Abort Network abort sensing The Abort network network (abort is shown consisted output in the of three signal). Two physically separate electrical interfaces were provided in order to prevent a false abort signal dueto an interface wire connectionbreak. If an abort was required early in the flight (before T+30 seconds). As indicated in the figures. range safety considerations determined a major stepin the sequencing. These modes of abort initiation andthe time sequencingused are shown in Figure 5-3 through 5-6. By radio link before and after liftofL By manual (astronaut) initiation after capsule umbilical drop. the circuits: Cutoff signals). Thus.6 ABORT SIGNAL INITIATION AND SEQUENCING The over-all system was designed to initiate abort signal: By wire link before liftoff. preflight functional and the and inflight modes. 5. 5-10 . to the -2.

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" K_ actuated. "dropped two relays out" were engine employed main thus cutoff. mounted occurred The roll the in the pitch. Attitude This roll. Rate The Switches three rate switches were movements abort bus.bus was monitored the launch system Error by ground sequence prior Sensor monitored of the support was blocked equipment. to the only monitored by telemetry Co did not have Detector energize Control If the voltage used to the Voltage 60-volt sensors and both abort control gave had voltage a signal supply to the failure dropped abort before bus. by Range Range time Safety Safety relays by the At that the K5 and K16. to a failure cutoff from the of the At approximately switching This was the pressure to "calculated switches prevent eo minus abort during seconds. These cutoff. Chamber switches With a rise Pressure were Switches mounted on the pressure. yaw. and roll axes. in relays abort (failure) parallel given due in chamber K19 and This K20. angles of the gyro system the in pitch. stage relay. of the circuits to nonactuation were not being in switches during thrust the two switches signal to eliminate of one eight possibility switches of an abort after liftoff. and yaw was axes. below 50 volts. automatic a. andplaced lock-in feature pressure aborts The circuit.' 5-17 Emergency Engine after cutoff liftoff. yaw. cutoff circuit. for to provide redundant . and exceeded specified a signal to the abort b. the were could pass Two sensors abort signal to indicate the bus. a If excessive signal was angular given and in the rate abort pitch signal bus. engine the to sense switches chamber actuated. to the normal normal necessary an abort Cutoff shutdown. the chamber prevented buildup. switches due locking in the do Combustion Two pressure pressure. Officer Officer was prohibited not shown permitting signal paths until on the 30 seconds schematic. if an abort For safety and as a final in the check. was device If any sent the output attitude bus. limit. condition existed to liftoff.

K7-3 and -4. 1 and commandreceiver No. were operated by command receiver No. CapsuleAbort If the astronaut initated an abort. were poweredfrom independent28-volt supplies. The abort relay gavean abort signal directly to the capsule andwould initate enginecutoff 30 secondsafter liftoff.abort. Oncethe abort bus was energized from any of the abort sensors. and like the command receivers. -3.was de-energized. ground commandof abort could only be given through the capsule command receivers. -2. All wires which supplied abort signals or power from the launch vehicle to the capsule were duplicated for redundancy. Integrator velocity cutoff. This eliminated the possibility of fuel dispersion before an attempted abort. cutoff was blocked until after liftoff. which initated abort and enginecutoff as stated above. Abort could also be initiated up to liftoff by commandfrom the ground through a hardwi re comlection to the capsule After liftoff. were tied directly to the abort bus. As an additional safety feature the vehicle electrical system supplied the capsule a constant 28-volt signal through the series-normally-closed contacts of K7-1 and -2. 5-18 . Relays K5 andK16. f. 2. Co-_tactsK7-1 andK7-3 provided the lock-in feature to the abort bus when liftoff relay. the two emergency cutoff relays. Abort (by energizing the commandreceiver relays). These relays triggered the abort bus and started two timers which blocked the fuel dispersion (destruct) system for three secondsafter receipt of an emergency cutoff command. c. Propellant depletion (by meansof combustion chamber pressure switch within 8 secondsof calculated cutoff). an amount sufficient to de-energize the liftoff relay. and -4. b. respectively. • Abort Relay The abort contacts K7-1. Engine Cutoff Enginecutoff could be initiated by six sources subsequentto liftoff plus thirty seconds: a. the bus locked-in if the vehicle had moved 3/32 of an inch. This inadvertant loss of electrical power to assured abort by removing power from the abort circuit to the capsule. the signal openedcontacts K17-1and K17-2. K3.

Supply Reference voltage range (reference 50 to 60 volts 0°C + 55 ° C. Abort from capsule e. beyond prescribed voltage used.2. of capacitance.0 degree. connected between and Figure to rotated the sliders 5-9. Temperature Vibration Input Paragraph 5. minus minus minus 0 degree 0 degree 0 degree Pitch Yaw Roll • Circuit The had Description curcuit basic is shown in the block diagram. shunted by no more than impedance 50 K ohms or greater 0. limits direction 5-19 . gyros. Each gyro two potentiometers The mechanically in potential in magnitude curcuits determined in opposite furnished rotation.3).0 degree. 5. triggers. dc. reached.2 The Attitude of the Error attitude Sensor error limits sensing The input sensor in pitch. from the potentiometer circuit. signal Identical with difference both triggering and corresponding polarity polarity the the to gyro signal compared when respect were to ground. 2. b. f. time of 10 milliseconds. signals sensor was to actuate yaw.7. Emergency cutoff by RangeSafety Officer. from of rotation each slider in each a directions. Minimum Limits response and Abort • Abort Tolerances Limit 5 degrees 5 degrees 10 degrees Plus Plus Plus Tolerance 1. d. prior to engine adjustable Three bi-stable were LEV-3 independently the abort OR-type pickoffs inputs on the Design a.3. and the Requirements voltage on 28 volts dc+ 10 percent. Cutoff command from Launch Director (until liftoff).0 degree. 1. 005 microfarads f.d. and each were output roll with derived actuated the abort attitudes two bus if the vehicle cut- function deviated off. c. e.

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and potentiometer in supply voltage voltages. Oscillator coupling output diodes was in the capacitor-coupled rectifier due rectified which circuit to a rectifier prevented variations was the circuit. below the in the Oscillation diode voltage circuit Complete of diode provided and direction until causing the unijunction voltage was oscillator reduced circuit sustained value. circuit. reverse emitter level. delay. Circuit The sensing voltage. The level in the that in the an changes and in trigger changes stage capacitor precluded or oscillator relay powered base abort the circuit. network adjustment A thermistor provided compensation resistor variations in the reference combination temperature compensation. emitter The point provided in the (abort) was circuit. for input PNPN turn-on protection was used The the diode in the diode. cathode input diode reached the desired forward was diode conducted to operate. the on or off by varing (abort was the with limit) part was trigger bias. voltage The trigger Output by emitter oscillator input from of a unijunction was in the abort oscillator contacts and amplified to operated a relay details may of the voltage be seen PNPN was on the was schematic biased the PNPN diagram such that (Figure when the 5-10). and was diode provided circuit spikes and temperature shunted occurred in the transient collector voltage by a capacitor when the circuit to remove de-energized. the operation The relay of the arising to voltage output dc level amplifier The This limits fed to adc abort a time circuit.The trigger input circuit element The consisted which was of a PNPN turned point gated-diode used the set as a base voltage (gate) varying transistor rectified c ir cult. 5-21 . PNPN the potentiometer to the desired to adjust compensation diode operating for varying voltage a zener acted supply in the voltages reference achieved The by use zener and potentiometer constant for large voltage as the source. sensor energized provided transients operation and diodes circuit signal oscillator amplifier from above for the by requiring the com- to sustain The The resistor relay a sufficient bias was that time to charge capacitor. pensation.

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about doubledevice.• Failure Failure an abort: a. The Three and roll The and switches Only output the motions switches vehicle used to signal used only for monitoring performance a viscous proportional of an angular gyro used switches contacts. however. gyroscopic of turn. 5. damping to angular velocity pole. caused an abort. absence The a single switch Motor mentum power of the was gyro 115 volts was 400 cps. capacitor between oscillator and dc amplifiers. abort. e. resistors the of either would failure Attitude switch 28 or 50 volts of any Rate (figure a set angular in pitch. to close Yaw and pitch rates second.2. Loss nor Short Open circuit or short of either circuit transistor of the in the output. c. pitch the at a roll 0. rate) the which consisted The about gimbal closed its of a gyro gyro's sensitive displacement at the abort gimbal supported on bearings. b. velocity the throw input axis. several the angular mo- operation minutes. of the of the PNPN coupling diode. were closed plus attitude. at a predetermined CW or CCW and roll about its miniature angular input rate axis. parameter. zero. was displacement In the was limits. in the pitch. Units rate were device It was mounted built per on the and on operating capable to indicate for to close of sensing changes of contacts rates yaw. Open Short Short Consequences of the following attitude sensing components could have caused circuit circuit circuit input. to sense yaw rate minus 0 degree of the were that second.3 per used and degree of 12 degrees per second.6 designed rate at attitude per minus per of 5 degrees Tolerances per second second. yaw.3 The rate a spring-restrained. and yaw roll rate separate roll rate rate switch (or axis. sufficient In the to insure event of power for failure. switch rates were degree were pitch was second. power within component Switches 5-11) was not mentioned above. 0 degree switches MERCURY-REDSTONE the roll scvitch were 0. d. or diodes sensor circuit in the would reference not have network.7. 5-23 . axes.

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selected degree built A rate to give It had The closed and of low hysteresis low friction throughout 20 and with the when bearings assuring for their of accuracy characteristics. position have been a slight if the gyro increase failed. when rate was connected angular shown applied diode in Figure 28 vdc and by excessive to the bus through in the a diode. used. monitor the If the abort this signal energized rate 5-13. connected rate switch telemetry is shown 5.7. and switch contacts would would not have were housing.2. systems. out through a hermetically sealed connector All electrical located The gas rate which on the connections end of the were switches prevented The switch sealed The switches in an environment had a minimum material. of the rate by the thus life. contact. The abort divider switch transducer.there abort open would signal. springs ability and were to retain resolution of 1000 were a high were hours. diodes circuit blocked diagram to telemetry bus from in Figure through was the the a voltage sensors The measuring to it. system caused occurred. caused brought in the the angular velocity required have to give remained the in the Also. consisting operating and the of a dry life inert corrosion. very the exact circuitry circuits had voltage timer similar The timers employed delay 5-25 . signal of the voltage LEV-3 would gyros have dein sen- attitude upon of control For supply the pended loss sor. hermetically abort. loss of the _bort the. their 2000 operating cps. and had was used an indication no function switch to telemetry in the abort an abort. sensing as rates second by any except as a telemetry 5-12. distributer.absence Loss abort sensing pickoffs of this sensing system.4 The Control error the Voltage signals 60 volt of the Detector from the potentiometer voltage. Although anticipated had been at the for initiation the control for of the MERCURY-REDSTONE detector applications had not been in other Program. this sensor dc control and resulted error vehicle systemts it was from attitude decided the MERCURY-REDSTONE to assure a serious that to'monitor error voltage of an abort attitude did not cause decrease in or loss of control voltage potential. The switches to withstand switch vibrations was between in series monitor output switches switches. switch of the other readout.

mm_ . mmm mm 7 °i_ L_"____ R.mm. Attitude Rate Switch Block Diagram .To Abort Bus * 28 VDC ( r m _ .-:w_teh !! 1 __ __ J LI It_ Telemeter m m Figure 5-26 5-12._ate.

I I ! ! O Z IA o ¢q cq ! u_ IA II V Z IA dl 5-27 .

sensed un- by CR2. transients. 60-volt or unbalanced. in the voltage timer) had Three been such timer with ciras pod (separation in every used employed similar excellent cuitry timers Detailed . in the HARDTACK tests in the and as ground JUPITER system. stage provided output C-2. bridge circuit sensed balanced transistors voltage Positive voltage and range. thrust AM-9. manner Q2 cutoff. conducted output bridge relay into transistor energized stage Conduction A drop to 50 volts feedback drove action a balanced accentuated With Q1 to be cut action and of resistor in cutoff R-7 condition. maintained the the transistor output below relay circuitry was the Q1 and subsequently circuitry. 5-28 . of the and the en- voltage MERCURY-REDSTONE performed design and was to the system. position. dependent remained transistor maintained upon within Q1 the the the its voltage. voltage a bridge (30 volt circuit dc nominal) formed was monitored R6. was by a voltage divider network This If the was by the of the off. silicon transistor stage of this which functioned snap- as an on-off off operation Capacitors. operation required would not be adversely action of approxiUnan by voltage a delayed voltage would 100 milliseconds dealy was in order included. at the that Design Sharp critical circuit criteria triggering input level.3). The which bridge control drove circuit. all six units from deviation between specifications dropout far below fell at low temperature one site volt on three voltage The pickup extreme temperature launch mission temperatures. affected mately less abort this relay. in such as to cause transistors to be biased The control amplifier switch of the C-1 and for was the a medium output relay assured power. the to compensate control voltage for negative detector transients. CR3. performance detector tested The conducted by Quality Division to use Units launch o f the conwere vehicle (0°F).trol missile as shroud and In addition. causing the cutoff 5-14). For immediately bridge de-energized became actuating unbalanced abort voltages the 50 volts circuitry to cutoff.been units extensively per missile success had been in the tested to JUPITER timers JUPITER e_vironmental and reverse since timers requirements. paragraph deviation was not considered relevant vehicle (reference 5. JUNO sensors prior successfully program. The test differential units. satisfactorily was below Six of the within vironmentally specifications. were H program.3. sensed specified driving in the and R10 (Figure balanced the Q2. and initiate detect signal as a result of a negative transient.

> 0 ! 0 0 o .._ o o 0 c_L) to .! M A W 0 _ ¢q ..m o o_.m °T + v 0 0 N 0 r_ ! u_ N I i ÷I( : 9 5-29 .F.

of sequencing false was pressure applied to the through diaphragm pressure creasing preloaded in Figure The and Since out method prevented any of the transmitted the a preloaded and the and armed to a microswitch. cause points microswitch deactivate the arm pressure and would controlled microswitch abort an abort and was actuation assured in the would prior proper event signal engine operation fluctuations the cutoff.Capacitor. across increased delay 100 milliseconds.2. voltage relay dropped causing This for below 28 volts the critical 50 volt at the both level. voltage was was open. one all components two detector if the other below thus To prevent to block 5. adjusted deThe as shown monitored on the with thrust two redundant frame with pressure chamber pressure supplied combustion These switches. signal Pressure chamber switches circuits detector in series Chamber Sensor pressure were was mounted tubes. to them When by independent pressure was actuated pressure spring 5-2. spring the the force developed on the Increasing Subsequent signal. switch. switched loss abort of pressure circuit pressure were to a normal 5-3_ . Figure 5-15. were of the levels control well voitage their allowing detector rating. amplifier set age control the de-energized closed circuit dc to appear required through input of normally and proper contacts.7. no output the used To assure was designed maximum so that a false the abort and reliability. sient to the When the C-l. engine buildup. prior to arming during switches thrust the switch abort of pressure an abort. circuitry at power were should used fail. provided Capacitor. required the control contact when the C-2. the output relay was energized and output However. operation safety mode of operation signal. switch. a time delay of 50 milliseconds the relay coil for a negative the voltage time tran- of 20 volts.5 The abort. output safe the control a voltin the safe range.

2 above flight and that history.1 INTRODUCTION It was evident at the beginning of creased tensive identified new.Microswitch Diaphragm Pressure Switch Combustion Chamber Pressure (_ Electrical Receptacle Adjusting Screw Vent Figure 5-15.3 RELIABILITY PROGRAM 5. program of the indicated many of the the program that missiles. was thus system capsule the A reliability operation RELIABILITY established to ul:grade booster new components. areas the abort of its mission Since design and reliability the and had to be inhad had were assure the an exbeen by the tactical weak REDSTONE performance interface and In contrast. Chamber Pressure Sensor 5.3. proper 5. TESTING program was conducted protion Program.3. improved. A major Reliability program MERCURY-REDSTONE successful found 5-31 . to prove of this The test the REDSTONE's was program adaptation called the potential to A developmental the MERCURY test Program.

• Static Firing . Mating compatibility test. and capsule. and established procedural and quality standards. formally namedthe Vertical Test Fixture (Figure 6. b. Aft section tests including abort system. Thrust unit flight simulation. c. Also conductedby CCMD were the structural load simulation tests on the thrust unit. Of special note was a total system-environment test of the Instrument Compartment containing the abort sensing system. Propulsion subsystem tests. The details of these tests and their results are described in Section6. andlongitudinal loads simulating flight and transportation loads. b. Flight adapter checkout.3).problem areas. Tail section tests. Transportation load simulation. In addition several component developmentandqualification tests were madeto solve individual problem areas and prove flight readiness. Functional and mating compatibility tests were also made at MSFCwith the capsules for MR-1 through MR-BD. developedsatisfactory solutions. A checkoutwas made on eachflight adapter starting with the adapter for MR-3. Tests in the total program included the following. The factory testing was a combined temperature-humidity-vibration test series conducted by Chrysler Corporation's Missile Division (CCMD). Factory Testing a. This test included appliction of bending. shear. • ComponentQualification and Development Tests. A static firing test conductedby MSFC measured noise and vibration at several points on the missile. The abort 5-32 . This was probably the biggest and most important ground test effort of the program. b. c. adapter.Noise and Vibration • Capsule andAdapter a. Structural Load Simulation a. Separation ring test. The test was made on a specially designed "rock androll" test fixture.

The purpose of the tests was to isolate any mode of failure so that necessary corrective action could be taken. environmental levels of failure. critical environment at the expected • Each until component failure a predetermined occurred. this methodhad the advantageof testing the various componentsandtheir interaction.3 ABORT SYSTEMRELIABILITY TEST PROGRAM Of special interest was the program designedto assure a high abort system reliability. Actually vibration. combustion chamber of their on the 5-33 . Suchtests were conductedat the Chrysler plant. and critical operation and environmental conditions. sensors These temperature for the instrument pressure designed engine.3. pressure was two test shock. qualification tests were conductedfor each componentof the abort system at MSFC. Additional details are given in Section 6. The plan for this program is presented here. attitude sensors. The plan called for testing of systems and subsystems.3.3. compartment. a modified test-to-failure program was to explore the modes of failure. 5. switches. for the contained B {Table rate in the 5-5} location acceleration. Using three or more units of eachof the componentscomposingthe abort system. • Second Each Level component maximum was was stressed capability stressed operationally of that under particular and environmentally component. In addition.system was operated under actual angular rates and attitude changes. voltage and plans and were developed which Plan differed only 5-4) was in the levels of temperature. humidity andtemperature environments. In addition to testing large groups of componentssimultaneously. The tests were designated as follows: • First Level Each componentwas tested under those environments expectedprior to and during flight. and controlled A {Table error designed were Plan because detectors. coupled with vibration.

Table 5-4 Abort SensingSystem Reliability Test Plan A for Attitude Rate Switches, Attitude Error Sensors, andVoltage Detectors*

Environment Low Temperature High Temperature Vibration

First Level + 50°F +120°F 20 to 50 cps at 0.03 inch doubleamplitude 50 to 2000cps at 4 g.

SecondLevel
O°F +14 5°F 20 to 50 cps at 0.06 inch double amplitude 50 to 2000 cps at 8g.

Third Level
- 25°F +160°F and and +77°F +77°F

20 to 50 cps at 0.09 inch double amplitude 50 to 2000 cps at 12 g. Repeat with g increased by 4 g increments until failure. 3O g 30 g Longitudinal 15 g Lateral

Shock Acceleration

10g 10g Longitudinal 5 g Lateral

20g 20 g Longitudinal I0 g Lateral 3 attitude error

* The number of samples tested were 6_ except, only sensors were tested due to component availability.

Table Abort Sensing System

5-5 Plan B for (6 Samples) Combustion Chamber

Reliability Test Pressure Sensors

Environment Low High Temperature Temperature

First

Level

Second Same Same as

Level in Table 5-4 5-4

Third

Level

as in Table

Vibration

20 to 100 cps at 0.04 inch double amplitude 100 to 2000 cps at 20 g. 25g

20 to 100 cps at 0.06 inch double amplitude 100 to 2000 cps at 30 g.
]

20 to inch tude at 40 40g

100 cps at 0.08 double ampli100 to 2000 cps g.

Shock Acceleration

30 g NONE

5-34

As shown in the tables, both plans call for
the equipments for were to be stabilized prior at the temperature really room Each cycled three was The except The any 2 hours one to running

temperature indicated

excursions. temperature,

For then third soak

these soaked test

tests at thiswas

functional

tests. and, after

The the

level cycle,

two tests; temperature. component at all three consecutive omitted vibration for test

at the

extreme

temperature

one at

was

first

low temperature vibrated, The final B as well shocked, test was

cycled and

at all

three

levels, in that vibration.

high order,

temperature at the last test

levels, levels. Test Plan

accelerated,

a test-to-failure testing. sweep

This

as acceleration vibrational

consisted The

of a 6-minute sweep was

from

20 to 2000 three major

to 20 cps, planes. to locate increased in

as g limited. sensors were

to locate the

resonances vibration level and test,

in all tested

to be operating After frequency

during the initial

afterward was

vibrational

damages. and the was

third until

the g level failure. three axes for

4 g increments The shock test

cycled

component of all

to be applied was used,

in both directions for 10 milliseconds waveform in both along, tests, tests was

12 milliseconds was test con-

if triangular used, sisted and

waveform 8 milliseconds

if sinusoidal used. The

waveform

if square

acceleration axes to, were the with

of a 5-minute and shock lateral and

acceleration acceleration

directions

of all three

simultaneous of test. No shock

longitudinal After the

and perpendicular checkouts

direction

acceleration

functional were planned.

scheduled.

or acceleration 5.3.4 After gard studies

test-to-failure STUDIES the reliability for manned The would first place

RELIABILITY flight to its were MR-2 suitability made. which based their study shown The

of the flight

MERCURY-REDSTONE (reference on the paragraph running proper the average

was 8.3).

re-examined Three separate success The

in re-

was

based

of flight point. of all

probabilities study was

the payload configuration to the later. The

at the using

injection flight record made running

second

on an artifical failures will according

components, component. investigation as shown in the in

weighting The were Table tables, third as

number results

of flights of the

by each average

be defined 5-6.

The

in Table probability

results

of the component success thus was

evaluation estimated, as

were shown

5-7.

of booster and

to be between

78 percent

84 percent

at a 75 percent

confidence

level.

5-35

Table 5-6 MERCURY-REDSTONEReliability Prediction (10February 1961)*-A Running Average Probability Of Booster Success Crew Escape Straight Average 81.2 98.6 50 Percent Confidence 80.3 97.6 95 Percent Confidence 77.4 94.3

* Basis: All REDSTONE JUPITER-C andMERCURY-REDSTONEBooster Flights (69 Flights).

Table 5-7 MERCURY-REDSTONEReliability Prediction (10February 1961)*-B Number of F rings of ComponentsComposing MR Subsystem Probability of Booster Success 75 Percent Confidence as Based
on

Subsystem

Past Firings

Engineering Estimates 94 Percent 96 Percent 96 Percent 99 Percent 98 Percent 84 Percent

**

Propulsion Structure Control Pressurization Human Error
Total

lO to _7 10 27 to 67 67 _7
i0 to 67

90 Percent 96 Percent 94 Percent 96 Percent 96 Percent 78 Percent

* ** Many required

Basis: Based

MERCURY-REDSTONE Components on Co_aponent were Improve_:aents

Configuration Achieved

as with

Composed Corrective parameters

of Subsystem Action. exceeding the launch flight. the those operations _hese facts, of vehi-

components for had with the

originally

designed

to mission mission.

MERCURY-REDSTONE techniques more

In addition, to satisfactory with

personnel coupled inadvertent 5-36

developed the

conducive

improvements led MSFC

incorporated to the opinion

on the vehicle that the

low probability launch

abort,

MERCURY-REDSTONE

cle reliability was in the range of 88 percent to 98 percent probability for launch success and crew survival, respectively. The successful MR-BD flight gave the assurance that the MERCURY-REDSTONEwas ready for mannedflights. As stated previously, a portion of these studies was an evaluation of all components comprising the launch vehicle. Most of these componentsor their prototypes had flow in earlier REDSTONEarid JUPITER-C vehicles. The rating of the componentsand their allied systems necessarily considered not only the number of times flown but also any malfunctions which were known to have occurred and whether this type of malfunction had been completed eliminated for future flights. liability study was made. For the third calculation, the effect of each malfunction was carefull adjusted in value based on its possible contribution to a vehicle failure that could occur and adversely affect a MERCURY-REDSTONEmission. Particularly sensitive to such judgment was the impact of human errors. Both humanerrors and componentmalfunctions which had occurred during a recent firing were given more weight than the earlier occurrences. Consideration was also given to system design improvements, incorporated during the period of system use, andrepetitive performance improvement or learning curve in both personnel performance and improved operational techniques. The malfunction and failure data thus derived was then examined for the possibility of occurrence in the MERCURY-REDSTONEvehicle, as fabricated andchecked out under its more stringent standards of construction andquality assurance. This componentand system evaluation resulted in synthetic data which were deemed as representing reasonable expectedfailure or malfunction rates in the MERCURYREDSTONElaunch vehicle. Reduction of these data to a common confidence level was based on the assumption that the calculated reliability was the mean of all reliabilities represented by a series of samples of like size. A further interpretation of this implies that the calculated reliability represented the mean:: of the actual reliabilities of the individual flights. In addition, it was assumed that this hypothetical series of reliabilities followed a Gaussian or normal distribution. This derivation of an estimated standard deviation then permitted the determination of system reliability for various confidence factors. The reliability estimates thus derived were presented in terms of confidence factors in which the level of confidence was interpreted to mean that the reliability estimated would be as stated or higher in the percentage of cases represented by the confidence level. Typical of such data derived at this point in the program was: 5-37 Thus, a third and more refined re-

(Successful

Vehicle Reliability powered flight without 84 Percent 75 Percent

Confidence abort) 50 Percent 75 Percent

Level

An alternate spread of cases in data which

method

of data

presentation Here, the the

to more

readily

permit

a judgment expresses range. Range the

of the percentage

is shown will

below.

confidence or calculated

interval

lie within Interval

expected

reliability Reliability

Confidence 50 Percent 75 Percent

75 to 94 Percent 69 to 98 Percent

This

portion

of the the

study

thus

attempted

to derive vehicle design

a reliability

and

confidence flight

factor history,

by

comparing allowing changing based are

MERCURY-REDSTONE systems and operation,

components modifications The data

to previous and

for differing procedures, given

improvements, the above values are

different 5-8.

missions.

on which

in Table

Table Evaluation of Flight Data

5-8 Components

on MERCURY-REDSTONE

NO,

Flights Flight LEV-3 Network Structure LOX manhole Elongated Propulsion I-I 02 regulators 2 A-7 engine controller start 67 10 42 45 tanks cover 10 10 and Actuators Control 27 67

Observed Malfunctions

Weighted Failures*

Anticipated Failures**

1 2

0.75 1

10 0

0.25 0

0.25 0

3 4 5 0

1.5 0 0.4 0

Thrust

H2 02 lead

5-38

Table 5-8 Evaluation of Flight Data on MERCURY-REDSTONEComponents(Cont. issued It inspired people all individuals to use with and to do their discretion focused stamps and work been of re- to trained (Figure 5-16). QUALITY GENERAL MERCURY-REDSTONE the human errors quality assurance ASSURANCE AND MERCURY not be eliminated 5.4. used careful and test. accomplished checkout. documentation. a psychological 1959. stamps Since identified the the REDSTONE hardware flight each was which components handler MERCURY system weapon into MERCURY a man promoted By space.25 0 0. effectively placed primary emphasis This on eliminating was in fabrication. 5. hardware. motivation MERCURY or the human Awareness of quality.2 The aspect were motivation.4 5.20 0 Compartment Errors 67 * Weighted failures are those ing judgment) an unacceptable ** observed malfunctions M-R booster flight. PROGRAM dealt with the personnel best. might which would cause (by engineeron M-R r Anticipated failures are weighted failures that boosters in spite of present corrective action. identified The stamps documentation further hardware preliminary MERCURY and square and final by circular 5-39 . on approved attention of quality documentation on the and has good since hardware conscientious peated The built would the Publicity This space program awards people.) No. manned of the was a keystone in every importance as a military carry program.4. In addition to identification of the stamps utilized of MERCURY ultimate use within only stamps part. effort that inspection.1 The AWARENESS PROGRAM program assembly. MERCURY Mercury in a threefold and personnel AWARENESS Program. Flights Pressurization Propellant Instrument Human Personal and Turbine 67 67 Observed Malfunctions Weighted Failures* Antic ipated Failures** 0. stamps the should be noted. and identified use awareness of these were of the 7 October established throughout status that the MERCURYprogram.

and functional required to be complete in all details. feasible The ground and equipment where system flight the was connected equipment launch simulated not be operated. specific Standard on complete instructions was accurate rather were REDSTONE and specifications required. for Project all others MERCURY. Then power were and that checked out separately.4. Use of any spare parts or documentationnot identified by the square stamp was prohibited. Receiving inspections radiographic construction. acceptance After tems assembly had been a booster inspected.3 The DOCUMENTATION quantity of development documentation was placed was increased only and slightly over records that of the Project MERCURY was carried out. which inspection simulated of electrical conditions soldering of application. MERCURY of components. had occurred no deteriorations as a result intercoupling. Test MERCURY and documentation electronic procedures prepared. inspection monitored inspection and included quality each of the component. systems Tests buildup. 5. and Since installed. and Since processed whose parts for MERCURY-REDSTONE with those were were all for closest assigned parts the tactical to the Progam fabricated the for coincidently characteristics REDSTONE nominal were REDSTONE with a components the MERCURY selected Program. assured the proper testing and correct were documentation selection being missile. began with a launch countdown and 5-40 . tactical than used were REDSTONE. selected missile. that they each checkout functionally was conducted. The final factory using could test actual was the simulated equipment The flight where test test.enclosures. to the tactical were identified Once stamp.4.4 The QUALITY improved ASSURANCE TESTING and procedures. respectively. tests was used to determine was run applied to insure would system work as a single vehicle system. on additional except reviewed time where Emphasis forms. tested. inprocess and cable included magnaflux and of engine tests parts. test reports and new reports mechanical kept procedure specifications and inspection Running were were on all parts. combined During units. This identification procedure further assured that the 100percent inspection directive for 5. all components the final In this compatibility of the and subsyscheckout checkout.

Special procedures were also established for the testing and selection of spare parts for each booster. if not used at the launch site. These parts were then identified by missile number and. If the records were good. At the completion of the test. Telemetry recordings were made through an RF link. were returned for checkout with a subsequentreassignment. MERCURY-REDSTONEMannedFlight Awareness Stamp 5-41 . the vehicle was acceptablefor launch use. Figure 5-16.equipment was operated sequentially in the same order as it would on an actual flight. were checkedfor compatibility at MSFC during checkout tests. All spare assemblies and subassemblies. assigned to a specific vehicle. the records were examined for proper equipment operation.

.

functionally operation of testing. this The reach INTRODUCTION MERCURY-REDSTONE in all launch in addition section booster the test includes recovery phase. system. test and (electrical). whereby checked. testing sequence was and based finally on the pyramidal vehicle testing was philosophy. flight pressure The nents. control No.2 VEHICLE TEST PROGRAM 6. and mechanical function.2. functional analysis. frequency and test calibration. assembly analysis. testing. (includes over-all systems. following: vehicle The systems vehicle • • • • • • • • • • • • • subjected the Mechanical Static firing. compoThis type subsystems. to to a description details program The flight mechanical reliability covered electrical of special is also vibration the as it was tests are development detailed in Section 6.SECTION6 DEVELOPMENT TEST PROGRAM 6. 1). programs.1 The quired Thus. test No. necessary. illustrated the entire 6-1. vehicle development programs plus of the program those included added and and due the normal manned checkout dampening first such ground test re- to the payload. Alignment Pressure Continuity Network Radio Guidance Over-all Instrument Over-all Simulated Final (mechanical).1 The for tem launch GENERAL MERCURY-REDSTONE component status were selection special was test program retained the Only high after final quality the test procedures neared tests full to which used systhe and booster systems were tests assembly. (electrical). the vehicle. in Figure verified proper of all hardware within 6-1 . program 8. 3. No. 2.

Mechanical Tests Assembly and Quality Control Inspection

Electrical Tests Wiring and Quality Control Inspection

V
+ Noise and Vibration Firing Test Static ] Networks Incl Mechanical Alignment Cooling Test System Mechanical Functional Pressure Tests and Over-all Test #2 Instrument Calibration Tests Over-all #1 Guidance and Control Radio Frequency Checkout Continuity Tests

]

Telemetry Calibration I
il

Booster

Install Adapter Simulated Flight

_/ Test

Electrical Mate and Abort System Checkout

Abort

System Tests

Over-all Test _3 Final Pressure and Mechanica: Functional Ar Simulated Flight Test Ship to Cape

Com patibility Radio Frequency

I

Figure 6-2

6-1.

MERCURY-REDSTONE

System

Test

Flow

Diagram

Within this section, reference to boosters will be made based on their assembly number, not their ultimate flight number; e.g., booster MR-8, which served as the launch vehicle for Flight MR-4, shall be referred to as MR-8. This notation on the use of nomenclature is necessary due to the similarity of the numbering systems. A cross tabulation of booster and flight numbers is as follows.
Booster MR-1 MR-2 MR-3 MR-5 MR-7 MR-8 MR-4 MR-6 No. Flight MR-1 MR-2 MR-IA MR-BD MR-3 MR-4 Not Not (Shepard) (Grissom) Launched Launched ("Ham"} No.

6.2.2 Although analysis countered rework. Approval -8. flange replacing

MECHANICAL assembly was

ASSE MBLY were

ANALYSIS throughout to assembly replacement were buildup, release. of faulty documented MR-3, LOX tank a final mechanical enor

analyses

performed vehicle prior

performed the

on each analysis from

Difficulties components

during

resulted specified

in either

All deviations Request. vehicles modified the 5/16

documentation was made

by a Waiver -5, -7, and

A standard the LOX

modification tank manhole the bolt with 3/8

on Boosters gasket, and

On these were

cover, hole

bulkhead

by increasing inch steel bolts event inch

diameters bolts

to 0. 390 _+0. 005 inch, and torquing the due these bolts

aluminum necessary bolts was

to 175 +_5 inch-pound. cover, que replacement used. of the

In the 3/8

it was aluminum

to disassemble required

manhole high tor-

to the

value

6.2.3

STATIC

FIRING

6.2.3.1 As part

Introduction of the prelaunch launch and test were vehicles reliability stand conducted procedures was under at the and scheduled rated checkouts, for thrust Space static each firing of the tests These eight MERCURYsatisfactory were A total conducted of 32

REDSTONE performance on the static interim tests

to insure tests

conditions. Flight and test Center

Marshall

(MSFC). with

on the

MERCURY

boosters

an accumulated 6-3

time of over 2230 seconds. assembly

In addition to the basic static firingtests to assure proper

and operation of the propulsion unit, additional tests were run to derive both

additional data and help solve specific problems.

6.2.3.2 Noise gram and

Capsule vibration

Noise effects of four

and

Vibration missile

Tests and capsule test were tower evaluated using early in the procapsule. not detri-

on the test firings

in a series shown

in the

static

a boilerplate were

The results, mental

in Table

6-1,

indicate

these

environment

conditions

to the booster

or capsule.

Table Sound and Vibration

6-1 During Static Firing

Location

Sound Pressure Level at 1000 cps (db) 141

Composite at Mainstage Lateral

Vibration Thrust - peak

g

Longitudinal

Pitch

Tail

Fin Capsule Capsule Rocket Adapter

Outside Inside Escape Capsule

123 101 123 2 1 4 1.5 4.5 6.5 8.2 2 4.3

Instrument Comp. (TV Camera) Fuel Thrust Tank Frame

6.2.3.3 Subsequent tem in the cated The heater was

Hydrogen to the effected. The

Peroxide static The firings redesign

System of MR-1 required tests and MR-2, a major seals during therefore, the heat redesign of the H202 sysseals indi-

O-ring conducted and, with

in lieu the

of metal-to-metal static firing of MR-3 for flight.

system. the O-rings also

results

of the

to be functioning appeared which were

properly

satisfactory produced

O-rings

to be compatible also part of the

by H202

system

blankets,

modifications.

6-4

6.2.3.4
When MR-4

Oscillation was static 10 eps) oscillation A thorough of the from MR-2 MR-3 to the test the tests

Problems fired was had the first time, in the present revealed the second The MR-3 an unexpected oscillograph during that bending the the low frequency traces static of the oscillation engine param-

(approximately eters. boosters. resonance was MR-1 the mounted and This

discovered not been

firings were

of the the

previous result of

investigation stand top with of the

oscillations

mode

of theboosterwhen to the stand, the

the booster to the of Mod-

stand. to the

modification test, it was

subsequent frequency manner.

but prior resonate

had changed attached

resonant

stand.

did not

because this

in a different

ification

stand

prevented

resonance.

6.2.3.5 In tests ignition. limits cess long

Boattail simulating

Heater the

Tests launch countdown, and heater the LOX was critical ducts series loaded several hours within through prior specified the acas to

actual

To maintain during the into hold

all engine period,

parameters

temperatures were static inserted firings, affects.

hot-air-type section. During made

doors as eight

the boattail were

hold periods

hours

successfully

without

adverse

6.2.3.6 When

LOX several

Manhole LOX leaks

Cover occurred

Seal

Leaks in the was of the when LOX tank manhole cover the seal of various and characinch at even

REDSTONE teristics greater the with same the

vehicles, of the leaks. lubricated values. bolt

a test

program

initiated cover

to determine gasket was bolts was using

cause

Compression bolts than

approximately and washers

0.012 were in any used test,

using torque cover

nonlubricated sealing torque

However,

complete

not achieved no lubricant.

tightened

to 190 inch-pound

6.2.3.7 In a further tested hold

LOX Replenishing effort to simulate its

Tests actual launch conditions, the required with the the LOX LOX system. replenish level during system extended was

to determine periods.

capability were

to maintain experienced

No difficulties

6.2.3.8 A problem start) and the was

Abort was blown

Sensors encountered into in the early phase of testing chamber P
C

when pressure

water

(used (Pc)

in the

inert

the two abort controller

combustion

sensing

lines then

single

thrust

transducer

line.

The

low LOX temperatures

6-5

froze the water preventing proper operation of the sensors. This difficulty was solved by the utilization of strip heaters on all three lines. 6.2.4 ALIGNMENT TEST (MECHANICAL)

After static firing andbefore the integrated mechanical-electrical checkouttests, mechanical alignment checks were performed on the power unit, the taft section, the aft unit, and, finally, onthe entire thrust unit. All six boosters successfully completedtheir alignment tests; however, four problem areas occurred during this checkout. The test plan included a capsule adapter mating alignment check. Since noneof the adapters were available at the time of the alignment tests, only the mating surfaces were checked. Difficulty in assembly of the jet vaneplates caused the plates on MR-1 and MR-3 to be off in perpendicularity. On MR-2 and -8 the plates were off in angularity. These discrepancies were minor andwere waived. Thefirst three vehicles required shimming of the engine. MR- 1and-2 were shimmed becausethe mountingholeswould haveotherwise been too close to the edge of the mounting ring. MR-3 was shimmed and MR-1 additionally shimmed to correct for thrust vector misalignment. 6.2.5 PRESSUREAND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

Pressure and functional a_alysis tests were performed to assure correct operation of the pneumatic andhydraulic systems of the vehicle. All systems on all vehicles were within limits. Actually, two sets of pressure and functional tests were made; the first immediately after the alignment tests and the final before booster shipment to the launch site. Vehicles MR-3, -5, -7, and -8 were shipped with 10 psig air pressure in the gaseousnitrogen spheres. 6.2.6 CONTINUITY TESTS(ELECTRICAL)

Electrical assembly and installation and ground support equipment compatibility were checked. All vehicle connectors andcables were inspected, andresistance measurements were made on all wire to assure that continuity existed. In addition, all vehicle distributors and the ground support equipment were verified prior to connecting to the vehicle. Several installation discrepancies were revealed in MR-2, -3, -5, -7, and -8, all of which were corrected prior to release of the vehicle. After correction of these discrepancies, the test results were satisfactory.

6-6

1 This NETWORKTESTS Introduction of tests and group performed consisted of tests on the of the that from vehicle were test. given cutoff the test. valves associated and valve with the position propulsion component were operation satisfactory 6.7.2. television verified The proper found causing circuitry destruct on-off as the name not limited entailed sequencer shifting to verification extensive operation. two diodes equipment faulty parts during operation MR-3's two to be faulty. the but actually and circuitry the flight for television of the command command of In addition. necessary Vehicle to replace satisfactory GSE test however. of No.7. first operaat- component the propulsion performed to verify This pressure. tion Component tests Tests were system (Propulsion designed operation. schematics. the inverter shorting function.6. lens cover up to the point cutoff tests into and junction and camera While and a relay connector assembly. and entry -7. in the as a result of one of its contacts. as 1 (Sequential a test Flight Simulation) a switch-on internal engine power. group tests network It was solenoids component electrical in this were the location with the contacts. from ground as a minimum. engine Over-all test Test is defined No. location reasons.3 The cutoff Cutoff test Test was (Shutdown and Abort System of the Networks) vehicle abort the were cutoff circuits. by a transfer a simulation firing of liftoff. receivers.2. System Electrical operation Network) of components in two parts.4 An over-all performed. the verified operation that on all to the The tention pneumatic checked tests circuits part. panel. and valve proper test was performed the For without pneumatic relays control second verified solenoids.7. to vehicle and a rocket followed sequence.7. engine of pneumatic all components six vehicles. ascertained comparison 6. to malMR-5 a relay -8 were electrical pins completed network.2. the television box testing implies. . of the In addition. the associated The and special high to the The pressure spheres.7 6. conductors of the eliminated the test of the these it was failure problems. and 1. for pressurizing performed with and pressure venting applied switches.2. verifying were were on MR-l. 6. had Replacement results.2 The with part. cutoff sequence a rocket signal is 6-7 is in which. of relay vehicle general and classification over-all Test diodes. in a ground satisfactorily. electrical safety of propulsion-control was given spheres.2.

2. A false abort was indicated during MR-2's over-all test. flight sequencer. of the was The vehicle's simiiar results control to that of over-all system of over-all test integrated test No. the third network test. during normal operation the television oscillator frequency radiation dropped to a noninterference level. network.2. and -5 tested satisfactorily. 1 on MR-1 and MR-2. Dust in the pitch attitude sensor of MR-8 required cleaning of the sensor before final acceptance. also tested were the program device. which was corrected by replacement of componentsand rewiring. 1 satisfactorily. but the rate switch circuitry was suspected. In addition. later LN2 external cooling systems were required to pass a checkout simulation prior to the over-all test. was designed to test the sequential operation of the valves. 6. 6. Controlled inputs were introduced into the system. vehicles. -7. No. As a result. 1. and solenoids involved in the engine firing.10 This test OVER-ALL TEST NO. trouble was encounteredwith the preflight cooling system operation and circuitry. However.8 RADIO FREQUENCYSYSTEMSCHECKOUT These tests were performed to insure that each RF componentoperated properly within specified limits during individual functional checks.given. andphysical separation of the top and tail umbilicals. of the 1 but with completely the addition satisfactory control all 2 were for 6-8 .2. Replacement of faulty attitude error sensor was necessary on MR-7. Over-all test No. MR-l. -3. -2. 6. MR-5. was into performed the general to assure 2 proper The functioning test sequence system. the tests verified that the RF componentswere compositely compatible with themselves andwith the general network. The program device was found to be faulty on MR-3. and the outputs were accurately checked for proper polarity and scale factors. During the over-all test No.9 CONTROL SYSTEMSCttECKOUT The control system checkout was performed to ascertain the function of the system as it related to the vehicle performance requirements. A redesign of this circuit was madeto eliminate any possible cause. The exact initiator of the abort could not be identified. and -8 passed over-all test No. relays. Interference was encounteredwhen MR-2 and MR-5's television circuits were in a standby mode.

1. This meLhod of simulating liftoff allowed continuous monitoring and recording of vehicle operation during the simulated flight period. -2. 6.11 INSTRUMENTATIONCALIBRATION Signal outputs from the various measuring transducers were first checked to calibration curves via hardwire link. The vehicle underwent a typical flight program. with small deviations from the normal trajectory simulated by the tilt program of the LEV-3. At liftoff plus 140 seconds.6. and the sequenceof events that followed was automatic until liftoff. tail. cutoff was given by the velocity integrator. controlled by the program device. Safety-relay boards were installed in the main. the telemeter calibrator. Additional shield grounding was required to eliminate erratic pulses on MR-8's program device channel No. and. shortly thereafter. Liftoff was simulated by de-energizing the tail plug supervision relays in the ground equipment and the liftoff relays in the vehicle. 6. After liftoff. then. andthe tilt program of the LEV-3. The test consisted of a brief subsystem operational check and then a complete simulated firing and flight sequence.12 OVER-ALL TEST NO. The test was performed using a simulated countdown procedure.2. Preliminary checks were made in which the vehicle subsystems were energized and operationally verified. RF. 3 In this test the control.2. the test was completed by simultaneously removing all power from the vehicle and ground equipment. The vehicle was then placed in a ready-to-fire condition. the information was colmected to the telemetry packageand rechecked via RF link. and the firing commandwas given. and -5 completed the tests with satisfactory results. The remaining vehicles had several minor problems none of which indicated a specific problem area. The results of the instrumentation and calibration tests on MR-1 and MR-2 were completed satisfactorily. The vehicle was put in a readyto-fire condition.13 SIMULATED FLIGHT TESTS This final test of the booster was designed to prove the compatibility of all electrical and electro-mechanical systems (vehicle and ground equipment) in simultaneous operation. and 30 seconds later the test was terminated by simultaneously removing power from the vehicle and the ground equipment. Vehicles MR-l. the program device controlled the operation of the flight sequencer. The vehicle was then given a normal cutoff from the velocity integrator. -3. 6-9 . firing commandwas given. MR-7 encountered a broken lamp contact in the ground propulsion panel.2. andpower distributors to make this test more realistic. and instrumentation subsystems were integrated and tested as a complete system.

for vehicles MR-3 through MR-8 only the capsuleadaptorswere matedand tested. and an over-all test. After making these changes. The roll rate gyro was also defective andwas replaced. MR-7 was rerun twice before the proper procedures were used and MR-7 passed. thus. The pitch attitude potentiometer hadto be cleaned and the pitch rate switch replaced before MR-8 passed its simulated flight test. abort system. the MR-5 checks consisted of a continuity test of newand modified cables. MR-2 had problems with foreign material causing shorts in the commutated telemeter channels. RF.2. RF. as was the thrust controller transducer.15 BOOSTER-CAPSULECOMPATIBILITY TESTS The original test plan included mating each capsule plus its GSEto the booster and its GSEat MSFC for a final compatibility test prior to shipment to the launch site. MR-1 and -3 passed successfully. separation. its telemetered information was utilized for evaluation. a diode was addedto the capsule circuitry. control.14 RETEST AFTER MODIFICATION After the test program had progressed through the simulated flight test. During the final RF checkout on MR-1 and -2. a series of network tests which verified proper operation of the vehicle's electrical circuitry. Compatibility measurements on the Booster MR-1 and its GSEindicated that the MAYDAY circuit from the vehicle GSEto the capsule would allow a high current flow and could possibly prevent completion of the abort sequence. Proper operation was obtainedduring these tests. Inflight measurements were telemetered to verify calibration of the measuring system. the booster's DOVAPsignal interfered with the capsule's 6-10 . a number of changesto assure the best possible boosters were incorporated. however. MR-5 had flight sequencerproblems which were solved by redesi_ and removal of two zener diodes.Since the vehicle's instrumentation was active during the test.2. To assure launch director abort capability. On MR-1 several compatibility problems (notedbelow) were encountered. measuring and control systems check. 6. and an operation verification of the RF equipment. MR-2 tests experienced no newcompatibility difficulties. An over-all testwas thenperformed to verify proper operation of the network. The most extensive modifications were made on MR-5. The compatibility tests were to include electrical continuity. the systems affected were rechecked to verify proper operation. Therefore. and measuring system. 6.

Also during the mating. as a portion out program.3. conducted in a vertical • Fin and and • rudder test loads determined exceeding the tail unit's capability to withstand values. tests shear. values. compression to the forward of design applied 6. Relocation of the connectors and removal of the recovery system package solved these interface problems. 6. and the vibrational Figure • 6-3. A change in command frequency and removal of the booster DOVAP eliminated this interferenee. and Ground when handling bending. flight handling 150 percent that of the design there were loads. value to determine and bending In addition.3 An aft telemetry. ure 6-2) imposed center on the sections shear. were Outputs imposed of the at ambient systems under tempertest 6-11 system.3 6. motions cycles. 6.3. the elamp ring retention devices were found to be incorrectly designed andwere redesigned by MSFC. was the subjected as the "rock abort system. were determined and axial no detrimental equalingl50 aft handling effects percent fixtures. without resulting until applied were test damage. they burst. control. . SECTION MRF1. Phase atures instrument environments Testing I . Lastly. and AFT section. containing the guidance and cooling test control system setup phases.2 Structural THRUST testing • UNIT of the STRUCTURE thrust flight unit loads on the was were tail and done in three separate vehicle tests: to 150 percent the loads the were of the of Simulated nominal safety. electrical connectors and wire bundles from the booster to the adapter could not be properly installed. ture stand.Flight in seven compartment in a special divided and Figure to temperaand roll" known was into three vibrations 6-4. pellant pressurized tower.two command receiver signals.3. several special reliability by the reliability.1 In addition conducted tests were SPECIAL RELIABILITY TESTS GENERAL to the to attain conducted developmental the degree tests. The tests margin (Figpro- Combined were tanks axial compression. manned quality test programs were These and check- of assurance of the required over-all payload.

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ABORT system automatic SYSTEM test program abort was system. suction lines.were continuously recorded and indicated intermittent operation of the pitch program and the pitch and yaw rate switches. During the seventh cycle when the loads exceededdesign values. tested 2000 at LN 2 simultaneously The temperatures temperature tested in a combined LOX environment system between was between vibrations of this -10 °F and 125 °F (the were temperatures).7 An abort ing of the graph 5.3. All malfunctions were corrected prior to flight qualification.4.2. and pneumatie imposed on A MERCURY-REDSTONE systems the were vibration system. RMF73. and rocket engine were chamber. demonstrated through-8.4 The PROPULSION propulsion systemts vibration ranged Imposed lists the SYSTEM fill and and vent valves. conducted The tests to assure and their the proper are and reliable functionin para- results detailed 6-15 . and 6.3. For site of the development the capsule comcompatiin achieving described was checked reliability in paragraph checked at MSFC. the abort systems test. swept 20 and cps. 6. and a command receiver pitch rate switch and one computer output channel failed. flight patibility bility the at the launch These adapter-booster of great value over-all checkouts were by the MERCURY-REDSTONE. Phase pad II and temperature IIIInstrument tests (Figure compartment 6-4) were cooling completed and transportation without discrepancies. the telemetry commutator intermittently failed. temperature results propulsion in Table 6. tested of this test containing under are all similar given mechanical conditions 6-3.3. 6.6 A 36-day was tests made CAPSULE-BOOSTER checkout on MR-1 of the and physical MR-2 COMPATIBILITY and functional This vehicles and only compatibility checkout MR-3 the was of the capsule part and booster at MSFC. A subphasetest.3. results 6.5 TAIL SECTION tail and The section. Table 6-2 up to 20 g's test. determined that the proper abort signals were given when the abort pitch and yaw rate switches were oscillated (rocked) and the voltage to the control voltage sensor was stepped below the abort limit.

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4. in an effort develop A mass The a viscoelastic dampening was material compound. the of the the spacecraft energy to the booster. a mixture of high X306. compartment sources comthe due to of excitation turbulence to that by the environment in the the aerodynamic relative absorbed excitation flight.1 After brational ponents acoustic the mary change the GENERAL second successful of the Since at launch diameter flight_ instrument the major and MR-2.4 MASS DAMPENING OF INFLIGHT VIBRATIONS 6. panels in the 170 pounds bays of the of the material were applied to the inner sides of the skin to the 6-17 recovery compartment and 40 pounds were applied .Table Tail Section 6-3 Test Results Item Triple Support Sphere Bracket Major Failures Failure Bracket of Redesign second minor in final Abrasion Support of Bracket in Support Not considered ancy Design Pad Remarks bracket phase failure design.larger rivets incorporated Single Sphere Cracks Structure a major discrep- Pneumatic System None Acceptable 6. by mass pri- approach was that to reduce subjected structure dampening of the panels were environment. a program was where initiated vibration in this during of the to reduce sensitive area were the vi- environment were located.2 The first METHOD step OF MASS-DAMPENING to reduce the vibrational specific was chips vehicle environment gravity which was would a program be easily Branch to applied. at MSFC. 6. Figure 4-24 illustrates compound On MR-BD.4. polyapplied. of lead the developed by the Materials by volume) the material (60 to 70 percent areas to which in epoxy was sulfide. in design tested with during only used Support of test .

4. compartment The total proper to this and have latter of MR-4 amount as the recovery material The for a total of mass was had dampening 235 pounds. In MR-3. aft unit of the to measure mounted Measurement in a direcwas bracket made and When to a new 906. 6-18 . lon- vibration measurement mounting tion perpendicular on every was the flight. on the rate installed powered to measure This gyro in the flight.upper bulkhead of the instrumentation compartment proper. This made a total of 210 pounds applied to MR-BD.1 On each vehicle 901 was Introduction flight at least the on the to the two vibration vibrational adapter transducers environment ring and axis was were during oriented vehicle. longitudinal of the Measurement to measure 903 was in the target cutoff located oriented MR-1A vibration the longitudinal direction of the vehicle. would it is felt that 235 pounds applied instrumen- been sufficient. was oriented longitudinal oscillations This measurement in the to the of the vehicle. The panels ment to the of the material of the was applied to the doors.3 VIBRATIONAL MEASUREMENTS 6. as well and all the accessible compartapplied application effect on instrumentation of 405 pounds. platform measurement and was location The on the LEV-3 axis of the designated in the flown as measurement direction of the sensitive axis of the accelerometer Measurement 950 was remained oriented then gitudinal quent measure axis vehicle. the lower bulkhead. flown and measurements were calibration level measurement. 906 was on each and of the subseto flights.4. applied the material access was not only of the applied to the above areas but also 120 pounds a total were of to all the applied doors instrumentation compartment making 330 pounds to MR-3. 903 was moved vehicle overshot velocity area. The Table the approximate 6-4 indicates locations on which of the of the various flight the transducers various vibration are shown in Figure 6-5. instrumentation mass dampening compartment material of MR-4 area the the most significant to the the vibrational tation compartment environment. body Measurement bending a low frequency yaw plane was flown transducer perpendicular only on MR-BD. 6.3.

3.5 Compartment Vibration Transducers of Instrument Table Flight Vibration 6-4 Measurements Measurement No.3 Figure 6-5. . ±8g +_0. MR-1A MR-2 ±6g Calibration MR-BD E12g Range MR-3 ±30g MR-4 ±30g 901 903 906 950 ±3g ±3g ±6g . The comafter measurement indicates in the vibration immediately 6-19 . Compartment I I I I I STA 63.5g ±Sg ±lOg 6.4.2 The posite general Measurement characteristics 901 of measurement a sharp increase 901 are shown in Figure level 6-6.Instrument Compa:'tment / _ . Location I I I I I STA 37 9Ol I I I S_A -16.

created such The vibration engine. those It is. Amplitude Reached Max. General Characteristics of Vibration Measurements (901) ignition the (To) and during liftoff. that the against times and of the effect since of another. T2 Amplitude Increase Starts Seconds Flight Number Time Sec. 6-20 .I Flight Time Capsule Moanting T3 Max. various magnitudes vibration as far of the different levels was lowered 901 explained indicating This.6 28 24 37 47 43 SkstemCapabilities Figure 6-6. G's PK/PK * * * 58 52. tabulated information characteristics only was slightly concerned. The valid to measurements in Figure 6-6 made shows above. Mag. adapter is to be expected ring. MR-1A MR-2 MR-BD MR-3 MR-4 Mag. 1 occurs Thereafter.7 30 23. therefore. as the energy The for level this phase is due mainly to acoustic environment (T1) the until by the (Te) which when then decreases to a very becomes strong low magnitude enough (T3) to excite time after aerodynamic gradually turbulence increases structure the level Mach to a maximum it decreases at approximately 70 seconds. magnitude occurs. so until cutoff and gradually to a negligible where a normal transient (T4) and remains separation All the compare trajectories the flown were similar in one the The material except flight for MR-1A. G's PK/PK Time See.4 Time Ring-Lateral T4 Vibration Measurement 901 Vibration T1 Time Liftoff Vibration Ends Max. 65 68 70 70 70 Exceeded Returns to Low Level Seconds 135 130 130 120 122 12 10 7 5 6 • Measurement * * 29. 901 was on a sub- stantial structure. the magnitude had little as measurement mounted however.

oF-I "0 T1 Flight Time Measuremen T1 Time Liftoff Vibration Ends Max. of Vibration Measurements (906) 6-21 Characteristics . instrumentation compartment.Measurement Figure 6-7.6. v_ith those of the earlier observed measurements made decreased in flights by a factor MR-1A and of approximately MR-2.4. 906 Vibration T2 Amplitude Increase Starts Seconds 4O 38 50 48 56 LEV-3 Base T3 Plate T4 Time Vibration Returns to Low Level Seconds 120 115 115 117 110 Flight Number Max.8 18 6.2 Time Sec.8 14 4.4 The VIBRATIONAL duration of the from material CHARACTERISTICS increase in vibration 80 seconds in the levels to 54 due to the as aerodynamic the amount The turbulence of mass addition decreased dampening approximately was increased seconds.4.3.5 5 4 5 Mag.3 The are general shown Measurement characteristics for the various 906 of measurement flights in Figure 906 were 6-7. MR-1A MR-2 MR-Bi_ MR-3 MR-4 L 10 4. G's PK//PK * * 13.Measurement 903 Vibration Switch. Since it was both the was magnitudes that experienced the magnitude saturated flights. Amplitude Reached Max. Since very this similar to those was that of 901 and mounted it was measurement it is logical compound. . Time Sec. no definite were latter comparison to the 6. G's PK/PI_ * * 21. 3. Rate) used here For Comparison because 906 was not flown on MR-1A. General System Capabilities Exceeded. dampening By comparing flights. 70 65 69 70 71 Mag.2 1 . on substructure affected the the most in the by the instrumentation application in the compartment of the MR-4 mass flight proper.

6 I11 i Sat Irated Data i'l" .0 . and full-scale aspects of the MERCURY-REDSTONE of a recovery system which development. The vibration 1. 6. testing G's (RMS) I0 cps B. and it shortened the time the critical flight components were subjected to substantial vibration levels.5. W. had two beneficial effects. /?.1 BOOSTER GENERAL RECOVERY SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT One of the more Project was the interesting. Longitudinal Vibration Spectra for MERCURY-REDSTONE Vehicles . region at Mach The from The spectra the majority cps almost of the in Figure frequency from spectrum indicates lies approximately final spectra of the 600 to 1200 of MR-4 substructure was and did not change indicating appreciably that there was flight to flight. m 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Frequency (¢ps) 200 400 600 Figure 6-22 6-8.8 HR-BDI . flat no appreciable response instrumentation compartment.of dampening compound.4 r ^ _. Filter 1.5 6. yet leastwelI-known. environment Typical vibration that of the instrumentation for this of the compartment flight energy time are was shown in the the most severe 6-8. therefore. It lowered the amplitude of the vibration levels. design.

were trials several impact and suffifuncwere times and checkout after made extensive was to determine sea water water immersion. both the carried Preliminary boosters the such design as the studies S-IC are stage already of the recovery and the fact determining SATURN" the feasibility vehicle. during the and flotation charac- teristics • Booster ment • parachute landing severe stability phase problems which within future parachute programs. immersion static fired water conducted following immersion checkout. high enough problems o Over-all out size and weight modification of the REDSTONE ships water recovery equipment. yet deploy- as those weight areas was where be expected state in future Recovery to outline of parachute may exist. available. Present operational analyses indicate that the economics of extensive space operations may necessitate the utilization of the recoverable concept for launch vehicles. are the of recovering As a consedue to be to V launch MERCURY-REDSTONE results to actual achieved full-scale investigations that it was of significance such study technical through first testing of development hardware. mis- lessening the of the booster.would permit reuse of the booster. H-1 engine to water was iropact tests were that static they fired. REDSTONE for booster structure recovery were may the had and as good strength in water. This project was the first extensive development of a recoverable booster and would have actually been implemented if that portion of the program had not beencancelled becauseof a lack of funds. allowed and design. The which successfully that general conclusion reuse 8 reacheff. on a Rocketdyne the trials. large quence.was of the sea after would not prevent successful booster cleaning • The MERCURY-REDSTONE because • • Recovery The thus sion • The required of several system Program factors: space was program lent itself . Recoverable boosters and the systems required for such recovery are still of interest today. could system to a booster recovery development ballast weight recovery be replaced weight with a recovery penalty on the primary system.. with- extensive to available handling 6-23 . Although cient tional none of the of the boosters propulsion subjected systems In addition.

and an to initiate a structure parachute heat system parachute into the booster. and wind shear effects during powered flight.5. The altitude at which the booster would decelerate to a subsonic velocity could vary between65.2 DESIGNREQUIREMENTS REDSTONEbooster structural data which influenced recovery system design were: Booster weight (dry) 15.7 seconds in order to meet the required cutoff conditions in the planned trajectory. 6. the booster could be stable at any angle of attack.000 feet and 20. 6-12 consisted system. or tumbling at first stage parachute deployment.000 pounds Booster diameter 70 inches 700 inches Booster length Maximum load (longitudinal) Maximum load (lateral) Water impact velocity 8g 3g 40 feet per second(maximum) The trajectory considerations which in_fluenced recovery system design are given in the following paragraphs. aerodynamic means of sensing velocity or altitude were not suitable for first-stage parachute deployment initiation.6. As a result of the undefinedbooster attitude. through 6-24 . system.5.5. system. There could be a variation in the cutoff signal of up to _+8. Therefore. the of a g sensitive a two-stage forces switch. parachute a sequencing system. These variations were due to variations in engineburning time. This range of about 17 secondsprevented use of a program timer for primary recovery system sequencingwith a subsonic first-stage parachute deployment. time of flight to impact could vary for a given trajectory.000 feet. a system containers. dependingon angle of attack and stability.3 6. Booster re-entry attitude was not predictable. mixture ratio. spinning. operation instrumentation booster Figures telemetry 6-9 to furnish The illustrate information recovery the to the system operation in aself-containedunit.3. about was of the recovery packaged recovery protection.1 The recovery RECOVERYSYSTEMDESIGN Introduction system a deployment to distribute system system.

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Release of Deceleration Parachute Final Recovery Parachutes

and

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6-27

Figure 6-28

6-12.

Water

Impact

6.5.3.2
Regardless time sensing into tude, sensing gram the before

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that

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blocked

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of a late

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in the and had have

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flying

a short-time Under than the

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conditions, velocity

possibly

of the

parachutes

the possibility

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6.5.3.3 The and

Deployment system with within

of Parachutes was designed force to use pyrotechnic entend charges the riser to fire and the parachute parachute parachute would

deployment its riser

sufficient one second.

to completely The time limitation

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selected estimated at the time

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not wrap been less

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It was second

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first

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Full parachute.

line

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The

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300 to 350 feet At this

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parachutes.

time

first-stage

parachute, 6-29

to the from were designed They as a cluster %f three.5. successful loads within recovery a stable package booster.5. the arranged riser for were deployment final retrieval the recovery with were of normal to permit normal peak parachutes one parachute two-stage reefing or destroyed. four system fiberglass consisted storage of mortars for for the the first re- parachute parachute parachutes containers and its canisters final and their The The bag 6-30 first stage parachute riser mortar. of higl_ was riser. The opy.5 The stage covery Parachute Containers and riser. and to limit structural strength envelope 6. which were were would also have reefed then extracted and deployed the three The final final the recovery recov- parachutes.acting as a pilot-chute. to insure stretch its the of the initial first-stage releasing which with the parachute. designed level to open in two steps of reefing per to limit booster's terminal velocity at sea to approximately 40 feet 6. of the booster. deployment and risers. joined to deploy necessary was stowed "fist" The ribbon type. mating due to the booster-capsule bag which acted and the single in a paraflap-type long parachute opening force as a pilot-chute deploying could reefing. final recovery diameter attached for The parachutes parachutes. regardless lip of the deployment riser to a level was designed before atThe first-stage design parachute to allow long strength tached extreme of the parachute chain booster sharp to a 70 foot length booster's to a 6-foot-long free of the of riser attitude. It would parachute decelerate booster to a velocity suitable final-stage deployment. risers the solid conical were can- 67-foot attached to individual Since lengths which parachutes permanently designed length. were fouled structure. parachute After the a time first stage delay sufficient to position would have for the booster in a tail-down then open vertical and attitude. was stored in a deployment from riser's the parachute end bag within a pyrotechnic bag mortar.4 The Parachute Systems was high fabric aIlowed The joint. ery parachutes to limit the load on the booster.3. the parachute disreefed. a 17-foot-diameter subsonic riser the chain The velocity which parachute riser parachute full was was conical deployment. sustain To limit booster stage in any attitude.3. top of parachute within the riser extended The deployment also extended to a deployment riser lower out of the . and second.

the heat of the separa' nozentire rocket of the blast separation system. connected attaching ends test spokes and were spokes. mortars parachute spokes.5.3. 6. 6. stage package heat for additional blanket first stage parachute first- protective have removed by the riser." blanket matting recovery layers the shields.5.8 Telemetry ture. canisters attached occupied to the ing bays.3.5.6 The recovery Structure structure the The stabilized The and loads recovery proved into the parachute outer ends was composed risers of the and of a conical.3. which Directly under Over each the "Refrasil. Instrumentation information and to be furnished sequencing. adjacent electrical of the in two packages. The bridle extendedto the lids of each of the three final recovery parachutes and single riser canisters. the first-stage were attached six-leg parachute to the attached in the spider were structural to the MSFC the outer with a heavy center (Figring.7 Heat tion zle Heat protection Protection was necessary would system under fiberglass the to protect have was impinged a Dural was the recovery directly plate a heat coated unit upon with from it. access doors 6. The chain wasattachedto an explosiverelease mechanism at the center of the recovery unit structure and to a bridle chain of flexible steel cables. electrical the main protective of a similar During been around separation. hub to which ure 6-13). recovery parachute without The first-stage package hub. first-stage four final disconnect the final device recovery was attached parachute occupied system was to the risers two center were of the of the attaqhed six bays the mating hub of the recovery center the to the between remainring deployment recovery system. by the The recovery system of the was outer limited surface to temperaof one of acceleration. of the booster. oratory sign by a series system of tension structure members was and tested of the labde- structures capable booster of sustaining structure distributing damage. temperature 6-31 .deployment bag and attached to the chain riser. with protective of glass composed quilted design was of two to maintain installed of heavy cloth A smaller an inner layer blanket protection." The The The to one parachute structure. would blanket's the position. These storage canisters were fabricated of molded fiberglass for thermal protection of the parachutes.

v:(chute V'leetrical Junction (Sequencer Riser Box and Telemetr3) Main Parachute Mortar Decelerati Parachute Attaeh Points I Risers on Parachute Attachm (Explosive ent Fitting) Safety S_ Squib} itch Containers Main Parachute fur Container t):trachut( ..'-. for Risers Main Figure 6-32 6-13. Booster Recovery Package .tructurai Tension Members Mortar-Deceleration l>.

5.4 A major was IMPACT AND FLOTATION TESTS problem in the water recovery damage program sustained The and solution for the MERCURY-REDSTONE upon water impact. penetration to photograph and level a steel and tape protractor was used were used to measure depth obtained booster. in both the respectively. in the quarryWs was altered approximately configuration The nose the booster in weight so as to simulate section was added and for all MERCURY-REDSTONE instruments in the and aft unit booster retrieval conditions. • Dropped possible and from damage a height to the of 3 feet booster. A step-resistance accelerometer network would have telemetered information relative to parachute opening and water entry shock level via means of an output which was to have shown the function of recovery sequencing relative to a time base on the telemetry readout record. LOX in tanks fuel and LOX tanks was re-entry which to 900 pounds pressurized probable to 10 and 25 psi. by using of the booster a scale into the a high-speed camera printed on the of the During these • • tests Floated Floated were the booster with with fuel was: and LOX tanks of water empty. 6. The stepping was arranged so that the sequencingreadout would have shown whether primary or secondary sequencingoperated the system and if sequencingmalfunctions occurred. and a special were removed. of safing f impact. was extent Madkin the booster angle of to the the determination and the could on the the best depth of possible flotation. bulkhead waterproofing handling A carpenter's booster. at the The impact and pond flotation which was and tests were conducted 25 feet with deep. to this problem the necessary to which Mountain method retrieval tests were To measure conducted withstand Redstone water Arsenal. purposes. residual fuel and Water after used simulate impact. a four-year-old Prior to the REDSTONE test. angle of flotation The of the depth of to measure water skin was of submersion. to check the instruments and to determine 6-33 .the parachute storage canisters adjacent to the main parachute risers was to be measured. determine booster quarry of submersion.

during making operator and The away venting.2 degrees fuel. 17 feet ure per The to a velocity second. in Fig- 6-15. kinetic of 18 inches decelerated at 40 feet water.2 from engine dethe measured and containing submersion booster pressurized submerged was were residual aft end.Both sure H202 nector. at 3. burst The damage damage remained was was sustained limited by the fuel tank of the and the tail in the Also. versus Maximum time penetration is shown 4 inches. however. The With grees pretest assembly actual the and prior to the test and estimated the depth the angle of flotation of the and the of the aft end booster. contact to a depth Since and at a point and had been by calculation. of the drop which. desired of the slightly with booster after impact was directly This below the longitucondition centerline that the off fin IV toward the aid and of auxiliary facilitate fin II. Moderate tests. The to be 81 inches. Calculations condition. provides venting of internal Dropped per from a height of 25 feet to obtain velocity an impact velocity of 40 feet second.94 approximately had. was floated 70 inches. to rotate booster to any position 6-34 . upon or the estimated re-entry when impact equipped of the MERCURY-REDSTONE booster with parachutes. The g's when maximum and the occurred booster vertical acceleration 1/25 measured second during after the drop with from the 25 feet water was 13. favorable were able equipment. of the rocket not previously The dinal meant the final center of gravity and was skindivers. Roylyn conplus event overflow other side capped capped means by a female Roylyn the system connector in the valve which reactions.6 one fourth feet penetrated per second. unit fuel as a result tank section. sating procedures. unit to buckling tight despite skin pressure of the the damage. in a dry to be 4 degrees angle tanks was of flotation of submersion was 2. seams in the tail due to shearing rivets. depth the booster had been initially traveled to the was of the energy transferred of penetration A trace of the is shown vertical in Figure acceleration 6-14. of 34. relief the the vent LOX and fuel kept vented his tee was face with specially from on one with for designed the side a male vent device. 80 inches attributed at the variance tail unit of the and actual calculations which to the buoyancy considered.

0.9 in Seconds I 1o2 I 1. 989 G F 210 209 inches 17 feet 4 inchos 180 150 120 ¢9 9O 6O / -I I I I 22½.5 Figure 6-14.m -O-Depth curve or penetration time 30 45 ° 67½ O 90 ° ol i 0°3 I 0.0 0 Sine --O-. Penetration in Inches versus Time Showing Close Fit of Sine Curve in Seconds 6-35 .6 Time I 0.

.4 o < I g 6-36 ._9 0 I 0 .l m N r/l 0 •_......4 °r.....

submersible flushing of a Landing booster. 6. exercise team. tools. took wind place was under from excellent the weather conditions. Ceiling with a visibility swell southwest at about 6-37 . checked until the the booster and to provide accessi- • • The The fill destructor booster and drain to assure LOX fill that and it was drain in its valve SAFE and the mode. the south. after by United Stated Naval Vessels Salt water available handling deterioration can be kept after little water to the booster to a minimum maximum with expected a fresh water subhose mersion immediately Surprisingly of the salt by flushing retrieval. 8 knots. additional submersion. pressure to float the The booster LOX spheres was first was lowered into the water and the then tank tanks pressurized After to 30 psig. the waiting Airbags bility were to the attached destructor unit was was to stabilize unit.5.6. permitted for approximately 30 minutes. were established the booster recovery To simulate was pressurized water recovery.5 In parallel for sating SAFING to the SEQUENCE impact and prior TESTS flotation to floating tests. lines. The and slight first recovery were from operation unlimited.5. safing. and An eight-man underwater assisted booster Ship hand replacement After well of the fill valves. booster period: • was and the air to 800 psig. the in four cradles was then retrievals attached emptied of the to the permitting booster. The recovery procedures of the tests The had were been practiced ocean in the were: conducted booster could Atlantic REDSTONE with be retrieved equipment. aboard the proper the procedures vessel.6 An actual handling results SEA TESTS from which which the sea was performed developed in the as part and of the test program quarry using test. the pressurizing Following fuel the to 10 psig. craft onto The 50 miles equipped crew special well from with Norfolk. with GN 2. fuel rotated were valve accessible. rework to the booster is required because The sea tests were conducted during a two day demolition a landing was Dock floated (LSD). Virginia.

the LSD started toward the booster. A changeon the tiedown location of the nylon retaining slings was made. around. and the booster was positioned over saddles. The LSD deballasted and steamed off ten miles from booster. The fourth and final operation was a complete simulated recovery. swimmers. disconnected its tow line. andthe towing crew aboard the Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel (LCVP) were launched. Ballasting of the LSD and preloading of the LCVP were performed while enroute. Once the booster was positioned. the booster. Once the tracking exercises were over. but went through with towing the booster out andback into the LSD with the LSDmaintaining a heading of 2 to 3 knots into the waves.The primary objective of this first retrieval attempt was to check out the proposed handling procedures. The swimmers then approachedthe booster and went through the sating procedures without any difficulty. At ten miles the booster was held on surface radar while the P2V at a 1500-foot altitude. and also installed the handling connections. The LSD was ballasted so as to have 8 feet of water in the well at the stern gate sill. Swimmers with lines from the LSD attached lines to prescribed connections on the booster. a P2V aircraft was conducting visual training. After the safing operation was completed the booster was taken in tow by the LCVP and positioned astern the LSD which was maintaining a constant heading toward the sea. As the first step. and over the booster to the wind wall as in the first two operations. deballasting of the well proceeded until booster rested firmly on saddles. The third operation was very similar to the second. establishing radar tracking limits. After the well was drained. The slings were positioned so that they went up and over the booster to the opposite wing wall instead of under. The booster was set free and all personnel stayed aboard the LSD. Whenthe 6-38 . and taking aerial photographs of the operation. The second operation omitted the safing procedure. While the booster was floating at sea. and their rubber boat. The LCVP continued towing until its bow was over the LSD stern gate then reversed. The LSD drained the well andmoved away several thousandyards. tracked it a distance of 50 miles. and moved off to the port side andstood by. the booster and recovery equipment were checked for damage.

Upon arriving at the booster. the booster was taken in tow.LSD was approximately 1000 yards from booster. the swimmers went through the safing operation. the LCVP was launched and proceededto the booster. andbrought into the well of LSD and positioned as before. 6-39 .

.

tests.SECTION7 CHECKOUTAND LAUNCH OPERATIONS 7. MR-1A. it was decided to delivery with had been Missile cles.1 7. were of During component between and launch measuring calibrations. particular to the to be used. was where it was out prior rehabilitated of the was and the MR-4 flight. was GSE. at CCMTA spacecraft. 7. of the and assembled launch. for verification second that originally planned vehicle order. Louis was a fit test and the spacecraft and the booster The adapter MSFC. four conducting necessary. that the By the time launch vehicle procedures on the pad confidently without undergoing checks. nate and procedure sufficient It was followed experience also acquired to have with mated vehicle at MSFC. Experience preparation with flights launch mately the mate. GSE checked booster erected to arrival progressed launch point hanger vehicle. I. 2 With arrived used the PRELAUNCH exception at CCMTA TESTS of launches separately MR-1 from and St. and continuity vehicle Following checks erection launch cali- erection. respectively. component and checks phasing-in con- a schedule predicated on availability of personnel 7-1 . to MSFC to CCMTA for manufactured on the fitted Aircraft with The which launch it Company was pad (MAC). performed. this in that not vehicle scheduled delivery weeks indicated for was prior one procedure mate only. time of the and MR-3 subsequent flight. Mechanical cient vehicle brations mechanical ducted under time mate for occurred about composite 16 calendar vehicle were days checkout made before launch. of the to the between the spacecraft shipped then sent and booster. which provided suffi- exhaustive electrical procedures. connections the period and bus and mate. by McDonnell booster spacecraft. approxi- CCMTA By the approximately to launch for weeks and capsule delivery checkouts.1.1 Original and PRELAUNCH PREPARATION GENERAL plans for under Annex which of the mate of the MR-1 were vehicle fifteen the MERCURY-REDSTONE conditions This that vehicle at MSFC was prior provided for preliminary to Cape the first mating Canaveral two vehito elimia first final checkout Test after test second laboratory (CCMTA).

and navigational systems are not operated. Umbilical release is simulated. Individual major tests are indicated in separate blocks and are adequatelydefined by their titles. During the automatic sequence. These tests are normally conductedin preparation for the final combined systems over-all test such as the guidanceand control over-all test.booster tests. andrange are operated. andordnance systems are monitored. and the single asterisks indicate launch vehicle-GSE systems tests. andmeasuring over-all tests. Rangesupport is required for this test. navigation. RF. vehicle. the umbilicals released and one-shot relays andexplosive switches are fired. andthe simulated flight test. • Booster Integrated Test Booster integrated test includes network. gyro systems. Commandreceivers are normally operated but all other RF systems. • Simulated Flight Test This test is conductedto verify compatibility andproper operations of all vehicle systems. • Guidanceand Control Over-all Test This test is conductedto verify proper operation of all vehicle systems. Umbilical release andretraction is simulated. all systems of spacecraft. • Guidanceand Control Plug Drop Over-all Test This test verifies the compatibility andproper operations of all vehicle systems while simulating the firing as closely as possible. mechanical. • Malfunction SequenceTests These tests verify proper operation of cutoff circuits by simulated malfunctions. and gyro systems are not ordinarily operated. The double asterisks indicate combined spacecraft-launch vehicle tests. Rangesupport is required for this test. The diagram in Figure 7-1 showsthe building-block approach used in scheduling the MERCURY-REDSTONElaunch site checkout. 7-2 . the plug drop over-all test. All systems of all stages are operated. andordnance systems monitoring is performed. All systems of both spacecraft and launch vehicle are operated.

Launch Site Checkout Scheduling 7-3 .undl I ..ttl_deCon.... in Laboratol3 Command I RF Bench Checks f Only i Icon.o_ I I I I Guidance and Control Test ] * l Cooling Bench Control Check Over-Mi I Booster Cooling R F Compa tlbility [ 1" I Boo6ter Activity H202 Check ] I Pilot Cmer.t Cheokout Support Equipment Cht't'k_ut llan_ ...allAbort Test (h'er-all Attitude Test Abort I J Over-all Plug Test Drop I Flight Simulated Test L-I Day Preparation I ** Combined • All Systems Vehicle Tvst/Oper:dion Launch Figure 7-1..]v lot' inspection and 'rs" I _ I f- _J I $ f__..ccl:d[ . i s_r. ck II ch l I I Trail and Set Blockhouse t'p l I t_o_t_'r.Xrri_al I)cli_ t'r_ to }lang..l Pad Set Up and Vehicle Receiving Launch Inapection Delivery ! Erection and XlignmentVehicle Launch BUS Calil)ration I Ground Checkout Support Booster Equipmcnl I Spc¢.r T ¢ Full Pressure .

.Engine ground peroxide control system. pressure system. system and turbopump functional test components Leakage Pressure Leakage Leakage Leakage Pressure Leakage Functional Leakage Activity test test test test test test test . operations days by calendar day.Mechanical the cal direct tests prelaunch supervision were conducted.LOX replenishing .High . tanks simulated full. Approximately steps and specific Each tests preparatory titles switch.LOX and fuel . masts indicates and erection to launch Cable Booster arrival on launcher. check erected. of such test test test by descriptive tank pressure follows: . tanks full. switches sensing lines. 7.3 Throughout for SCHEDULE the OF PRELAUNCH ACTIVITIES Program. ! ". .Igniter fuel system. on experience vehicle with checkout procedures were adjusted with for The the the the to provide launch launch history MERCURY-REDSTONE operation. .Steam exhaust test. measuring calibration preparations. alignment. 7-4 .Combustion chamber. .Propellant . number a more effective The final and familiarity procedures on MR-1.1. schedule based of launch compared vehicle listed and the below.LOX system. .Fuel system.Fuel . . switch. A list Functional Functional Functional Leakage Leakage Leakage Leakage test test test test checkout of the of the responsible test booster design entailed vehicle was carefully conducted under 18 mechanioperating engineer. pressure systems. vehicle. encompassed MR-4 21 workdays. Apply electrical and positioned power and and of command receivers. hydrogen peroxide system. to flight operational mechanical azimuth.Engine control pressure chamber system.Instrument .Hydrogen .Rocket engine compartment. 46 workdays utilized checkout of MERCURY-REDSTONE sequence L indicates • of operations launch L-25 vertical • L-24 Begin day MR-4 The was in establishing are prior listed chronological days.Combustion chamber test test test . .Combustion pressure and switches 1 and 2. pressure procedures.

normal flight sequence. telemetry. astronaut insertion procedures. L-18 Functional cooling system check. Check L-20 Full pressurization test. Ignition failure. drop questionable L-6 L-5 Plug over-all for test. flight test. L-14 Electrical mate of spacecraft and booster. L-9 Not awork day. c. Install booster recovery packageballast. 5. L-10 Not a work day. L-17 Complete cooling test. c. AZUSA. Measuring calibration continued. abort 4. L-8 Over-all tests as follows: a. and conduct egress tests. Ready-to-fire failure cutoff. _ test. Program device checks and verification. verification of any test. e. L-7 Over-all Over-all Over-all test test test number number number of over-all 3. L-16 Mechanical mate of spacecraft to booster. L-22 Not a work day. Destruct command receiver. simulated flight test. and booster ordnance item Preparation fit checks. L-21 Continuemechanical checks andmeasuring calibration. L-11 Complete RF compatibility test. 5.L-23 Mechanical systems test. including component and leak tests. over-all test number 2. :emergency 4. and booster peroxide system activity test. L-13 Over-all test number 1. and off-the-pad abort test. pilot abort override test. compartment review meeting. Cutoff arming to capsule. 7-5 pressurization test. attitude tests 3. d. L-19 Booster over-all test number 1 as follows: a. L-4 L-3 flight Simulated Booster safety. b. and booster instrument and mission . gyro control tests. L-12 Partial RF compatibility test. b. andDOVAP. Laboratory calibration of abort rate switches. L-15 Not a work day. and Evaluation areas.

Control I I I L_ (LOD) Blockhouse NASA Representative (NASA) i Test Conductor (LOD) Blockhouse H Capsule Racks Capsule Conductor (Mc Donnell) Blockhouse Launch Ope rations H Aeromed (NASA) Test Conductor] Blockhouse Console Capsule Blockhouse Figure 7-6 7-2. and launch. 7. connecting as it evolved the lines solid are lines for the of MR-4. briefing. Test Coordinator (NASA) Blockhouse I I n I i W Central . 9 blockhouse the dashed connecting lines of action. MERCURY-REDSTONE Launch Organization .2. portion of countdown.1.2 LAUNCH ORGANIZATION AND COUNTDOWN 7. NASA Control Director Operations (NASA) Center I ! / Launch Director .2.1 Figure flight 7-2 General shows the The show MERCURY-REDSTONE broken the lines lines enclose the and launch organization functions. of coordination.1 RESPONSIBILITIES 7.• • • L-2 L-I L-O Not a work First Weather portion day. of divided second countdown.

responsible monitoring director powered had technical launch point separation. the test reported A single conductor to the action by a capsule maintained blockhouse to assure coordinated that information the emanating possibility complete and properly to eliminate of contradictory or overlooked support requirements. capsule sule communicator engineer in support astronauts). director. 7-7 . director advised and principal throughout powered 7. The test test through was launch supervision director.2. personnel supported and the blockhouse involved by a capsule aeromedical in the complex engineers. 7. of responsibility Plan_ by the Department Department 1960.1. functions Support (DOD).4 The test Test conductor by the systems test Conductor also acted operations as the launch vehicle test conductor and was and supported launch directly vehicle The launch range coordinator. in the MCC.3 The launch Launch director launch Director was responsible AMR concerning director command for The for support. supported and support launch delineation Over-all prepared dated director network. conductor.1. engineer. (one _nd contractor in turn.2 Over-all this Operations mission Director control he was was exercised by the by the operations director are director. were sibility egress. and the and data controller. to liftoff the seconds. kept the flight a representative booster progress the blockhouse events operations flight. tracking representative Center Project the MERCURY. of contact all and with of the in turn AMR was opera- conductor conductor. and flight In carrying controller. launch coordinator.7. tives. plus for readiness accomplishment and astronaut The eight launch of the launch vehicle objecmission respon- system. 15 January received recovery MERCURY from the Control launch operations acquisition Through of information organization. the pad systems coordinated of the launch and blockhouse activities of McDonnell personnel operation. for presented in a document Operations of Defense of Defense At the Project MERCURY for (MCC).2.1. until launch supported tions from was the the complex.2. the for the technical and capsule decision. problems of launch relating director to the had Technical referred for the to the operations abort countdown. The capa capsule systems personnel. flight of the emergency launch vehicle and he was spacecraft operation. of the was launch operation. out A entitled responsibility.

1. b.2 Two launch Table MISSION RULES AND LOD SCRUB that rules list PRIORITY used LIST the MERCURY-REDSTONE list shown in additional countdowns 7-1. Capsule or booster malfunctions not be cause for abort command control center. The and important were LOD documents the mission priority This of foreseeable safety were and during LOD scrub priority scrub established list priorities was used for booster as a quick onboard guide listed pro- equipment to a hold weather vided instrumentation. and BD only. the AMR communication countdown was with the with. Blockhouse abort command is to capsule command receivers only. systems The requirement for the mission and the rules MCC. superintendent and properly operations the entire to assure launch in phase 7. for the spacecraft launch.2. 1A. 7-8 . By the RSO. Booster destruct: (3-second time delay built into booster between shutdown and destruct arming). in case and range appropriate priority booster reference It also or scrub criteria or GSE malfunctions.7. similarly priorities Table MERCURY-REDSTONE Mission 7-1 Rules and Scrub Priority List Action Abort C ommands Abort of the mission will only be commanded: a. b.2. IA. RSO Commands: a. operations of range supporting. will from Remarks Booster abort system installedopen loop on MR-l.5 The launch Range Coordinator range coordinator was in continuous that function. for range safety reasons during powered flight. ) Blockhouse monitors booster by telemetry. Booster engine shutdown. and BD. From the blockhouse: On the basis of impending booster catastrophic failure either on the pad or during powered flight. (Abort system is open loop on flights IV[R-l.

Visibility . Weather Launch area Minima Capsule impacts dicted to occur prein an Forces Surface winds .Table 7-1 MERCURY-REDSTONEMission Rules andScrub Priority List (Cont. Commands be commanded by conOnboard considered Remarks timer will be as backup. Upper winds . Blockhouse Booster telem- Mandatory.) Action Retrofire Retrofire will trol center.3 or calmer. C-band) PAFB-Stanley FPS-8 Surveillance radar FPS-20 Surveillance radar sky screen. vertical wire Command system Hold Proceed Proceed Proceed Proceed Hold Proceed Proceed Proceed Proceed Hold action if infails dur- 7-9 . Range Instrumentation Support unsatisfactory landing area may be the basis for a no-go decision. SCR-584) FPS-16 (C-band) Station 1-16 (Cape) FPS-16 (XN-2. Seastate .5 miles.no cloud coverage that will preclude camera coverage of booster operation from liftoff through separation. Countdown strumentation ing count. C-band) Station 3-16 (GBI) FPS-16 (XN-1. etry displays for abort control Command Mandatory. Flight safety AZUSA Mark I Beat-Beat Mark II Telemetry E LSEE Mod IV radar Mod H radar (S-band.18K maximum. Cloud coverage . Recovery Capability Recovery is mandatory.120K maximum at any altitude.

MPS-25 (Carter Cay C-band) mentation FPS-16 (XN-1.) Action Commands Proceed Proceed Proceed Proceed Hold Hold Proceed Proceed Proceed Proceed Beach) Proceed ff one operates Proceed if one operates Hold if both are out Proceed Hold Proceed Remarks Electronic instru.Table 7-1 MERCURY-REDSTONEMission Rules andScrub Priority List (Cont.5 miles Surface winds . 7-10 .3.2. time was (including minutes the and covered until hours fatigued essential.1 To prevent formed launch utes Countdown personnel Procedures fatigue. receiver Tel-2 (TCM-18) telemetry antenna Telemetry ship Telemetry aircraft (1 required) Optical tracking instrumentation (see Weather) Documentation Metric cameras Cine CZR ROTI ROTI ROTI IGOR IGOR IGOR. when scrubbed the second period proper and launch launch pleted.3 LAUNCH COUNTDOWN 7.18K 7. PAFB) DOVAP (uprange) transmitter DOVAP-blockhouse. launch hours normally on the perof preceding formed operation the count.2000 feet Visibility . from T-390 countdown several was less vehicle of rest and This system afforded launch the at approximately more alert during midway the when had been was critical a in As a result. day of the and covered of these preceding to T-390 minday operations second built-in of the crew crew performed at approximately the T-640 2300 countdown. the first was operations liftoff.2. The the The first the 10-hour MERCURY-REDSTONE parts normally part holds) began was performed on the from countdown day was per- in two parts. uled response rescheduled portion is most after count On those section occasions count launch of the if the com- only within of the performed resched- a short of time. theodolitic cameras and sequential (Askania) (Melbourne and Vero Melbourne Beach Vero Beach PAFB False Cape Williams Point Recovery Area: Primary and Secondary Ceiling .

is given following countdown An explanation at the minutes. As a result. 7. Detailed countdownprocedures were written for use in checking out the many systems andsubsystems of the capsule and booster. Due to unforeseendevelopments. some last minute requirements are normally written into all affected launch procedure documents. A bar chart of the schedule of countdownprocedures and launch vehicle status for the MR-4 launch is presented in Figure 7-3. the cognizant engineer reported the fact to the test conductor who then checked it off the list.To assure that all functions during a countdownwere properly integrated. AMR.. andother participating organizations. details T-390 7.3. The countdowndocument included each key procedure of major importance andeach was identified by the title of the responsible individual in the countdown. A scrub prior to LOX loading required only rescheduling the beginning of the next countdown. A scrub after LOX loading required emptying the LOX and purging and drying the launch vehicle. T-640 of paragraph II. conclusion Part to identify Part responsibilities I details T-0 from liftoff. the LOX loading time was shifted from T-305 minutes to T-180 minutes in the countdown. These procedures appeared at the proper time and in proper sequencein the count. minutes to T-390 through 7-11 . (e. The master operational schedule was considered the master document. This changewas madebetween the MR-3 and MR-4 launches.2. As each test or procedure was completed. that LOX loading would be delayed to occur as close to vehicle liftoff as feasible. Countdownprocedures on the capsule were prepared in detail by McDonnell Aircraft Company andwere closely coordinated with the over-all launch countdownto assure the timely phasing-in of capsule operations. and the AMR andprocedure were geared accordingly. The precount and final count could then begin subject to the target launch crew rest requirements.2. therefore. the process requiring approximately 12 hours.3. LOD. Experience gained in earlier operations indicated that rapidly changing weather conditions could cause a delay such that it became necessary to scrub the launch.2. The launch vehicle test conductor prepared the master operational schedule following coordination with STG. the responsibility for such integration was assignedto the over-all test conductor.2 The Detailed pages of the Countdown present code the utilized Schedule complete (MR-4 t schedule for the MR-4 PAD-M) down launch. It was decided. g. Schedulingof prelaunch tests was similarly accomplished.

O _) o_ _J c_ I q I I IIII 1 II _ _ i i i 7-12 .

after components e. booster is on critical compartment power. PAD-CAP I I M MEAS Remove Ground Booster Booster Warmup covers On. drain. generator data. the tapes: vent vent valve. 6. g. BH-CAP PAD-E and PAD-CAP Capsule Deliver. On with sides Off. valve and after overflow components following covers and voltages to flight battery 7. d. LOX tank H202 tank assembly. test. 4. test. ) (Replace LOX pump Steam seal seal drain. 16. i. M:EAS Calibrate all recorders and make final checks. 10. ring DOVAP replenish annin shelter for pots cap. 14.Launch Verify Open section Countdown complex instrument doors. 9. capsule inverter inverter frequencies. and open for work. PAD-M Remove sealing a. c. f. 13. On. batteries safety control On. GEN Adjust voltage 8. h. 15. personnel install. M BH Block After power abort from PAD-E apply booster (prelaunch). and record- ing equipment. 7-13 . b. and aft 3. work during RF (perform 11. vent valve. battery). measuring blockhouse voltage measuring On.Part T-640 1. RANGE PAD-M I . (Replace ) drain. RF clearance Check silence LEV-3 period). (except booster roger man and appointed wire stations. 2. 5. RANGE PAD-E and G Alcohol Alcohol LOX Check Leave pump vent seal valve. 12.

spheres to approximately Set up control plant tem components and topping pressures test system). retaining ring telemeter pins from 18. T-625 1. 9. 2. PAD-M devices. anytime only. Complex 26 and 7-14 .4 5000 telemetry trailer stow for for flight. PAD-CAP PAD-CAP and BH-CAP and BH-CAP Apply Begin i0. check. components according to 4.) ground capsule stations.Part T-640 (C ont. AB and RF I . blockhouse azimuth a final sequence alignment launch for all check capsule recorders. RANGE RF clearance Telemeter AZUSA 11. SEQ PAD-E Check Check given 7. PAD-E Connect battery T-635 i. test. over-all substitute. BH-CAP BH-CAP RF and PAD-CAP and PAD-CAP Communication Prepare Proceed cle all with transponder ) to T-410. PAD-M booster psi.) test. ) 17. 6. PS Check required liftoff and camera start circuits as by AMR. (Vehiprior test cable for control 19. RF and AB PAD-M-EAS and PAD-M Tune Move booster measuring to adjacent launch.Launch Countdown Warmup Remove retaining (Cont. 3. RF equipment: HF Recovery beacon beacon capsule systems power. for all booster RF equipment: 230. T-620 1. Mc (U) Mc (U) UHF Recovery (to be 5. PAD-M&P Perform procedure. test required (including for power cooling sys- 3. of LEV-3 at T-130). PADM Fill 1500 2. RANGE RF clearance Telemeter S-band C-band Command 8. capsule DOVAP may (Hardwire subsystems tuneup be used for checks.

filling equipment after T-620 (Cont. ground station for range 3. T-530 1. RANGE Standby checks. setting T-600 1. block is to arm removed and safe. 5. 4. 2. RANGE Prepare check. P RANGE PAD-E Verify Standby Double connected 750 (light command Dummy verify. beacons for Readout qualified 3. 680 cc water. TC M PAD-M Reset TC panel. 7-15 . voltage LEV-3 integrator checks.) lead test. PAD-CAP Verify shorting plug in escape tower. PAD-M components 3. line after verifying fuel Control Bring flight abort 3. T-610 i.Launch Countdown Ready water (Cont. T-540 1. for S. from cappres- Step dummy Verify sule sure Leave control mast until hand Cap for check and release cleared vent Mast initial that Do not apply supervisor. tail fuel is open. 2.) 2.Part I . voltage and radar S-band beacon radar On.and C-band radar radars beacon away from On. 2. AZUSA 4. with valve test open. control destruct checks. Off). P and PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M Load Drain Remove Install vent T-605 water. GEN Check clear after battery installation. gyros On for and warmup attitude prior to weather overflow shelter. PAD. 2. BH-CAP RANGE C- and S-band CGo. SbA block pressure valve.and C-band S. T-580 1.

) 5. 3. 2. No. booster station. computer On. 2.E6. if required. check. E5 . from switch instrument compartment valve. T-520 1. 3. 2 On. 2. test pressurizing T-500 1. system receiver receiver On. 4. NOTE RANGE M M PAD-M Refer Roger AZUSA AZUSA Remove sequence transponder test procedures. DOVAP DOVAP Gyro vehicle plumbing checks prior to reference test transmitter Off. ALL BOOSTER STATIONS Standby sequence.Launch Countdown Remove boom No. T-495 1.Part I . 7. PAD-M M M RANGE Turn AZUSA AZUSA Check range On yellow blower On. and 3. transmitter ready. T-515 1. 3. installed and all flight (except final loading. 1 On. 2. 1. Green fuses plug 5. Off. On. 2. RF RF G M M M M C Verify Verify Verify Command Command Telemeter Calibrator Control off 5000 and pressurizing power transfer for booster psi GN 2 batteries batteries control are battery). No. Red fuses TBI Jumper fuel (Cont. T-530 (Cont. PAD. 4. tail abort 25. to special AZUSA Off. blower caps warming On. 2. 7-16 .) in booster hardwire 24 and 34). AZUSA transponder with 6. 5. On. PAD-M Make fuel T-497 1. light. trailer into fueling (alcohol) 2. PAD-E for fuses 33 and fuses 6. plug (Fuse Fuse and booster box box No. 6. 4. PAD-E PAD-E PAD-M Remove Install Move position. 3. 5.PAA PAD-E Top Verify secured 4.

blower On. SEQ G L AXN C RF M SEQ C PD G Record all battery bus voltages. 29.Launch Countdown Program Verify Announce pressurizing transfer. . integrator reading when to TC). G and PAD-E T-490 1 P Calibrate Weight vehicle verify announcement 2.) device On. On). compartment during power T-495 (Cont. MEAS Monitor . SEQ 14. instrument compartment ii. ok light On. to minute speed. recorders. On. RF 18. Off. M 15. C 19. power Off (verify). recording drive servo voltages On. (Cont. On. C P TC autopilot warning of instrument operation valve 10. computer program each flight gyro tape. P 21. 22 23 24. transfer. C 20. 31. 30. ok (light test transfer On and Off (momentarily). SEQ 13. 32. 9. loading is made (clear and 33. 25. Simultaneous Network Emergency Rudder Telemeter Secure Secure Control Check Torque indicated all all drive roger command of satisfactory power booster Off. 27. 7-17 prior cutoff to fuel signal. abort is _+until by TC. device LEV-3 Off (LOD only). On and Off. AXN Over-all Sequence Time DOVAP AZUSA AZUSA Telemeter Rudder Verify Verify Power test and power On. voltage On (LOD only). E&I recorders pulse On. fuel tank pressure. 28. 26. GEN 12. recording RF systems.Part I . PAD-M Monitor pressurizing. M 16.) 8. ok (light On). M 17.

T-450 I. completion removal all of test test cables. shorting plug and connect all ordescape trailer. tank. nance except I0. 8. 8. CTC PAD-CAP Remove Remove capsule power. fuel to determine after fuel ullage. 5. 5. booster control 7-18 .Launch Countdown Start Fill Check Torque Verify Watch Roger Roger Remove shorting fuel igniter for (Cont. LEV-3 voltage gyros. 3. T-490 (Cont. reading announcement verify 4. 3. 2. 4.) 3. C TC and BH M ANNOUNCE PS Disarm squib bus after no voltage checks. PAD-M BH PAD-M Safety Secure Engine wire TRMV.) loading.Part I . 6. T-440 1. cables (except PAD-CAP capsule plug). based on trailer alcohol rocket. 6. and ballast vent for on fourth platform. power. 4. 7. All personnel not having specific vehicle preparation activitiesclear service structure for capsule ordnance connection. T-420 I. 3. 2. Establish vehicle RF RF ME NT Silence Switch On. regulated to zero psig. silence. 7. in tail. of capsule system tests. 2. Off. P and PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M CTC PAD-M CTC CTC PAD-M main spike fuel overflow. loading is made (clear and vehi- Dip stick Weight cle when to TC). 6. 9. and begin no voltage checks. PAD-M PAD-M Remove Adjust fuel TRMV temperature. G C CTC P and PAD-M P and PS Secure Control Arm Finish squib fuel bus PAD-M loading. 5. 4. fuel leakage LOX bolts.

5. 8. following vent vent LOX tank H202 Steam Cap tank seal drain. peroxide and monitor system. and ground system for CAPSULE PS and PAD-CAP Load capsule Part Preparatory I. to destruct (do not connect 7-19 . RANGE BH PAD-M Weather Verify Install forecast. 5. 4. Steam seal drain. and overflow assembly. PERSONNE L Prepare peroxide capsule loading. LOX tank vent valve. 60 minutes (complete must flight booster be cleared. C BH and PAD-M PAD-E Close Apply Remove a. sequence power. steps M PAD-CAP for picking II . 2.) T-400 1. END operations on first part of split count and secure all systems for standbyperiod. b. destruct block block and connect primacord electrically). PAD-M PAD-M END H_0_ tank vent and overflow assembly. The count will be resumed at T-390 minutes at the predesignated time.Launch Countdown(Cont. Install following covers andsealing tapes: a. 4. 2. 3.pendingweather. PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M Install tail weather shelter . and sealing tapes: reset switch. pres- Off instrument and sensing surizing 6. c. Final vacuuming. igniter area RF silence but do not connect. d. RF silence. b.Launch second Countdown section of the count: switch On. Resume LOX pump bearing purge. 3. 7. escape before rocket pickup) - up the Verify Install. compartment lines. covers valve.Part I . c. Install instrument compartmentdoor O-rings. T-390 1.

5. clear (control voltage On and Off). 1 (booster). 4. capsule checkout trailer to launch. 15. On (Off after LN 2 is loaded). final check of 400 cycle inverter adjustment. completion and safety wire. 6.Launch Countdown Connect control (Cont. safe (light). M PAD-CAP C. 7. 2. RF silence. 13. cable mast line and cable mast line. PAD-M E E PAD-M ANNOUNC E ME NT Load LN 2 boom bypass tank (booster). PAD-E Make flight sequencer. 2 (capsule). Cooling Automatic Torque fillOn. 3. turbine. PAD-CAP PAD-CAP RANGE PAD-E PAD-E PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M CTC Prepare Move capsule trailer for moving. safe (light). GEN Safety wire Verify Check DCR switches. ii. not required should for operation in All personnel the pad area destruct clear the area for block connection. ii. of precooling motor fre- and voltage functional check operation. M PS Verify Verify destruct destruct 7-20 . check of TC igniter.Part 9. of capsule ordnance con- nection. 12. 9. 16. 14. 2. T-390 I. 3. Standby Make to resume count. T-380 I. PAD-M II . resistance Install control battery Ready Adjust Torque Verify LN 2 equipment. helium voltage fill. BH PAD-E and PAD-SAFETY Verify vehicle Electrically destruct connect block. Reset T-385 Make quency 2. fin clamps turbine.) No. to launch position. booster cable to 8. I0. eject No. checkout eject control i0.

interior platform operational blockhouse clear and check. No. PAA-CAP Install at back road blocks and clear for RF test. instrument switch On. T-345 1. water 2.Launch Countdown Pull and mechanical clear (Cont. access check door remove test for cables. PAD-M T-360 T-350 1. 5. PAD-M PAD-E Secure After utility destruct no-voltage room over-all doors doors 15. PADPAD-M PAD-M PAA Open Drop Close valve immediately. standby to clear to Capsule Open All the ANNOUNCEMENT personnel for the RF test. PAD-PAA Position of structure 4. 2. T-320 i. 4. 3. both supply Disconnect water safety line showers of disconnect structure. 14. of peroxide lines at capsule on station. trailer. area all nonoperational personnel 3. (on west of power side secure for outrigger clearance No. and open and 1. platform No. CTC PAD-E PAD-CAP and PAD-M Call Final Verify and T-330 T-325 1. E E MEAS Normal Blower Monitor cooling On. flight. 4. 2 mast valves bunge to ground and 4. post). ) 12. 2. I. all structure- 13.Part T-380 (C ont. PAD-CAP PADPAA capsule vertical disconnect personnel alignment. 2. PAD-SAFETY II . PS Establish operational 3. and I-II. PAD-M PAD-M Secure Close Close secure recovery aft section instrument door HI). 7-21 . 2. 3. 3. level. (do not for flight. area of non- personnel GSE hatch.) arming pin on destruct block aft section. 1. HI-IV compartment doors 2. compartment temperature.

Cut safety Apply Squib Caution arming Station a. panel. reference regulator transmitter to zero psig. 3. e. 4. 7. for all RF systems conductor check. 7-22 . 2. pad to blockhouse for RF interference T-295 i. Announce clear area. check of service 5. Blockhouse MERCURY Capsule Pad SRO. wire On DCR power. structure photo to edge of pad. switch personnel. Rogers: abort control control box (Dr.Launch Countdown Open platform (Cont. structure 3. TC Announce come for personnel blockhouse. center. 2. DOVAP control On. PAD. pneumatic supply at T-315 T-316 i. safety.) No. TC panel. Flight safety. 8. 9. On (voltage clear).Part II . 6. 5. crews to T-305 i. 2. b. 3. PAD-M Make structure remote from operational blockhouse. RANGE PS Standby Report is clear. On.PAA PAD-M PAD-PAA TC Disconnect service Move pipe service 3. i. c. capsule arming all will be accomplished. M M BH-CAP PS ANNOUNCE ME NT RF silence Off. for and searchlight 2. 2. T-298 i. C G G RF PAD-M G TC ALL PERSONNEL Control Gyros Erection Verify Engine Amplifiers Reset Clear test. d. Debus). system switches. behind blockhouse to into the voltage On. T-300 I. f. as soon as area to test 4. On (pad cleared capsule abort position). On.

Off.Launch Countdown Arm Verify C. ok (light test On and (momentarily). pulse 2 On (allow at least 30-second warmup). tests. 7-23 . 4. 9. booster Off. 7. 17. 3. i0. 11. device computer command. On. On. SEQ G L AXN C C C RANGE RANGE RANGE Record all battery control voltages. Off On). o C C C P AXN Program Rudder Verify Verify Power device drive servo voltage transfer On. arm radars all indications On. computer On. RF components reading. RF T-285 i. 13. 7. recorders On. BH BH M M of DOVAP E-1 and Beat-Beat. 4. 15.) bus. 8. 5. CTC ii. check and time 1 On. to minute speed. 3. commands On and power Off (verify). 18. 10. 12. transmitters. 8. 14. 6. Off. command. 6. On.) T-290 I0. M Ii. Simultaneous Network Emergency Rudder Program Control Cutoff Destruct Switch drive roger of satisfactory power transfer. 2. voltage ok (light On). 19. No.Part T-295 (Cont. 9.and Proceed AZUSA AZUSA Readout Command Telemeter Calibrator Control DOVAP Begin Sequence Recorder DCR DCR No. 2. 16. the squib proper S-band with ground On. On. on TC panel. and report completion to TC. (Cont. TC I. station AZUSA carrier On. Off. RANGE BH-CAP RANGE M RANGE RANGE M M C II .

No. of all uncompleted as individual Receive RF checks. M 23. 4. pneumatic supply. tolerable type RF inter- command any nonflight to the booster complete status blockhouse. RF silence. complex switch personnel to structure. 2. M 24. command. PAD-M Reconnect structure. blower Off. 7. water supply line at back of i0. PAD-M 12. return to 605 psig. Reconnect . TC CTC PS Check secured. compartment On.Part II . around vehicle vehicle. 5. (Cont. 2. 3. 5. PAD-M 7-24 Reconnect Open water safety valves structure shower on west side. carrier. instrument compartment 9. return to vehicle after abort system personnel from is removed gyros. 6. 2 Off. M ANNOUNC ANNOUNC E ME NT E ME NT Safety Capsule Operational power 7. 3. regulator structure and On. T-265 1. RANGE 22. ALL RF MONITORING STATIONS M TC command. switch (pad No____t cleared arming position). cooling Off. RANGE (Cont. disarmed. RF equipments their report tests. ) 21. 2. 4. 8. Disarm Open that all RF equipments have been squib squib bus.Launch Countdown Cutoff Destruct DCR DCR Secure Report ference Secure systems No. 1 Off. Establish RF silence Capsule Instrument Bypass Monitor temperature. T-275 1. T-270 1. G PAD-M PAD-PAA TC M PAD-CAP E E MEAS Secure Engine Move wire DCR switches. I and 4.) T-285 20. PAD-M 11. 6. RANGE T-280 1. control service capsule.

1.Part II . 2. Install LOX Remove vent pipe. masts. PAD-CAP PAD-CAP PAD-M Open Switch Open internal door. 2. fuel flex overflow line. plug-in steam exhaust. change instrument compartment reaches temperature pressure mast control 3. 14. system nozzle and capsule T-245 T-200 i. Bring LOX trailers into position and connect. 13. Bring tailheater into position. 11. and power up. 4. PAD-M PAD-M Locate Connect trailer. static firing. 3. 2. PAD-M P PAD-CAP PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M PADPAD-M PAD-M PAA Apply Verify Begin to booster pressures. Connect fuel bubbling and start flow. PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M TC Remove Remove Small Launch loading. i. cables to IX)X topping 12. LOX topping electrical trailer. P Weight loading is made measurement (clear to TC). lines to capsule T-260 1. 7. T-190 1. Open platform 1. 6. PAD-PAA PAD-CAP Reconnect and trailer. 5. MEAS Last minute checks of blockhouse system. purge. LOX pump heater weather bearing on alcohol decision manifold. 4. capsule capsule peroxide T-255 T-250 1. PAD-MEAS Check panel secure. vehicle prior when to LOX and announcement LN 2 7-25 . Make bolts. door near III (when ambient).) 2. 3. final torque check on LOX manhole 8. measuring 9. and 4. prior to LOX T-180 I.Launch Countdown Close platform (Cont. that are all hand valves position on calibration for firing and in proper 10.

launch that 3. astronaut should are Go If installa- T-125 i. 3. LOX topping Verify Terminate Capsule Remove Tail Install Prepare azimuth to automatic. 4. below operation booster 70°F. 2. 3. igniter. purge. booster suit thrust equipment 5. T-130 i. arrival firing check. has left Hangar S. (Do not con- chamber ) azimuth all vehicle are electrically. tion. and pressure. to astronaut insertion. all preparations proceed affirmative.) 2. 2. systems on schedule. T-180 (Cont. 3. 2. PAD-M PAD-CAP PAD-M Move H202 truck into position.140 i. measurement T-165 T-145 i. PAD-M PAD-M PAD-CAP Check Start Suit of H202 H202 loading heaters (booster). 7-26 . time with H202 prior be absorbed installation. at pad.) heater On. LOX trailers. i. 3. End Weight after LOX tanking.Launch Countdown LOX valve Start Monitor Verify (Cont. P PAD-M MEAS CTC P and P P PAD-CAP PAD-CAP PAD-CAP PAD-PAA PAD-M PAD-M PAD-E PAD-M LOX precooling LOX tank astronaut LOX tanking. Pre-purge Install nect circuit. at this with a hold If negative. (booster). 4. CTC P ME/MS Proceed Turn Monitor values: astronaut On. loading sequence. On. of peroxide nozzles. T-123 T-120 i. PAD-E TC and PAD-M Perform Ascertain and check.Part II . astronaut static switch T-135 i. I. 4. metal cover on LOX manhole. for final heater sheet LEV-3 check. 2. T. T-115 i. heaters tank H202 temperature above (redline 90°F). 3. 2.

fueling scaffold.M PAD-M Secure Install check Torque Remove drain ignition screw in combustion stick and chamber. mainstage stick (short momentarily 1 and shower supply 2 and and line open stow at back 3. and connect gas evolution and cabin H202 capsule check inspection. 2. computer eject line operation. LOX topping No. cooling On. door and check).) check. 4. resistance sensing (do not connect). turbine. for of launch. instrument loading. 8. last for I mast instrument flight compartment LEV-3 cooling (after azimuth 4. valves safety water and purge. 2. 3. All nonoperational Clip Adjust Make Harness Move Verify LOD clear 2 mast umbilical on H202 the area. PAD-CAP PADPADPAD-M PAD-M PAA M Install Open Close capsule platform water hatch. 2 mast connected. connected. 3. 2. No. 6. PAD-E. lanyard. E E ME/kS PAD-M ANNOUNCE PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M PAD-CAP PAD-M PAD-M ME NT Normal Blower Monitor End H202 On. truck eject out of immediate control line area.Part T-105 T-100 1. compartment temperature. 4. 5. T-85 i. T-90 1. and M Instrument last door compartment is in place. 1. PAD. 3.Launch Countdown Suit pressure Check Verify Close secure (Cont. 2. safety wire release. T-80 i. PAD-CAP PAD-E Capsule Check at pad). 6. T-95 I. PAD-CAP "PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M and P II . system. 3. personnel from No. 7-27 . 7. switch On when 5. 5. PAD-M. 2. 2. Disconnect Disconnect structure secure.

T-75 T-70 1. 8. structure pneumatic 3. blue high pressure storage TC panel and Set up red systems for launch. PAD-M 6.) 5. On.) valve" operation in pneumatic T-80 (Cont. trailer. 9. PAD-M and E Turn heater 2. minimum). control launch pressure (redline regulator 655 psig T-65 i. 1. van to launch check. 7-28 . of engine for position. voltage On. and secure 585 psig heaters operation. 2. c switch confirm 4. PAD-E Open install two lids safety on trench ropes. PS C G G PAD-CAP Check Control Gyros Erection Clear Transfer Amplifier Reset and On.# Part II . if required. G TC PAD-M LN 2 trailers. 3. in utility 1 open. I0. hold fire up of high pressure system 5. service structure. PAD-PAA PAA cuit for high for tail setting purge. PAD-PAA PADPAD-M PAA Open Open and secure maximum. On.Launch Countdown Check systems. 7. "check (Cont. transfer pressure final check parts room. 6. PAD-M T-57 I. 9. TC Obtain structure clearance to edge pressure from all stations to remove of pad. T-60 1. 8. ii. 2. 10. first motion circuitry. on P and and transducer platform platform Disconnect supply. personnel in phone cir- 4. PAD-PAA PADPAD-M PAD-CAP PAD-CAP PAD-CAP PAD-M PAA Open Verify Move Gas Move Capsule Make CO 2 valve platform spare sampling. near blockhouse and 7. T-55 1.

for operator injector stick emergency egress I0. . hand valve. Set up 3100 Set ignition Open Torque Monitor before igniter regulator bottle psig. remote placement operation next of cherry-picker to capsule. sensing to valve control egress On and Off for check. 3. truck and secure for launch. box. . bottle pressurizing. vehicle M-113 emergency is on station.Part T-55 (Cont. are Regulator Igniter last .Launch Countdown Set up ground tail purge.M C M-II3 Disconnect Connect Rudder Verify 2. purge coupling. 4. 750 supply that of dis- . utility only box room. the following open: inlet. o II . 9. 8. 7-29 . PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M Close spheres psig bypass to valve to pressurizing hand box. T-50 o PAD-M PAD. PAD-M Check valve mast mast Check hand hand compartment open. valve. CP Position operation cherry-picker and line ignition drive the station from in blockhouse. PAD-M Remove scaffold. 2. turbine.) regulator to 3000 psig for PAD-M PAD-PAA Move mote to edge of pad and ready re- . (G: Ob- mast meter over amount 1).missile that is full capsule open. doors LOD shop capsule phi pitch to launch bunge for cord location. structure controls.) . 5. hand valves in the T-40 i. 7. tails (Cont. 6. b. ground 750 supply last check valve is full . PAD-M Make of cable mast supply regulator. 3. 4. PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M PAD-M Remove Close Move Connect serve turbance tail tail heater I-II. T-45 . PAD-CAP PAD-M Clear Check valve a.

On (when complex area Squib is Safe). of hold fire. 3. CTC CTC PS All RF systems Cand S-band arming beacons switch On. 6. 4. All personnel not stationed in the blockhouse for launch. $ ANNOUNCEMENT RF RANGE M M M Capsule DCR abort system receiver On. PAD-SAFETY Remove (Cont. On. 2. TC igniter cable check. On. 7-30 . 1. MEAS C CTC M RANGE all brown computers check radar away beacon from On. igniter utility area squib room door to blockhouse. T-29 1. PAD-E PAD'M 3. squib On and Off as request for 2. 5.ALL PERSONNEL All capsule systems Connect Close Clear Verify may Q go verification. 3. clear the area to launch location.) 4. 5. 4. 1. area is clear and RF silence complex be lifted. monitor Command Telemeter Calibrator Recorder telemetry carrier On. 3. 1. 2. 4. C- and S- radars T-25 1.) allnonauthorized vehicles from rear of blockhouse. CTC Arm capsule bus. 5.Launch Countdown T-40 (Cont. T-35 1. 2. T-22 1. secure for flight.Part II . checks pad. switch 2. recorders On. to valve and box. Disconnect fuel bubbling and installcap on •coupling. for that Off. transfer check. are On. M i RF silence Check Control Functional DOVAP Standby band On. 6. PAD-M ANNOUNCEMENT I Close taildoor Ill-IV. 6. CTC PAD-M PAD-M PAD PS . is to be armed.

4. 2. e 3. 2. AZUSA AMR T-18 g 1. T-8'45" 1. On. calibrator Off.2. abort (Cont.) 3. . 2. 4. 5. LOD telemeter Meter Rudder range drive T-16 1. T-12 T-10 1. 1. T-20 • 1. Off. drive On and to 0 percent. CTC 4. M M MEAS RANGE AB M Preflight Calibrator Verify Telemeter Telemeter Preflight to oscillator corders Off (left side). 100 cps voltage minus in block- T-9 . t ANNOUNCEMENT ABTL P M RANGE AB C C Capsule Verify Tail abort abort system armed armed. spheres to 3000 psi. calibrator measuring momentarily. check. to internal switches. Debus' ok for launch. On and Off. oscillator On.Launch Countdown Verify position.) disarm switch in manual T-22 (Cont. 3. is set up. 2. 2. 3. command Off. Simultaneous C TC CTC M M M M P M C M MEAS Rudder Obtain Begin drive Dr. i. calibrator Off. 5. On. 2. power. Off. 3. 3. In 1 second oscillator 7-31 . On. of capsule on DCR Cut safety Preflight Calibrator Preflight Pressurize Calibrator Rudder Preflight Ground house T-14 1. to 100 percent. (light On). recording recording calibrations and pause as follows: 5 second intervals From CEC re- Off On. On. 2. calibrator missile On. purge On.Part II . telemeter check. transfer wire T-15 1.

M M RANGE AB M BH-PAA M M P SEQ SEQ C GEN C P AXN G RANGE L AXN C G Calibrator Forced Telemeter Telemeter Preflight Remotely Command Command Check Sequence Time Program Check Rudder Verify Power pulse that On. panel. structure No.Part II . to launch 1 On. g. Off. position. panel rack test (M). 4. On and Off. d. 3. Off. (G&C). is on schedule. 6. Hangar D (AB). (all capsule e.Launch Countdown (Cont. TC for proper (P). drive LEV-3 signal stations Power command. 5. roger commands satisfactory power power Off. 2 On. On momentarily. device On. 8. On (prep ok (light test complete). On). calibration recording recording calibrator move receiver receiver On and Off. T-6 1. 9. gyro from position control indications. b. 8. voltage drive voltage transfer switch Simultaneous Cutoff Network Emergency Rudder Check Clear Check a. C&G T-4 1. T-5 1. No. 4. 7.0 to 20 to 30 to 40 to 50 to 60 to 70 to 80 to 90 to 100 to 0 percent. 3. 9. 5. minute speed. 2. Blockhouse Sequence Telemeter measuring recorders station (MEAS). 2.) to 0 to 1. T-7 1. 6. conductor panel Measuring Autopilot Capsule indications). and gyro indications. (SEQ). Off. adjustments. transfer. LOX topping and E&I recorders On. f. 10. 2. 7-32 . booster Off. c. . 7. 5.

sequence as major items 3. i. 12. Countdown Pad (Cont. safety BH-PAA Aeromedical." "Periscope door closed." "Fuel tank pressurized. (T-14") 9. 2. recording On. 2. " 7-33 . CTC CTC P P MEAS P GEN P P P P Announce Announce Announce Announce Announce Announce Announce Announce Announce Announce Announce "Capsule umbilical dropped. 6. P M PS CTC CP M C P G RANGE BH-CAP RANGE P AB BH-CAP SEQ P ALL STATIONS Selector Arm Note Final Remove Block Rudder Verify to launch. recorders command. T-2 1. T-50" T-47" T-35" 1. 1. to launch Off. 11. 8. 3. cherry-picker booster drive ready abort On. fast On. destruct destruct clearance capsule. to fire (indication). flow recording cutoff. package. j.Launch h." "Missile power. 4. 7. calibrations. 2. " "Ignition. 3. 5. 4. 2. 5. Simultaneous Telemeter Proceed Give mark commands. " "LOX "LOX tank pressurizing." "Liftoff. T-O i. 1. 4. " "Mainstage. switch T-2'30" i. with telemeter to range Off. 3. T-60" 1.Part II . automatic speed. position.) (PS). preflight at 60 seconds. armed from and close hold fire. " "Vent valves closed. 6. (service structure secure)." "Boom drop. 10. LOX topping LOD telemeter Freon Sequence Firing Verify occur. 5. " tank pressurized.

LOX topping ground and LN 2 trailers. Launch Director remain recorders TERMINATION 1. Debus. Explanation AB ABT of code used in countdown. Telemeter Blockhouse Auxiliary Blockhouse McDonnell. pad and operations Control Mobile Capsule Environmental Gyro panel panel panel light panel Generator Inverter Recorder Measuring Blockhouse Emergency Propulsion McDonnell panel measuring rescue panel and (booster) vehicle NASA pad capsule operations 7-34 . BH All personnel in place T+5 TEST 1. start. panel) AXN BH BH-CAP BH-PAA C CP CTC E G GEN I L M MEAS M-II3 P PAD-CAP (miscellaneous NASA. CO 2 line. BH Sequence during except flight.Launch Countdown Liftoff. 4.Part II . Slow. generators. 4. 2. 3. 3. out time (Cont. RANGE RANGE RANGE 2. e in 10 second increments until until in 30 second increments termination. Pan American panel cherry-picker test conductor control panel (booster) tower station abort network hangar panel panel operations) Aeromedical D (booster) (Dr. PAD-M PADP PAD-M GEN PAA Secure Close Vent Secure Secure high pressure GN2.) T+0 1. 5. Clock Call T+lS0. CO 2 bottles.

3 EMERGENCY i pad operations mechanical pad propulsion. The PARS to accomplish lfftoff or until responsible director operations capsule conducted separation under under ff an off-the-pad supervision the direction occurred. task. in proximity to the vehicle were sectors. network PAD-M Fueling. was vested The responin NASA. recovery all the phases areas of the launch and flight. was 7-35 . occurred. function recorders (SEQ.1. director. 7. ff capsule recovery commander.3.1 ORGANIZATION General OF RESPONSIBI. Measuring TY pad operations pad operations Pad safety (PAA) pad operations Program safety device panel rack (blockhouse) central control to handled range through stations remote and RF system (booster) voltage. site on the pad were flight of the launch of the launch and _recovery.1 Responsibility areas sibility was for for the protection governed by standard safety.3.LITIES 7. the protection.PAD-E G&C.2 Launch Pad Area This area consisted providing organized until of all the emergency facilities egress this inside the fence of Complex A Pad was 56. operations PAD-MEAS PAD-PAA Pan American PAD-SAFE PD PS Pad RANGE Items remote RF Blockhouse SEQ Blockhouse current) TC Test 7.1.3. and safety pad safety and rescue of personnel and range of the on the AMR and surrounding safety regulations. Area concerned Rescue to the abort priSquad marily-with (PARS) launch Rescue was for the astronaut. conductor panel (vehicle) EGRESS OPERATIONS 7. astronaut To provide and flight to cover path maximum every of the safety conceivable to the astronaut emergency divided into during situation.

studies divided the into two major incapacitated. for could combined to writing. individuals affecting 7-36 .4 Downrange downrange Downrange consisted of the "of the range area from approximately normal for Task capsule the Force 12 nautical recovery within miles area. vehicle major and failures methods. wide United to the corridor. this offshore with area a was Cape.1. the response. States predetermined Responsibility Navy Recovery 24-nautical--mile delegated to the operations Commander. were devised status type of procedures occur and for eight general conditions. Responsibility launch recovery 7.2 Extensive best suited RESCUE time for OPERATIONS studies were specific made TIME STUDY which of the equipment The available were and of these one for studies. in the rescue indicated all personnel booster. skills.3.3 This area Launch consisted miles Site Recover_ Area land area from along four the nautical flight Banana commander.1. of the findings astronaut is a compilation The basic rule predominant be provided in the for final the selection astronaut squad were of the with methods employed risk was that perre- a maximum sonnel.3. therefore. was to determine of time one for 7-4 each period in the the countdown. quiring security Three squad a minimum to rescue operations members access of the rescue involved in rescue to the capsule. In Figure hazardous involved time 7-4 the heavy and bar the would indicates shaded bar the time the the astronaut total would man-seconds be exposed to a vehicle. 7.7. line miles uprange the of the water pad area for this to of all the downrange of the to the 12 nautical immediately area was of the p_l Cape including offshore delegated as well site as the River. successful and of a rescue of the largely the dependent operations. the vehicle-complex rescue procedures execution adaptability not feasible motely was to preconceive malfunction. that aided selected a set in the selection the optimum established.. categories: Figure astronaut self-sustaining. Having complex. upon reduce every possible therefore. for the the These guidelines of the of It was reoperation be exposed to a potentially of optimum and hazardous methods considering to cover the studies.3.

0..1 _5 Im o W .. W I.0 Z 7-37 ..0_o0 u w z I w w o "0 z z c_ C u3 U3 o3 C i: u c c o o (3 c_ bJ_ I o o o (.

30. of the transporter. The The tower the service was signed of rapid tower structure picker.2 The and military limited M-113 Armored armored for it could the cross at speeds Personnel personnel the PARS. b. and receiver.3. could to provide conditions ground astronaut such a means The or capsule on the or could dictate at the rear be controlled from within the away cab from the a position tower cab. truck- to be positioned self-egress.7. over a full the or through for Cape of a fire track designed of the country operation. e. travel vehicle terrain with the near provide edge protection to reach the if the vehicle M-113. Carrier carrier The limited M-113 was selected to provide of withstanding heat The transportation 12 psi had to M-113 protection and is capable against capsule. was originally to gain controlled intended.3.3.3 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT 7. service T-4 switch The cab blockhouse mobile removed countdown tower located on the was the positioned vehicle. de- capable of reaching heights capsule of 125 feet. revealed it was was it to be faster selected removed vertical next should to the booster for from of desire remote studies conditions. overpressure. is capable per hour. UHF and radio receiver.3.3.3 mc transmitter net. and since under after certhe to be MERCURY-ATLAS. service next to the pushbutton panel. control grammed stalled the the was the from be lowered by remote which vehicle programmed actuated were a proinin of within blockhouse. in this position emergency 7. 7-38 Aeromed Missile Vehicle Public operational crew address inter-phone system. structure astronaut tower. c. system. inter-phone speaker. use structure minutes of from for and it remained by the astronaut. of traveling It was peculiar scrub modified of up to 35 miles miscellaneous specifically to these communications listed • and equipment emergency operations as follows: Communications a. cab cherry was by STG. . of the the self-sustaining vehicle. experience.1 The used time tain mobile with Mobile aerial the Aerial tower. and down and the from Special the pushbutton switches descent in the tower was MERCURY-REDSTONE The structure capsule remote remote hatch control control when the until blockhouse. d. Tower shown in Figure Because than egress around the 7-5. hatch specially with action.

Figure 7-5. Mobile Tower (Cherry Picker) 7-39 .

3 The shown launch and the location . (one M-113 driver). the As illustrated. boots.Emergency of the Equipment emergency Location egress equipment. stationed are listed in the below.• Auxiliary a. back hatch. Two firemen Mobile tower (cherry picker) In accordance PARS was with assigned • the the egress following procedures functions: astronaut in an erect developed by the egress committee. Aluminized Scott Air two-piece Paks entry with suits. fire suits with bottles. f.3. technician. resuscitator. i.3. area. covery as requested and/or rescue by the outside launch the site launch recovery complex commander. the Perform booster emergency was still egress position from on the in the the the capsule pad. of wire cable. Shepards Crash on 25 feet with earphones. exposed M-113 The armored personnel personnel of this hazard: crew carrier were during kept at a minimum and launch. M-113 7-6. Assist. while the launch event • Perform abort launch emergency or some complex abort area. d. five-minute Two fire Special Portable Heavy fire axe to provide hook aperture. duty manual bolt cutter. recovery/rescue condition wherein of an off-the-pad landed within the capsule • . in re- 7. Vehicle Equipment pusher crook helmets blade adapter. to reduce the Vehicle Medical Capsule numbers to a potential commander. mobile tower carrier moved to the capsule tower personnel in to embark mobile 7-40 . the cab has is moving service been at approximately structure positioned has next the been T-55 minutes. operator is to its in Figure position. operator. h. b. g. c. e. doctor. The the members countdown of the PARS.

0 0 0 0 O 0 O .N I 0 I 7-41 .-. _ 0 t_ N 0 0 0 .t I ..

flight Systems line yield to the vehicle.1 For RANGE ballistic SAFETY OFFICER (RSO) OPERATIONS the was time the RSO had point a plotting the The " were Cape. received developed the phase or beat difference differences with of an airborne were their expressed center line of the presented equipment) CW sigin or zero proon and by two antennas.before proceeding required to its for launch rescue position. and/or destroying vehicIe. Predictor. flight be switched. To protect of AFMTC mand Two for Cape lance. boosters Control. position and Transmitter board versus altitude board on the displays cross versus could Cape. to the "Impact AZUSA Patrick by II at the system. occurred computer. if necessary. Command Destruct plotting range and plotting radars transmitters Command real-time of ground profile). For were Central the RSO's provided versus data safety.4 RANGE SAFE TY 7. and safety C-band plan. AMR representations were deviations for These ELSSE one each representations (electronic of the vehicle's recorders skyscreen telemetry NASA Beat-Beat MK II telemetry tracked transmitters. time impact point. AFB S-band with the at Patrick prescribed 7. from the Range to carry Safety two Division independent the (RSD) com- required capable command CCMTA flight in the standing systems ARW-19 range of terminating receivers were powered carried were Site. LOD. GBI. is also shown. (lateral during radars range The profile). terms (program for each C-band accordance life and property each from vehicle an erratic launched vehicle. the safety This cutoff command and period A three-second fuel dispersion that command separation three-second and exploding assured 7-42 a sufficient existed spacecraft .2 ABORT CONSIDERATIONS period (destruct) between an abort was initiated requested between by range by STG.4. Mark available at the Cape. liftoff. the such real as MERCURY-REDSTONE. surveilin altitude source between and GBI in at MERCURY-REDSTONE by at Cape 3. measured These slant phase and of presentation. range and GBI station vehicle of the positions ground range cross (ground range trace). the board vehicle data C-band The beat- vehicles. ranges. 7. which at the or the display would sources radars beat nal terms beat gram strip indicating impact where if thrust termination IBM 7090 AFB. and fire The fighting position for the of all the periods other from emergency T-55 minutes to equipment.4. of the difference line and chart approximately lateral of the two 90 degrees of the the RSO.

that. earlier they land) STG.3 The basis LAUNCH original AZIMUTH CONSIDERATIONS launch adequate coverage. of 105 degrees As a consequence. of MR-3 to allow the was too close an azimuth trajectory. launches. booster would to ascertain how agreements of flight long the in flight. during the Subsequent first period would resulted wherein a booster in the an abort cutoff were incorporation command. selection azimuth distance of 105 degrees from downrange Cape was selected on the MERCURY-REDSTONE overland optimum recovery launch different areas. agreed requested three-sigma if the deviation agency a willingness to 100 degrees on this to grant for the waiver to change all subsequent change for the MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-4 launch. scheduled was flight would (X-Y range as imposed launch present-position at hand right launch plot). tracking This of minimum islands impact (including all dispersions). good assured if an abort flight booster continue in powered to a safe 7. safety as the waiver cated muth curred interval problem between the MR-BD detail deviation on the and MR-3 launches. RSD concurred (to T+8 seconds). RSDaccepted a 105-degree launch azimuth andthe requirement for the 0 three-second be correspondingly allocation MERCURY ity analysis aborted visions 30 separation time with along the the understanding southern to the that impact the line. area time. utilizing the on an azimuth trajectory. over LOD. STG con- azimuth 7-43 . destruct corridor would in the the a stabilwere proinitial decreased command Center. This provision could not cause that command given impact for except spacecraft area. blockhouse RSD requested. fly if the that capsule of abort Control be made responsibility and the astronaut.booster. of special during the seconds of flight. for however. had and originally stated a preference prior flatter flights flatter to the (to reduce flight the launched tilt a 100-degree RSD agreed azimuth. In the azimuth phase. at the discretion reasons a of RSD. to a MERCURY-REDSTONE (which and MR-BD initiated were MR-2. change. program and the trajectory MR-2 in flight). except MR-3 plot for for RSD investigated the early violate launch the Inasmuch a RSD indithe azi- the in further right and discovered trajectory radar a three-sigma criteria.4. however. of prevailing escape on analysis and the development of lateral of a system displacement. and winds 'rockets suitable in the with nonhazardous was also based locations. of interchangeable directions While the RSD concurred for a flatter in a 105-degree trajectory launch time azimuth.

for the prior of MR-3. a preconceived action. with each the action personnel necessary responsible on the egress to cope for booster. to accommodate to the structure MERCURY-REDSTONE required which are vehicle. 7-44 . 7.1 SERVICE STRUC TURE 7. made translated substituting the detailed studies 56 GSE were subsequently and for by the emergency into the the egress committee. prior structure The was the was area utilized for checkout to the and and preparation booster preparation.2 Level of the imately was three White Room service capsule. Handbook a set for of procedures Pad and the the Area reissued was prepared. the capsule on the that During hatch first two necessary capsule it was carried during the to remove films discovered into the the of the checks. for the by changing tower which procedures impractical serial MERCURY-ATLAS 7. • • Panels Panels requirements 55 mile removable per as follows: winds.5 SPECIAL LAUNCH FACILITIES AND DISPLAYS 7. withstand be readily hour for winds exceeding 55 miles per hour.5.1. In February unmanned of dust was and floating 1961. the were JUPITER.7. and updated.4.to VLF and 56. proce- emergency preparation and dures booster proved Complex were of these procedures. capsule. inside apparthe a considerable during preflight capsule period of weightlessness. ently capsule to explore the service taken successful amount checks. These In the AMR. launching the service structure on in Figure launch of REDSTONE.4 Having was flight ment IMPLE established ME NTATION the methods. defined.1. steps.1 Prior. It was flight issued This document to the The docu- entitled Emergency recalled in sequential and identified Rescue. the approxit of the MERCURY two weeks capsule mechanically this for period many mated of checkout to launch. explained of major following modifications paragraphs. JUPITER-C a number in the vehicles. the (1V[R-1A and debris. General its use shown in the MERCURY-REDSTONE 7-7.5.5. program mobile MERCURY-ATLAS tower operation. of enclosing Design and air requested three of possibility conditioning were capsule on level structure. by title of MR-4. In reviewing flights other about LOD was onboard MR-2). was used In order for the Program.

7 Figure 7-7. Cape Canaveral 7-45 . Service Structure. VLF 56. Pad 5.

The room proved effective and satisfactory in the flights of MR-3 and MR-4 and is shown in Figure 7-8. concerning control the pro- emergency vision exacting requirements purposes. safety aerial control blockhouse. Platform shown addition mote remote crash hicles 7-46 for egress emergency demands launch it was decided purposes. service periods.4 Remote for the Remote control purpose approval Controls of the MERCURY-REDSTONE lengthy countdown 1960. bridgewire No explosive system hazard. In subsequent to utilize were structure The was initially and proposed opera- of expediting was completed on the installation discussions the remote tional in August pad. panel In The reof in Figure a remote controlled controls basis MR-2 during and 7-10 was mounted for position tower control service to support the MR-3 three lowering proved provided. the design 7.3 A solid Escape fuel escape to separate The presence which had Rocket rocket the Flame and Deflector tower were the attached booster above fatal train to the capsule. and blast to eliminate this Figure potential 7-9 LOD requested of the a flame structure. Air conditioning system to provide a 20 percent safety factor for both temperature andhumidity control. of emergency special System operation television control power modifications within camera for use existing required limits. A 20 by 50-inch camera platform with live load capacity of 350pounds.Special hospital-type floor coverings. for and remote in the was to meet design Additional control crew for involving a remote Three. hazardous advertent device) order tor capsule of this would from escape have if a catastrophic the space vehicle on the condition created structure and rocket proved condition ignition or exploding to personnel interrupter in the that service occurred. installations by the astronaut The remote rescue open-close and a backup source near the the were pad mobile added. shows was (safing escape arming In deflec- incorporated rocket. This rocket was had a if in- to be used occurred. The enclosure was consequentlydesigned and constructed on a day-by-day basis on the site in order to meet the required date for 1V[R-3.1.1. were Adaptation on a emergency months egress and five accomplished the launches between basis.5. Sincethis project was carried out on a crash basis. structure very effective procedures days interim in operations. noninterference .5. be provided. it is obvious that no formal design procedures were possible. of ve- on a time-available. 7.

I 0 0 0 ! °_-.I ! \ 7-47 .u_ r_ o °F..

u_ > _9 _9 _9 ¢9 O ¢9 _D O _D (D 7-48 .

9 _D 0 0 0 I L-- • • i_i !i ¸ 7-49 .

television MR-4 flights cameras commercial and networks at the for use in their nationwide coverage manned MR-3 discretion of the NASA Controller.7 Platform Platform three was During were Reinforcement designed the first for load mating the limits of 10 personnel at CCMTA. and other equipment.7. cameras A fifth could camera. In a meeting on 6 October 1960. 7. 7. revealed during the first mating of MR-1. six personnel and The platform would also provide associated electrical interInstallationof the platform was This platform is shown locks. satisfactorilycompleted by 8 December in the upper section of Figure 7-11. pad.5. so that after on the room side on level of level to show was northwest at the mounted vehicle level it could be remotely restructure camera. after located available of the be controlled positioned structure an over-all and positioned to show the remotely recorders block- DOVAP and The was video in the for of these blockhouse.5. view of the from on top of the blockhouse. This problem was made was and An analysis of the problem an auxiliary platform was proposed which would accommodate 300 pounds of equipment. in several cameras The structure the Two of these capsule operations. substituted output on top of the to the blockhouse. with greater observed and 500 pounds that these re- of equipment. to show mounted of these house.1. was 4000 being pounds (2000 pounds) it was deflected. of the launch operations committee. access ladders.5 To provide to the tions located located positioned moval. the number was activated camera made service removal. STG ad- vised that provisions for access to various levels of the capsule were too restricted and proposed an auxiliary level at the base of the escape tower.1.6 Auxiliary Platform It was originally intended that the capsule contractor would provide such necessary scaffolding and access media on levels three and four of the service structure as required. was four also Television visual monitoring Control and white for Center. load vealed limits that of MR-1 platform exceeded loads and that were Investigation loads to be platform approximately 7-50 .1. railings. on a priority basis. the All to look A third service MERCURY-REDSTONE was mounted at ground relative presented service east side structure of the A fourth launch within camera structure movement to the launch vehicle. control by the blockhouse were mounted and for information locawere camera MERCURY on the inside on the cameras pad area. around remote television the launch three three.5.

> > 0 @ °_ ! 7-51 .

1. used to damage. Design of the reinforcement was scheduled proceeded between was at an flights in of installation on the structure basis. equipment were designed and installed levels 7. could only abort and booster missiles. Abort Director seconds and re- MERCURY-REDSTONE in the GSE. are Miscellaneous of additional as follows: • A special provide Modification modifications Requirements of lesser magnitude.5. were adequate from potential provided shelter for work house and on the structure to provide illumination and for photographic coverage. the blockhouse authority period.5. MR-BD 1961. used approach part until of the liftoff had seconds during was this turned for monitoring quired generally.expected accelerated MR-2 February and during pace.8 A number basis. available • A special protected • A cable connect • Additional level shelter. enclosed storage boom capsule lights entailed rehabilitation and modification of an cable of the provided storage capsule on the off the platform cables. such that the circuitry checkout.2 The GROUND mission of the panels ABORT COMMAND SYSTEM vehicle the from vehicle abort the was system unmanned systems. the manned and flights. • Special handling equipment for the capsule tester was designed and manufactured. The on a noninterference installation completed 7. over command MERCURY 7-52 . The Launch until which abort subsequent Control a somewhat was abort Since different capability. trailers. could after an integral by hardwire the blockhouse to eight and by radio windows liftoff. fulfilled on a priority shelter protection was provided capsule on the from fourth the service elements structure and improve level to of the This work- ing conditions. • Cable between trays and cable three hanging and four. initiate launch. be observed from command part Center. the During to the command from ground the eight booster adequate after performance emanated of the flight. structure ground in the was provided for safe and was to keep and free cables.

and premature cutoff. fault release. was taken caused tests release during since the several the preflight occasion mechanical in the electrical to be reliable. This informa -_ tion was provided to the RF abort panel operator so that RF abort capability would be monitored after lift*off. In the release concern on at least proved investigation not reliable. An integrator clock panel was used in the GSEto check the integrator time. optional from two ground stations. from the GSE to the vehicle. Engine combustion pressure switches were incorporated as a part of the automatic abort system to sense a loss of combustion pressure. tilt program. Tempo relay timers used the timers. sounding a buzzer. were of the capsule ground the same it was replaced launch umbilical release. to correct cable was added to insure potential the that of the the ground potential the of the initial were vehicle as the discovered with vehicles ground that Agastat were GSE. properly However. telemetry data. The MERCURY-REDSTONEvehicle also incorporated a means by which the destruct system could be checkedwithout simulating vehicle lfftoff. After liftoff. and correct malfunctions and/or improper operation of the abort system. 7-53 . pneumatic a pressure operation. ejected As a general pneumatically. This provided a reliable and effective means to monitor. utilized electrically. A followup remained of the These plugs the GSE. with an electrical some and was masts and umbilical vehicle. This was accomplished by adding circuitry and componentsto the GSEto provide a liftoff signal to the command receivers only. During being rule. Two methodswere designed into the GSEto check the 0 reliability bustion were and chamber operation was to check used the of the switches. and retaining the indications when received. case of this plug was The electrical equipped release backed because one up by a meof its failure during no action chanical to function a launch. which was maintained in the firing room to monitor the control and abort systems. the First. This was accomplished with relays which would normally be energized but which would de-energize with the loss of power and place the capabilities of receiving abort indications.Redundancyfor the abort system required that each hardwire abort line. Shutdownof the engine in normal flight was accomplished by aziintegrator cutoff which differed from most other launch vehicles. was transmitted (one via hardwire) to the brush recorder. simulator and near the relays com- to check circuit secondly. detect. have the capability to command an abort should the need arise. Abort batteries were incorporated into the ground support equipment to maintain an abort capability by the Launch Director in the event of a launch complex power failure.

3. Panel shown in Figure frequency vehicle 7-12. to prevent checkout. test.5. components in Figure and the test ac and 7-14. blockhouse on Vertical 7.5.4 The board systems. heaters the heater The an abort was booster from a manual abort on prior capsule transfer.7. 7.5. components The instrument switch compartment provided power 7-54 . the Measuring panel. arming miscellaneous control thrust voltage sensing to power from thrust sensing abort used were control. simulate blocking switch block signal a control DCR switch. test power Panel the auxiliary propulsion panel. the destruct line blocking to turn used the heater supply command package. was a standard inverter panel used and for pre- vehicles. with of all RF AZUSA. provided control DOVAP. located on this and monithe panel.5 In addition included heater Auxiliary to a test the control. Panel shown in Figure 7-13.2 The vious controls inverter Inverter panel. was system. following was vehicles. and television to prevent An RF silence from installed periods in series controls equipment radiating during of RF silence.3 BLOCKHOUSE ELECTRICAL GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT 7. control used to control In addition.5. The sensor line and booster control switches during switch. liftoff. receiving the booster booster 7.3. In addition. for the It presented ground and deviations 115-volt.3 The tor ment Environmental control vehicle Control panel. with a switch and switches to monitor function to abort or vehicle for control indicators. indicator receivers. Panel shown in Figure of the was 7-13. pressure for the shown test. Propulsion power switch.5.5. these equipment on- measuring the vehicle which consisted switch telemeter.3.3.3. either the the ground panel had a 5-volt power measuring supply.1 The General specialized installed equipment. and voltage indications contained 400-cycle inverters. instru- environmental the launch instrument could compartment cooling compartment be pressurized by a manual 7. in the required for the launching Launch of ME RCURY-REDSTONE Facility (VLF) 56.

. i 7-55 ....0 @ f.i k i _L I t'...

i w_ "t o % > M d I g • . g o o (..o o N ! I N? °_.) _ • _..L._J .." 7-56 ..4 !! .

_ 0 .o o ml 0 o 4 I .g 7-57 .t.

also in precutoff inIn propulsion REDSTONE and and to the bus missile reset and launchings control.3. This in the switch was de-energized The all the test compomain switch LOX from the function test switches switch positioned control for launch position. abort a voltmeter battery and switch a selector On). the propulsion to manually hydrogen system. It provided Panel shown in Figure 7-16. combustion pressure 7.3.5. also 60-cycle controlled (H202)equipment 7. and including: pressurization. and made was previously after used each item vehicle as a portable test. during simulations boom 2.7 The over-all set Over-all test up at Test panel.5.6 The vious Propulsion panel.5. for of GSE. with was lights test specific switch cutoff MERCURY-REDSTONE and the indication switch meters potential emergency light to monitor to monitor faults with the the missile functions.5. control switches tank Program. for was the standard and vehicle type used on all until previous generator missiles. and arming the sequence a cutoff abort D104 ground switch. switches 1 and mainstage. For The the panel console of the removed a permanent of the ignition. system controls. presented 7. Panel shown in Figure 7-14. operating pressure provided manual individually compartment in the provided and panel. contained The monitored the and power recorder controlled transfer control. the Panel shown tail in Figure booster it was all the 7-15. indicator also in the vehicle inverters were contained 7. the and and contained firing command system sequence a function button. an over-all liftoff. drop. the ready-to-fire hot indication. pressure peroxide The test instrument the compartment. was the standard model selector high pressure and panel as used switch. MERCURY-REDSTONE contained test. command dications addition the abort cutoff controls.8 The auxiliary Auxiliary network Network panel. LOX replenish automatic indications chains. power-Off buzzer batteries button.instrument when nents valves was valve this compartment selector test portions was of the panel. Panel shown in Figure The panel 7-16. (when ground and D105 and busses.3. 7-58 a constant 28 volts ground power the vehicle . heaters The were ll5-volt. for in this voltsignifying panel.3.9 The Generator panel.

i_! _ l¢9 0 4 i i !1 0 I 1 @ o 0 W Iil mU ! 0 I o I 0p.I b "-" 7-59 .

..oi_0 I < tjJ'. 0 ¢....-i 0 D ..-# < I..) 0 l:q q) f.-i 0 El J_ill ! <i'_ i.: 7-60 .

with operations. that These monitored signals were the input monitored of the and the position of vanes II and 7. LEV-3 monitors Associated control only until with computer liftoff. link. the autopilot rack was a brush recorder IV. 7-61 . and Generators Generator utility room. 7.5. are indications positive by lights Indications retained until is taken. with the Capsule (Missile Operational Interphone System) (prior to liftoff). c.was and tor switched associated rack in the ground to internal ground blockhouse support power. b. countthe con- conductor's of the vehicle communications control the the by the ability panel.3.5.10 The autopilot Autopilot rack. and for Rack shown the in Figure 7-17. panels panel. the and the composed In addition control program of the control panel. for the gyro flight output. panel functions given determined and of the received countdown. equipment. device. sequencer. (LEV-3) positions for and the panel.4 In addition special were COMMUNICATIONS to the usual communications links peculiar used to the in all missile launches.5. master conductor. status Console shown and abort The test in Figure panel. connected as ground 1 and 2 provided voltages to the for the vehicle monimiscela 3 provided Generator with and the 28 volts 4 provided vehicle. power capsule for 28 volts The panel laneous voltage not directly as well contained supervision indicator vehicle indicators.3. status conduct thus to communicate of range left gives all blockhouse and of critical are action a range (except supervisor at the countdown speaker. utilized control integrator attitude to monitoring panel provided the vehicle control. the following flights. the the autopilot vane controls control. countdown clock panel was made clock up of three master control vehicle gave the The essenbuzzer. timer was panel. the Abort status 7-18. communications utilized: Voice a. computer. MERCURY-REDSTONE manned Communications UHF VHF MOPIS radio radio link. 7. launch provided launch panel and The communications stations conductor phone).11 The sisting and down test black vehicle tial for the test Test Conductor's console.

]r_ v-.:: .cl. -b2 rc 7-.:. _._u._. >lo+:.c 5{3 .!7 +\utonilot Ru.

Figure 7-18. Blockhouse 56 7-63 . Test Conductor's Console.

This mobile unit was located between Complexes 56 and 26 during the periods when access was permitted to the complex.C. In addition. Television coverage thus provided was transmitted to Blockhouse 26 through cables provided by the news media. such as the press site. it was decided tO exclude live television from the blockhouse and MERCURYControl Center. This arrangement proved satisfactory and was repeated to a somewhat lesser degree during the launch of MR-4. D. These five television channelswere controlled by an LOD operator in Blockhouse 56. To minimize interference with critical operations. MSFC. the networks were required to provide one camera crew from a television pool. Figures 7-19 and 7-20 show graphically the many participating individuals and agencies who had either a monitor or transmit-receive capability on one or more of these special communication links in support of launch operations. The mobile unit had the capability of direct broadcasting. One television camera was installed on level three and wired through Blockhouse 56 for use by the news media. Washington. MSFC.High frequency radio network for recovery and rescue operations operating on 30. In order to maintain security. A short time preceding the launch of MR-3. This required a crash program to provide this coverage and to organize operations so as not to interfere with the preflight procedures. A three-point operational telephone link was provided betweenthe blockhouse. A 208-volt power source was made available to the mobile unit from the Cape operational critical power. The command station at Blockhouse 26 was mannedand monitored by commercial networks personnel. a NASApolicy was established which permitted on-the-spot transmission of launch operations to the public. and a single mobile unit which was present until final service structure removal. 7-64 . Four television pictures were provided by the launch operations directorate from their closed-loop system used in support of operations.3 mc. and the Advisor to the Office of Launch Vehicle Programs at NASAHeadquarters. An informational telephone network was set up for each operation. and local points. An additional commentator link from the information center in Hangar R relayed information to Washington. a commentator link was provided from the observation room of the MERCURY Control Center to the Office of SpaceFlight Programs at NASA Headquarters.

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varied impact. to loss beacon beacon of signal.5. and control Photographic performance.5. dynamic flight tions. type data the obtained vehicle retrorocket from during parachute safety velocity.7. and For the These documentary consisted tracking telemetry sequential ment. control for are was samused im- telemetry. tracked ground Cay. (very and long San range 7-67 . than instrumentation. available as tracking vehicle impact to furnishing were operated between for T+10 position phasing and its derivatives. to record The from on the the capsule scopes the distance accuracies booster. MERCURY tracked track capsules.1 Instrumentation four Monitoring used Instrumentation at AMR for monitoring of metric the launch of rockets instrumentation. Metric a. S-band Salvador from Mod II radars (AMR sites) Canaveral. and single Vibrations. VERLORT GBI. Carter Cay Bahama C-band except tracked radars In video the separa- C-band Island beacons Carter Canaveral.5. turbine speed. C-band 0. for and GBI predictor. were Flight Vehicle by RSO to monitor pact point. and AFB. as separations. equipment. and flight was added MERCURY-REDSTONE and one recovery flights another "communications into more guidance effects. real-time the RSO. be called tion the fell vehicle photography. platform events ples to obtain obtaining events. deployment. in the Cay.6 to MERCURY-REDSTONE seconds located and the to almost at Cape S-band 91 meters b. Metric tracking power was required for Much was of this required instrumentato evaluate and record aeroof func- category. instrumentation position. computer chamber and combustion ignition. Uprange the and on passive were addition cameras tion radar and skin sources track.5. instrumentation at Cape Carter consisted Patrick San Salvador The of the following: Grand the stations.5 INSTRUMENTATION 7. Telemetry strain gas was means guidance of onboard and outputs. category " data plant was divided engineering safety which equipcould into categories. a visual data inputs pressure. such of the measurements. positions. flight.5.2 Metric tion Metric Instrumentation was broken down into two categories: electronic instrumenta- instrumentation and optical instrumentation. and television monitors displayed in central 7. coverage the primary performance. electronic radars (GBI).

MR-1 and mand quent d.7 meters for MR-1A meter removed DOVAP to 23 meters from the respectively. DOVAP Hangar C-band obtained data the to be reduced quality radar were not sufficient. Lateral velocity Site Airport.3. variable as the These frame primary cameras format. of C-band was such that in the reduction MERCURY-REDSTONE was not required. Program and Site program (Doppler D. Merritt Titusville-Cocoa booster mitter DOVAP site 1. transponders on the for the data per stations C. vehicles. transmitted impact metric Program. because accuracies 0. AZUSA and powered flights. 7. to lenses film cameras. the beacon The from 0. and position) B. MR-BD. Airport. ranged and from Beach. and The II was used transponder AZUSA safety on 5060 for data were to the flight separation. for the predictor data Position period. optic Fifteen were 2000 and using tion. second flight. MIR-3.4 signal Playalinda on a frequency interrogated stations. on 5000 the also input post and MR-2 and mc MI:t-4 and flights. at Blockhouse Island tracked 56.8 for MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-IA. the Transprovided of per of 73. flight both I was utilized used for in the for the was MR-l. DOVAP the combined transponder com- a capsule receiver. consisted frame from presentation 20 seconds from 0. interrogated used and of flight to 5. accuracies same instrumentation fixed ribbon of the following: as CZRWs and from focal liftoff length RF-5Vs. operated The continuous were running fixed a synchronized that is. 738 mc. site) tracked the S-band radars were beacons operated only if AMR S-band with the data The as backup the data S-band c.tracking) of the radar MERCURY for at Bermuda capsules.1 meters and position to 1.05 was and Cape a reference velocity second receiver obtained. were in orientaand vehicle not tracking was determined The azimuth the elevation of the vehicle by referencing 7-68 . flights. they system.to 20-inch with cameras cameras. C-band data (NASA The radar. Mark telemetry The transmitter telemetry blocked frequency was out the changed onboard on subse- I and AZUSA Mark II were Mark Mark booster ms. metric with data kno_vn source used feet.03 approximately varied through meters Metric a.

yaw. Cocoa Beach.5. Beach Cape and Williams Patrick AFB Point of Cocoa.light source. did tial Photographic coverage Coverage was divided into engineering cameras to other cameras sequential had data. coverage. and roll) were reduced from 0 to 2000feet altitude. Yaw and pitch accuracies varied from 0. the Cape. flame periscope on was from Tracking ROTI's respec(north AFB. range while provide cameras cameras. used to correlate range Engineering-sequential visual The observations metric and fixed documentary engineering also cameras sequen- not have timing. andthe frame count on each picture. timing pulses.04 to 0. Cine-theodolites with 24-inch focal length lenses and 35mm film size.1 meter for MERCURY-REDSTONE. and Canaveral). using 35mm film and lenses of 40-. documentary 20 to 400 frames These effects retraction. and Patrick AFB.0 to 0. vicinity of the and timing documentary or a known frame c. This furnished backup data from liftoff to 2000 feet for the fixed ribbon frame cameras andprimary data to approximately 150. focal lenses.5. Position accuracies varied from 1. Point operated operated (north IGOR's were operated Cocoa 360-inch 500-inch at False Beach. 7.3 degrees. Three attitude cameras. tracked the vehicles from four sites on the Cape. Twenty second engineering-sequential engineering-sequential operated of the in the launch umbilical provided running launch from pad. Attitude data (pitch. and 60-inch focal length. azimuth and elevation dials. 48-. naturally and documentary coverage. tracked the vehicles to loss of view.3 Photographic camera rate. errors varied from 0.9 meters. per coverage. and Williams 7-69 . cameras on the (fps). Twelve at 32 fps. The cine-theodolites photographedthe vehicle.000 feet altitude. were details recorded launcher Thirteen specific to coverage tracking phase. were one from and of capsule engineering-sequential were running in operation camera of view Optical used. and Long as ROTI's Recorder) using (Recording were 20 fps also and Instrument) were tively of Cape Cocoa False operated and IGOR's at Melbourne focal Vero 30 fps.2 to 2. plug cameras varying ejection. Cape 500-inch lenses. Position b. 16mm These focal cameras cameras length (Intercept Beach length at 96 fps and 35mm to loss running each provided cameras Ground and general known Optical Beach surveillance camera. Patrick at 30 fps with at 20 fps with length lenses. paint pattern and/or the base of the flame to fixed reference targets in the field of view of each camera.

4 Two tion link. on one of capsule made or two aircraft. with the same each TEL informahad II. as during The to give from command the to the in this first abort seconds by order of the special that Launch and during a backup included signal Manual seconds by request An additional display an abort turn Director was abort switches. and because was and In the of the abort absence limited resysof display be provided on the in the interim. three on both links boosters 56.5. this such flight monitoring slippage used requirement that the flight subsequently trailer flights. data were (Ocean TEL Vessel). and a Real-time limited displays number were at Blockhouse 56 and Hangar 7. programs for the As a result manned requirement. was that flight a booster monitoring performance trailer. MCC to assure difficulty immediate occurred and positive during of information unexpected 7-70 powered . performance in the required provision the booster latched was bus in the On position was event signal generated.7. part telemetry line was of the flight. and the in the location information available In the of telemetry.5. Cape Telemetry telemetry links Links were carried links were for on each redundancy. booster A direct performance between console at if an blockhouse and the exchange flight. one transmitted These TEL III.5. recorded GBI. a backup the MCC. ORV using D. selected blockhouse receivers provided booster to the booster sources etry latter the the for performance complete and display alternatively (1) coverage (2) the TEL and reliability: II station telephone display telemfor the receivers. Cape Range III data. at Hangar and made MERCURY The capsule REDSTONE D. Blockhouse on one at MCC. within 5 or the STG re-established of demand to the MSFC the Operation request and that Flight this information at the of this were be available MCC to 10 seconds Director be monitored operating as explained • by a knowledgable ground rules and representative. was System original Displays planning the STG requested MERCURY and source trailer. The from input two operation to either was it off or verify. established measuring flights in the The the abort RF following: brush open-loop switches abort recorder flights under displays were the after eight utilized expanded left the recorder first eight to monitor to monitor were the the available abort manned system flights. program TEL monitoring eliminated III was to monitor MERCURY-REDSTONE As a consequence.5 During tem firm space moved.5.

pitch. 2. 1. g. chamber. combustion pressure signal. d. position. abort. pressure abort. error. o. c. to noise MCC Abort Attitude Angular Control Abort Angular Combustion Combustion Tilting Input unreliability. 2. direct was felt RF reception. n. velocity. g. signal. f. d. i. f. voltage from capsule. abort. b. abort. 1. of information booster following a. switch No. velocity. measurements pitch yaw roll position position. 1. error. velocity. b. to flight sequence. • Gyro Gyro Gyro over-all The performance. yaw. abort. No. etry receivers and decommutators available over and these at the lengthy to the MCC for cables The MCC. booster at the transmitted An additional nel recorder was performance MC C for display was purposes. 7-71 . e. cutoff voltage from capsule. switch switch No. yaw. velocity. to contribute vehicle transmission ably the a. separation cutoff. abort.• The blockhouse booster on a brush performance recorder and not which merely displayed: program. 2. h. program. i. cutoff switch No. m. abort. pitch. c. no telemHardwire apprecidata to discriminators. the presented The on an 8-chandisplayed infor- information from mation by hardwire TEL II station There were receivers. abort. jet vane were minus Deflection Pressure Combustion Abort Attitude Angular Angular Combustion Control Abort Capsule Emergency bus No. pressure pressure cutoff cutoff LEV-3. j. j. e. display was abort provided intended system 12 channels to reflect functions. k. h. as follows: display of launch is listed bus signal.

solely circumstances.5.5. Gyro pitch position. beacon as a backup A UHF were communications signal (search on the transceivers transmitted Cape for the transceivers ships. and the maintained force. Because capsule. purposes On the after and two HF messages cap- unmanned recorded capsule.k. The MCC did not take performance command data. between MERCURY Control recovery 7. monitored Tracking by the Office. fine. receiving booster and Deputy d. The blockhouse Director depending display Measuring of selecting data. Acceleration of missile. minus program. The MCC console was monitored engineer. booster with the information blockhouse upon was and to the on any of his by the MSFC Project Director and an LOD measuring b. times.7 One rate impact able support Abort Landing Predictor was high the Abort wind Landing Predictor. 1. drift of a MERCURY Using not considered the points. landing LOD Burroughs assuming flight. landing Had point seconds a normal was could booster given have corresponding an abort. Communications GBI. To assure that the best information from qualified sources was available within the shortest possible time. rescue for also the homing SARAH carried voice were sule. The Deputy blockhouse to assure had the the capability best available telemetry stations e.6 The Communications for Recovery aboard the and beacon capsules aircraft and could of the have been used force. forwarded verification 15 seconds. and 2 hours. m. data. and homing) recovery and an HF SEASAVE re-entry. the 4. the following ground rules were established: a. winds was aloft of the the usual availto of four points. two UHF flights. 204 computer an abort A trace occurred of the Control programmed calculate to eight with been capsule during at intervals abort Center. longitudinal. were capsules were from homing carried. Center. The Flight measuring Director engineer after within observations c. performance Chief. helicopters. adequate. Acceleration of missile. there slow system and of interest the method resulting was of descent prediction at T-5. personnel to the obtained MERCURY an approximate landing by observing 7-72 . longitudinal.5.5. action on the basis of MCC booster 7.

6. Forecasts United was and were States a divided the responsibility. would perresult the MERCURY area.2.6. (1) the booster-capsule of surviving a landing. phase. Information a Cape thus abort provided.1 Weather be grouped General restrictions into two • • that affected the MERCURY-REDSTONE Program may logically categories mission mission as follows: restrictions. restrictions.2.6 METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS 7. (2) the re- categories: capability the capsule. Control whether favorable in an unsafe and hold the count pending wind conditions. recovery Project While of the a small need Atlantic MERCURY by the Bureau. forecasts.2. the MERCURY data.2 WEATHER RESTRICTIONS 7.1 Weather The GENERAL input to the Missile MERCURY-REDSTONE Range. meteorological especially weather that Project about Weather and Support information areas. all supplied Weather observational Support Group supplied MERCURY duplication for the Weather there of capability existed in this arrangement. combination and (3) the affect the This performance group may launch of the spaceinto combination in a normal be subdivided phase.6. support is no question MERCURY recovery additional Group worldwide provided.2 Performance craft three and Performance restrictions booster Restrictions are those which might mission. during capability capsule's covering of successfully 7. forces. if necessary.3 The Arbitrary Restrictions of this category were those which have no specific effect upon the restrictions successful occurred completion during of an operation. of the Program network. Nominal Aborted 7.6. 7.the recorded mitted abort time and the plotted Center landing to determine more point. but became optical of upmost observation importance ff a failure the boost Optimum of the booster-capsule 7-73 .6. extended-range 7.

was the or 25-knot limitation Winds of the • Winds severe MERCURY-REDSTONE experienced only about of higher time. might vicinity the range. 10 percent of • Ground the especially service structure.combination tion of the through escape the systems zones was of maximum mandatory dynamic for pressure flight. gusts.4 The tant tions SURFACE MERCURY of which and the seas. imporlimitaa landing result of the The in capsule is the surface of the capability the boost capsule's Since point and relatively an abort along sea the state off small the in rough a landing launch planned minimums trajectory must or in the be satisfied immediate all along 7-74 . limit or during of weather state its restrictions. the Cape a strong area. themselves to reasonably prediction. velocity were at the prevailing upon the level of the jet stream placed The the critical most speed Dur30 per- limitations of both MERCURY-REDSTONE. with Such warm months becomes upper winds not a factor. are as well sufficiently before of the the as is a function ing the cent cooler direction winds vertical strong shear. of the time but to require only about flight simulation conducting time are operations. An 18-knot standard than used this for are a limiting (sustained) all factor after removal (gust) wind operations. at any pad. wind WINDS was subject wind and to a variety its attendant size pad.6. devices. and aloft speed. ciently are over several aloft. week strong 10 to 15 percent launching. and through the separa- a manned 7. Critical out of strong last periods conditions of no upper lend problem. sea.6. preparation. During jetstream to prevent Once Canaveral days. aloft. 7. most Structural of surviving phase. on about launch winds suffi- months. during was subject to easily weather satisfied minimums phase tanking. maximum established for winds up to a reliable it is characteristic periods arising wind that it persists successive alternating or more. particularly weather are could mini- MERCURY-REDSTONE in the • Cape Canaveral Required the launch as follows: hamper Precipitation certain launch countdown oxygen such a hazard as liquid to missile • Lightning relating storms to ordnance winds.3 The mums WEATHER MINIMUMS booster launch occurring preparations present itself area.

frequency of is not high. Weather alternating of excessive consistent consistent lend cloudiness with the with clear fronts periods America. in excess Capability capability of 30 percent of the as a starting cameras upon It has of less under is virtually the less amount than unpredictable. but only more Cloudi- throughout factor. Only the way sky. limitation.6 The than ness point. at any time 7. is dependent time. for the cooler and on in four of weather that the launches. for safe The recovery. limiting but may winds occur during and seas in the Cape Canaveral variety during area or along the trajectory in connection the year with (most a great frequently of synoptic the cool weather months). occurred the four cancellation by weather tends to run during colder the warm whereas. The are is critical the frequency relatively involve area hamper an aircraft are also elements of ceiling of unfavorable low. of cloudiness 20 percent capability cloud capaunder coverage. to 80 percent or 10/10 opaque conditions of clear accurately. While months. factors at a given under opaque camera been than known 1/10 to range all sky coverage sky. two of which optimum in which season. COVERAGE of sky with coverage no great was (C LOUDS} of the variability selected to track many Cape Canaveral in the as the a rising other mean limiting missile than from area exceeds 40 percent the year. surface another time. operations landing phase. and ceiling limit Since visibility and of wind recovery in the visibility rethat and leads to a safe search critical. cases. because was the of weather. problem. This present bility 7/10 could total half OPTICAL amount the time.5 Successful sea may covery would state CEILING recovery applicable AND VISIBILITY to even more weather limitations. patterns. launch scrubbed coverage necessitated unaffected seasons within North thus. 7-75 .6. of planned were optical weather those cooler skies across months. to acceptable limits conditions in recovery areas subsided occasion. search 7. capability be predicted The MERCURY-REDSTONE Of nine weather scheduled conditions Programenjoyed launches were In every that a factor case more proceeded than a fair to within share one of good hour weather conditions. the of several There movement of major the is no such phenomena were relationship during more warmer winter-time delays jet themselves during were to a much the launches threat reliable weather strong wind not necessary level winds scheduled stream a definite barely on two occasions. during the occurred in cycles days. during months.6. prediction. It is noteworthy or delay.

such as occurred and MR-4. 7-76 . the latter variety present tive to optical tracking.6. of the countdown of the near but serves area at the launch is not feasible.7. the Cape rather than being carried no real obstacle Project MERCURY equipment of keeping over by the prevailing performance Support Tampa. meteorological support Prediction to the of moment-tosite during Aircraft the last recon- of forecasting Program MERCURY-REDSTONE moment few hours naissance cloudiness. over left little to be desired. variability in sky condition. or high to form Clouds of for low clouds. ing technique.7 Within METEOROLOGICAL the limits SUPPORT capability. proved to system Weather at Miami. of both MR-3 vicinity is of inestimable little purpose value in the case which have of middle a tendency winds. convective involving WSR-57 useful means the range and Daytona large-scale to be a very beyond surveillance disturbances of a single radar at Cape Canaveral. under but are most radar restric- Group's compositBeach.

3 66. (min) 0 1154 74 1230 0 8-1 . shots. MERCURY capsule. vehicle The first three The The last testing of the flights fourth two The flight provided flight flights was checkout a final the data for both capsule development operational 8-1 test flights designers. to the manned were providing of the the suborbital flights. Launch Launch Dynamic Sea Specific liftoff Time time level Pressure (lbs) Sea Impulse. Engine !Weight.56 204.4: 363.4 8590 136.098 0934 53 _IR-4 41 17580 102.4 65.5 Boilerplate S/C S/C .2 s/c . altitude (deg fr local fixed vert) MR-1A 41' 7200 113.11 Simulated Simulated Chimpanzee- man man "Ham" 31 Jan 1961 24 March 5 May 21 July 1961 1961 1961 iAstronaut.8 66.0 576 82. A stronauY Alan Virgil Shepard Grissom Parameters Flt path Velocity Maximum Range /_ at cutoff at cutoff. r 556 78.116 IMR-3 41 7388 101.24 263. Table is a summary Table Summary of the 8-1 Flight Test Program MERCURY-REDSTONE Flight Number MR-1 MR-1A MR-2 MR-BD MR-3 MR-4 Launch Date 21 Nov 1960 19 Dec 1960 Booster Number MR-1 MR-3 MR-2 MR-5 MR-7 MR-8 Capsule Number Payload i llll s/c .780 216.976 0720 0 space (nautical miles) (ft/sec) miles) (nautical Maximum Thrust.1 INTRODUCTION test program and booster manned consisted of six flights and prior in three launch phases.1 586 78.SECTION FLIGHT TEST 8 PROGRAM 8.0 (lb/ft 2) MR-2 40.2 s/c .7 .220 217. level (sec) 217.860 214.63 276. (lbs) (EST) delay.5 605 79.76 262.680 MR-BD 41 7514 98.2 1115 veh caused.

system. 56 at Cape prepared launch flights is. flights of the of the that personnel be found -BD). was flown This and occur due open was done no abort if conditions an abort. to the -1A. 7 of this sensing required of the abort As noted. and three development program conducted occurring simultaneously before the with final MERCURY-ATLAS 8. the launch will -1A. MERCURY portion mission.0 powered of the successful spacecraft . and -2.1 The flights and the first GENERAL three MERCURY-REDSTONE the adaption with the of the flights. JOE only to that flight a capsule of seven test of the MERCURYbeing and and one abort beach was flight REDSTONE conducted checkout abort being attempts test two other One programs separation flights this of these using made. All flights Complex these sion half loop.2. to prove interfaces MERCURY were suborbital made the from MERCURY Florida.2 DEVE LOPMENT FLIGHTS 8. MR-l. LITTLE In addition. during program were described There same in this were period. Canaveral. would failure In addition for the in Section the abort to testing manned booster to follow.Table 8-1 Summary of the MERCURY-REDSTONEFlight Test Program (Cont'd) Parameter Pitch (%abort limit) Roll " Yaw " Pitch rate " Yaw rate " MR-BD 16 34 29 35 14 section pertains MERCURY was A total MR-3 17 12 13 22 14 MR-4 20 12 24 50 14 The flight program booster. a MERCURY-ATLAS one MR-4 BIG JOE flight. were development mission Launch and capsule. and 6. booster. even flights report. REDSTONE capsule. abort the Flight The MR-1 was mission launched was on 21 November to obtain the an open 1960 loop from Pad 5 of of the primary evaluation vehicle Mach sensing system ballistic flight and to qualify which spacecraft/launch included obtaining separation. system A discusfor operations (MR-l. to preclude a mission to a malfunction MERCURY-REDSTONE Launch automatic combination during 8-2 the Complex inflight for 56.

the service structure was moved into place. The engine shutdownsignal also caused the capsule escape tower to be jettisoned. MR-1 was the combination of Booster MR-1 and Spacecraft 2. therefore. Still attached to the capsule. This attempt was scrubbed at T-22 minutes when a low hydrogenperoxide pressure indication in the capsule was discovered. then settle back on the pedestal.8 inches. the vehicle rested on the launch pedestal. The vehicle was allowed to remain on the pad to evaporate the liquid oxygen. The investigation which followed found the cause of the engine shutdownto be due to a "sneak" circuit created when the two electrical connectors in Fin II disconnected in the reverse order. during vehicle erection and alignment on the launch pedestal. The fuel and the hydrogenperoxide tanks were then emptied. andfinally the auxiliary chute. The following morning the LOX tank was vented. No power or command connectionswith ground suppgrt equipment remained after liftoff. All circuits were deactivated. especially the possibility of accidental signaling of the destruct system. Still surrounded by the smoke created by the jettison rockets the vehicle tilted slightly on its pedestal. andlastly the destruct system arming device and primacord were removed. a tactical REDSTONEcontrol cable was substituted for the specially 8-3 . At first motion of the vehicle an engine shutdownsignal was given. fully fueled and armed.) After the first three seconds. The capsule's drogue chute deployed. range safety left the command carrier on throughout that day andthe following night to insure saturation of the receivers thereby blocking them from detecting any spurious signals. Liquid oxygenwas venting and the fin frames were deformed due to the force of impact. which had remained on the booster. a launch attempt was madeon 7 November 1960. no control could be exercised over the booster or the capsule. but remained erect. Prior to complete shutdownthe thrust was sufficient for lVIR-1to rise 3.Prior to the launch on 21 November. The firing command was given from the blockhouse at 0859 EST and normal ignition occurred. To prevent further damage. Normally the 60-pin control connector separates before the 4-pin power connector. Previously. a 60-minute hold at T-120 minutes was made to correct difficulties with the spacecraft's hydrogen peroxide system. the chutes fell to the pad. (Figure 8-1. then its main parachute. as were the high-pressure nitrogen spheres in the engine pneumatic system. However.

MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-1 During Parachute Deployment .Figure 8-4 8-1.

sensed main. through and prior to the control returned permitted through of a three-amp plug. and that the altitude reserve because was less in the than 10. from were was the launch vehicle "Normal to signal was ) because cutoff' the g-load started sensing requirements timer which. Since of the the booster and was capsule indicated it was both could be reused used after refurbish- capsule not damaged subsequently on MR-1A. parachutes no load was proper parachute was released sensed on the To prevent inches Changes from a second added also occurrence to maintain in the of this vehicle electrical and the problem a "ground strap" approximately all lifloffdisconneetions. cable. adjustments. not met. but compensate REDSTONE Because milliseconds which of the improper mechanical plug. tower abort if the the prior mode flight flight by jettisoning hazardous measure to capsule seconds then and on the have a potentially safety cutoff condition was would existed manned. the combustion armed. 000 feet sequence. the g-switch. 12 long was were grounding network throughout distributor to 129.5 signal signal. blocked signal. to minimize MR-1 had the of a spacecraft before the timer launch-vehicle expired and sensing lg. The spacecraft did not separate in the upon was spacecraft its expiration. signal for jettisoning the the escape tower rocket pad. This the power part plug disconnected 29 current. would have normally cutoff" relay to ground diode. less than 0. 8-5 . The barostats the properly drogue.25g. to generate was booster This accomplished If the capsule by the switch by modifying pressure cutoff capsule was also circuit to start added in the was an arm at 129. tower normal cutoff could be received signal the sequence. main and therefore The parachute load actuated reserve sensors. to fully The cable clamping for the block longer was then adjusted. propulsion An arm panel.shortened apparently MERCURY not enough cable.5 of escape had been sequencer chamber a normal jettison made to prevent seconds was lost after and a cutoff liftoff. cutoff to capsule to the blockhouse Examination ment. acceleration occurrence on the tion pad (This sequencing recontact. supposed a 10-second if the spacecraft the settled separa- separation designed However. the power to pass thrust the "normal jettisoned and its ground The cutoff terminated the escape tower.

1.4 to 0 and Recovery system drogue chute 3. sustained minor then damage returned so it was to MSFC decided where to use it was and held for the At the Space M:R-1 was of the program.752 0. was the same as.600 ±0.775 .2.635 0.1 1.617 0. display M:R-I's MR-3 tail assembly next flight.000 and the was was 8 December ber 1960.648 0. conclusion Orientation M:R-1 remained 8-2 lists the at MSFC sequence is now on for the at the Table of events MR-I flight. flight arranged test successfully countdown second on 17 Decemon at procedures 360 minutes in a split day.010 (system (measuring plug disconnect signal) (measuring bus energized jettison tower Telemetry interference jettison rocket exhaust Chamber pressure decays armed. achieved on flight on the objectives for replaced rocket The The capsule parts minor modifications. deployed 0. 775 8. parachute launch run such a tri-nozzle backup and the capsule of the with the deployment vehicle on barostats 1960.775 due to +0. Launch and at 21. booster in reserve.025 0. 001 sec) Comment Cutoff condition generated 0. Center.3-1.2 Flight The one FLIGHT MR-1A flight used was MR-1A composed the MR-1 tower mission except jettison feet. 2 spacecraft. Table MR-I 8-2 Sequence of Events Event First Power Cutoff Cutoff Control Liftoff Abort Escape Motion plug disconnect signal) signal) Range Time (+ 0. pressure The of 250 minutes part line was started 18 December 0222 following high EST but a leakage valve delay in the of three in the capsule's peroxide hours and system nitrogen required and a faulty causing a solenoid launch 8-6 of the capsule correction 15 minutes.609 0. and resetting mated and the No. . simulated were on the of the M_R-3 launch set for vehicle MR-1.However.639 0.

tail winds re-entry The (upto deceleration capsule 203 feet also per approximately traveled second} 20 miles and range the predicted predicted.0 8-7 . abort During system the the measurements Malfunction between velocity normal. Launch flight all as velocity than functioned vehicle higher expected. A thorough tion eight material the was the problem also identified electrical laboratory check of the torque integrator against of five the was pivot made and the source of the malfuncby as excessive wires. operation. liftoff to about 9 cps at cutoff. the residual propellants duration Vehicle were seconds about imum 6. abort flown and sensor open the loop on MR-1A.4 integrator. seconds LOX vent. an abort was degrees thrust shutdown.5 cps but small amplitude during the vibrations first 10 from a max- The The frequencies frequencies appeared randomly angle second mode occurred The and varied reached near degrees. The condition to nose-up High percent insure LOX flow higher full coupled than with low fuel flow gave an oxidizer to fuel mixture were ratio sufficient 3. designed. for wires cutoff solved timer as demonstrated used during velocity these MR-2 but it was M:R-3 and MR-4 because modified integrator operated properly. of the wires on the MR-BD removed (85 percent 15 percent by the flights. thus caused capsule to be 260 fps 128 g above boosting 6 miles predicted to 1.0 in a capsule g maximum.4 cutoff.0 resulted 11. copper) and remaining flights.6 to predicted. of 3. of attack of 6. the spacevehicle was launched from Complex abort 56 and successfully remained of the higher miles the than and than met its objectives the limits (Figure and the however. of engine however. was All sensors showed levels as some from 7. cutoff the 0. the 8-2}.At 1115 EST on 19 December 1960. of flight. cps was proper first throughout mode powered flight. The well abort below system the The after was also limits.5 control measured. of the and accelerometer use of a softer three A backup caused wire Relocation silver. further "popgun and downrange effect" High also at separation were contributing factors to the increased deceleration.6 the abort pitch engine system indicated de-energized condition attributed at engine of 5.

Liftoff of MERCURY-REDSTONE Mtt-IA .U N I T E D Figttre 8-8 8-2.

in high and an inadvertent 8-9 .5-minute flight and survived of weightlessness. 42 miles re-entry programmed higher forces his tasks into 114 miles 124 miles 291 miles than downrange period up to 15 g's throughout were re- as a 6. range. high farther successful. The vibrations powered as was transducers was The reflected vibrations throughout levels during i. servo The control propellant drove valve failed in the causing depletion consumption the turbopump increased conditions by hydrogen resulted peroxide thrust. pressure early which shutdown.A vibration longitudinal adapter imately increase maximum transducer direction was and located another on the was abort rate switch mounting direction bracket on the were in a capsule approx- mounted indicated flight. system and but the traveled Despite Ham The capsule's The and launch into space. flight revealed early that the mixture of the ratio LOX. MR-1A pressure nozzle to T-120 encountered line in the and a 13-minute 100-minute hold hold at T-200 minutes to change the capsule high at T-60 length minutes of this latter to replace hold the an attitude countdown control was recycled capsule. 8. This latter gradually exceeded the cps at 70 to 80 seconds. the in a lateral by both ignition phase.3 FLIGHT MtR-2 MR-2 space was launched at 1154 male support EST from Cape named the first Canaveral Ham. after landing performed and in excellent three hours capsule sea. was frequencies gradually a normal frequency 500 to 1200 vibratory negligible. downrange. condition.2. planned. its passenger covered approximately in the Analysis full-open rate faster. e. capsule. capsule was of the position also Both abort. Due to the minutes. into of the a 37-pound life was chimpanzee. At 30 seconds. flight This to carry and was a to space as sucthe On 31 January cessfully first primate travel and well the flight placed test 1961. showed tion and was predominant then maximum in the and transient.. liftoff then by a sharp attained a in acceleration of 4. level decreased showed by 130 seconds Since the separation mostly measured levels were vibration in the high vibration not considered critical.5 g's liftoff the (over-all) vibrations to a negligible increased to another of the The again sensors magnitude maximum but acceleraCutoff spectrum at 10 seconds. the range area. decreased mounting the same ring.

the pitch attitude abort limit of 5 degreeswas reachedapproximately 8 secondsafter engine cutoff. The abort pressure switches were timed to be transferred from the abort modeto the normal shutdown mode at 137. Sincethis is normally acceptable no changeswere made in the regulator setting. Analysis of the mixture ratio servo control valve showedthat movementfrom the 100 percent open position occurred three times and that the valve probably did not stabilize at a somewhatclosed position as a result of (1) a gas leak in the transducer sensing line. but these would have remained attached to the capsule during a normal flight and decreased its velocity by 460 fps. one-half second before the pressure switches were transferred. Structural oscillations of the secondbending mode were still present in pitch and yaw during power flight. The spacevehicle was properly controlled throughout powered flight. except for the chamber pressure which gave the actual abort. and the abort sensing system signaled abort. was 0. Thus. The maximum amplitude occurring from 100 to 135 seconds.35 degree per secondand represented a nose deflection of 0. 2. As expected.5 seconds. Thus. the decrease in chamber pressure was interpreted as a malfunction. However. The profile varied less than 3 degrees below the pitch program andwas 1 degree above the expected final angle of 40 degrees. This was 5 secondsbefore normal expected shutdown. the capsule had a velocity 1611 fps higher than normal. To this was added492 fps gained from the firing of the abort rockets. and/or (3) shifting of the null setting. All measured data from the abort system sensors. At shutdownthe vehicle had a velocity 659 fps above normal due to the higher thrust. the early depletion of LOX shuts downthe engineat 137 seconds.The abort was dueto timing within the abort sensing system. During the abort the retro rockets were properly jettisoned. The higher than expectedhydrogen peroxide tank pressure was probably due to pressure regulator tolerance which was ±5 percent in the 0 to 600 psig range (or ÷30 psi). To correct the problem on the remaining flights the abort chamber pressure sensors were switched to the normal shutdownmodeat 135 seconds. 8-10 . (2) icing in the transducer sensing line.02 inch. showedlevels below the abort limits.5 secondsearlier than before. resulting in the extensive departure from the planned trajectory.

transport 5. magnitude it showed which increase At 1. the corrected X-ray vehicle geometry checked having launch for been vehicle and 8-11 inspection was returned of welds. value at about the level a maximum at 110 separation 70 seconds. been level measurement switch bracket. to the acceptable. frequency the second bending on the to the had been flights. until vibration when seconds it remained 138 seconds it showed transient. launch Cape.The measured deflection of vane No. level to ignition decreased level vibrations buildup decreased cutoff and to a negligible maximum between at a magnitude 70 and 22 seconds then a gradual then until to another 80 seconds. at T + 1. The fects system vibration between analysis the described second used due above was necessary mode and to evaluate the and vehicle control thus the system. The solution This second filter vibrations addition gain recorder.8 degree during the period of 125to 135 seconds. measurewere spectra origin. bending made REDSTONE increased was selected and heavier MERCURY the four. began level. A narrow band analysis ments probably ring was gave beyond and the resulting of aerodynamic a maximum the until setting was made of the indicated The lateral high and longitudinal levels. frequency bending Flight vehicle tarpaulin MSFC structural found MR-2 tank was section composed was the of the distorted vent. of of the bending MERCURY-REDSTONE mode frequency Figure to this reduced mode.5 125 seconds normal previously vibration a maximum insignificant reached negligible cutoff and transient. 1 was approximately 0. of the problem the of a filter between 6 control loop 10 cps. mounting but the lateral seconds The capsule liftoff.5 sensor. on the and vibration and. The . computer. stability recorded network and natural This length payload. and to a saturated remained The mounted at this longitudinal on the after of 4. level of the frequency measurement due therefore. 8-3 critical shows decreased with these was control the respect by a factor to the as frequency on a strip in the the of the control system. interaction The for efcontrol the vehicle's successfully However.7 to a negligible separation LEV-3 where platform a sharp phase. MR-2 launch vehicle pressure vehicle and Capsule air No. and on the had in seconds rate indicated the then liftoff the immediately value ignition g's during and over-all value occurred level gradually The decreased increased then to an until became a normal it at 5 seconds. The launch the to by unequal the launch for during was and because returned plugged where breather partially including immediately thoroughly Everything it was adequacy. saturated where At 25 seconds.

._ 0 < ! Z 0 ._ ! 8-12 .i g b_ ° Lo 4_ 0 I | t 0 t.o 0 0 .l .o 0 < 0 o b_ n_ 0 0 _4 ! 0 0 0 °_..

17 minutes 6 minutes 66 minutes . of the problems but and weak had been and not all. the same become M:R-1 trajectory. would a doubt work. launch officials of AMR suggested that substitute flight. 13 minutes . of 3 The second part was started EST the following to resetting and 55 minutes control hold and recycle due mainly spring The on the tail holds • were plug cap of the launch vehicle and to cool the capsule as follows: minutes. all however. one which 102 degrees. of these solutions. A divided The first countdown was was to minimize to 1040 fatigue part conducted at 0130 time EST on 30 Janday with a total the torsion inverter. 1961. the At T-260 At T-230 At T-170 At T-35 minutes. did the above changes active. from pad. 1961.the capsule were mated on 19 January 1961. had been The original with had schedule some called for the fourth flight to be manned. different vector that the established lines were The allowances of the in the selecvehicle since characto to Not the tion of the destruct vehicle teristics. developed.To remove . For each MERCURY-REDSTONE they uncovered design several weaknesses tested As expected.By the range to recheck nonessential S-band personnel radar. A another 8-13 existed decision of the program at this personnel point whether whether to follow the "fixes" the schedule to be made or to launch . over right trajectories The reasons land for impact be looked for into for the of the second trajectory azimuth MERCURY-REDSTONE was was too very necessary MERCURY steep close a flight to the this were safety that the REDSTONE uprange limit line and that the 105 degrees by the range. 8.2. minutes. a solution in flight. . and to reset vehicle tail On the afternoon of the MR-1 launch attempt.To catch up on vehicle work tension spring on the launch control-plug cap.To catch up on vehicle work (8 minutes) and complete tuneup of range command system (5 minutes). and the again from simulated used 0630 flight test was conducted of the on 27 January hunch uary hours personnel.4 The first THE three MR-BOOSTER DEVELOPMENT vehicles problems FLIGHT were (MR-BD) launched areas within in the a 10-week design. minutes. until the MR-2 had different It was was in the case rates velocity turning and different aerodynamic trajectory suggested during MERCURY-REDSTONE flight was be changed be changed flatter the propelled for MR-1A and that the azimuth as the The trajectory flight. Several period.

Each division prepared a failure appraisal covering past malfunctions.3. JUPITER-C. control. MSFCwas requested to make a technical recommendation regarding the booster's readiness to fly with a mannedpayload. a shallow powered phase which allowed water impact near the Cape in the event of an abort. thus estimated by both methodswas between 78 percent and 84 percent at a 75 percent confidence level (see paragraph 5. This decision was to be a joint decision based on the recommendations from MSFC. propulsion. and NASAheadquarters. for astronaut safety. and previous MERCURY-REDSTONE launches. The appraisal was to consider vehicle reliability. if any. a list was prepared of those items which might contribute to future booster failures. Within MSFC. test. This trajectory was rejected by STG and in the end the original trajectory with 5 minutes of weightlessness and 11 g re-entry forces was used for all remaining flights. 8-14 . The probability of booster success. and An estimated trend of mission reliability was developedbased on all research and development.2).test vehicle. corrective actions taken. Special emphasis was placed on the areas which were considered weak spots in the systems. Table 8-3. included both componentsneedingattention and procedures andpractices requiring improvement. and launch operations. A trajectory giving the required 5-minute weightlessness but with an 8 g re-entry deceleration was proposed. Corrective actions. This trajectory included. quality assurance. trajectories. and the expected repeatability of probable malfm_ctions. The Aeroballistics Division reviewed the trajectories with regard to the way in which the mission's performance could be reduced to a more conservative level and still meet the mission requirements specified by STGat the beginning of the program. STG. In the areas of structures. the design divisions were requested to appraise the vehicle. This list. tactical REDSTONE. all areas of possible failure. A secondestimate was madebased on the numerical range of probability to achieve the booster mission with the MERCURYconfigurationas composedof"known and flown" subsystems. to correct these weak spots were also recommended.

1 Co Procedures (1) (2) (no priority egress fatigue order) (Cape) (Cape) S S S * Emergency Personnel (3) Handling (4) Cleaning and packaging procedures (5) Schedules interference (Cape) (6) TEL 3 . 7 20.Table MERCURY-REDSTONE (Includes Appraisals from 8-3 Priority List of Weak Spots all Divisions and Project Offices) Priority Points Action Being Talcvn a.2 7.blockhouse communications Action Code: S = under study S (Cape) 1961 S on 15 February X -.5 2. Second (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Priority List integrator (Components) ( 5 points or less) 3.6 S S S S S * S Vibrations Cutoff Abort arming Sensors peroxide peroxide leak Hydrogen Hydrogen LOX manhole b.0 regulator system (tank pressure) cleanliness 8.5 5.7 15.0 2.no action * = corrected Priority points = number taken of listings/average priority 8-15 . 0 timer 16. First (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Priority Thrust List controller (Components) 27.0 * X X X X Velocity Instrument Control Inverter Vane compartment relay box pressure 3.2 nulling if failure 2.

in the and engine heat bay were transducer by the suppressor of shields protected LOX leaks from by the installation • Flight of insulation. These qualified following: in the vehicle changes • A control from computer filter network was range added to reduce the attitude gyro modes. signal separation switchover shutdown) normal chamber Timer to depletion 129.5 seconds as follows: to capsule seconds). the abort rate was backup circuit to preclude in itangle Normal roll rate expected abort abort remained was removed rates. compensated closed position flight was the adjusted controller in peroxide from 0 to 25 per- During for performed tank satisfactorily pressure. cutoff cutoff signal (was from to prevent velocity the cutoff pressure changes abort arming switches were (was experienced signal from from sequencer These which on M_R-2. b.5 switches abort mode (was 137.5 from Roll seconds. c. Mtt-BD The (booster reseheduled REDSTONE in Table manned 8-3. • The 145 seconds .Arm .After evaluatingthe appraisals ment flight was and necessary. the abort a.Shift changes were made of the of the mode.R-BD objectives included was launched and the at 1230 the EST on 24 March changes made 1961. 131 seconds 135 seconds seconds). a blockhouse A drift and . variations peroxide regulator was set at 570 psig of the steam outlet pressure. prepared that one additional The manned next developflight was development) for the MERCURY- launching. velocity Pc 137. flight MSFC was was decided necessary.5 d.Timer cutoff sensor due cutoff (was 143 seconds). launch The booster successfully systems. • The from pressure monitor • The were thrust hydrogen 590. timing included caused (normal . and the to high was used roll only not hazardous for the roll sensor as a redundant 8-16 . gains 40 to 160 in the stiffeners were frequency added of the two vehicle section bending • Four in the ballast to provide frequency and amplitude • The cent thrust open dampening. control to insure and servo a safe always valve liftoff. to depletion 136 seconds). inadvertent self. at 142. Flight met its M.20 psi. and down The to prevent monitor installed. computer from over-pressurization was increased limit Pc was to the range from established surge addition 600 to 700 psig at _ 50.Arm . e. turbopump.

involved This for a control control maneuver of higher tilt maneuver at 78 Subsequent with the negli- arrest This at 20 degrees built up angle from of attack vertical to 2. A special to evaluate consisted seconds prolonged gible loads experiment the effect of a temporary flight time was also conducted than normal on MR-BD. channels. were and the capsule The thrust and the abort c put on straight a P to the commutated commutated.sensor. To instrument sensor. This was No holds caused occurred. It had equivalent weight. camera was removed from MR-BD to save the hardware for the MR-4 The capsule distribution. profile tilting brought the missile back proved to its programmed that the vehicle could flight deviations. angles This of attack. 8-17 . channel MR-BD's special mounting controller sensors experiment ring-lateral. were made. The roll rate was higher than on half of the 12 degree per second abort limit earlier used flights on the but was first three less than flights.30 8 seconds (Q max). The experiment withstand additional and its systems. degrees. that the filter vibrations was were network completely The television flight. by sloshing but due the experienced to 15 to 20 mph winds vehicle to Impact at launch. of vibrations. satisfactory. vibration output was position monitor added indicators. was no electrical to indicate abort but a breakwire (which it did not). During flight.2 checks topping. 70 seconds in range. low frequency and closely lateral vibrations the were second again bending present mode speed. ring in the instrument of the vehicle. stalled an inadvertent During some the countdown LOX overflow additional was telemetry during Also 6. which occurred monitor. after was The capsule insufficient not experienced. still vibration occurred the period of transonic mounting to sense and. error were signal two jet vanes. if it occurred of the actual capsule. was attached and to MR-BD was and a boilerplate. a 119 knot jetstream further downrange at 41. bending capability separation characteristics or separation. range assumed The compartment maximum approximately although approximated during liftoff. mass There in- aerodynamic interface. vibrations frequency it was increased Vane the entire therefore.000 than feet caused approximately miles anticipated.

1 FLIGHT MR-3 at 0934 EST the into space 8-4).8 and 302 functioned seconds miles normally. of the dampening to the next flight (MR-4). MR-2 the vibration flight. were measured installed vibration in the in the aft unit. material than those material M_R-BD. to severe weather recovery MR-3 consisted was at 0300 of booster used. on the pitch 906. calibration major results measurements analysis The _+30 g's of the revealed by a detailed • vibration measured levels flights due during flight were: excitation was duration of high vibration than in earlier in the to aerodynamic similar shorter • in MR-3 with trajectories. The and booster's capsule propulsion separation high system at 141. data mom_ted LEV-3 direction. compartment however. the no evidence the of second bending of the proved Although indicated Prior in the more effectiveness Shepard filter network buffeting lower flight Astronaut that reported levels were powered of flights was flight. plane Measurement perpendicular on the The The 901. Atlantic feedback Cutoff The occurred booster Range control after at 141. the adapter transducers ring. respectively. to the support range of axis measured of the vehicle.3. included accomplished the initial (Figure occurred. were distinctly lower The vibration than in earlier levels flights. 5 minutes and attempt no was was On 4 May 1961 successfully of weightlessness malfunctions postponed due launched in a ballistic All mission occurred in the trajectory objectives three days area. The flight United States' first astronaut. which were after Alan B. data 115 miles was down Missile in the incorporated during (Figure system. Shepard. (Figure and the 8-5).3 sent the seconds on capsule 8-7). (Figure the mode 8-6). second The split countdown resumed part portion EST on 5 May.3 MANNED FLIGHTS 8. unit. Two vibration capsule longitudinal bracket. vibration was Measurement in the and longitudinal _+10 g's. This MR-2 telemetry and with decided a flight There further test. with MR-7 the first and the Freedom completed 7 capsule on 4 May. stringers to add booster to the ballast 330 pounds These of dampening the added along it was 14 decreased instrument vibrations.8. instrument compartment 8-18 .

Liftoff of MERCURY-REDSTONE1VIR-3 8-19 .Figure 8-4.

.5 v 0 0 rj ¢0 ! 0 r_ I .4 I O0 8-20 .

the between Goddard • T-2. throughout his vehicle maneuver. the weather drifted the situation and check The the work.There was a definite 33 cps oscillation approximately The mode vehicle was 70 seconds. minutes minutes. minutes. minutes.66 was MERCURY 1 minute times Control to decrease until minutes. several fuel pressure pressure. control respiration radio control the astronaut maintained communications center at the Cape. returned The and fuel vent cycled regulated stayed normal. inverter. rate to doctors in attached center. After nautical covered a flight miles of 13 minutes and 7 seconds. oscillating the flight. Shepard in that Shepard assumed and then manual controlled that man order). to complete to complete to clear the to evaluate supply which to replace for out of tolerance. inverter to clear 60 minutes (T-140 to 49. five minutes demonstrated and his the of weightlessness to his body During relayed the flight under heart acceleration beat and up to 11 g's. retro-fire during Sensors the with Astronaut and roll. vehicle shut down properly then and capsule separation control the could occurred of one vehicle control loads as expected axis at a time the both (Figure (pitch. point. point was shortened minutes. program check hold continued minutes. and to 52 minutes 17. minutes.5 the minutes a computer Center. yaw. minutes. work. pad for RF checks. minutes the The capsule astronaut and impacted and both the were in the capsule aboard sea three reUSS Lake from the calculated within six were the by helicopter within eleven of landing Champlain minutes.50 the countdown minutes normal as follows: the hold ) capsule capsule pad.50 • • • • T-120 T-80 T-30 T-15 booster was • T-15 at this to catch 20 minutes 7 minutes 1 minute 34 minutes power up on the count. 8-21 . predominantly in the longitudinal direction at in its second-body bending throughout The launch 8-8). Seven holds • were T-265 called during the 10.

Maximum q 1:24 9:38 i (9:34 Liftoff AM. MERCURY-RE MR-3 Ground Flight Profile DSTONE Track and Figure 8-8.ok. _ 6:20 _ -/ F HEC. g Units 12 10 8 Launch Vehicle Cutuff - Re-entry 6 2 Min.... Maximum And Tower Separation 0. /------Re-entryAttituds . 22 See pior. MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-3 Acceleration Profile 8-22 ..W' / . MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-3 Flight \ Cape Maximum Velocity 6._ Turnaround -- /_. 2 _1 Retrofire Computed i Actual 75° 75 ° 51 _ 53' 27 Z7 ° ° 12' 13. _ \ s "_4"44 _ _5' ' 14 _ _" \ Manual Control _ / ._3:10 / Spacecraft Periscope Separation Deployment / Acceleration " Re-entry J 6:44 I # 2:37 . Point Lat..7' 0 I 2 4 6 Tim Minutes I 10 I 12 I 14 Figure 8-7.414 ft/sec Acceleration.05 g lie-entry 7:48 =_ r. Scope 2:22 Pressure Cheeks.'Idi ng Long. ? W Bahama Islands _ 105" East of North 4 Main Parachute L _.. Drogue..Periscope VisuM Observ.. ES _2:32 8_: ii171 _:20 0 :0 0 Time MIN:SEC Main Chute Deployment 15:22 Landing Deployment Figure 8-6..0 .t-'" " 3..

all booster As with MR-3. possible of of T-120 prior to provide having would to LOX loading. systems I. for ground support and recovery forces. the scheduled minutes. as a functional unit during space flight. capsule work.2 Flight second July goals F LIGHT MR-4 manned 1961 were (Figure met. The made was second attempt was checkout made on 19 July. including and Familiarize liftoff. minutes hold to complete cloud conditions minutes a 91-minute for better in a scrubbed 8-23 . If a favorable LOX loading forecast. 102 pounds of dampening compound After minutes weather the MR-3 instead forecast could This flight. A 9-minute At T-10. however. a 30-minute hold at T-60 hold was to complete required of capsule additional resulted equipment. added indicating to the ballast the efunit. not be determined. All objectives copter entered pickup capsule but was capsule recovery were fully met.8. 90 percent. re-entry. landing. the astronaut. • • • • • Evaluate Collect Safely Safely Provide man's aeromedical recover recover training ability to perform data.6 flight. 60 minute This change built-in was hold made was advanced the to T-180 latest a validity comscheduling. MR-4 carried ballistic Again Astronaut space Virgil mission. No complaints fectiveness of vibration of additional were expressed by Astronaut Grissom. Grissom Liftoff performed was in Liberty at 0720 perfectly Bell EST and 7 on the on 21 all vehicle successfully MERCURY 8-9). The weight capsule caused was lost when helihad unsuccessful the side due to the egress hatch increased prematuraly by water which after opened. menced. the flight was scrubbed to unfavorable photographic weather conditions. • the mission objectives man with flight. At T-130 minutes. (by not operations an alternate not have procedure LOXing) provided by 24 hours The first launch due attempt on 18 July 1961. had no holds.3. were a brief to: but complete flight experience. the capsule. powered 5 minutes of weightlessness.

q Figure 8-24 8-9. Liftoff of MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-4 .

the MR-4 flight is shown in Figure 8-11 to that of the The The recovery spacecraft actuation the force was deployment lost during explosively and the spacecraft postlanding actuated landing recovery side egress point are shown in Figure of pre- 8-12. MR-2. that was because three-sigma the calculations guidance Islands. and was as a result The mature from of the astronautegressed after being in spacecraft for about immediately 3 to 4 minutes. spacecraft.1 miles lb/sq ft 101. Maximum Maximum nautical altitude. to At T-45 complete light crew minutes. BD. Note and after that the launch azimuth east was changed This MER- 102 degrees required 3 to 100 degrees the MR-3 could flight cause of the that both of north. period hatch. because had 3 holds of 80 minutes capsule permitted with total personnel the duration. Table Comparison of Flight Parameters 8-4 for MR-3 and MR-4 Spacecraft Para me ter M_R-3 Flight 263. optical Finally. in Table indicated CURY-REDSTONE booster to endanger MR-3 deviations A comparison 8-4. equipment await more blockhouse. conditions at T-15 for the a 41-minute favorable focal-length Figure from change the 8-10 indicates the used flight for profile. the necessary to permit hold At T-30 searchlights a 9-minute searchreceiving made to to secure in the of interference minutes long telemetry hold" was cameras.5 Range.0 MR-4 Flight 262. after hatch actuation retrieved the water MR-4 brought the program to an end calcellation moved the ballistic series of MERCURY planned flights flights.The third and successful attempt on 21 July hold was minutes. Program success flights. permitted and the of two additionally forward to the orbital MERCURY-REDSTONE with the ATLAS booster.8 605.2 586. 8-25 .5 102. capsule a 30-minute work. exit miles nautical dynamic pressure. shows The and acceleration is very similar time history occurring MR-3 during flight. a malfunctioning flight flights parameters provided of similar Bahama listed M_R-4 and conditions.

general The actions. at cutoff.414 7. favorable.618 7. weather conditions loading change and was made between condition T-120 MR-3 and MR-4 to prevent change poor involved weather moving from the of weather LOX a costly hazardous from to develop.8. The 7. of special both the flight program. factors flight have tests operation and organization resulting described described in design modifications 4.580 Parameter Maximum exit longitudinal load factor. The built-inhold conditions were would and good proceed. tank distortion was easily due to improper on the securing next three of the tarpaulin during air a matter prevented vehicles. to T-180 This before permitted LOX loading. chance and a 90 percent of remaining 8-26 . A countdown causing 60-minute. in Section paragraph operational flight launch safety procedures. if necessary. a recheck If the then a longer had hold. of these from the instrumentation.0 5:04 6. at cutoff.4 The OPERATIONAL new safety in the and CHANGES reliability RESULTING requirements FROM imposed These board FLIGHT TESTING payload caused mainly and been are of launch many by a manned changes changes checkout control. min:sec Earth-fixed velocity. g units Period of weightlessness. the MERCURY-REDSTONE need for compliance in changes of the vehicle preparation vehicle plug to careful to assure electrical and grounding use resulted and through ground adjustment clamp.2. During changed obtained. MR-2's transport. g units Maximum re-entry longitudinal load factor. minutes.388 MR-4 F1 ight 6. knowledge demonstrated The added launch the above of the the failure strap procedures and operations were launch modified was or as further MR-1 parts.1 5:00 6.Table 8-4 Comparison of Flight Parameters for MR-3 and MR-4 Spacecraft (Cont.3 11. review consisted instructions.3 11. ft/sec Space-fixed velocity. ft/sec 8.) MR-3 Flight 6.

S_ Attitude wise _aw Programming Mlneuver A o 'r'-0.fft .eparation and 0323 Cutoff.:'.._0 Sec After Retropavkage f/.. Periscope Tower Extended Separation Period Total of Weightle0sness Flight Time A[_rox Approx 15 5 Minutes Minutes Open Parachutes Dr<g_ee_10820 Main I£xtend Perimcope kga n 0 05g 074_ _X . + _. Chart of Recovery Operations 8-27 . - . Retrofire I Main_a rachute Florida i . Acceleration for MR-4 Time Flight History Figure 8-12. M Nautical Miles Time Reference - MIN:SEC 34 + 3° Altitude For Jtetrofirmg At 0446 Retrofire Sequenc. . .. . 6 •_ MlnuteJ Launch Azimuth Figure 8-II. e Is Initiated _ I_ 10 _J _/_ 34 + 3 ° ! Minute Arte. Steady Roll Of %/. M:LX l_ad Tangenti:d FaeU)r 1 lg Range.. g 12 Unit= 'i 6 3 i Re-entry LaunchVehicle Cutoff Min.- Retrofire . Nautical Mile= Figure 8-10.: A/C-4 A/C-5 Spacecraft Landing Point oyment . Flight Profile for MR-4 Acceleration. 23 Sec Cape Canaveral i_*_e..:' . ". 7 / --'5 Sec Period Of Rate Damping s-=-0333 Spaceer.05 o .qUirts Normal Orbiting Attitude _ .Max AP Approx I02._ --._.o 34 ._ / / Exereime Of Manual Control System \ \ "_<. DD-4 AIC =6 0 2 4 Time.n 3° 5 Retrofire See Intervals ..

success space of reliability.Examinations improved the both of the crew launch safety schedule and vehicle and vehicle preparations. and should MERCURY-REDSTONE Program as guidelines for future efforts. 8-28 . They serve as described contributed to the above.

was may question. original related They pro- design an important concerned schedule. MERCURY-REDSTONE was not approved analyses. impractical that the of the prior to the as possought SATURN introduction w it is quite to consider first manned launching flight groups 60 boosters take place of man. manned to requirements an economically project until the team launch of unmanned However. manned beginning in the course of describing many and which report.2. MERCURYdiscussed 9 is addressed. of the with the booster. development and operations. two flights. on successful introduction had flown completion of man. In addition. a mere from required presented flight of the the first at the manned As stated record not to present be learned which this would purpose of occurrences. of numerical lead The many of planners question such criteria in terms values of reliability for confidence unalso vehicle however. that over While predicated. impact while on any not specifically manned In the were first project. flight 9-1 . complete but to identify program of future The (both highlight and a review of the to the its failures launch that the are successes) It is to be of value that Section development manned vehicles. feasible made in the answer In general. flight 'rvVhen is a vehicle of the series and those man-rated?" following of the it should military rocket launch to be manned. seem however. in future the first class. under man-rating. the third there are do have a few remarks which. in other to be quite REDSTONE an early missiles be noted and aircraft vehicles space unmanned prior research had included programs man with to that flight flight.1 In regard to the are gram This this 60 GENERAL to man-rating. vehicle. as early have and sible the level.SECTION CONTRIBUTIONS TO MANNED 9 LAUNCH VEHICLES 9. experimental Since.2 MAN-RATING 9. 9.1 The INTRODUCTION preceding sections of this report launch for have. testing. development to this it is vital program. to manned contributions vehicle REDSTONE four main Program categories: made launch design. and items are our the which still major development represent appropriate purpose the lessons was to of the major for MERCURY-REDSTONE innovations systems. number such inevitably flights. of the prototype.

the flight program history clearly indicates a need for comprehensive analysis of flight schedules. The MERCURY-REDSTONE was the first man-rated rocket launch vehicle. becauseof failures occurring in two earlier launches (MR-1 and MR-2). in the improbable event of an inflight failure. In support of this argument is the fact of the admittedly low quantitative confidence level which must have beenassociated with including a man on the first rocket aircraft flights. Although crew safety is highly dependenton vehicle reliability. In summary then. as with rocket aircraft presently. not quantitative confidence. Ultimately. the term. is used here to distinguish those elements of the vehicle design and operations that enhancedthe astronaut's probability of a successful 9-2 . in the event of a booster failure. A thorough understanding of failure effects through ground testing and analytical studies is but one of' the means to achieve that goal. When is a launch vehicle man-rated? Whenits developers have a high.that determines when a launch vehicle is ready for mannedflight. Future programs will be efficient and timely only if we resolve a meansfor obtaining this intrinsic. Other items include flight safety (abort) systems to accomodatefailures and detailed quality assurance programs such as were developedfor MERCURY-REDSTONE. This latter criteria resulted in the mannedflight being delayeduntil the fifth launch attempt. qualitative confidence level without resorting to an additional unmannedlaunch eachtime a failure occurs. it becomes imperative to determine well in advanceof the first flight. safety of the crew will be assured with an abort sensing and implementation system.had demonstrated. with failure contingencies taken into account. what action can be taken to reduce the requirement for additional launches. The MERCURY-REDSTONEwas able to satisfy this criteria within reasonable constraints of time and cost. rather than the third. however. it would appear that it is qualitative. There existed the unique opportunity and responsibility to investigate and provide both vehicle reliability andcrew safety. prior to the first full scale launch attempt. As launch vehicles approach andperhaps exceedthe cost of a SATURNV. crew safety. in actual flight. its capability to perform all required functions properly. this confidencewill be achieved. Delaying the introduction of man becauseof these failures did not result in a lengthy delay in the program and is probably justified on the basis of the qualitative increase in confidence achieved with the additional launches and the relatively small increment in time and cost incurred. prior to mannedflight. including the introduction of man. but qualitative confidence that it will perform all of its functions properly and.

Automatic abort systems have also been used on the MERCURY-ATLAS. and. The selection of abort sensing parameters and the establishment of their limits remains as oneof the major problems confronting the designers of mannedlaunchvehicles. 9. The design team elected to monitor as few parameters as possible to reduce the probability of a false abort and develop a simple system of high reliability. Since all vehicle component or subsystem failures which may affect the mission completion or astronaut safety eventually lead to measurable changes in vehicle performance. those performance parameters were selected which would give the earliest indication of a failure. thereby increasing the probability of its failure which could lead either to a falsely aborted mission or an astronaut fatality.2. was the automatic inflight abort sensing system. the MERCURY-REDSTONE designers faced perplexing alternatives. The reduced time betweenthe first failure indication and vehicle destruction was accomodatedby an automatic abort implementation system. the time betweenthe first failure indication and vehicle destruction would increase. the sensing system complexity also increases. However. in addition. In determining which parameters the abort sensing system should monitor in order to identify vehicle failures as rapidly and safely as possible. As the number of parameters increased.2 CREW SAFETY The greatest single item addedto the MERCURY-REDSTONE.recovery in the event of a failure. A combination of automatic and manual systems is planned for the SATURN. 9-3 . the probability of correctly identifying the cause of a failure also increased. The criteria developedby the MERCURY-REDSTONEteam and the specific parameters they selected have turned out to be of major value andguidance to other launchvehicle programs such as ATLAS and SATURN. as a consequence of monitoring more parameters. coupled with engine chamber pressure and electric power as two subsystems whose performance affected or was affected by a majority of the other vehicle subsystems. permitting more time for safe astronaut ejection. which improved crew safety. MERCURY-REDSTONE'scontribution to these aspects of man-rating are described in the following paragraphs. increasing the validity of the design which was eventually employed on the MERCURY-REDSTONElaunch vehicle. The inter-relationship of the abort parameters monitored and the mode of abort (manual or automatic) was also recognized at this early date.

It is important to note that an automatic system was chosen becauseit was felt the astronaut could not respond quickly enoughto the emergency conditions possible with the REDSTONEbooster. and modesof opertion. the safety.Since the abort system was totally new at the time of the MERCURY-REDSTONE design. the the abort system parameters had were to have both positive an abort abort. safety rates by each manned vehicle project voltage attitude design of change. if possible. sensors and to be designed improbability gave this to assure of a false assurance is being to and yet and also assure parameters This the of redundant REDSTONE GEMINI and redundant MERCURYto the MERCURY-ATLAS. same philosophy applied SATURN. and sense only those parameters that were easily and reliably measured commensurate with the probable failure modes. by the sent a signal and abort the to the tower launch capsule ignition director. failure monitoring were of nearly abort component To these modes. GEMINI's propellant combination which has a low probability The abort automatic sensing for vehicle inflight parameters crew abort sensing and sensors. Additional details of the first abort system are given in Section 5. and when Use negative an abort redundancy. 9-4 . and and actiThis shutdown. was required. which systems. input Similar are also sequencing abort signal of all other manned launch vehicles. The abort system had to be tailored to the vehicle. utilize existing hardware. also sequencing MERCURY the abort could Control command initiators features be initiated (see were abort astronaut. parameters designed to monitor The sensors used to measure that is. many guidelines were established. test. provided MERCURYof the added REDSTONE effects other recognized all possible three and parameters system specific failures. system also established basic abort basic parameters are ground rules for as pres- Three launch and recognized propellant The essential sure. that these electrical (power). 5. Reliability of the system was stressed in hardware selection.2). Center inputs of the paragraph armed signal To assure times in the astronaut countdown of their range and at various and similar flight. Only the GEMINI manual abort system deviates from this basic criterion due to the of explosion. The vated automatic the engine inflight abort sensing capsule system separation.

avoided resulting hardware procedural 9-5 . 9. and checkout of the vehicle contributed to the near-perfect reliability of the MERCURY-REDSTONE. This program proved its effectiveness and has been duplicated in all other manned launch vehicle and payload programs.2 The engine vehicle inating first PROPULSION major decision regarding of the This program the propulsion to avoid confusion substitution.3 VEHICLE RELIABILITY The abort sensing system described aboveprovided crew safety in the event of a hazardous failure. manufacture.Aes. to the reasons major for vehicle design resulting manned systems vehicle their to guidelines 9. awards.thus indicating the successful efforts of man-rating the basic vehicle systems to provide a reliable booster flight. system a change and and the was midway changing through human revisions.3. and symbols to emphasize the importance of the individual contributor in achieving reliability. test.3.3 9. The high quality of the design. Rather. However.9. thus leads future MERCURY-REDSTONE launch vehi. however. better performance from each individual in the booster program was gained through a highly motivating MERCURYAwareness Program.1 The DESIGN GENERAL and the modifications made to the tactical and to the The following missile contributed significantly for deon the changes to man-rating signing man-rated systems. MERCURYstampsplaced onMERCURYREDSTONEdocuments and mannedvehicle hardware continuously called attention to the fact that the astronauts' lives dependedon high reliability. are development changes apply the and of methods their effect manned MERCURY-REDSTONE This examination for of the future presented as they and design. a catastrophic failure never occurred with the MERCURYREDSTONE. Achieving this level of quality. to the the errors A-7 manned by elim- at the beginning development. change orders. This program usedpublicity. was not based on normal levels of effort.2.

andcommunication systems.The propellant prevalves isolated the propellant tanks from the enginesystem prior to launch and served no function once the engineswere started. which was used on the JUPITER-C.3 STRUCTURES Although the basic REDSTONEin the JUPITER-C configuration was used.3. extra instrument insulation. Long holds. The MERCURY-REDSTONE used ethyl alcohol and LOX. 9-6 . a new aft section was necessary to provide the compartment space necessary for the guidance. These system features are also being used on SATURN. The rule states "the structure shall be self-supporting under all expected loads without internal pressure stabiiization. The toxicity of Hydine. they created an unnecessary hazard. This combination was well known to designers andfuel handlers and thus presented no newproblems. Propellant explosive andtoxic properties must be considered in mannedlaunch vehicle design.35 factor of safetyandthe anticipated loads. 9. Leakageof propellants into the enginebay could cause an accumulation of an explosive mixture. Special sensors and a computer were addedto the propellant loading system. Long holds also required an accurate LOX fill and "topping" system to assure meeting flight requirements. TITAN. the tank walls varied in thickness consistent with the 1. The design of this section followed a design rule established then by MSFCwhich has been used on the SATURN. mean a greater chilldown of the LOX lines andthe total engine system. MERCURY-REDSTONE brought this problem to the designerst attention and required fuel line bubbling. This can result in hazardousfreezeups. " To obtain maximum performance with safety. control. and SATURNenginesystems for manned payloads have also deleted the prevalves from flight use. and heater jackets for the chamber pressure sensor lines. Sincethey could failclosed during burning and thus initiate a false shutdownand abort. This safety requirement has also been imposed upon the SATURN. Mannedflights present the problem of longer than usual holds to make sure everything is A-Okay. was considered unsafe for the astronaut in the event of a pad abort or a prelaunch emergency egress. The ATLAS. however. To minimize this danger the area was purged with nitrogen prior to liftoff and new seal materials were used in the hydrogenperoxide system.

the payload-vehicle interface was the dual responsibility of both prime contractors. but the amountof narrowing was a function of the vehicle and its modes of failure. the MERCURYREDSTONE's separation plane was totally contained within the adapter section. several general design criteria were established during the MERCURY-REDSTONEdevelopment. 9.3. This time delay would have permitted abort of the capsule to a safe distance from the booster before destruct explosion.1.3.4 GUIDANCEAND CONTROL Mannedflight required the guidance to be simple and reliable.35 and the yield factor of 1. The vehicle-adapter mechanical interface then became a simple flange and bolt circle. and the capsule contractor was given responsibility for this section. therefore. However.6 DESIGNCRITERIA In addition to the specific system design guides. 9.1 The test TESTING GROUND program TESTING established for the six boosters report. MERCURYREDSTONE'sguidance was a well-tested autopilot. These included the overall design factor of safety of 1. used The in the MERCURY-REDSTONE Program is described in Section 6 of this MERCURY-REDSTONE 9-7 . 9. Hence mannedlaunch vehicles require coordination betweendesign and range safety requirements to attain maximum flexibility during launch.4 9. The delay has been incorporated as a safety feature on all mannedvehicles since MERCURY-REDSTONE. to assure a safe separation and to place single responsibility for the separation on one agency andcontractor.5 DESTRUCTSYSTEMAND RANGE SAFETY The range safety fuel dispersion (destruct) system was modified by the addition of a destruct delay.Prior to MERCURY-REDSTONE. 9. the SATURNalso uses a simple autopilot.3. This design rule enhancescrew safety in the relatively hazardous pad and maximum dynamic pressure regions of flight. The MERCURY-REDSTONEalso established the needfor examination of launch trajectories and guidance accuracy versus range safety boundaries.4. The destruct delay caused • the range safety limits to be proportionately narrowed. During first stage burning.

first vehicle. whereby components. The flights and the accomplishments of each toward the ultimate goal of space travel are covered in Section8 of this report. a feasible. subsystems.4. Facility requirements Facilities more emergency operations.5 OPERATIONS of the MERCURY-REDSTONE evolved which should checkout and launch operations. complex and and must be comprehensively and time ground than support the planned equipment at the require very inception of a program. and • sometimes as much.experienced the first application on a man-rated vehicle of the pyramidal testing philosophy. This type of testing verified proper operation of all hardware within the vehicle. 9. lead development are period of the in manned On-the-pad vehicle of the egress they procedures must mandatory in the space phase be considered to provide earliest system. actual launch and flight conditions were simulated as closely as possible. and then the entire vehicle are functionally checked. and the recovery of the first two mannedspacecrafts. launching. A total of 32 static tests were conductedon the MERCURY and its test boosters with an accumulatedtime of over 2.230 seconds. Of equal importance to the experience of the astronauts was the invaluable training of the ground crew in the preparation. 9. As part of the prelaunch procedures and checkouts. eachof the MERCURYREDSTONEboosters were scheduledfor static firing tests to insure satisfactory performance and reliability under rated thrust conditions. Dueto the high degree of reliability necessary for a man carrying vehicle. A particularly significant contribution of the MERCURY-REDSTONE Program to MannedLaunch Vehicle developmentwas that the spacecraft was the first to experience the environment and requirements of space flight.2 FLIGHT TESTING The MERCURY-REDSTONEflight program developedthe first man-rated spacesystems and accomplished the initial objective which was to gain spaceflight familiarization. coordinated countdown of reasonable duration 9-8 . a number conas of As a result salient cerned follow s: • considerations with the launch be translated The major into future considerations programs are listed of manned vehicles. Due to the high degree of reliability under rated thrust conditions. design space vehicle an optimum control point • Integration that of launch operations under one is essential will to assure result.

of obtaining. and other AMR programs are properly coordinated and controlled. and interface considerations.6 CONC LUSION launch vehicle Throughout this section the phrase " also used in all other manned programs" many has been repeated many times. emergency conditions. of a solid foundation for manned 9-9 . MERCURY-REDSTONE's the MERCURY-REDSTONE opportunity to take the first steps into space has proved to be the making space travel. • • 9. Realistic scheduling is essential throughout a program but shouldbeespecially emphasized at the launch site where numerous supporting organizations must participate. conflicting checkout functions. such as launch windows. • Design of the space vehicle should consider test and launch operation requirements at the launch site. Test schedulesat the launch site should be coordinated by one central point to assure that precedence.Experience indicated that somedegree of automation will help to reduce the countdownperiod to an acceptable length. • Serious consideration should be given to improving the reliability presenting. A study should be initiated to provide a method of optical coverage through the maximum dynamic pressure region which is independentof ground weather conditions. The complexity of mannedlaunch vehicles and the launch operations dictates that a single point of entry for range support is necessary. anddigesting inflight information. priority. ordnance requirements. are to be met on an operational basis. This procedure will assure that all NASAproblems are coordinated within NASA to prevent conflicting or confusing information from reaching range or contractor personnel. communications systems. The numerous repetitions indicate the which were established by manned space flightguidelines for future programs Program. Vehicle design should consider this factor in terms of allowable ground and upperair winds. Design compatibility should be emphasized in the area of GSE. Weather restrictions on launch operations must be reduced ff critical schedules.

.

fourth booster MR-4 Boosters boosters not launched.. 6 July 1960 (C) (AOMC). utilized formance and and MR-6 MR-8. reports and documents are related to the in the selected numbers time sequenon a MR-1 MERCURY-REDSTONE tial basis and tion order of the launch acceptable MSFC For documents each flight presented was flight At the the booster only MR-2. 10-1 . MR-4. Jerome Bo. Section (Ground G.SECTION REFERENCES 10 This section presents a listing Program. Jack C. Herberlig. had of highest MR-2 utilized performance4 numbers. booster MR-BD. D. flight. flights consequently. Vibration Steam Generator Elbow MERCURY-REDSTONE Test of the of the Engine. (CCMD). Manned respectively. respectively. Hammack. MERCURY-REDSTONE Test Report. 9-15 October 1961 (American Rocket Society). The MERCURY-REDSTONE prqgram.. Aft Chrysler GLC-R-5 Upton. of selectest perMR-4 MR-7 of a booster record. October 1960 Tests) (CCMD). By listing MR-3 MR-9 the MSFC prepared documents under MR-1A. were the highest MR-5. GENERAL AOMC CR-SS-60-6 Satellite and Space Program Progress Report for NASA. and booster MR-7 and information under flights is located MR-3 and under MR-BD. Reliability Test Chrysler ME-M5 Sommer. MR-1 Number utilized MR-3 and and MR-3. vehicle test of technical The flights. in accordance booster with MR-5 the flight numbers.. ARS 2238-61 CHRYSLER CORPORATION MISSILE DIVISION MERCURY-REDSTONE Program (CCMD).S. identical for flight The booster MR-1A.

/ (MERCURY-REDSTONE Program). Combined Vibration and Temperature Environmental Tests of Mechanical Components for MERCURYREDSTONE Missiles. 26 April 1960 (cc m)... MSFC MHR-2 MERCURY-REDSTONE December 31. MERCURY Booster Recovery.. R. L.. 6 June 1961 (NASA).G. Peter S. D. 15 June 1960. Chronology to 1961 (Historical May MTP-M-S&M-TSR-60-1 Barraza. Reliability Test of the RE 7112 a REDSTONE A-7-1 Rocket Engine.E. (S) (CCMD). Stevens.. J.. 15 January 1961 (Ground Tests) (CCMD). Glover. Missiles. 21 July 1961 (NASA). Chrysler DSD-TM-12-60 Chrysler ML-M134 Schayer.. II. Hildebrand. Sorce. 25 March 1960 DLMT-TN-28-60 10-2 . 1961 Office). Manned Suborbital Space Flight. Results of the Second U. R..NASA). D. Chrysler SL-M56 Chrysler SL-M59 Fama. REDSTONE Missile Malfunction Stud.S..M. Structural Reliability Testing of MERCURYREDSTONE Thrust Unit Reports I and 15 April 1960 (CCMD).M. J. 30 November 1960. Arnold G. Final Report for Humidity Test of MRT-1 Aft Section.C. L. Combined Vibration and Temperature Environmental Evaluation Tests on the REDSTONE Tail Unit for MERCURY-REDSTONE 1 April 1960 (CCMD). and Suddath.S. Van Camp. Abort System Experience and Application to the Design of Advanced Crew Safety Systems (Manned Space Center . R.. 14 April 1960 (CCMD). Chrysler ML-M135 Torigian. Perry. NATIONAL NASA AERONAUTICS Conference AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Results of the First U.E. N. Manned Sub- orbital Space Flight..Chrysler GLC-M-29 DeBaker.. J. Evaluation of Flotation and Drop Tests MERCURYREDSTONE Booster.

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flightAbort Sensing System, 5 June 1959 (Technical ScientificStaff, G&C Lab).

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MTP-M-S&M-P-61-5

Riquelmy, J.R., King, M.W., McDonald, N.G., MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-IA Flight Evaluation of Propulsion Unit and Associated Systems, 24 February 1961 (C) (S&MD). 10-5

1 Index and Test Results Part I of the Firing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE Vehicle MR-1A... 20 January 1961 (C) (G&CD).H. C. Technical Informa- tion Summary Concerning MERCURYREDSTONE Mission MR-2. of MR-2. Noble F. Ledford. J. Actual Trajectory MERCURY-REDSTONE Flight Test 4 April 1961 (C) (AERO). tlarold. 2 February 1961 (C) (LOD). 25 February 1961 (C) (AERO). Charles B. MR-2 Jones.1 MSFC MTP-LOD-ED-60-61. 16 January 1961 (C) (LOD).H. 15 December 1960 (IUO) (QUA). 10-6 . Preliminary Evaluation of MERCURY-REDSTONE Launch MR-2.1 Davis. Martin. W.. Final 1 December Alignment 1960 (IUO) Report (QUAL). Thomas E.. Heezen. MERCURY-REDSTONE MSFC TPR-M-60-1 Flight. MSFC MTP-M-QD-60-8 MSFC MTP-M-QD-60-8. Kenneth F.. Gwinn.MSFC MTP-LOD-DIR-61-61. Ralph T. MSFC MTP-AERO-61-30 MSFC STR-M-61-7 Smith.. 2 February 1961 (C) (LOD). Firing Site Weight Report Part III of the Firing Test Report MERCURYREDSTONE MR-1A. Final Alignment Report 10 October 1960 (SA&RD). Instrumentation Operation Analysis Part lib of the Firing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-1A. Atmospheric Environment for the Flight of MERCURY-REDSTONE 2. MSFC STR-M-61-2 Clarke. MSFC MTP-M-SAR-60-3. Final Acceptance Test Report MR-3.2a mentation Plan Part IIa of the Report MERCURY-REDSTONE 16 December 1960 (S))LOD). Consolidated InstruFiring Test MR-1A. MSFC MTP-LOD-MP-60-61. Davis..3 MSFC MTP-LOD-EF-60-61. 25 March 1961 (AERO).2b Hinds.. C..G. MR-3. MR-2.W.

Noble F.. Smith. J. Riquelmy. 7 April 1961 (C) (LOD). 20 February 1961 (C) (LOD). Undated (C) (LOD).. MSFC MTP-LOD-EF-61-4. Firing Site Weight Report Part III of the Firing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-BD.3 Heezen. 10-7 .. Ralph T. 17 April 1961 (C) (LOD).. Instrumentation Operation Analysis Part IIb of the Firing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-2. 8 May 1961 (C) (COMP). 2 June 1961 (C) (S&MD).. DOVAP Flight Test Data MERCURYREDSTONE BD. MSFC MTP-LOD-ED-61-11.. Smith. Robert A. Martha E. Kenneth F. Firing Site Weight Report Part III of the Firing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-2.R. MR-BD Fallon.. Consolidated mentation Plan Part IIa of the Report MERCURY-REDSTONE 9 February 1961 (S) (LOD).W. Merle W. MSFC MTP-LOD-ED-61-4. Robert A. M.2a Gwinn.2b Hinds. Index and Test Results Part I of the Fir- MTP-M-COMP-61-6 MSFC MTP-M-S&M-P-61-7 MSFC MTP-LOD-OIR-61-11. 3 August 1961 (C) (S&MD). King. King.1 ing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE Vehicle MR-2.2b Hinds. Riquelmy.. MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-BD Flight Evaluation of Propulsion Unit and Associated Systems. MSFC MTP-LOD-MP-61-11.G.. 1 March 1961 (C) (COMP)..MSFC MTP-M-COMP-61-2 Fallon. DOVAP Flight Test Data Missile MR-2. Martha E.3 MERCURY-REDSTONE MSFC Booster Development Flight. 7 April 1961 (C) (LOD). Martin.. Thomas E.. James R. MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-2 Flight Evaluation of Propulsion Unit and Associated Systems. MSFC MTP-LOD-ED-61-4. Index and Test Results Part I of the Fir- MSFC MTP-M-S&M-P-61-10 MSFC MTP-LOD-OIR-61-4.. Noble F. InstruFiring Test MR-2. OperFiriNg Test MR-BD. N.1 ing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE Vehicle MR-BD. Instrumentation ations Analysis Part IIb of the Report MERCURY-REDSTONE 14 April 1961 (C) (LOD). McDonald..

of Ledford. 24 May 1961 (C) (AERO). 21 July 1961 (S&MD). Consolidated Instlna- mentation Plan Part IIa of the Firing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-BD. Atmospheric for MERCURY-REDSTONE _. 1961 (IUO) (QUAL). 13 March 1961 (IUO) (QUAL). Davis. Final 24 February Alignment Report 1961 (QUAL).. ttarold. M. 10-8 . 26 January (IUO) (QUAL). Test Conductors 23 January 1961 (IUO) Report (QUAL). 21 March 1961 (IUO)(QUAL). Jr. Preliminary of MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-BD. Ralph T. Final Mechanical bly Analysis Thrust Unit MR-5. MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-4. MR-3. MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-4.B. Systems 1961 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-4. Bruce. 9 March 1961 (IUO) (QUAL). MSFC MTP-AERO-61-36 Clarke. MSFC MTP-AERO-61-51 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-4 Final Acceptance Test Report Thrust Unit MR-5. MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-4..G. R..5 Ckeokout (QUAL). 1 May 1961 (IUO) Environment BD Vehicle (AERO). Guidance and Control System MR-5.3 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-4. A. Description of MERCURY-REDSTONE Launch Vehicle for Flight No. F.6 Systems Analysis MR-5. MR-5.2 Lackey. MR-5..1 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-4. MR-3 Martin. James J. Final Pressure and Functional Analysis.W..G. It. Actual Trajectory MERCURY-REDSTONE Flight Test MR-BD.8 Kulas. W. A. 24 January 1961 (IUO) (QUAL). 23 March 1961 (C) (LOD).MSFC MTP-LOD-EF-61-11. Thrust Unit MR-5. Radio Frequency Test Report MR-5. J. Assem- MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-4... Electrical Systems Analysis MR-5. 31 January 1961 (IUO) Measuring 30 January MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-4.7 Sarture.. MERCURY-REDSTONE MSFC MPR-M-61-5 Flight... MSFC MTP-AERO-61-43 19 April 1961 Evaluation Launch (C) (AERO). Smith.2a Gwinn. C.C..4 Smith.

S. Norton.. 26 July 1961"(C) (COMP). Hinds. 20 March 1961 (IUO) (QUAL).. Report (IUO) MSFC MTP-M-COMP-61-7 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-10 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-10. 1961 (IUO) (QUAL). James R. Sartore. 3 August 1961 (C) (S_MD).2b MSFC MTP-LOD-MP-61-17. Analysis.T. Noble F..P-61-16 Riquelmy.. 7 Test No. DOVAP Flight Test Data MERCURYREDSTONE 3. Smith. Thrust Unit MR-7.. Report 1961 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-10. MR-7..7 Instrumentation Analysis Thrust Unit MR-7. Merle W. King. 23 March (IUO) (QUAL). Guidance and Control Thrust Unit. Instrumentation Operation Analysis Part IIb of the Firing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-3. M. F.3 Electrical Systems Analysis Thrust Unit.. (IUO) (QUAL). H.M.C. C. 7 March 1961(MR-BD) (TEST). MSFC MTP-M-S_M.MSFC MTP-M-TEST-61-6 Earnest. MR-7. Firing Site Weight Report MSFC MTP-LOD-ED-61-17.3.. Kenneth F. MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-10. Final Mechanical Assem- bly Analysis 6 April 1961 Thrust Unit MR-7. Final Pressure and Functional MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-10.. Static Firing of MERCURY-REDSTONE No. Test Conductor's Thrust Unit_ MR-7. Martha E. 3 April 1961 (QUAL).1 Manning.. 10-9 .2 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-10. 29 June 1961 (C) (LOD).5 System Checkout 24 March 1961 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-10.6 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-10. 31 March 1961 (IUO) (QUAL). Radio Frequency Test Report Thrust Unit MR-7. Lackey.. Robert A. 22 May 1961 (C) (LOD). (IUO) (QUAL). Heezen. Final Alignment Thrust Unit.3 Report Part II of the Firing Test MERCURY-REDSTONE MR. 7 April 1961 (IUO) (QUAL). 346. MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-3 Flight Evaluation of Propulsion Unit and Associated Systems. A..8 Kulas. Final Unit.4 Systems MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-10. 29 March 1961 (IUO) (QUAL). Acceptance Test Report Thrust MR-7. Fallon. 30 March F. MR-7.

28 April 1961 (C) (LOD). MR-3.G. Conductor's 1960 (IUO) Report (QUAL).5 May 1961 (C) (QUAL). Evaluation Launch MR-3..G. Measuring System Analysis MR-3. 1 10-10 .B. 1960 (IUO) (QUA L).8 MSFC MTP-LOD-EF-61-16 MSFC MTP-LOD-EF-61-17. Preliminary of MERCURY-REDSTONE 8 June 1961 (C) (AERO).. Technical Information Summary Concerning MERCURYREDSTONE MR-3. Charles B._.6 Guidance and Control System Checkout MR-3. A._. Test 6 December Smith... Kenneth J. Actual Trajectory MERCURY-REDSTONE Flight Test 14 June 1961 (C) (AERO). F.9. Gwinn. 20 July 1961 (IUO) (AERO).. MSFC MTP-LOD-OIR-61-17.2 Gwinn.. of MR-3. MR-3. 5 December 1960 (IUO) (QUAL). 23 May 1961 (C) (LOD). Ralph T.5 MSFC MTP-M-QD-60-8. Systems 1960 R. Radio Frequency Test Report MR-3.. J. Kulas.W.MSFC MTP-M-QD-60-8.1 MERCURY-REDSTONE MSFC MPR-M-61-1 Flight.4 Electrical 7 December Bruce.. MR-4 MERCURY-REDSTONE Monthly Status Re. Harold. MSFC MTP-M-QD-60-8. 1 December (IUO) (QUAL). Dean. MSFC STR-M-61-8 MSFC MTP-AERO-61-49 MSFC MTP-AERO-61-53 Ledford. Jones. W. MSFC MTP-AERO-61-59 Smith. Ralph T.. Provisional Instrumen1 MERCURY7 April 1961 (C) MSFC MTP-M-QD-60-8. tation Plan Number REDSTONE (LOD). 2 December 1960 (IUO) (QUAL). Systems Analysis MR-3. Atmospheric Environment for the MERCURY-REDSTONE 3 Vehicle Fli___. 2 December 1960 (IUO) (QUAL). Index and Test Results Part I of the Firing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE Vehicle MR-3. Final Mechanical Pressure and Functional Analysis of Missile MR-3.3 MSFC MTP-M-QD-60-8. 20 April 1961 (G&CD).2 MSFC MTP-M-QD-60-8. (Super) Clarke.. Consolidated Instrumentation Plan Part IIa of the Firing Test Report MERCURYREDSTONE M-R-3.

2 Electrical System Analysis MR-8. 29 June 1961 (IUO) (G&CD).C. Preliminary Evaluation MERCURY-REDSTONE Launch MR-4. Kenneth J. 2 August 1961 (C) (LOD). 17 June (QUAL). 6. Consolidated Instrumentation Plan Part IIa of the Firing Test Report MERCURYREDSTONE (Booster No.. F. (QUAL).6 1961 MSFC MTP-LOD-EF-61-20 Kenneth J. Thlxlst (QUAL). Davis. 19 June 1961 (IUO) Nash. Heezen. Gwinn. 17 June 1961 (IUO) (QUAL). Unit.. Speer. Ha Analysis (IUO) MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-20.4 Radio Frequency Systems Test Report Thrust Unit. 5 July 1961. Ralph T..3 MSFC MTP-M-G&C-61-29 MSFC MTP-AERO-61-19 10-11 ..A.. Hill. of MSFC MTP-LOD-MP-61-23..H. Kenneth F. Thrust Unit MR-8. Alignment Report 1 June 1961 (QUAL).. MERCURY-REDSTONE Report.H.. 21 June 1961 (IUO) (QUAL). MSFC MTP-LOD-G-61-23. Jones. Technical Information Summary Concerning MERCURYREDSTONE Mission MR-4.1 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-20. E.. Charles E. Ralph T. Thrust C. Instrumentation Thrust Unit MR-8..MSFC MPR-M-61-2 MERCURY-REDSTONE Monthly Status Report. MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-20. Firing Site Weight Report Part III of the Firing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-4. 12 June 1961. Monthly Status MR-4 (QUAL). Gwinn. MR-4 (QUAL). MR-8. Capsule No.. 8 December 1960 (C) (AERO). 17 June Report 1961 (IUO) MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-20. MSFC MPR-M-61-3 MSFC MPR-M-61-4 MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-20 Final Acceptance Test Report. MERCURY-REDSTONE Monthly Status Report. Lawrence F. Unit. Plan NumMR-4. MSFC MTP-M-QUAL-61-20. Final MR-8. Dean.3 Test Conductors MR-8. MR-4 (QUAL). 11) 14 July 1961 (C) (LOD). Dean. Provisional Instrumentation ber 1 MERCURY-REDSTONE 3 June 1961 (LOD). Gibson. J. Thrust Unit. July 1961 (C).

W. Preliminary Evaluation of MERCURY-REDSTONE Launch MR-4. Kenneth F. Noble F. N. MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-4 Flight and Evaluation of Propulsion Unit and Associated Systems. Lawrence F... J. MSFC MTP-AERO-61-74 MSFC MTP-AERO-61-76 MSFC MTP-P&VE-P-61-20 Riquelmy. Harold.1 MSFC MTP-LOD-ED-61-23.MSFC MTP-AERO-61-69 Clarke. J. 28 September 1961 (IUO) (AERO). King. Atmospheric Environment for the Flight of MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-4..L. MSFC MTP-LOD-MP-61-23..3 10-12 .G.. MSFC MTP-LOD-OIR-61-23.2b Hinds. Ledford. Instrumentation Operations Analysis Part IIb at the Firing Test Report MERCURY-REDSTONE MR-4.. 24 August 1961 (C) (LOD). J. Heezen. Smith.W. Hill. W. Montgomery. 2 August 1961 (C) (LOD).. 9 November 1961 (C) (P&VE). of MR-4. Actual Traiectory MERCURY-REDSTONE Flight Test 22 September 1961 (C) (AERO). 22 August 1961 (C) (AERO). Firing Site Weight Report Part III of the Firing Test Report MERCURYREDSTONE MR-4.. Results Part I of the FirMERCURY-REDSTONE 15 August 1961 (C)(LOD).R. Index and Test ing Test Report Vehicle MR-4.