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hus, several reasons for advertising and similarly there exist various media which can be effectively used

for advertising. Based on these criteria there can be several branches of advertising. Mentioned below are the various categories or types of advertising: Print Advertising Newspapers, Magazines, Brochures, Fliers The print media have always been a popular advertising medium. Advertising products via newspapers or magazines is a common practice. In addition to this, the print media also offers options like promotional brochures and fliers for advertising purposes. Often the newspapers and the magazines sell the advertising space according to the area occupied by the advertisement, the position of the advertisement (front page/middle page), as well as the readership of the publications. For instance an advertisement in a relatively new and less popular newspaper would cost far less than placing an advertisement in a popular newspaper with a high readership. The price of print ads also depend on the supplement in which they appear, for example an advertisement in the glossy supplement costs way higher than that in the newspaper supplement which uses a mediocre quality paper. Outdoor Advertising Billboards, Kiosks, Tradeshows and Events Outdoor advertising is also a very popular form of advertising, which makes use of several tools and techniques to attract the customers outdoors. The most common examples of outdoor advertising are billboards, kiosks, and also several events and tradeshows organized by the company. The billboard advertising is very popular however has to be really terse and catchy in order to grab the attention of the passers by. The kiosks not only provide an easy outlet for the company products but also make for an effective advertising tool to promote the companys products. Organizing several events or sponsoring them makes for an excellent advertising opportunity. The company can organize trade fairs, or even exhibitions for advertising their products. If not this, the company can organize several events that are closely associated with their field. For instance a company that manufactures sports utilities can sponsor a sports tournament to advertise its products. Broadcast advertising Television, Radio and the Internet Broadcast advertising is a very popular advertising medium that constitutes of several branches like television, radio or the Internet. Television advertisements have been very popular ever since they have been introduced. The cost of television advertising often depends on the duration of the advertisement, the time of broadcast (prime time/peak time), and of course the popularity of the television channel on which the advertisement is going to be broadcasted. The radio might have lost its charm owing to the new age media however the radio remains to be the choice of small-scale advertisers. The radio jingles have been very popular advertising media and have a large impact on the audience, which is evident in the fact that many people still remember and enjoy the popular radio jingles. Covert Advertising Advertising in Movies Covert advertising is a unique kind of advertising in which a product or a particular

brand is incorporated in some entertainment and media channels like movies, television shows or even sports. There is no commercial in the entertainment but the brand or the product is subtly( or sometimes evidently) showcased in the entertainment show. Some of the famous examples for this sort of advertising have to be the appearance of brand Nokia which is displayed on Tom Cruises phone in the movie Minority Report, or the use of Cadillac cars in the movie Matrix Reloaded. Surrogate Advertising Advertising Indirectly Surrogate advertising is prominently seen in cases where advertising a particular product is banned by law. Advertisement for products like cigarettes or alcohol which are injurious to heath are prohibited by law in several countries and hence these companies have to come up with several other products that might have the same brand name and indirectly remind people of the cigarettes or beer bottles of the same brand. Common examples include Fosters and Kingfisher beer brands, which are often seen to promote their brand with the help of surrogate advertising. Public Service Advertising Advertising for Social Causes Public service advertising is a technique that makes use of advertising as an effective communication medium to convey socially relevant messaged about important matters and social welfare causes like AIDS, energy conservation, political integrity, deforestation, illiteracy, poverty and so on. David Oglivy who is considered to be one of the pioneers of advertising and marketing concepts had reportedly encouraged the use of advertising field for a social cause. Oglivy once said, "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest - it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes.". Today public service advertising has been increasingly used in a non-commercial fashion in several countries across the world in order to promote various social causes. In USA, the radio and television stations are granted on the basis of a fixed amount of Public service advertisements aired by the channel. Celebrity Advertising Although the audience is getting smarter and smarter and the modern day consumer getting immune to the exaggerated claims made in a majority of advertisements, there exist a section of advertisers that still bank upon celebrities and their popularity for advertising their products. Using celebrities for advertising involves signing up celebrities for advertising campaigns, which consist of all sorts of advertising including, television ads or even print advertisements. By Uttara Manohar

Pixel Advertising Pixel advertising is a new type of Internet advertising in which the cost of an advertisement is calculated based on the number of pixels it occupies. This form of advertising originated in late 2005, when a British student Alex Tew came up with a website called The Million Dollar Homepage, where the advertisers could buy

advertising space at the rate of $1 USD per pixel with a space limit of one million pixels. In addition to the space options provided by the hosting websites, there is also the option of using Do-it-Yourself (DIY) pixel scripts, which ensures that people who do not understand the intricacies of the pixel ads can incorporate the pixel ads in their website without any hassles. Some of the commonly used DIY pixel scripts are Million Pixel Script and the GPix Pixel Ad Script.

Contextual Advertising Do you notice how Google generates ads that are relevant to your search? Or more recently, have you noticed the Google ads that show up next to your emails in the Google mail service? Well, if you are one of those people who still havent noticed this, then you need to wake up and smell the coffee. Well, Google Adsense was the first contextual advertising venture. Contextual advertising is a very specifically targeted form of Internet marketing in which the advertisements are selected by automated systems based on the content being viewed by a particular user. The automated system scans the text of a website for keywords and sends advertisements that match the content which the user is viewing. Many search engines also make use of contextual advertising for displaying ads on the search result pages, such that the ads match the things that the user is looking up on the web. After Google started this trend, there were many others like Yahoo and Microsoft who followed suit.

keyword advertising Commonly, keyword advertising is also known as pay per click advertising or cost per action advertising. Although, Yahoo was the first company to venture into keyword advertising, it is Google Adwords program which is now most popular for its keyword advertising. Some of the popular search engines, which are into keyword advertising, include Yahoo! Search Marketing, Microsoft adCenter, Miva and LookSmart.

Blog Advertising If you thought that a blog was nothing, but an online journal, then you are wrong. Owing to the tremendous popularity of blogs, advertisers have wisely used the blogs as effective advertising and marketing tools. The corporate blogs are excellent ways for companies to reach out to their customer base on the Internet. The advertising blogs often make use of Search Engine Marketing techniques, which ensure better results on the web.

Bathroom Advertising Truly out-of-the-box isnt it? Yes, bathroom advertising is nothing, but placement of advertisements in public restrooms! A research was carried out, in which a test group of people visiting a restroom were questioned whether they noticed the advertisements in there, and surprisingly a major percentage of the group were seen to have a high retention of the advertisements. This led to the conclusion that people visiting the restroom are a good target audience. Bathroom advertising is soon catching up as an effective advertising tool.

Mobile Advertising Yes, as annoying as it might be for you to receive advertisements on your cell phone, it is now a fact that mobile advertising or cell phone advertising is one of the most effective ways of advertising. Most of the times, advertisers have a data of mobile numbers of their existing customer base as well as a list of phone numbers of people who might be potential customers. A message on the mobile phone rarely goes unnoticed and hence, qualifies as an effective marketing or advertising tool!

Propaganda Propaganda has been used since the beginning of time. It is basically a type of message aimed at influencing the behavior, opinions and decisions of people. Propaganda doesn't necessary has to have morals and is often misleading or exaggerated. Propaganda is mainly used in politics and takes it cue from public relations and advertising. Advertising and public relations can also be termed as types of propaganda because they exaggerate the truth behind products and individuals. Other than advertising and public relations, another type of propaganda is for influencing opinions and decisions on religious issues. One another of the types of propaganda is used by the ruling government. The various public information campaigns by the government can be termed as a type of propaganda. Propaganda can be sent across in many and all types of media. Propaganda can be radio and television broadcasts, leaflets, posters, hoardings, so on and so forth. The techniques of propaganda include books, leaflets, movies, radio, television, government reports, news reports, paid news reports and historical revision. Here are some examples of the techniques of propaganda.

Propaganda is mainly used during wars and similar situations of grave danger and strive. One early example is the 'Destroy Old World And Build New' poster in China. The poster depicted a worker destroying various religious symbols, like the Buddha, the crucifix and ancient Chinese texts with a hammer. Maybe the one institution that used propaganda intensely was the Nazis. Adolf Hitler was of the belief that the Allied won the World War 1 due to the power of propaganda and therefore had a Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. Journalists and Broadcasters required prior approval before the dissemination of their work took place. As a result, the Nazis had produced a number of books and films to spread their belief and change public opinion. There were also countless posters during the Nazi regime which glorified the Nazi rule and went ahead to describe the American liberators as monsters. Comics have been the main attraction of propaganda artists over the years. While almost every storyline has some or the other propaganda ingredient in it, it is quickly and subtly instilled into the public mind due to the entertainment factor. American patriots donning the super-hero costume to save the world are not very uncommon themes in superhero comics. Almost every patriotic hero, be it Captain America or Superman has had to combat villains of different ethnicity. There have been a number of posters which can be termed as propaganda regarding the army.Maybe the most famous example of Propaganda is the 'Lord Kitchener Wants You' poster of 1914. The poster was aimed at the Britons with Lord Kitchener ordering them to join the country's army.This kind of poster is a type of the Direct Order technique of propaganda.During the Vietnam War, the the Viet-Cong soldiers were termed as 'gooks'. This is an example of the propaganda technique known as 'demonizing the enemy', in which the enemy is generally described as a worthless or immoral enemy. Glittering generalities is another type of propaganda technique. This technique is mainly used in advertising, with a particular company creating a illusion that their product is better than their competitors on no particular grounds. One famous example of this kind of propaganda technique is Ford's 'Ford Has A Better Idea' ad campaign. The Chewbacca defence propaganda technique has varied examples in the modern world. This technique has been defined as speaking something so completely nonsensical and irrelevant to the topic on hand that nobody listens further. It was recently used by Dinesh D'Souza in his criticism for the Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi.

Pay Per Click Advertising

Pay per click advertising is an upcoming method of advertising. It is a form of Internet advertising where the advertisers pay the hosts only if their ad is clicked. It is mostly used on search engines, blogs, content sites and advertising networks. Nevertheless, click on the links below to know more about this latest form of advertising.