From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Oxygen

Oxygen
Specific heat capacity 8 ↑ O ↓ S nitrogen ← Oxygen → fluorine P/Pa at T/K Periodic table Crystal structure General Name, symbol, number Element category Group, period, block Appearance Oxygen, O, 8 nonmetal, chalcogens 16, 2, p Electronegativity Ionization energies (more) Oxidation states 1 10 (25 °C) (O2) 29.378 J·mol−1·K−1 100 1k 61 Atomic properties cubic 2, 1, −1, −2 (neutral oxide) 3.44 (Pauling scale) 1st: 1313.9 kJ·mol−1 2nd: 3388.3 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 5300.5 kJ·mol−1 Atomic radius Atomic radius (calc.) Covalent radius Van der Waals radius Magnetic ordering Thermal conductivity Speed of sound CAS registry number Liquid Oxygen Standard atomic weight 15.9994(3) g·mol−1 Electron configuration Electrons per shell Phase Density Melting point Boiling point Critical point Heat of fusion Heat of vaporization 1s2 2s2 2p4 2, 6 (Image) gas (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 1.429 g/L 54.36 K (-218.79 °C, -361.82 °F) 90.20 K (-182.95 °C, -297.31 °F) 154.59 K, 5.043 MPa (O2) 0.444 kJ·mol−1 (O2) 6.82 kJ·mol−1 iso
16O 17O 18O

Vapor pressure 10 k 73 100 k 90

60 pm 48 pm 73 pm 152 pm paramagnetic (300 K) 26.58x10-3 W·m−1·K−1 (gas, 27 °C) 330 m/s 7782-44-7 Most stable isotopes Miscellaneous

Main article: Isotopes of Oxygen NA 99.76% 0.039% 0.201% half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
16O is stable with 8 neutrons 17O is stable with 9 neutrons 18O is stable with 10 neutrons

Physical properties

References Oxygen (pronounced /ˈɒksɨdʒɨn/, from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) (acid, literally "sharp," from the taste of acids) and -γενής (-genēs) (producer, literally begetter) is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, and is a highly reactive nonmetallic period 2 element that readily forms compounds (notably oxides) with almost all other elements. At standard temperature and pressure two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless, odorless, tasteless diatomic

1

Oxygen is toxic to obligately anaerobic organisms. In nature. Uses of oxygen include the production of steel. odorless gas with the molecular formula O2. Oxygen is produced industrially by fractional distillation of liquefied air. submarines. rocket propellant.[4] Another form (allotrope) of oxygen. and the negative exchange energy between neighboring O2 molecules. ozone (O3).[3] All major classes of structural molecules in living organisms. but Priestley is often given priority because his publication came out in print first. a name given to several higher-energy species of molecular O2 in which all the electron spins are paired. carbohydrates. and life support in aircraft. electrolysis of water and other means. in laboratory demonstrations. and is often simplified in description as a double bond[6] or as a combination of one two-electron bond and two three-electron bonds. such as proteins. the free encyclopedia gas with the formula O2.[8] Ozone is a rare gas on Earth found mostly in the stratosphere 2 . use of zeolites to remove carbon dioxide and nitrogen from air. Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen and helium[1] and the most abundant element by mass in the Earth’s crust.From Wikipedia.[7] Triplet oxygen is the ground state of the O2 molecule. The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier.[10] Liquid oxygen is attracted to a magnet to a sufficient extent that. in which the two oxygen atoms are chemically bonded to each other with a spin triplet electron configuration. but is a pollutant near the surface where it is a by-product of smog. teeth. oxygen therapy. plastics and textiles. algae and plants during photosynthesis and is used in cellular respiration for all complex life.[15] Carotenoids in photosynthetic organisms (and possibly also in animals) play a major role in absorbing energy from singlet oxygen and converting it to the unexcited ground state before it can cause harm to tissues. This bond has a bond order of two.[14] and by the immune system as a source of active oxygen.[16] Allotropes Characteristics Structure At standard temperature and pressure. and fats.[11][12] Singlet oxygen. spaceflight and diving. in Uppsala. in 1774. so the diatomic oxygen bond is weaker than the diatomic nitrogen triple bond in which all bonding molecular orbitals are filled. but some antibonding orbitals are not. Oxygen was independently discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele.[5] whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion. using the energy of sunlight. Oxygen in the form of O2 is produced from water by cyanobacteria.[13] It is also produced in the troposphere by the photolysis of ozone by light of short wavelength. contain oxygen. Oxygen In normal triplet form.5 billion years ago. O2 molecules are paramagnetic—they form a magnet in the presence of a magnetic field—because of the spin magnetic moments of the unpaired electrons in the molecule.[2] Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.[9] These orbitals are classified as antibonding (weakening the bond order from three to two). oxygen is a colorless. which were the dominant form of early life on Earth until O2 began to accumulate in the atmosphere 2. is much more reactive towards common organic molecules.[8] The electron configuration of the molecule has two unpaired electrons occupying two degenerate molecular orbitals. in 1773 or earlier.9% of the volume of air. and bone. and Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire. as do the major inorganic compounds that comprise animal shells. helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation with the high-altitude ozone layer. a bridge of liquid oxygen may be supported against its own weight between the poles of a powerful magnet. singlet oxygen is commonly formed from water during photosynthesis.

and freezes at 54.[17] This is the form that is used by complex forms of life. O2. the most stable being 15O with a half-life of 122.[31] Most 16O is synthesized at the end of the helium fusion process in stars but some is made in the neon burning process.606 s.[20][21] and was assumed to exist in one of the six phases of solid oxygen. It is a highly reactive substance and must be segregated from combustible materials.[18] Ozone is produced in the upper atmosphere when O2 combines with atomic oxygen made by the splitting of O2 by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. created by pressurizing O2 to 20 GPa. Trioxygen (O3) is usually known as ozone and is a very reactive allotrope of oxygen that is damaging to lung tissue. the ozone layer of the upper atmosphere functions as a protective radiation shield for the planet.[31] Oxygen isotopes range in mass number from 12 to 28. 16O concentrates in the O-shell. using liquid nitrogen as a coolant.79 °C.24 seconds (s) and 14O with a half-life of 70.From Wikipedia.[31] Physical properties See also: Liquid oxygen and solid oxygen Oxygen is more soluble in water than nitrogen. the free encyclopedia The common allotrope of elemental oxygen on Earth is called dioxygen. Other aspects of O2 are covered in the remainder of this article. Oxygen is the third most abundant chemical element in the universe. after hydrogen and helium. 16O.[1] About 0.04 milliliters (mL) of oxygen per liter. and about twice as much (14.2 mL (45% more) per liter for sea water.[30] Occurrence See also: Silicate minerals and Category:Oxide minerals Oxygen is the most abundant chemical element.95 °C. with 16O being the most abundant (99. making it a common isotope in the hydrogen burning zones of stars. water contains approximately 1 molecule of O2 for every 2 molecules of N2.[25][26] At 25 °C and 1 atm of air.[5] Since ozone absorbs strongly in the UV region of the spectrum.2% of the Earth’s crust by mass[2] and is the major component of the world’s oceans (88.[31] All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 27 s and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 83 milliseconds. whereas seawater contains about 4. It has a bond length of 121 pm and a bond energy of 498 kJ·mol-1. 17O. −361. It was proven in 2006 in that phase.[27] At 5 °C the solubility increases to 9.8% by mass).[22] This cluster has the potential to be a much more powerful oxidizer than either O2 or O3 and may therefore be used in rocket fuel.6 mg·L−1) dissolves at 0 °C than at 20 °C (7. compared to an atmospheric ratio of approximately 1:4.31 °F).95 mL per liter. The solubility of oxygen in water is temperature-dependent.[32] Most 18O is produced when 14N (made abundant from CNO burning) captures a 4He nucleus. and 18O.36 K (−218.[28] Both liquid and solid O2 are clear substances with a light skyblue color caused by absorption in the red (in contrast with the blue color of the sky. and the most common mode for the isotopes heavier than 18O is beta decay to yield fluorine. such as animals. Oxygen condenses at 90. freshwater contains about 6. −297.762% natural abundance). however.82 °F).[20][21] A metallic phase was discovered in 1990 when solid oxygen is subjected to a pressure of above 96 GPa[23] and it was shown in 1998 that at very low temperatures. which is due to Rayleigh scattering of blue light). making 18O common in the helium-rich zones of stars. High-purity liquid O2 is usually obtained by the fractional distillation of liquefied air.9% of the Sun’s mass is oxygen.[31] The most common decay mode of the isotopes lighter than 16O is electron capture to yield nitrogen.[19] The metastable molecule tetraoxygen (O4) was discovered in 2001. in our biosphere.[32] Fourteen radioisotopes have been characterized. it is a pollutant formed as a by-product of automobile exhaust. this phase becomes superconducting. in cellular respiration (see Biological role) and is the form that is a major part of the Earth’s atmosphere (see Occurrence). is in fact a rhombohedral O8 cluster. by mass.[3] Oxygen gas is the second most common component of the Earth’s 3 . 17O in the H-shell and 18O in the He-shell Naturally occurring oxygen is composed of three stable isotopes.[24] Oxygen Isotopes and stellar origin Late in a massive star’s life.[32] 17O is primarily made by the burning of hydrogen into helium during the CNO cycle.[3] Oxygen constitutes 49.6 mg·L−1).0 mL (50% more than at 25 °C) per liter for water and 7.[29] Liquid oxygen may also be produced by condensation out of air. sea and land.[5] Near the Earth’s surface.20 K (−182. air.

O2. In the present equilibrium.[3][33][34] Earth is unusual among the planets of the Solar System in having such a high concentration of oxygen gas in its atmosphere: Mars (with 0. However. but the result is the formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane.[41] Molecular dioxygen.[39] Many steps are involved. the free encyclopedia atmosphere.[33] A liter of blood can dissolve 200 cc of O2. Scientists assess this aspect of water quality by measuring the water’s biochemical oxygen demand. depleted by decaying algae and other biomaterials (see eutrophication). O2 is diffused through membranes in the lungs and into red blood cells.[36] Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar provide about 70% of the free oxygen produced on earth and the rest is produced by terrestrial plants. This biogeochemical cycle describes the movement of oxygen within and between its three main reservoirs on Earth: the atmosphere. taking up 21. Free oxygen also occurs in solution in the world’s water bodies. while respiration and decay remove it from the atmosphere. Oxygen Cold water holds more dissolved O2. The reaction for aerobic respiration is essentially the reverse of photosynthesis and is simplified as: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + 2880 kJ·mol-1 In vertebrates. changing its color from bluish red to bright red. Green algae and cyanobacteria in marine environments 4 .[37] A simplified overall formula for photosynthesis is:[38] 6CO2 + 6H2O + photons → C6H12O6 + 6O2 (or simply carbon dioxide + water + sunlight → glucose + dioxygen) Photolytic oxygen evolution occurs in the thylakoid membranes of photosynthetic organisms and requires the energy of four photons. or the amount of O2 needed to restore it to a normal concentration.[35] Polluted water may have reduced amounts of O2 in it. the O2 surrounding these other planets is produced solely by ultraviolet radiation impacting oxygen-containing molecules such as carbon dioxide. The unusually high concentration of oxygen gas on Earth is the result of the oxygen cycle.1% O2 by volume) and Venus have far lower concentrations. Hemoglobin binds O2. which is responsible for modern Earth’s atmosphere.[40] The O2 remaining after oxidation of the water molecule is released into the atmosphere. free oxygen is produced by the light-driven splitting of water during oxygenic photosynthesis. is essential for cellular respiration in all aerobic organisms. The increased solubility of O2 at lower temperatures (see Physical properties) has important implications for ocean life.From Wikipedia. the biosphere. The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis. Oxygen is used in mitochondria to help generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during oxidative phosphorylation.0% of its volume and 23. production and consumption occur at the same rate of roughly 1/2000th of the entire atmospheric oxygen per year.1% of its mass (some 1015 tonnes). Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere. which is used to synthesize ATP via photophosphorylation. and the lithosphere.[33] Biological role Photosynthesis and respiration In nature. as polar oceans support a much higher density of life due to their higher oxygen content.[42][18] Other animals use hemocyanin (molluscs and some arthropods) or hemerythrin (spiders and lobsters).

Many centuries later Leonardo da Vinci built on Philo’s work by observing that a portion of air is consumed during combustion and respiration.4 billion years ago. Free oxygen first appeared in significant quantities during the Paleoproterozoic era (between 2. including the burning of 7 billion tonnes of fossil fuels each year have had very little effect on the amount of free oxygen in the atmosphere.[50] In the late 17th century.4 grams of oxygen per minute. In his work Pneumatica.8 to 2. and singlet oxygen to destroy invading microbes. the free encyclopedia Oxygen Free oxygen gas was almost nonexistent in Earth’s atmosphere before photosynthetic archaea and bacteria evolved. but is absorbed by land surfaces and formation of ozone layer.[45] The presence of large amounts of dissolved and free oxygen in the oceans and atmosphere may have driven most of the anaerobic organisms then living to extinction during the oxygen catastrophe about 2.[10] At the current rate of photosynthesis it would take about 2. Philo of Byzantium.From Wikipedia. 2) O2 produced.[33] Parts of the immune system of higher organisms. superoxide. but absorbed in oceans & seabed rock. such as superoxide ion (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).7 billion years ago.6 billion years ago).[40] An adult human in rest inhales 1. however. Robert Boyle proved that air is necessary for combustion.[47] allowing insects and amphibians to grow much larger than today’s species. O2 levels have fluctuated between 15% and 30% by volume. Human activities. [44] History Early experiments One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the second century BCE Greek writer on mechanics.[43] This amounts to more than 6 billion tonnes of oxygen inhaled by humanity per year. At first. Oxygen (at left) is consumed in respiration of organic compounds to form carbon dioxide and water. 3) O2 starts to gas out of the oceans.000 years to regenerate the entire O2 in the present atmosphere. Since the beginning of the Cambrian era 540 million years ago. 4-5) O2 sinks filled and the gas accumulates 5 . Free oxygen started to gas out of the oceans 2.7 billion years ago.[51] In one experiment he found that placing either a mouse or a lit candle in a closed container over Build-up in the atmosphere O2 build-up in Earth’s atmosphere: 1) no O2 produced. cellular respiration using O2 enables aerobic organisms to produce much more ATP than anaerobic organisms. reaching 10% of its present level around 1. However. English chemist John Mayow refined this work by showing that fire requires only a part of air that he called spiritus nitroaereus or just nitroaereus. Philo observed that inverting a vessel over a burning candle and surrounding the vessel’s neck with water resulted in some water rising into the neck. helping the former to dominate Earth’s biosphere. create peroxide.[48] Relation between photosynthesis and respiration.5 and 1. the oxygen combined with dissolved iron in the oceans to form banded iron formations. are dangerous byproducts of oxygen use in organisms. Reactive oxygen species. These can again produce oxygen and organic compounds in photosynthesis.[47] Towards the end of the Carboniferous era (about 300 million years ago) atmospheric O2 levels reached a maximum of 35% by volume.[46] Photosynthesis and cellular respiration of O2 allowed for the evolution of eukaryotic cells and ultimately complex multicellular organisms such as plants and animals. Reactive oxygen species also play an important role in the hypersensitive response of plants against pathogen attack.[49] Philo incorrectly surmised that parts of the air in the vessel were converted into the classical element fire and thus were able to escape through pores in the glass.

[53] phlogiston theory stated that all combustible materials were made of two parts. and modified by the chemist Georg Ernst Stahl by 1731. were thought to be made mostly of phlogiston. while the dephlogisticated part was thought to be its true form. Air did not play a role in phlogiston theory. the free encyclopedia Oxygen Stahl helped develop and popularize the phlogiston theory.[52] Phlogiston theory Robert Hooke. Philo’s experiment inspired later investigators water caused the water to rise and replace one-fourteenth of the air’s volume before extinguishing the subjects.[25] This may have been in part due to the prevalence of the philosophy of combustion and corrosion called the phlogiston theory. whereas non-combustible substances that corrode. Established in 1667 by the German alchemist J. was given off when the substance containing it was burned. such as iron. Indeed one of the first clues that the phlogiston theory was incorrect was that metals.[50] The fact that a substance like wood actually gains overall weight in burning was hidden by the buoyancy of the gaseous combustion products. and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as an element.[52] From this he surmised that nitroaereus is consumed in both respiration and combustion.From Wikipedia. called phlogiston.[50] Highly combustible materials that leave little residue. and Pierre Bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th 6 .[51] Accounts of these and other experiments and ideas were published in 1668 in his work Tractatus duo in the tract "De respiratione". or calx. Becher. Ole Borch. Mikhail Lomonosov. too. which was then the favored explanation of those processes. gain weight in rusting (when they were supposedly losing phlogiston). and inferred that the nitroaereus must have combined with it. Mayow observed that antimony increased in weight when heated. it was based on observations of what happens when something burns. J. One part. such as wood or coal. that most common objects appear to become lighter and seem to lose something in the process. contained very little.[51] He also thought that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle movement result from the reaction of nitroaereus with certain substances in the body. instead. nor were any initial quantitative experiments conducted to test the idea.

but I fancied that my breast felt peculiarly light and easy for some time afterwards. he wrote: "The feeling of it to my lungs was not sensibly different from that of common air. He wrote an account of this discovery in a manuscript he titled Treatise on Air and Fire. all started in 1774.[3] In that work. Priestley visited Lavoisier in October 1774 and told him about his experiment and how he liberated the new gas. ’vital air’. to discredit the phlogiston theory and to prove that the substance discovered by Priestley and Scheele was a chemical element. he proved that air is a mixture of two gases.[50][55] Because he published his findings first. The noted French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier later claimed to have discovered the new substance independently.[54] In the meantime. ἄζωτον "lifeless").[3] He used these and similar experiments. 1774 that described his own discovery of the previously unknown substance."[25] Priestley published his findings in 1775 in a paper titled "An Account of Further Discoveries in Air" which was included in the second volume of his book titled Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air.[3] He noted that candles burned brighter in the gas and that a mouse was more active and lived longer while breathing it. Scheele also posted a letter to Lavoisier on September 30. the free encyclopedia Oxygen Carl Wilhelm Scheele beat Priestley to the discovery but published afterwards. which did not support either. Azote later became nitrogen in English. This and other experiments on combustion were documented in his book Sur la combustion en général. Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery. which is essential to combustion and respiration. In one experiment. which liberated a gas he named ’dephlogisticated air’. but Lavoisier never acknowledged receiving it (a copy of the letter was found in Scheele’s belongings after his death).[54] Lavoisier’s contribution What Lavoisier did indisputably do (although this was disputed at the time) was to conduct the first adequate quantitative experiments on oxidation and give the first correct explanation of how combustion works. However. that document was not published until 1777. which was published in 1777. although it has kept the 7 . which indicated that part of the trapped air had been consumed.From Wikipedia. After breathing the gas himself. However. 1774 focused sunlight on mercuric oxide (HgO) inside a glass tube.[3][50] Scheele called the gas ’fire air’ because it was the only known supporter of combustion. and azote (Gk. which he sent to his publisher in 1775. Lavoisier observed that there was no overall increase in weight when tin and air were heated in a closed container.[3] He noted that air rushed in when he opened the container. Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery Discovery Oxygen was first discovered by Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. He also noted that the tin had increased in weight and that increase was the same as the weight of the air that rushed back in. He had produced oxygen gas by heating mercuric oxide and various nitrates by about 1772. an experiment was conducted by the British clergyman Joseph Priestley on August 1.

the gas that could more appropriately have been given the description. 1877 by Polish scientists from Jagiellonian University.[60] In 1891 Scottish chemist James Dewar was able to produce enough liquid oxygen to study. "acid producer." is hydrogen. Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski. oxyacetylene welding was demonstrated for the first time by burning a mixture of acetylene and compressed O2. Goddard became the first person to develop a rocket engine.[61] Later.[3] Lavoisier renamed ’vital air’ to oxygène in 1777 from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) (acid. literally begetter). giving the atomic mass of oxygen as 8 times that of hydrogen. instead of the modern value of about 16. which in turn was evaporated to cool oxygen gas enough to liquefy it. Swiss chemist and physicist Raoul Pierre Pictet evaporated liquid sulfur dioxide in order to liquefy carbon dioxide. Actually.[61] In 1923 the American scientist Robert H. by compressing and cooling it.From Wikipedia. For example. and by 1811 Amedeo Avogadro had arrived at the correct interpretation of water’s composition.[57][58] 8 . but by that time it was too late.[56] In 1805.[54] Robert H. the name had taken. and its components isolated. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline rocket By the late 19th century scientists realized that air could be liquefied. because he mistakenly believed that oxygen was a constituent of all acids. Oxygen was liquified in stable state for the first time on March 29. Dalton assumed that water’s formula was HO. the free encyclopedia Oxygen Antoine Lavoisier discredited the Phlogiston theory name in French and several other European languages. He sent a telegram on December 22. the engine used gasoline for fuel and liquid oxygen as the Later history John Dalton’s original atomic hypothesis assumed that all elements were monoatomic and that the atoms in compounds would normally have the simplest atomic ratios with respect to one another. French physicist Louis Paul Cailletet announced his own method of liquefying molecular oxygen. This is partly due to a poem praising the gas titled "Oxygen" in the popular book The Botanic Garden (1791) by Erasmus Darwin. literally "sharp.[10] The first commercially viable process for producing liquid oxygen was independently developed in 1895 by German engineer Carl von Linde and British engineer William Hampson. Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Alexander von Humboldt showed that water is formed of two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen. This method of welding and cutting metal later became common. in 1901. grandfather of Charles Darwin.[59] Just two days later.[59] Only a few drops of the liquid were produced in either case so no meaningful analysis could be conducted. Oxygen entered the English language despite opposition by English scientists and the fact that the Englishman Priestley had first isolated the gas and written about it." from the taste of acids) and -γενής (-genēs) (producer. based on what is now called Avogadro’s law and the assumption of diatomic elemental molecules. 1877 to the French Academy of Sciences in Paris announcing his discovery of liquid oxygen. Both men lowered the temperature of air until it liquefied and then distilled the component gases by boiling them off one at a time and capturing them. Using a cascade method.[5] Chemists eventually determined that Lavoisier was wrong in this regard.

Oxygen therapy is used to treat emphysema. Massachusetts. A similar method is the electrocatalytic O2 evolution from oxides and oxoacids. and Combustion Medical Uptake of O2 from the air is the essential purpose of respiration. oxygen is often transported in bulk as a liquid in specially insulated tankers.21/kg. Oxygen tents were once commonly used in oxygen supplementation.[54] Simultaneously. with nitrogen N2 distilling as a vapor while oxygen O2 is left as a liquid. but have since been replaced mostly by the use of oxygen masks or nasal cannulas.[54] The most common method is to fractionally distill liquefied air into its various components. the patient’s home. the production cost will change as energy cost varies. since one litre of liquefied oxygen is equivalent to 840 liters of gaseous oxygen at atmospheric pressure and 20 °C. to produce nearly pure O2 gas. and are still part of standard equipment on commercial airliners in case of depressurization emergencies. USA. or increasingly by portable devices. nitrogen gas is released from the other nitrogen-saturated zeolite bed. DC electricity must be used: if AC is used. dry air through one bed of a pair of identical zeolite molecular sieves. a form that is useful in certain portable medical applications and oxy-fuel welding and cutting. Another air separation technology involves forcing air to dissolve through ceramic membranes based on zirconium dioxide by either high pressure or an electric current. thereby allowing for a continuous supply of gaseous oxygen to be pumped through a pipeline.[54] Such tankers are used to refill bulk liquid oxygen storage containers.[36] In large quantities.[64] Since the primary cost of production is the energy cost of liquefying the air. pneumonia. Oxygen gas is increasingly Applications See also: Breathing gas. some heart disorders. and any disease that impairs the body’s ability to take up and use gaseous oxygen. the free encyclopedia oxidizer. Goddard successfully flew a small liquid-fueled rocket 56 m at 97 km/h on March 16. so oxygen supplementation is used in medicine. the gases in each limb consist of hydrogen and oxygen in the explosive ratio 2:1. by reducing the chamber operating pressure and diverting part of the oxygen gas from the producer bed through it. which absorbs the nitrogen and delivers a gas stream that is 90% to 93% O2. Contrary to popular belief. Liquid oxygen is passed through heat exchangers. which convert the cryogenic liquid into gas before it enters the building.[65] Treatments are flexible enough to be used in hospitals. the 2:1 ratio observed in the DC electrolysis of acidified water does not prove that the empirical formula of water is H2O unless certain assumptions are made about the molecular formulae of hydrogen and oxygen themselves. in the reverse direction of flow.From Wikipedia. Redox.[61][62] Oxygen obtained by these non-cryogenic technologies (see also the related vacuum swing adsorption). 1926 in Auburn. such as in chemical oxygen generators or oxygen candles that are used as part of the life-support equipment on submarines. which stand outside hospitals and other institutions with a need for large volumes of pure oxygen gas. This is known as pressure swing adsorption. After a set cycle time the operation of the two beds is interchanged. The other major method of producing O2 gas involves passing a stream of clean. the price of liquid oxygen in 2001 was approximately $0. Chemical catalysts can be used as well.[54] Hoffman electrolysis apparatus used in electrolysis of water. For reasons of economy.[66] 9 .[63] Oxygen gas can also be produced through electrolysis of water into molecular oxygen and hydrogen. Oxygen is also stored and shipped in smaller cylinders containing the compressed gas.[54] Industrial production See also: Oxygen evolution and fractional distillation Two major methods are employed to produce 100 million tonnes of O2 extracted from air for industrial uses annually.

[68] Increased O2 concentration in the lungs helps to displace carbon monoxide from the heme group of hemoglobin. when needed. and carried against dangerous goods regulations.[65][73][74] Oxygen is also used medically for patients who require mechanical ventilation. Oxygen bars are establishments. gas gangrene. but most often use normal pressure. activated and caused fire. Scuba divers and submariners also rely on artificially delivered O2. or emergency treatment use at relatively shallow depths (~ 6 meters depth. the free encyclopedia Oxygen Low pressure pure O2 is used in space suits or mixtures of oxygen and air. resulting in a normal blood partial pressure of O2. often at concentrations above 21% found in ambient air.[81] Available studies support a performance boost from enriched O2 mixtures only if they are breathed An oxygen concentrator in an emphysema patient’s house Hyperbaric (high-pressure) medicine uses special oxygen chambers to increase the partial pressure of O2 around the patient and. Pure or nearly pure O2 use in diving at higher-than-sea-level pressures is usually limited to rebreather. even this may pose a danger if inappropriately triggered: a ValuJet airplane crashed after use-date-expired O2 canisters. especially in American football.[77] People who climb mountains or fly in non-pressurized fixed-wing aircraft sometimes have supplemental O2 supplies. the medical staff. Sudden cabin pressure loss activates chemical oxygen generators above each seat. such as nitrogen or helium.[69][70] Oxygen gas is poisonous to the anaerobic bacteria that cause gas gangrene. and decompression sickness (the ’bends’) are sometimes treated using these devices. mostly nitrogen and helium.[81] Professional athletes. However.[75][76] This trade-off of higher oxygen concentration for lower pressure is needed to maintain flexible spacesuits. or less).[71][72] Decompression sickness occurs in divers who decompress too quickly after a dive.From Wikipedia. Nevada since the late 1990s that offer higher than normal O2 exposure for a fee. found in Japan.[36] A steady stream of oxygen gas is produced by the exothermic reaction. and/ 10 . Increasing the pressure of O2 as soon as possible is part of the treatment. which surround their occupant’s body with pressurized air. which were being shipped in the cargo hold. The canisters were mis-labeled as empty. the reality of a pharmacological effect is doubtful. also sometimes go off field between plays to wear oxygen masks in order to get a supposed "boost" in performance. and Las Vegas.[77][78] Deeper diving requires significant dilution of O2 with other gases. Life support and recreational use A notable application of O2 as a low-pressure breathing gas is in modern space suits. However.[79] Passengers traveling in (pressurized) commercial airplanes have an emergency supply of O2 automatically supplied to them in case of cabin depressurization.[67] Carbon monoxide poisoning. a placebo or psychological boost being the most plausible explanation. as a supposed mild euphoric. forming in their blood. to help prevent oxygen toxicity. These devices use nearly pure oxygen at about one third normal pressure. so increasing its partial pressure helps kill them. decompression. has a history of recreational use in oxygen bars and in sports. resulting in bubbles of inert gas. causing oxygen masks to drop and forcing iron filings into the sodium chlorate inside the canister.[80] Oxygen. California.

metal up to 60 cm thick is first heated with a small oxy-acetylene flame and then quickly cut by a large stream of O2. Planetary geologists have measured different abundances of oxygen isotopes in samples from the Earth. SO2 and CO2.[36] Another 25% of commercially produced oxygen is used by the chemical industry. but were long unable to obtain reference values for the isotope ratios in the Sun. oxygen-16. in turn. as an oxidizer in rocket fuel. and in water treatment.[36] Most of the remaining 20% of commercially produced oxygen is used in medical applications. which is much weaker. which removes sulfur impurities and excess carbon as the respective oxides. and the seawater left behind tends to be higher in oxygen-18.[83] Oxygen Industrial 500 million years of climate change vs 18O lower global temperatures. The measurement implies that an unknown process depleted oxygen-16 from the Sun’s disk of protoplanetary material prior to the coalescence of dust grains that formed the Earth.[87] This approach exploits the fact that in those bands it is possible to discriminate the vegetation’s reflectance from its fluorescence. the primary feeder material used to manufacture a host of products. Smelting of iron ore into steel consumes 55% of commercially produced oxygen.[86] Oxygen presents two spectrophotometric absorption bands peaking at the wavelengths 687 and 760 nm. Marine organisms then incorporate more oxygen-18 into their skeletons and shells than they would in a warmer climate.[82] Other recreational uses include pyrotechnic applications. but it has been proposed as a possible method of monitoring the carbon cycle from satellites on a global scale. Scientific Paleoclimatologists measure the ratio of oxygen-18 and oxygen-16 in the shells and skeletons of marine organisms to determine what the climate was like millions of years ago (see oxygen isotope ratio cycle). The reactions are exothermic.[36] Ethylene is reacted with O2 to create ethylene oxide. O2 is injected through a high-pressure lance into molten iron. the free encyclopedia during actual aerobic exercise. Seawater molecules that contain the lighter isotope. metal cutting and welding. the Moon. The oxidation state −1 is found in 11 . analysis of a silicon wafer exposed to the solar wind in space and returned by the crashed Genesis spacecraft has shown that the Sun has a higher proportion of oxygen-16 than does the Earth. In this process. which is mixed and ignited with the fuel for propulsion. is converted into ethylene glycol.From Wikipedia. including antifreeze and polyester polymers (the precursors of many plastics and fabrics). Larger rockets use liquid oxygen as their oxidizer.[84] Rocket propulsion requires a fuel and an oxidizer.[36] In this process. believed to be the same as those of the primordial solar nebula. The measurement is technically difficult owing to the low signal-to-noise ratio and the physical structure of vegetation. such as George Goble’s five-second ignition of barbecue grills.[85] During periods of Compounds The oxidation state of oxygen is −2 in almost all known compounds of oxygen. Some remote sensing scientists have proposed using the measurement of the radiance coming from vegetation canopies in those bands to characterize plant health status from a satellite platform.[36] Oxygen is used in oxyacetylene welding burning acetylene with O2 to produce a very hot flame. this disparity increases at lower temperatures. evaporate at a slightly faster rate than water molecules containing the 12% heavier oxygen-18.[85] Paleoclimatologists also directly measure this ratio in the water molecules of ice core samples that are up to several hundreds of thousands of years old. which. However. and meteorites. so the temperature increases to 1700 °C. snow and rain from that evaporated water tends to be higher in oxygen-16. Most commercially produced O2 is used to smelt iron into steel. Mars.

oxygen forms chemical bonds with almost all other elements at elevated temperatures to give corresponding oxides.3 kJ·mol−1 per hydrogen atom) to an adjacent oxygen atom in a separate molecule. in particular calcium carbonate (in limestone) and silicates (in feldspars). DMSO. in bauxite and corundum). with a slightly less metal than the chemical formula would show. Other important organic compounds that contain oxygen are: glycerol. +1 (dioxygen difluoride). and formic acid. Oxides and other inorganic compounds Water (H2O) is the oxide of hydrogen and the most familiar oxygen compound. esters (R-COO-R). found in granite and sand). and Na2Si2O5 are used as detergents and adhesives. ethanol. a few compounds such as peroxides.[93] Oxygen also acts as a ligand for transition metals. formaldehyde. some elements readily form oxides at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to oxygen in a water molecule but also have an additional attraction (about 23. The surface of metals like aluminium and titanium are oxidized in the presence of air and become coated with a thin film of oxide that passivates the metal and slows further corrosion.[89] These hydrogen bonds between water molecules hold them approximately 15% closer than what would be expected in a simple liquid with just Van der Waals forces. Acetone ((CH3)2CO) and phenol (C6H5OH) are used as feeder materials in the synthesis of many different substances. The rest of the Earth’s crust is also made of oxygen compounds. and acetamide. Oxygen reacts spontaneously with many organic compounds at or below room temperature in a process 12 . ketones (R-COR). forming metal–O2 bonds with the iridium atom in Vaska’s complex. form when oxygen combines with other elements. in hematite and rust) and other metals. acetic anhydride. Some of the transition metal oxides are found in nature as non-stoichiometric compounds.[90][91] Due to its electronegativity. aluminium (aluminium oxide Al2O3. 0 (elemental. Water (H2O) is the most familiar oxygen compound. acetic acid.05. ethyl acetate. +1/2 (dioxygenyl). methanol. There are many important organic solvents that contain oxygen. DMF. citric acid. aldehydes (R-CO-H). and amides (R-C(O)-NR2). acid anhydrides (R-CO-O-CO-R).[88] Compounds containing oxygen in other oxidation states are very uncommon: −1/2 (superoxides). diethyl ether. dioxane. glutaraldehyde. iron (iron(III) oxide Fe2O3.[92] Oxygen as a compound is present in the atmosphere in trace quantities in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). Epoxides are ethers in which the oxygen atom is part of a ring of three atoms. the free encyclopedia Oxygen Oxides. FeO (wüstite) is actually written as Fe1−xO. However. Fe2O3. the natural occurring Organic compounds and biomolecules Among the most important classes of organic compounds that contain oxygen are (where "R" is an organic group): alcohols (R-OH).From Wikipedia. and +2 (oxygen difluoride). For example.[95] and with the iron center of the heme group of hemoglobin. hypofluorous acid). furan.[94] with the platinum in PtF6. the rusting of iron is an example. Na2SiO3. ethers (R-O-R). including: acetone. such as iron oxide or rust. THF. where x is usually around 0. Water-soluble silicates in the form of Na4SiO4. carboxylic acids (R-COOH). isopropanol. The earth’s crustal rock is composed in large part of oxides of silicon (silica SiO2. −1/3 (ozonides).

Main symptoms of oxygen toxicity. or 2.[97] Oxygen gas (O2) can be toxic at elevated partial pressures. leading to convulsions and other health problems. All fats.[77][98][99] Oxygen toxicity usually begins to occur at partial pressures more than 50 kilopascals (kPa).5 times the normal sea-level O2 partial pressure of about 21 kPa. but this practice was discontinued after some babies were blinded by it. such as squalene and the carotenes. Of the organic compounds with biological relevance. and proteins contain oxygen (due to the presence of carbonyl groups in these acids and their ester residues).[93] Oxygen toxicity occurs when lungs take in a higher than normal O2 partial pressure. in the backbone and the purines (except adenine) and pyrimidines of RNA and DNA. The element is found in almost all biomolecules that are important to (or generated by) life. called autoxidation. and in bones as calcium phosphate and hydroxylapatite. contain no oxygen. carbon in black and hydrogen in white).[25][100] Precautions 13 . Oxygen also occurs in phosphate (PO43−) groups in the biologically important energy-carrying molecules ATP and ADP. fatty acids. carbohydrates contain the largest proportion by mass of oxygen.From Wikipedia. Only a few common complex biomolecules. Oxygen represents more than 40% of the molecular mass of the ATP molecule. the free encyclopedia Oxygen Toxicity Acetone is an important feeder material in the chemical industry (oxygen is in red. Therefore.[96] Most of the organic compounds that contain oxygen are not made by direct action of O2.[25] At one time. Organic compounds important in industry and commerce that are made by direct oxidation of a precursor include ethylene oxide and peracetic acid. which can occur in deep scuba diving. amino acids. premature babies were placed in incubators containing O2-rich air. air supplied through oxygen masks in medical applications is typically composed of 30% O2 by volume (about 30 kPa at standard pressure).

p. Retrieved on 2008-01-28. ^ Jakubowski. on contact with the human body it can cause burns to the skin and the eyes. p. a lack of oxygen • Hypoxia (environmental) for O2 depletion in aquatic ecology • Optode for a method of measuring O2 concentration in solution • Oxygen Catastrophe The sudden rise in Oxygen in the atmosphere around 2. nitrates. however. and the resulting O2 partial pressure in the astronaut’s arterial blood is only marginally more than normal sea-level O2 partial pressure (see arterial blood gas).500 NASA (2007-09-27). 1960. Los Alamos National Laboratory.gov/elements/8. Purdue University. and asphalt can Notes and citations [1] [2] ^ Emsley 2001. Retrieved on 2007-12-16. in general.[106] The fire that killed the Apollo 1 crew on a test launch pad spread so rapidly because the capsule was pressurized with pure O2 but at slightly more than atmospheric pressure. Retrieved on 2008-03-13. instead of the ⅓ normal pressure that would be used in a mission.[102] Exposure to a O2 partial pressures greater than 160 kPa may lead to convulsions (normally fatal for divers).lanl. The Nature of the Chemical Bond.purdue. chlorates.4B years ago • Oxygen isotope ratio cycle • Oxygen sensor • Winkler test for dissolved oxygen 0 0 0 OX Highly concentrated sources of oxygen promote rapid combustion. and therefore the design and manufacture of O2 systems requires special training to ensure that ignition sources are minimized. the O2 partial pressure in the breathing gas is. http://employees.html#bond.gov/home/hqnews/2007/sep/ HQ_07215_Timeline_of_Oxygen_on_Earth. Cornell University Press. Fire and explosion hazards exist when concentrated oxidants and fuels are brought into close proximity.csbsju. such as in some modern space suits. cause these materials to detonate unpredictably on subsequent mechanical impact.[106] As with other cryogenic liquids. "Biochemistry Online". such as wood. Oxygen toxicity to the lungs and central nervous system can also occur in deep scuba diving and surface supplied diving. is needed to trigger combustion.5 Billion Years Ago. perchlorates.4 times normal). http://www. ^ Cook & Lauer 1968.html. Concentrated O2 will allow combustion to proceed rapidly and energetically. Press release. ^ Mellor 1939 "Molecular Orbital Theory".html. http://periodic.297 ^ "Oxygen". but the oxidant. Henry. L. Combustion hazards also apply to compounds of oxygen with a high oxidative potential.[107][108] Liquid oxygen spills. and dichromates because they can donate oxygen to a fire.[25][77] Prolonged breathing of an air mixture with an O2 partial pressure more than 60 kPa can eventually lead to permanent pulmonary fibrosis.edu/genchem/topicreview/ bp/ch8/mo. Saint John’s University. NASA Research Indicates Oxygen on Earth 2. about 30 kPa (1. Combustion and other hazards See also • Oxygen compounds • Hypoxia. or in early spacecraft such as Apollo.edu/hjakubowski/ [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] 14 . such as peroxides.From Wikipedia.[102][103][104][105] Oxygen Pure O2 at higher than normal pressure and a spark led to a fire and the loss of the Apollo 1 crew. if allowed to soak into organic matter. an ignition event.[75][101] In the case of spacesuits. petrochemicals.[106] Oxygen itself is not the fuel. Acute oxygen toxicity can occur by breathing an air mixture with 21% O2 at 66 m or more of depth while the same thing can occur by breathing 100% O2 at only 6 m.[106] Steel pipes and storage vessels used to store and transmit both gaseous and liquid oxygen will act as a fuel.chem. causes no damage due to the low total pressures used. Pauling. http://chemed. the free encyclopedia Breathing pure O2 in space applications. such as heat or a spark.nasa.

J. Universal Industrial Gases. "Marine Plants" [38] Brown 2003. Retrieved on 2007-12-16. "John Mayow" [53] Morris 2003 [54] ^ Emsley 2001. The Engineering Toolbox. the normal volume is 6-8 liters per minute. Circ. Anthony (1997). Harvey however notes that according to later articles in Nature the values appear to be about 3% too high. Retrieved on 2007-12-21. http://www. Fox.24 billion tonnes [45] Campbell 2005. p. 586 [47] ^ Berner 1999. Section 4 "Overview of Cryogenic Air Separation and Liquefier Systems". 1955. Mer. [40] ^ Raven 2005. 201–04 Desgreniers 1990.uwaterloo. 384–94 [56] DeTurck.com/cryodist. 115–27 [41] Water oxidation is catalyzed by a manganesecontaining enzyme complex known as the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) or water-splitting complex found associated with the lumenal side of thylakoid membranes.. p. http://environmentalchemistry.html. Oxygen’s paramagnetism can be used analytically in paramagnetic oxygen gas analysers that determine the purity of gaseous oxygen. ^ Emsley 2001. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.com/oxygen_gas_analyser.physics. 88 Lide 2003. University of Waterloo.From Wikipedia. Retrieved on 2008-01-09.html. https://www. 41. Lundegaard 2006. 1117–22 Shimizu 1998.pdf. p.upenn. Retrieved on 2007-12-15.com. In fact. ) Krieger-Liszkay 2005. 9022 ^ Emsley 2001.299 "Air solubility in water". Servomex. 5–27 [49] Jastrow 1936.science.300 [55] Priestley 1775. University of Wisconsin-Madison Chemistry Department Demonstration lab.301 [37] Fenical 1983.edu/courses/ gladney/mathphys/Contents. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.html.mathesontrigas. Larry and Pietrovito.com/air-solubilitywater-d_639.49 ^ Cacace 2001. ^ "Oxygen Nuclides / Isotopes". 1907.ca/~cchieh/ cact/c120/bondel. 214.servomex. Chung. Phillip (2001-09-16).html. p.wisc. Harvey. University of Pennsylvania.com/yogi/periodic/Opg2. 337-46 Harrison 1990 Wentworth 2002 Hirayama 1994.W. [57] Roscoe 1883. ^ Meyer 2005. 10955–57 [48] Dole 1965.000=6." [1] [44] (1. 522–23 [46] Freeman 2005.8 grams)*(60 minutes)*(24 hours)*(365 days)*(6. Gladney. "New form of oxygen found".48 Stwertka 1998. Retrieved on 2007-12-15.303 "Demonstration of a bridge of liquid oxygen supported against its own weight between the poles of a powerful magnet". 958 [39] Thylakoid membranes are part of chloroplasts in algae and plants while they simply are one of many membrane structures in cyanobacteria.edu/demonstrations/ Gen_Chem_Pages/0809bondingpage/liquid_oxygen.html. "On the coefficients of absorption of atmospheric gases in sea water". citing C. EnvironmentalChemistry. 767–69 ^ Emsley 2001. 38 [58] However. Part of this rejection was due to the belief that atoms of one element would have no chemical affinity towards atoms of the same element. [51] ^ Britannica contributors 1911. "The Interactive Textbook of PFP96". these results were mostly ignored until 1860. and calcium and chloride are also required for the reaction to occur. Nature News.com/ pdfs/msds/00225011. http://www. ^ Stwertka 1998. p. http://www.(Raven 2005) [42] CO2 is released from another part of hemoglobin (see Bohr effect) [43] "For humans.uigi. 171 [50] ^ Cook & Lauer 1968.000. http://genchem.chem. "Bond Lengths and Energies". Retrieved on 2007-12-15. and part was due to apparent exceptions to Avogadro’s [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] 15 . Manganese is an important cofactor. An orbital is a concept from quantum mechanics that models an electron as a wave-like particle that has a spacial distribution about an atom or molecule. http://www. p. 149-150 Chieh. Retrieved on 2007-12-15.engineeringtoolbox. Cons.htm. Publ. Dennis. ("Company literature of Oxygen analyzers (triplet)".499.html. Explor. p. Matheson Tri Gas.html.J. http://www. no. p.6 billion people)/1. http://www.298 Oxygen [34] Figures given are for values up to 50 miles (80 km) above the surface [35] From The Chemistry and Fertility of Sea Waters by H. [36] ^ Emsley 2001. chloroplasts are thought to have evolved from cyanobacteria that were once symbiotic partners with the progenerators of plants and algae. the free encyclopedia classes/ch331/bcintro/default.html.nature. "John Mayow" [52] ^ World of Chemistry contributors 2005. Retrieved on 2008-01-28. "Liquid Oxygen Material Safety Data Sheet" (PDF). Inc. Evans & Claiborne 2006.com/news/2001/ 011122/pf/011122-3_pf. 4062 ^ Ball.

Food and Drug Administration.gov/ ABSTRACTS/GPN-2002-000132. Eric (2008-03-13). Acott. Retrieved on 2008-09-22. C. PMID 18540928.05536.nature. J. "As assessment of habitat pressure.uhms.asp?ev_id=20001208X05743&key=1.From Wikipedia. Strauss MB (1990). ^ How Products are Made contributors.508 ^ Emsley 2001. Nature 452: 259. http://archive. 2003 Greenwood & Earnshaw 1997. Undersea Hyperb Med 23 (3): 185–8. since oxygen has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. Also.html. (1999). PMID 17393938. PMID 8931286. R. Hyperbaric Med 5 (2): 125–144.fda.rubicon-foundation.pponline. Martin (2008-01-04).gov/kscpao/nasafact/ps/ SSP.hq.uigi. Retrieved on 2007-12-16. Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. ) ^ Bren.html. doi:10. ^ Daintith 1994.2008.rubiconfoundation. "Carbon Monoxide". Anaesthesia 63 (9): 938–40. Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.707 Poland . Ross JA (September 1996). Freiberger (2007).nasa.bkinzel.". 2003. U. Kinsella J. M. "Oxygen Bars: Is a Breath of Fresh Air Worth It?". J.rubicon-foundation. "Decompression Sickness or Illness and Arterial Gas Embolism".html. P. E.1365-2044. PMID 15233173.org/ Default. Retrieved on 2008-01-06.org/4428. p. http://www.org/6014.uk/water/hbond.S.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-22.org/ResourceLibrary/ Indications/CarbonMonoxidePoisoning/tabid/272/ Default.gov/Fdac/features/2002/602_air. and EVA suit design for space operations".nasa. 2001=09.uhms. the charge difference makes it a polar molecule. 2006 Chaplin.lsbu. Fester DA.org/4431. Retrieved on 2009-03-18.1038/452259a. PMID 11541018. oxygen fraction. NASA.Culture. R.org/2245. Piantadosi CA (2004). J.org/6004. retrieved on 2007-12-16. http://www-pao. Retrieved on 2008-09-22. Carter R. "NTSB Summary report". D.aspx?tabid=270.org/4002. http://www. http://www. Retrieved on 2008-09-21.5 psia during five daily simulated 8-hour EVA exposures".html. Retrieved on 2008-09-22. Riseman JA.htm. Cooley CG (January 1994).com/news/2008/080313/full/ 452259a.rubicon-foundation.ksc. ISSN 0813-1988. http://archive.. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. Retrieved on 2008-09-22. p.org/ResourceLibrary/ Indications/DecompressionSickness/tabid/275/ Default. OCLC 16986801.ps. http://archive. Hyperbaric Med 5 (3): 177–186. "First aid normobaric oxygen for the treatment of recreational diving injuries. PMID 2730484. Longphre. "Water Hydrogen Bonding". "Management of Fournier’s Gangrene and the role of Hyperbaric Oxygen".rubicon-foundation. "Performance of oxygen delivery devices when the breathing pattern of respiratory failure is simulated". http://www. OCLC 16986801.com/noncryo.1111/ j.uk/encyc/1008. UIG Inc. ^ Morgenthaler GW.x. http://archive. Olson RM.gov/NTSB/ brief. Miller et al. Watt SJ. Moon. "The Solar System’s first breath". Retrieved on 2008-09-22. Zamboni WA. J. 34 (1): 43–49. ^ Acott. C. "Oxygen toxicity: A brief history of oxygen in diving".Clostridial Myonecrosis: A Review".510 Sim MA. http://www. Dean P.org/5514. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. DeNoble. National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved on 2007-11-18. ISSN 1066-2936. http://www. (1999). Retrieved on 2008-09-22. "Measurement of oxygen concentration in delivery systems used for hyperbaric oxygen therapy". J. Aviat Space Environ Med 60 (5): 415–21. Peak Performance Online. Science and Media. Kucan JO (1990). "Non-Cryogenic Air Separation Processes". Retrieved on 2008-10-04.aspx. Cook & Lauer 1968. The interactions between the [59] [60] [61] [62] [75] [76] [63] [64] [77] [65] [66] [78] [67] [79] [80] [68] [81] [69] [70] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [71] [72] [73] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [74] 16 . The reason is that increasing the proportion of oxygen in the breathing gas at low pressure acts to augment the inspired O2 partial pressure nearer to that found at sea-level. South Pacific Underwater Oxygen Medicine Society journal 29 (2). "Human tolerance to 100% oxygen at 9. FDA Consumer magazine.ntsb. Mackenzie I. OCLC 26915585. Hughes M (September 2008). http://www.co. Stephenson RN. Acta Astronaut 32 (1): 39–49.rubicon-foundation.aspx. p. "Ergogenic Aids". Vann.de/misc/ghg/index. Retrieved on 2008-09-21. Undersea Hyperb Med 31 (1): 167–77.rubicon-foundation.ac..304 Hand. "Carbon monoxide poisoning".1016/0094-5765(94)90146-5. doi:10. "Gas Gangrene . Barnicott PT (May 1989).html. ISSN 0813-1988. Krutz RW. Undersea Hyperb Med. Condensation of oxygen and nitrogen. http://archive. "George Goble’s extended home page (mirror)". the free encyclopedia law that were not explained until later in terms of dissociating molecules.uhms. Retrieved on 2008-09-22. http://www. Retrieved on 2007-12-16. Space Shuttle Use of Propellants and Fluids. "Oxygen" "Goddard-1926". 28 Maksyutenko et al. doi:10. Webb JT. http://www. http://grin. Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. http://archive. Dixon G. Linda (November–December 2002). "A brief history of diving and decompression illness". http://archive. Black R. South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal 29 (3). Hart GB. p. http://www. "Indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy". J. "NASAFacts FS-2001-09-015-KSC" ^ Cook & Lauer 1968.

(2006). Prentice Hall/Pearson Education. Fenical. medicines. The Journal of General Physiology 49: 5–27.From Wikipedia. Giulia de Petris. Retrieved on 2007-12-16. pp. PMID 9603802.1.gov/ articlerender.pnas. The Physiology of Fishes. Kenneth (1992). Phys. Washington. Journal.1085/jgp.1911encyclopedia.0.astronautix. July-September 2003 [98] Since O2’s partial pressure is the fraction of O2 times the total pressure. Jane B.507 [94] Crabtree 2001. Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists. http://www. The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals (3rd edition ed. Britannica contributors (1911). or a combination of both. 7th Edition.gov/ articlerender. ISBN 978-0471184232.gov/ articlerender. Retrieved on 2007-12-16. Retrieved on 2008-09-21. 214 [93] ^ Cook & Lauer 1968.org/ cgi/reprint/49/1/5.htm. England: SPA in conjunction with K. L. Malcolm (1965). James B. [92] Smart 2005.69. doi:10.pubmedcentral. http://content. http://www. http://www.nih. Retrieved on 2007-12-16. J. W. Oxygen and the Diver.fcgi?artid=1114047. NASA History Office. The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. Donald. PMID 10500106. D. Hampel. Robert A. [103] Donald 1992 [104] Donald K. Daintith. Evans. J.. [102] ^ Wilmshurst.nih. (1990). "Oxygen and the diver: Part I".. 152.10955.org/ cgi/content/full/96/20/10955. Claiborne. CRC Press. (1999-09-18). Vol. UK: Oxford University Press. S. 152 [95] Cook & Lauer 1968.. in Clifford A.Benjamin Cummings. p. Vohra.pubmedcentral. H. PMID 7888266. New York: Reinhold Book Corporation. A. British Medical Journal.5. pp. Retrieved on 2007-12-16. Br Med J 1(4506) (4506): 667–672. http://www. Engl. although some evidence points to arc from an electrical spark). Encyclopedia Astronautica. elevated partial pressures can occur either from high O2 fraction in breathing gas or from high breathing gas pressure.CO. Retrieved on 2008-01-06.). James R. Chemistry: The Central Science.1021/j100366a020. doi:10. 94: 1117–22. 958. [99] Cook & Lauer 1968. CRC Press. Y. "Positron emission tomography with oxygen-15 of stunned myocardium caused by coronary artery vasospasm after 17 . Med. R. British Heart Journal 73 (1): 69–72. 88. p.1. SB Agarwal.nih. Indian Academy of Clinical Medicin. the free encyclopedia different dipoles of each molecule cause a net attraction force. DC) [108] Chiles 2001 Oxygen recovery". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 96 (20): 10955–57.fcgi?artid=483759. San Francisco: Pearson . Reece.. Fulvio. "Atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time".).1073/ pnas. (2005).2-X. Inviting Disaster: Lessons from the edge of Technology: An inside look at catastrophes and why they happen. (Report of Apollo 204 Review Board NASA Historical Reference Collection. (1968). Theodore L. p. pp. LeMay. Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Praveenkumar Garg. Campbell. Mark (2007). • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • References • Agostini. doi:10. http://www. LCCN 68-29938. ISBN 0-06-662082-1. & Ruoff.nih. http://www.1056/NEJM199805283382210. "Experimental Detection of Tetraoxygen". 297–304. "John Mayow". "Oxygen". 338 (22): 1620–1. Chem. Cacace. doi:10.505 [96] Cook & Lauer 1968. Brown. Donald. doi:10. ISBN 0750302879.pdf. and A. John Wiley & Sons. William (September 1983). Lauer. "Preventing blindness in premature infants".pubmedcentral. pp. ISBN 0-8053-7171-0. Retrieved on 2008-09-21. [101] Wade.49. Takahashi (1995). No.gov/ articlerender. Ashish Goel. ISBN 1854211765. Plants: the potentials for extracting protein. Desgreniers. "ABC of oxygen: Diving and oxygen". "The Natural History of Oxygen" (PDF). New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc. http://www.506 [97] medIND journals > Oxygen Toxicity By Dharmeshkumar N Patel. ISBN 0849320224. ISBN 0130484504. ISBN 0198503407. http://www.511 [100] Drack AV (May 1998).fcgi?artid=2053251. p. (01 January 1947). (2001). W. 3. "Marine Plants: A Unique and Unexplored Resource". pp. K.96. Krishna K Lakhani. [105] Donald K. David Hudson. "Optical response of very high density solid oxygen to 132 GPa". Peter (1998). Biology. Retrieved on 2008-09-21.pubmedcentral. DIANE Publishing. Br Med J 1(4506) (4507): 712–717. Carol M. 522–23. Oxford.fcgi?artid=2053400.1002/1521-3773(20011105)40:21<4062::AIDANIE4062>3.nejm. [106] ^ Werley 1991 [107] No single ignition source of the fire was conclusively identified. Chiles. "Oxygen". Retrieved on 2007-12-16. Berner. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 40 (21): 4062–65.20.com/craftfam/ spasuits.1136/ hrt. Cook. (01 January 1947). doi:10. 499–512. "Space Suits". England. NASA HQ. pp.org/cgi/content/full/338/22/1619. Neil A. Burslen (2003). Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th edition ed. PMID 5859927. and other useful chemicals (workshop proceedings). Crabtree. John (1994). John (2001).org/John_Mayow. Dole. "Oxygen and the diver: Part II".jgp. Emsley. Iida. and Anna Troiani (October 2001).73.. 4. N. Gerhard A. (2001).

Freeman and BF02537155. 115–27.R. 2003 IEEE International. Proceedings.. ISBN 0387096884. S. Paul (2006). Babior. Richard (2003) (Hardback).com/John_Mayow. doi:10. G.answers.J.1063/1. http://www. Boyarkin (2006). "Nucleosynthesis and 2007-12-16. Greenwood. "Oxygen".jstor. doi:10. Inc.google. Jorge Nieva. B. J. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. doi:10. Schorlemmer. Peter H. Thomson Gale. Chemistry and Physics (84th Edition ed. and critical Wentworth.0. Zarco-Tejada. ISBN http://books. J. Galactic Chemical Evolution of the Isotopes of Oxygen" (PDF) in Workgroup on Oxygen in the Earliest Solar System.1038/nature05174. J. http://www.1093/jxb/erh237. Verhoef. P.. "Observation Science 298 (5601): 2195–219. Appleton and Co. "Fire Hazards in Oxygen http://www.1775. books?id=tRUO45YfCHwC&pg=PA171&lpg=PA171&dq=philo+of+byzantium+combustion&source=web&ots=Nv2brEX543&sig=jBvqi2t4sg5S0RUEX • Stwertka. "Superconductivity in oxygen".1038/31656.05. Journal of Experimental Botanics Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Chem. M. "Singlet oxygen quenching Retrieved on 2007-12-16. ISBN 0-13-140941-7. Barry L. Susan E.. T. Applications Miller. ISBN 0836905687. Freeman.).1126/science. CRC Handbook of Cristina Bautista. 15310815. 2005)..com/content/ Company Publishers. 2003. Moya. The Gale Group. 443: 125. ISBN 1428923977. Albert Eschenmoser. Retrieved on 2007-12-16. on 2008-01-22. pp. Ayer • Smart. pp. 9022. Retrieved on 2008-01-10. R. Florida: CRC Press.bookrags. Elaine A. 171. Eichhorn (2005). Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium.. ISBN 0-19-508083-1. Oxford University Press. Paul. • Oxygen (O2) Properties. nature05174. Norman N. doi:10. Abel Gutierrez. Retrieved on K. • Werley. Green and ISBN 0-7506-3365-4 Co. Krieger-Liszkay*. Malcolm I. and Inorganic Compounds. • Roscoe.com – Oxygen R. path from alchemy to the periodic table. Jonathan E.S. Julie M. J. Lide. Properties of the Elements • Wentworth Jr. Retrieved books?id=g6RfkqCUQyQC&pg=PA147&dq=oxygen+percent+algae+plants&sig=4tJv81njIlr7qsWD95pHcuRlffc#PPA147.com/ 978-0748775163.. K. Nature 393: 2007-12-16. pp. pp. pp. Richard A. Joseph (1775). Guide to the Elements (Revised Retrieved on 2007-12-16. I. Philosophical Transactions 65: 384–94. Henry Enfield. (Edtr. Mohammed. 38.0039. "An Account of Further Discoveries (2nd Edition ed.. Mellor’s Modern Inorganic the Elements (2nd ed. (1998). in photosynthesis". Solid State Publishing... Melting. Serge and Loubeyre. "The oxygen cycle".2387163. (2003). ISBN 0309089050. in Hutzinger O. "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Lundegaard.. Effects & Control • Priestley.1077642. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.. A. Retrieved on 2007-12-15..C. Chemistry: An Introduction (3 ed.)... doi:10.. 2nd Edition. Pedros. http://books. ability of naturally occurring carotenoids". McMahon. M. (1990). Philadelphia: ASTM International Subcommittee G-4. L. the free encyclopedia Oxygen • • • • • • • • • • • • p.springerlink. Kim D. J.From Wikipedia. Retrieved on Meyer. Cerovic. New York: W.. http://links.H.google.). • WebElements. A Treatise How Products are Made contributors (2002). • Roald Hoffmann article on "The Story of O" Jacquemoud. D.com/nature/journal/v443/n7108/abs/ Systems".).. temperatures of the elements". Ray F. P. Rizzo.). "A • World of Chemistry contributors (2005). I. "Singlet oxygen production • Walker. Ikumo. D. Kyoko Nakamura. & Amaya. • Oxidizing Agents > Oxygen Retrieved on 2007-01-22. 7th Edition. 767–69.CO%3B2-N. Part A: (Oxford Journals) 56: 337–46. Pollution: Causes. doi:10. Teresa Jones. Louis. Chemistry of • Parks. http://jxb. Lars F. Washington.. (1939). Edition ed. PMID 12434011. "Section 4. Y. New York: Springer-Verlag. Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) 29 (2): 149–50. Evert. Weck. in Air". 214.M1. J.html. 147. Joseph Henry Press. CRC Press. (1997).F. Volume 1. Anita D. Carl (1883). McDunn. Cindy Takeuchi. Boca Raton.Prentice Hall. NJ: Pearson . • Morris. PMID The natural environment and the biogeochemical cycles. direct measurement of the dissociation energy of water". External links 18 .. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. 214. Phys. How Products are Made.).1007/ Biology of Plants. Bernard M.: 586. Syoko Hamada and sici?sici=0260-7085%281775%2965%3C384%3AAAOFDI%3E2. 258.1098/ ISBN 0-85186-283-7. and O. Heidelberg.com/topic/oxygen. Moreno. London: Longmans. Janda. boiling. (1980). World of Chemistry. Proceedings of the NASA Cosmochemistry • Los Alamos National Laboratory – Oxygen Program and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Yoko Kobayasi (1994-02-). • Shimizu. "John Mayow".) (1991). V. W. Eremets. Biological Science. 56/411/337.oxfordjournals. Jastrow. G. Chemistry (6th edition ed. Lerner (2002-12-13). d67361221v12082m/.org/cgi/content/full/ Berlin. Anja (2005).. W. Uses. K. Moore (2005). "Progress on the development of an integrated canopy fluorescence model". Goulas. Osamu... Ruedi. Scott (2005).. M. http://www.. of an O8 molecular lattice in the phase of solid oxygen". on Chemistry. Mellor. Suhara.com/ IGARSS ’03. Harrison. David R. The last sorcerers: The Upper Saddle River. doi:10. Desgreniers. Z. Joseph (1936). rstl. Nature 443: 201–04. Earnshaw.nature. ASTM Technical Professional training. Albert (1998).. Alonso. Gunnar.. Maksyutenko. Story of Human Error. Roy M. (September 19–21. Berger. Lipids • Raven. D. Lesley E.org/ Hirayama. pp.

Chalcogens. Inc. Oxygen. Breathing gases.From Wikipedia. Nonmetals. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers 19 ..wikipedia.S. the free encyclopedia Oxygen Retrieved from "http://en.org/wiki/Oxygen" Categories: Chemical elements. (See Copyrights for details. at 02:01 (UTC). a U. Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements This page was last modified on 17 May 2009.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful