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Gas Supply Systems

Szikra Csaba Department of Building Energetics and Services

Exam conditions:
Before a day the student should registries it selves at the department The exam is a written There will be three parts Lighting and electric network Water and sewage systems Gas supply There will be three parts of questions according to the main topics Each of them have to be successful Final mark is an average of each partial results Oral exam is optional if the firs written part is successful (at least pass level) If the exam is not successful (fail) the exam should be repeated including all the three parts

Gas Supply
Components

Physical Properties of Natural Gases


Body of the Natural Gas (flammable components): Methan-CH4 ~96vol.%, Ethan-C2H6 ~1vol.%, Prophan-C3H8 ~1vol.%, Buthan-C4H10 ~1vol.%, Penthan-C5H12 ~1tf% Escort substances: Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Inert Gases) Contaminants (Sulfur, Acid gases) Moisture

Stoichiometric normal state: 15C, 101325Pa.


All the physical properties considered at that temperature and that pressure

Relative density to air at any given temperature:


Def: s=gas/ air Natural Gas: PB-gas : s=0.6 - 0.8 s=1.8 - 2.2

Calorimetric values:
Combustion heat (High): ~37 700 kJ/Nm3 (moisture in water stage) Calorific value (Low): ~34 000 kJ/Nm3 (moisture in steam stage)

Ignition temperature: 500-700C Air demand:


Theoretical air demand: Natural gas: 9.5m3/m3 , PB gas: 28.9m3/m3 Air access coefficient n =1.02 1.20 L=Ltheror.*n

Gas Supply

Gas combustion
Condition for gas combustion
1. 2. 3.

Mixing pipe Gas-air mixture Nozzle Gas

Secundary air

4.

Combustible gas Ignition temperature Oxygen Continuous removal of burning product (flue gas)

Types of gas burners

Air adjuster

Premixing type After mixing type

Bunsen burner:

Primary air

Through the nozzle the pure gas injected to the mixing pipe Because jet effect through the airadjuster, air is mixing with the pure gas At the end of mixing pipe secondary air is mixing with the flame

Gas Supply

Basics of stoichiometry Chemical Equation of Combustion:


For the main component (Methane): CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O Calculation results based on each components:
Calorimetric value produced by combustion of 1m3 gas or Necessary amount of gas for the required heat (Nm3/h); The necessary amount of Oxygen and air for the perfect combustion Combination of a produced flue (Carbon Dioxide, Water vapor)

The calculation is repeated for all the other components:


Combustibles (hydrocarbons), Contaminants (Sulfur, Acid gases); The Air Access Coefficient is considered All the other components also are considered

The overall calculation result of the flue gas:


Amount in Nm3/h), and its components:
Carbon Dioxide, Moisture content, Sulfur- (monoxide, dioxide, trioxide), Nitrogen Dioxide (N2), Inert gases, Because of imperfect combustion: hydrocarbons, Carbon Monoxide.

Properties of flue gas


Due point temperature, Density, viscosity, specific heat ...

Gas Supply
800mm Estate border

Gas distribution system


Max. 1m "PIV" Valve

Domestic pipe network


Service mains:
1.

Inner Main Distributor Pipe

2. 3.

Outside distributor main Public Gas Network

Interconnecting pipe 10D 100

4. 5.

Water Bag

Floor Level

Outside distributor main Interconnecting main Inner main distribution pipe Riser Service connection(from gas meter)

min.

200

Pressure of the public network:


Estate border 1000x800 min 200 "PIV" Valve min 400

Floor Level

Outside distributor main Interconnecting pipe Public Gas Network

min 200

Pressure of the domestic network


Low pressure (0.010.1bar) Increased low pressure (0.1 bar)

High pressure(above 25bar) High intermediate (4 .. 25 bar) Intermediate (0.1 .. 4 bar)

Gas Supply

Gas distribution system

Domestic pipe network


Service connection (from gas meter):
1.

Gas meter
Nominal gas consumption Curb cock (main cock) Water bag

Service connections
200

Estate border

2.

Equipments
Kitchen stove Boilers Auxiliary gas cocks

1" steel 1" steel Gas meter 1100 1200

1600

700

0,00

3.
Boyler Chimney

Flue Gas
Chimney Draft diverter Chimney Body

Kitchen stove

Interconnecting pipe

Gas Supply

Gas distribution system


Interconnecting pipe network:

Rules of domestic pipe networks

Each estates has to have its own interconnecting pipe network, Smallest Diameter of the interconnecting network is : DN25, The highest pressure of the interconnecting pipe is 0.1 bar Gas pipe can pass room where the elevation is higher than 1.7m In garage interconnecting pipe can not pass Not allowed to build any types of gas network in: sleeping room, living room, larder, toilet, in any non ventilable room,

Not allowed to build any types of pipe network in

Chimney Under the building (or basement), In floor or ceiling In suspended floor or ceiling In toilets in cold storage rooms in storage rooms(larder)

Service connection (after the gas meter):

The highest pressure is 0.1 bar The pipe network can not be driven through in other properties, in common properties The pipe network can not be driven through in Class A, and Class B fire danger areas, in car storage areas, in the rooms of gas equipment which has bigger consumption than 116kW, Switch gear rooms or cabinets where voltage higher than 0.4kV Smallest diameter of the service connection is DN15

Gas Meters

Rules of Placement of meters in domestic level


It is possible to place gas meter with keeping a following circumstances
Outside and outside walls Mechanical protection and temperature correction In staircase, common rooms Closed and ventilated cabinet In basement
Non corrosive, waterproofing, plastering min 1.7m elevation,

Gas meter can not be placed:


In bathroom, in toilet In living areas (Dining room, sleeping rooms etc.) In garage, Switch gear rooms or cabinets where voltage higher than 0.4kV Rooms which classified in A or B fire class In boiler rooms

Safety distances:
From any gas equipments: 1m Any hot pipe, ducks etc: 0.5m

Gas Meters

Rules of Placement of meters in domestic level


Service connection

Interconnecting pipe network:

200

Space demand:
Single Meter Interconnecting pipe always from left Service connection always from right Closing valve in both side above 6m3/h Ventilatable, lockable cabinet Multi Meter place Water jacket Nominal size in domestic level G4,G6 (m3/h) Size: 302410 (cm) Connection:1 1, 25cm

Interconnecting pipe network:


600

1200..1700

500

1600

900

1000

250

250

1200

Gas Meters
Interconnecting pipe Main cock

Rules of Placement of meters in domestic level


250

Service connection

Gas meter with single stub and pressure reducer

Pressure reducer m3

200

Min cock

Gas meter with two stubs

Service connection Uprise

Gzellts

Equipments
Classification:
Class: Name Supplied air: Flue gas: to the internal area To the external area Example: Kitchen stove Water heater, Infra red heater Wall mounted water heater Wall mounted heater, Boiler. Wall mounted gas convector unit, Wall mounted water heater, Boiler. Most important circumstances: above 5230W with openings Aopening. 1.3m2 hl 590 W/m3 hl 3140 W/m3 Aopening. 1.3m2

A B C

With open From combustion internal the areal chamber Connected to a From the chimney internal area (Closed burning chamber) With closed From combustion externalthe area chamber

To the external area

Double coated chimney body (for air and for the flue gas)

Rate of heat load:

hl[W / m 3 ] =

Qht [W ] Vroom [m 3 ]

Gzellts

Equipments with open combustion chamber


Class A
If the heat load bigger than 5230W :
The room has to have external opening(s) The opening is not airtight, nominal size 1,3m2.

If heat load less than 5230W : Ventilation openings should be applied to the room which has external opening(s) Rate of heat load: 590W/m3 (maximum) load If the rate of heat load is in between 350 590W/m2 than:
2 pieces of venting openings must be mounted on the wall, which has nominal cross section min.150cm2 and the min. distance in horizontally 1,8m (Ventilation with other room ) Rate of heat load (including the other room) must be less than 245W/m3; Sum of nominal sizes of a non airtight opening(s) must be bigger than 1,3m2

If rate of heat load 350W/m3:


Sum of nominal sizes of a non airtight opening(s) must be bigger than 1,3m2

Equipments with open combustion chamber


Class B
Heat load less than 58kW
Maximum rate of heat load 3140W/m3 If the Rate of heat load is in between 1750 3140W/m3 :
2 pieces of venting openings must be mounted on the wall, which has nominal cross section min.150cm2 and the min. distance in horizontally 1,8m (Ventilation with other room ) Rate of heat load (including the other room) must be less than 1250W/m3 Sum of nominal sizes of a non airtight opening(s) must be bigger than 1,3m2

If the Rate of heat load: 1750W/m3:


Sum of nominal sizes of a non airtight opening(s) must be bigger than 1,3m2

Gzellts

Cleavage surface :
It is obligatory when:
heat load of a single boiler is bigger than 140kW or heat load of a boiler room is bigger than 1400kW and Rate of heat load 1100W/m3.

Requirements:
Bursting pressure:1.2 3.0 kN/m2, Necessary cleavage surface (A): A[m2]=m*V[m3]
m=0.20 if V200m3 m=0.15 if V>200m3

There are exceptions like application of gas sensors Restrict obligatory (no exception is possible)
school, infant-school, Hospital, cinema, theater, stores etc

Kszlkek:
Biztonsgi s automatika szerkezetek:
Gzhiny biztost:
A gzszolgltats kimaradsa esetn lezrja a gzramot a kszlk fel. A gzszolgltats jra indulsakor csak kzi beavatkozssal lehet megnyitni Az g j hatsfok mkdse csak meghatrozott gzkiramlsi sebessg esetn lehetsges, A kiramls sebessge s vgnyoms fggvnye, A csatlakozsi nyomst a kszlk szmra megfelel tartomnyban tartja.

Nyomsszablyoz:

gsbiztostk:

Vzhiny biztost:

Feladata a lng valamely jellemzjnek figyelse Ikerfmes (h-rzkels) termoelemes (h-rzkels) ionizcis (ionszint) fotocells (sugrzs) tfoly rendszer kszlkek esetn a vzhiny krosodst okoz a berendezsben. Piezzoelektromos, Villamos szikra gyjt, rlng. Hmaximum rzkels.
Gzram Sly Membrn Lgfurat

Gyjtszerkezetek

Hmrsklet korltoz:

Elzr szerelvny

jra indt

Equipments:
Water heaters without storage capacity
Draft diverter

Class A(smaller instruments), B Types:


Smaller instrument for serving only one tap
Nominal heat capacity:~10kW, Produced hot water: 5~6l/min

Temperature max. sensor Flame monitor

Burner Pilot flame Safety valve

Supplied air Gas continuity sensor Minimum water flow rate sensor Cold Water Hot water

Bigger instrument for serving more than one taps Wall mounted water heaters (Class B)
Nominal heat capacity :18~28kW Produced hot water: 7~14l/perc

Disadvantages:
Ones jus only serving one tap Does not work with circulating pipe Constant heat capacity

Safety equipments:
Temperature maximum sensor Gas discontinuity sensor Pilot flame with flame monitor Water minimum flow rate sensor Safety valve Draft diverter

Kszlkek:
Wall mounted boilers
Closed expansion tank

Class: B, C Types:
Only for heating:
Produced heat capacity:~10..40kW; Inbuilt pump; Inbuilt expansion tank; Regulated by the minimum water flow rate sensor.

Pump Supplied air

Combined for heating and producing domestic hot water :


Produced heat capacity :18~28kW; Guided for DHW production; Produced hot water : 7~14l/perc.

Disadvantages:
Main return Main flow
disadvantages of wall mounted water heaters; During DHW producement heating is stopped

Safety equipments:
Wall mounted water heaters equipped with inbuilt closed expansion tank

Equipments:
Class B Class C, with combined DHW

Equipments:
Wall mounted boiler with indirectly heated water storage
Heat emiter

Control:
Temperature sensor Switch valve Guided for DHW production;

Boiler

Bypass valve Switch valve

Advantages:
Smaller necessary heat capacity Continuously served hot water with uniform temperature Suitable for circulating network
Hot water storage

Temperature sensor

Domestic board sizes:


Nominal heat capacity10 .. 28kW Storage capacity: 50 .. 200l
Gzellts

Heat exchanger

Equipments:
Wall mounted heat convector unit
Class C
Supplied air Flue gas

Advantages:
Safe; Sort heating up period; Simple ;

Disadvantages:
Secondaty air (convective flow)
Chimney

Hot surfaces Horizontal chimney connection Parapet chimney Bad efficiency

Class B

Flue gas

Secondary air (Convective heat)

Gzellts

Chimney
Different systems: Class A. : Open combustion chamber (no chimney)

The supplied air from the indoor environment The burning product is driven to the indoor environment

Class B. : Atmospheric system


The supplied air from the indoor environment The burning product is driven out from the indoor environment by a chimney Closed Air Circuit

Class C. : Closed system

The supplied air from the outdoor environment The burning product is driven out from the indoor environment by a chimney There is no connection of the indoor environment a the burning area

Draft Diverter
Deflecting plate Flue gas Air

1. Normal operation 2. Start of the boiler, no draft effect because of cold chimney body 3. Draft stop (wind)

Draught of a Chimneys
Dependencies: Elevation: pdraught~ H Volume flow rate of the burning products (flue gas): ploss~ V2 Temperature of the burning products pdraught~ -1/Tflue gas External temperature: pdraught~ 1/Tenviroment Insulation of the body of the chimney: Rapidly increasing Diameter of the chimney: ploss~ 1/d5

Individual Chimney Stack

Spoil draught

Chimney Equipment

Supplementary Chimney Stack


Individual chimney

Supplementary stack (shunt) Spoil draught Equipment

Chimney

U-duct Chimney System


h

Air

Flue gas (smoke)

Equipment

U-duct Chimney System


h

Air

Flue gas (smoke)

Equipment

Closed System

Air for combustion Flue gas (smoke)

Equipment

Chimney Problems