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cc/ CHAPTER 1
INTRODUTION
1.1 Introduction:Automatic meter reading (AMR) is the technology of automatically collecting data from energy metering devices (water, gas, and electric) and transferring that data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing. This saves employee trips, and means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than on an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers better control of their use of electric energy, gas usage, or water consumption. This means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than on an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers better control of their use of electric energy. The Transmitter is connected to the meter and it counts the pulses from it and displays it over the seven segment display. It transmits the data over radio frequency. At the receiver end the data is received by an receiver module and the microcontroller will display it over the seven segment display. 1.2 Brief History:The primary driver for the automation of meter reading is not so much to reduce labor costs, but to obtain data that is otherwise unattainable. Many meters, especially water meters, are located in areas that require an appointment with the homeowner. Gas and Electricity tend to be more valuable commodities than water, and the need to offer actual readings instead of estimated readings can drive a utility to consider automation. While early systems consisted of walk-by, and drive-by AMR for residential. Remote meter reading (or AMR) refers to the system that uses a communication technique to automatically collect the meter readings and other relevant data from utilities’ gas meters, without the need to physically visit the gas meters. The development of AMR technology has catapulted meter data to center stage of the utility business plan. 1

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Benefits of AMR:The automatic meter reading (AMR) technology is very useful in many

applications. By using AMR technology we can accommodate a lot of benefits. Some benefits of AMR are as follow1.3.1   Electrical Company Benefits:-

Smart automated processes instead of manual work. Accurate information from the network load to optimize maintenance and investments. Customized rates and billing dates. Streamlined high bill investigations. Detection of tampering of Meters. Accurate measurement of transmission losses. Better network performance and cost efficiency. Demand and distribution management. More intelligence to business planning. Better company credibility. 1.3.2 Customer Benefits:Precise consumption information. Clear and accurate billing. Automatic outage information and faster recovery. Better and faster customer service. Flag potential high consumption before customer gets a high bill. 1.4 AMR Applications:As technology continues to improve in price/performance, the number of municipal utilities implementing automatic meter reading (AMR) systems continues to grow. Today, most AMR deployments are “walk-by” or “drive-by” systems. A battery-operated transmitter in each meter sends a radio frequency (RF) signal that is

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read by a special receiver either carried by hand or mounted in a vehicle. These solutions require a much smaller staff of meter readers, who merely need to walk or drive by the many meters in any neighborhood. Although this form of AMR is an enormous improvement over manual meter reading, continued high labor and vehicle costs are driving the industry to an even better solution. Among the many advantages are the ability to monitor daily demand, implement conservation programs, create usage profiles by time of day, and detect potentially hazardous conditions, such as leaks or outages. But there is still one drawback with these AMR deployments: the costly network backhaul required by leased lines or cellular services from a local telephone company, or Power Line Carrier (PLC) solutions from the local power company. AMR is the remote collection of consumption data from customers’ utility meters using telephony, radio frequency, power lines and satellite communications technologies. AMR provides water, gas and electric utility-service companies the opportunity to increase operational efficiency, improve customer service, reduce datacollection costs and quickly gather critical information that provides insight to company decision-makers. [4] 1.5 Different AMR Technologies:There are many different technologies which are used in the AMR. Using these technologies data can be send from transmitting end to the receiving end. In our project we are using RF technology for transmitting the meter reading from one point to other point. The different types of technologies are described below. Out of which handheld technology is uses rarely. [1] 1.5.1 Handheld:In handheld AMR, a meter reader carries a handheld computer with a built-in or attached receiver/transceiver (radio frequency or touch) to collect meter readings from an AMR capable meter. This is sometimes referred to as "walk-by" meter reading since the meter reader walks by the locations where meters are installed as they go through their meter reading route. Handheld computers may also be used to manually enter readings without the use of AMR technology.

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1.5.2

Touch Based:With touch based AMR, a meter reader carries a handheld computer or data

collection device with a wand or probe. The device automatically collects the readings from a meter by touching or placing the read probe in close proximity to a reading coil enclosed in the touchpad. When a button is pressed, the probe sends an interrogate signal to the touch module to collect the meter reading. The software in the device matches the serial number to one in the route database, and saves the meter reading for later download to a billing or data collection computer. 1.5.3 Mobile:Mobile or "Drive-by" meter reading is where a reading device is installed in a vehicle. The meter reader drives the vehicle while the reading device automatically collects the meter readings. With mobile meter reading, the reader does not normally have to read the meters in any particular route order, but just drives the service area until all meters are read components often consist of a laptop or proprietary computer, software, RF receiver or transceiver, and external vehicle antennas. 1.5.4 Fixed Network:Fixed Network AMR is a method where a network is permanently installed to capture meter readings. This method can consist of a series of antennas, towers, collectors, repeaters, or other permanently installed infrastructure to collect transmissions of meter readings from AMR capable meters and get the data to a central computer without a person in the field to collect it. [2] There are several types of network topologies in use to get the meter data back to a central computer. A star network is the most common, where a meter transmits its data to a central collector or repeater. Some systems use only collectors which receive and store data for processing. Others also use a repeater which forwards a reading from a more remote area back to a main collector without actually storing it. A repeater may be forwarded by RF signal or sometimes is converted to a wired network such as telephone or IP network to get the data back to a collector. Some

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manufacturers are developing mesh networks where meters themselves act as repeaters passing the data to nearby meters until it makes it to a main collector. A mesh network may save the infrastructure of many collection points, but is more data intensive on the meters. One issue with mesh networks it that battery operated ones may need more power for the increased frequency of transmitting. [7] 1.5.5 Radio Frequency Network:Radio frequency based AMR can take many forms. The more common ones are Handheld, Mobile, and Fixed network. There are both two-way RF systems and one-way RF systems in use that use both licensed and unlicensed RF bands. In a twoway or "wake up" system, a radio transceiver normally sends a signal to a particular transmitter serial number, telling it to wake up from a resting state and transmit its data. The Meter attached transceiver and the reading transceiver both send and receive radio signals and data. In a one-way “bubble-up” or continuous broadcast type system, the transmitter broadcasts readings continuously every few seconds. This means the reading device can be a receiver only, and the meter AMR device a transmitter only. Data goes one way, from the meter AMR transmitter to the meter reading receiver. There are also hybrid systems that combine one-way and two-way technologies, using one-way communication for reading and two way communication for programming functions.RF based meter reading usually eliminates the need for the meter reader to enter the property or home, or to locate and open an underground meter pit. The utility saves money by increased speed of reading, has lower liability from entering private property, and has less chance of missing reads because of being locked out from meter access. 1.5.6 Power Line Communication:AMR is a method where electronic data is transmitted over power lines back to the substation, then relayed to a central computer in the utility's main office. This would be considered a type of fixed network system the network being the distribution network which the utility has built and maintains to deliver electric power. Such systems are primarily used for electric meter reading. Some providers have interfaced gas and water meters to feed into a PLC type system. 5

Thus Wi-Fi is the efficient mean of communication in AMR technologies. and they are read using a drive-by local Wi-Fi hand held receiver. Compared to narrow-band burst telemetry.  This can include events alarms such as tamper.6  Description of RF Based AMR:- Originally AMR devices just collected meter readings electronically & matched them with accounts. Wi-Fi technology uses far too much power for long-term battery-powered operation. Many AMR devices can also capture interval data.  6 . and transmitted to the main computer.5. and defines the efficient reliability of the system. stored. additional data could then be captured. which allows communication between the central data base and the end users. These special receiver stations then take in the narrow-band signal and report their data via Wi-Fi Most of the automated utility meters installed in the Corpus Christi area are battery powered. 1. Narrow-banded signal has a much greater range than Wi-Fi so the numbers of receivers required for the project are far fewer the number of Wi-Fi access points covering the same area. The more common one are Handheld.7 Wireless Fidelity(Wi-Fi):Today many meters are designed to transmit using Wi-Fi even if a Wi-Fi network is not available. leak detection. and often the metering devices could be controlled remotely.1. low battery. Mobile.  Radio frequency based AMR can take many forms.  As technology has advanced. and log meter events. Thus offering a ultimate mean to fulfill the requirement. or reverse flow. and Fixed network.

1 Transmitter Unit:The transmitter circuit diagram and block diagram are shown in figure 2.1 & 2.2 respectively.1-Circuit diagram of transmitter unit 7 .CHAPTER 2 CIRCUIT AND BLOCK DIAGRAMS 2. Figure-2. The data is transmitted from transmitter unit to the receiver unit through RF channel.

2-Block diagram of transmitter unit 8 .Figure-2.

3 and 2. The is finally display on the seven segment display.4 respectively. The main purpose of the receiver unit is to receive the sending end data. Figure-2.2 Receiver Unit:The receiver unit circuit diagram and block diagram are shown in figure 2.2.3-Circuit diagram of receiver unit 9 .

4-Block diagram of receiver unit 10 .Figure-2.

2. The data is send to the receiver end through RF channel. For display the meter reading we are using seven segments. microcontroller AT89C2051 and display driver 74LS244.2 3.CHAPTER 3 TRANSMITTER UNIT 3.The pulses are given to the of microcontroller via optocoupler.1 Introduction:Transmitter unit is used to send the meter reading to the receiving end. The transmitter unit consist of transmitter module. The supply which is given to the transmitter unit is +5 volt.7V to 6V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz Two-level Program Memory Lock 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM 15 Programmable I/O Lines Two 16-bit Timer/Counters Six Interrupt Sources Programmable Serial UART Channel Direct LED Drive Output On-chip Analog Comparator Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option 11 .1               Microcontroller AT89C2051:Features:Compatible with MCS®-51Products 2K Bytes of Reprogrammable Flash Memory 2. encoder HT12E. 3.

serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. two 16-bit timer/counters. 128 bytes of RAM. a five vector two-level interrupt architecture. timer/counters. . the AT89C2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes.1-Pin configuration of AT89C2051 3. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip.2 Description:The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage. The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K bytes of Flash. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. a full duplex serial port. [5] 12 . 15 I/O lines. on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. the Atmel AT89C2051 is a power-full microcomputer which provides a highlyflexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. a precision analog comparator. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS instruction set. In addition. The powerdown mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.2. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read-only memory (PEROM).Figure-3.

2-Block diagram of AT89C2051 13 .Figure-3.

Port 1 P1.Port 3 .AIN0 P1.1 .Port 1 P1.Ground P3.0 .Port 3 . Vcc Supply voltage 2.5 .7 .RXD P3.Port 3 .Positive Power Supply 1.5 .Port 1 Vcc .INT1 P3.Port 1 P1. GND 14 .7 .INT0 P3.Port 3 .Crystal XTAL1 .Port 3 .4 .4 .3 Pin Description:Table-3.TO P3.2 .3 .0 .Port 1 .2.T1 GND .Port 3 .6 .Port 3 P1.TXD XTAL2 .Port 1 – A1N1 P1.1-Pin description of AT89C2051 Pin Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Description RESET .Crystal P3.2 .Port 1 P1.1 .Reset P3.Port 1 P1.3.3 .

Holding the RST pin high for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.0 and P1. they can be used as inputs.1 require external pull-ups.0 to P3. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins. Port 3 Port 3 pins P3. The Port 3 output buffers can sink 20 mA. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. P3.1 also serve as the positive input (AIN0) and the negative input (AIN1).5.2 to P1.7 provide internal pull-ups. All I/O pins are reset to 1s as soon as RST goes high. of the on-chip precision analog comparator. Port 1 also receives code data during Flash programming and verification. respectively. Table-3. When pins P1. they will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. P1.0 and P1.Ground 3.6 is hard-wired as an input to the output of the on-chip comparator and is not accessible as a general purpose I/O pin. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. As inputs. 5. The Port 1 output buffers can sink 20 mA and can drive LED displays directly.7 are seven bi-directional I/O pins with internal pull-ups. Each machine cycle takes 12 oscillator or clock cycles. RST Reset input.7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low. P3.2 to P1. 4. Port pins P1.2-Special features of AT89C2051 serve by Port 3 15 . P1.

Port Pin P3. as shown in Figure 5-1.4 P3. It is fully compatible with the MCS-51 architecture.2. there are a few considerations one must keep in mind when utilizing certain instructions to program this device. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal. All the instructions related to jumping or branching should be restricted such that the destination address falls within the physical program memory space of the device. 3.5 Restrictions on Certain Instructions:The AT89C2051 and is an economical and cost-effective member of Atmel’s growing family of microcontrollers.2 P3. 3.0 P3.1 P3. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.4 Oscillator Characteristics:The XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output. of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 5-2. since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop. and can be programmed using the MCS-51 instruction set.3 P3. respectively. However. It contains 2K bytes of flash program memory. To drive the device from an external clock source.2.5 Alternate Functions RXD (serial input port) TXD (serial output port) INT0 (external interrupt 0) INT1 (external interrupt 1) T0 (timer 0 external input) T1 (timer 1 external input) 6. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. which is 2K for the 16 .

Again. For applications involving interrupts the normal interrupt service routine address locations of the 80C51 family architecture have been preserved. For example. LJMP 7E0H would be a valid instruction for the AT89C2051 (with 2K of memory).AT89C2051. JB. JNZ With these conditional branching instructions the same rule above applies. JZ.].3 Display Driver 74LS244:The 74LS244 is Octal Buffer and Line Driver designed to be employed as memory address drivers.6 Branching Instructions:LCALL.. clock drivers and bus-oriented transmitters/receivers which provide improved PC board density.  3-State Outputs Drive Bus Lines or Buffer Memory Address Registers. DJNZ [. JMP @A+DPTR These unconditional branching instructions will execute correctly as long as the programmer keeps in mind that the destination branching address must fall within the physical boundaries of the program memory size (locations 00H to 7FFH for the 89C2051). SJMP. Figure-3.2. JBC.. This should be the responsibility of the software programmer. violating the memory boundaries may cause erratic execution. 3. LJMP. CJNE [.3-Logic and connection diagrams DIP (Top view) 17 ..  Hysteresis at Inputs to Improve Noise Margins.]. Violating the physical space limits may cause unknown program behavior. whereas LJMP 900H would not. ACALL. JC. AJMP. JNC. 3.. JNB.

4 Optocoupler MCT2E:There are many situations where signals and data need to be transferred from one subsystem to another within a piece of electronics equipment. L = Low voltage level X = Immaterial. to protect the microprocessor from over voltage damage. Relays can of course provide this kind of isolation. Often this is because the source and destination are (or may be at times) at very different voltage levels. Z = High Impedance Table-3. 18 . or from one piece of equipment to another.3-74LS244 H = High voltage level. like a microprocessor which is operating from 5V DC but being used to control a triac which is switching 240V AC. without making a direct ohmic electrical connection.Truth Table-3.4-Guaranteed Operating Ranges 3. In such situations the link between the two must be an isolated one.

Analog signals can be transferred by means of frequency or pulse-width modulation. Unit weight is approximately 0. The package consists of a gallium-arsenide infrared-emitting diode and an npn silicon phototransistor mounted on a 6-lead frame encapsulated within an electrically nonconductive plastic compound. The two are separated by a transparent barrier which blocks any electrical current flow between the two. Optocouplers are essentially digital or switching devices. Along with the usual circuit symbol for an optocoupler. Usually the electrical connections to the LED section are brought out to the pins on one side of the package and those for the phototransistor or diac to the other side. and achieve excellent isolation. Optocouplers typically come in a small 6-pin or 8-pin IC package.4-MCT2E Package (Top view) 19 . higher speed and greater reliability are important. This usually allows optocouplers to withstand voltages of anywhere between 500V and 7500V between input and output. but are essentially a combination of two distinct devices: an optical transmitter. so they’re best for transferring either on-off control signals or digital data. to physically separate them as much as possible.52 grams. The case can withstand soldering temperature with no deformation and device performance characteristics remain stable when operated in high-humidity conditions. but does allow the passage of light. And only capable of relatively low speed operation. relays are also not as reliable. a much better alternative is to use an optocoupler.Because they’re electro-mechanical. [8] Figure-3. These use a beam of light to transmit the signals or data across an electrical barrier. Where small size. typically a gallium arsenide LED (light-emitting diode) and an optical receiver such as a phototransistor or light-triggered diac.

5-kV..–55°C to 100°C Lead temperature 1.200 mW b) Phototransistor.. ………………………………………….200 mW c)Total.55 kV Collector-base voltage…………………………………………………………….2 Absolute maximum ratings at 25°C free-air temperature:       Input-to-output voltage MCT2E……………………………………………...4.. or 3.7 V Input-diode reverse voltage…………………………………………………………3 V Input-diode continuous forward current…………………………………………60 mA Continuous power dissipation at (or below) 25°C free-air temperature: a) Infrared-emitting diode…………………………………….3...30 V Emitter-collector voltage………………………………………………………..1..55-kV Rating Plastic Dual-In-Line Package High-Speed Switching: tr = 5 µ s.+ 3.. TA…………………………….260°C Table-3..6 mm (1/16 inch) from case for 10 seconds………………..250 mW Operating free-air temperature range.4.. tf = 5 µ s Typical Designed to be Interchangeable with General Instruments MCT2 and MCT2E 3.1  Features:- Gallium Arsenide Diode Infrared Source Optically Coupled to a Silicon npn Phototransistor High Direct-Current Transfer Ratio Base Lead Provided for Conventional Transistor Biasing High-Voltage Electrical Isolation .5-Switching characteristics 20 ....70 V Collector-emitter voltage…………………………………………………………. infrared-emitting diode plus phototransistor…………. ..

5-Typical characteristics 3.Figure-3.4V~12V for the HT12E Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology Low standby current: 0.1        Encoder HT12E:Features:Operating voltage 2.5 3.5.1µ Α (typ.) at VDD=5V HT12A with a 38kHz carrier for infrared transmission medium Minimum transmission word Four words for the HT12E 21 .

Each address/data input can be set to one of the two logic states.3 General Description:The 2^12 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications.    Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor Data code has positive polarity Minimal external components HT12A/E: 18-pin DIP/20-pin SOP package 3.5. The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E or a DATA trigger on the HT12A further enhances the application flexibility of the 2^12 series of encoders. The programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12-N data bits.2         Applications:- Burglar alarm system Smoke and fire alarm system Garage door controllers Car door controllers Car alarm system Security system Cordless telephones Other remote control systems 3. 22 .5.

6-Pin assignment of HT12E-18 DIP Table-3.Figure-3. active low Oscillator input pin I AD8~AD11 I DOUT O CMOS OUT L/MB I CMOS IN Pull-high CMOS IN Pull-high OSCILLATOR 1 I OSC1 I 23 .6-Pin description of HT12E PIN NAME A0-A8 I/O INTERNAL CONNECTION NMOS transmission Gate protection diode NMOS transmission Gate protection diode DESCRIPTION Input pins for address A0~A7 setting These pins can be externally set to VSS or left open Input pins for address/data AD8~AD11 setting These pins can be externally set to VSS or left open Encoder data serial transmission output Latch/Momentary transmission format selection pin: Latch: Floating or VDD Momentary: VSS Transmission enable.

5. When the transmission enable is removed during a transmission. This cycle will repeat itself as long as the transmission enable (TE or D8~D11) is held low.4. Figure-3. active low).5. grounds Positive power supply 3.7-Transmission timing for the HT12E 3. On the other hand. if L/MB=0 the 24 .2 Information Word:If L/MB=1 the device is in the latch mode (for use with the latch type of data decoders).4 Functional Description:- 3.4.OSC2 X1 X2 VSS VDD O I O I I OSCILLATOR 1 OSCILLATOR 2 OSCILLATOR 2 ------------------------ Oscillator output pin 455kHz resonator oscillator input 455kHz resonator oscillator output Negative power supply.5. the DOUT pin outputs a complete word and then stops.1 Operation: The 2^12 series of encoders begin a 4-word transmission cycle upon receipt of a transmission enable (TE for the HT12E or D8~D11 for the HT12A. Once the transmission enables returns high the encoder output completes its final cycle and then stops as shown below.

9. When the transmission enable is removed during a transmission.3 Address/Data Waveform:Each programmable address/data pin can be externally set to one of the following two logic states as shown in figure 3.5.8-Composition of information 3. Figure-3. 25 . the chip enters the standby mode and consumes a reduced current of less than 1 A for a supply voltage of 5V.enable signal is applied.5. the DOUT outputs a complete word and then adds 7 words all with the “1” data code. If a transmission.9-Address/Data bit waveform for the HT12E 3. Figure-3. the encoder scans and transmits the status of the 12 bits of address/data serially in the order A0 to AD11 for the HT12E encoder and A0 to D11 for the HT12A encoder.device is in the momentary mode. An information word consists of 4 periods as illustrated below.5 Address/Data Programming (Preset):The status of each address/data pin can be individually pre-set to logic “high” or “low”. If the trigger signal is not applied.4. During information transmission these bits are transmitted with a preceding synchronization bit.

as its name indicates. There are also fourteen-segment displays and sixteen-segment displays (for full alphanumeric). Additionally.Figure-3. these have mostly been replaced by dot-matrix displays. which aids readability. arrangement. A seven segment display. and so will be either a "Common Cathode" or "Common Anode" device depending how it is constructed. each LED is typically connected with one terminal to its own pin on the outside of the package and the other LED terminal connected in common with all other LEDs in the device and brought out to a shared pin. electronic meters. Often the seven segments are arranged in an oblique. and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information. however.10-Application circuit of Encoder HT12E 3. 26 .6 Seven Segment Display:A seven-segment display less commonly known as a seven-segment indicator. The seven segments are arranged as a rectangle of two vertical segments on each side with one horizontal segment on the top and bottom. or italic. This shared pin will then make up all of the cathodes (negative terminals) OR all of the anodes (positive terminals) of the LEDs in the device. the seventh segment bisects the rectangle horizontally. Hence a 7 segment plus DP package will only require nine pins to be present and connected. is composed of seven elements. is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot-matrix displays. Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks. In a simple LED package.

the pin is affixed to the radiator at one end. that comprises an opening which may receive the pin. and the connection from the antenna to the water meter can be 27 . AMR devices for water meters must be able to communicate in the RF unfriendly environment of the iron water pit. and requires a field installed connection between the antenna and the water meter. The pin number 1 is connected to the ground terminal.7 AM Transmitter Module:Amplitude modulated transmitter module is attached in the transmitter unit. This has the advantages of a low profile above the lid. and is disposed on a ground plane at the other end. Additionally. for example. The market price of this module is very high.3. pin number 2 is connected to the DOUT terminal of the encoder IC HT12E. The module has also crystal oscillators which are attached to the upper portion of the transmitter module. The antenna may be a top loaded short monopole antenna. with the connection to the meter going through a hole in the lid. By which a regulate power is drawn by the AM transmitter. The AM transmitter is based on the principle of sending data by modulate the amplitude of the output of encoder. Desirably. [11] 3. this is accomplished by placing an antenna on top of the water pit lid. The radiator may be a disk radiator for example. the antenna may be used in a module for a water meter. This allows a large antenna area. They are not easily available very easily. The module has four connecting leads. AMR devices must be able to communicate in various unfriendly environments. Thus the general importance of AM transmitter module is very large in many applications. Another typical installation has the antenna protruding through a hole in the pit lid. And finally the last pin number 4 is connected to the antenna through which data is send over RF. For example. but the antenna often protrudes dangerously high above the lid. The supply which is given to the transmitter module is given by the regulated power supply.8 Antenna:An antenna for use in an automatic meter reading (AMR) module comprises a pin and a radiator. Here is used to eliminate the noise which occurs during the data transmission. Typically. The +5 volt supply is given to the pin number 3 of the transmitter module. The pin and disk radiator may be stamped from a single sheet of material.

Pulse generators are generally voltage sources.9 Pulse Generator:A pulse generator can either be an internal circuit or a piece of electronic test equipment used to generate pulses. delay.made at the factory. 3. With correct adjustment. Simple pulse generators usually allow control of the pulse repetition rate (frequency). These pulses can then be injected into a device under test and used as a stimulus or clock signal or analyzed as they progress through the device. width and output. Pulse generators are generally single-channel providing one frequency. Pulse generators may use digital techniques. Light pulse generators are the optical equivalent to electrical pulse generators with rep rate. the pulse repetition rate and duration may be digitally controlled but the pulse amplitude and rise and fall times may be determined by analog circuitry in the output stage of the pulse generator. delay with respect to an internal or external trigger and the high. For example. with true current pulse generators being available only from a few suppliers. delay. [12] 28 . The output in this case is light typically from a LED or laser diode. and cannot have much elevation above the lid. analog techniques. or a combination of both techniques to form the output pulses. confirming the proper operation of the device or pinpointing a fault in the device. pulse generators can also produce a 50% duty cycle square wave. width and amplitude control. pulse width. More-sophisticated pulse generators may allow control over the rise time and fall time of the pulses.and low-voltage levels of the pulses. The main drawbacks that the entire antenna must be small enough to fit through a small hole in the lid. To produce multiple pulses. these simple pulse generators would have to be ganged in series or in parallel.

Solutions range of AM ‘Super Regen’ Receiver modules are compact hybrid RF receivers.F.Figure-3. such as R. removing the need for any adjustable components. and require connections to power and 29 . These modules show a very high frequency stability over a wide operating temperature even when subjected to mechanical vibrations or manual handling. which can be used to capture uudecoded data from any AM Transmitter.1 Introduction:The R. Solutions AM-RT4 / 5 range of transmitters.11-Connection diagram of Pulse Generator CHAPTER 4 RECEIVER UNIT 4. A unique laser trimming process which has been patented gives a very accurate on board inductor.F.

Figure-4. The RX3400/RX3400-LF is low powers ASK receiver IC which is fully compatible with the Mitel KESRX01 IC and is suitable for use in a variety of low power radio applications including remote keyless entry.antenna only. super-heterodyne receiver architecture and incorporates an entire phase-locked loop (PLL). In addition the it operates from a 5Vdc supply.1         Features:Frequency Range: 433.2. [9] 4.92MHz Modulate Mode: ASK Circuit Shape: LC Date Rate:-4800bps Selectivity:-106dBm Channel Spacing: ±500KHz Supply Voltage: 5V High Sensitivity Passive Design.1-Pin assignment 30 . The RX3400/RX3400-LF is based on a single-conversion. inductor and many components. capacitor. RF Solutions also offer a range of Super Heterodyne Receivers. 4.2 AM Receiver Module:The receiver module has IC RX3400/RX3400 crystal oscillator.

Circuit diagram Table-4.2.1-Pin description of RX3400 31 .Figure-4.

4. phase-frequency detector (PFD). fixed VCO divider. peak detector. The VCO circuitry remains on and may be configured to operate as a buffer amplifier for an external SAW-based oscillator. and 1-bit comparator and is capable of demodulating ASK input signals. and charge pump. the reference crystal oscillator. fixed divider (÷ 64).2 Functional Description:The RX3400/RX3400-LF ASK receiver IC incorporates an LNA. and charge pump are all shut off and the current consumption of the IC drops by approximately 600 μA. data filter. PLL- based local oscillator including VCO. logarithmic amplifier. PFD. IF filter.2. 32 .3 PLL Power-Down Function: The PLL portion of the IC can be powered up and down through the control of the PD input (pin 14). During PLL power down operation (pin 14 pull low).2. reference crystal oscillator. mixer.4.

AMR devices for water meters must be able to communicate in the RF unfriendly environment of the iron water pit.3-Application circuit of RX3400 4. and requires a field-installed connection between the antenna and the water meter.Figure-4. The antenna receives the desired signal and sends the data to the decoder circuit. 4. For example. with the connection to the meter going through a hole in the lid. this is accomplished by placing an antenna on top of the water pit lid. Typically.3 Antenna:The antenna is also used at the receiver unit to collect the data which is send by the transmitting antenna. This allows a large antenna area. but the antenna often protrudes dangerously high above the lid.4 Decoder HT12D:- 33 .

HT12D: 8 address bits and 4 data bits Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor Valid transmission indicator Easy interface with an RF or an infrared transmission medium Minimal external components Pair with Holtek’s 212 series of encoders 18-pin DIP. They are paired with Holtek’s 2^12 series of encoders (refer to the encoder/decoder cross reference table).2         4.4.4.3 Features:Operating voltage: 2.4.4. 20-pin SOP package Applications:Burglar alarm system Smoke and fire alarm system Garage door controllers Car door controllers Car alarm system Security system Cordless telephones Other remote control systems General Description:The 2^12 decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and data format should be 34 .1              4.4V~12V Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology Low standby current Capable of decoding 12 bits of information Binary address setting Received codes are checked 3 times Address/Data number combination. For proper operation.

[10] 8-Address & 4-Data Figure-4. Of this series. and HT12F is used to decode 12 bits of address information. They compare the serial input data three times continuously with their local addresses. The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission.2-Pin description of HT12D 35 . the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. the HT12D is arranged to provide 8 address bits and 4 data bits.4-Pin diagram of HT12D Table-4. The 2^12 series of decoders are capable of decoding informations that consist of N bits of address and 12-N bits of data.chosen. If no error or unmatched codes are found. The decoders receive serial addresses and data from a programmed 2^12 series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF or an IR transmission medium.

electronic meters. and so will be either a "Common Cathode" or "Common Anode" device depending how it is constructed. the seventh segment bisects the rectangle horizontally. or italic. There are also fourteen-segment displays and sixteen-segment displays (for full alphanumeric). is composed of seven elements. [15] 4.5 Seven Segment Display:A seven-segment display (abbreviation:"7-segment display"). A seven segment display. arrangement. The seven segments are arranged as a rectangle of two vertical segments on each side with one horizontal segment on the top and bottom. Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks. Hence a 7 segment plus DP package will only require nine pins to be present and connected. which aids readability. each LED is typically connected with one terminal to its own pin on the outside of the package and the other LED terminal connected in common with all other LEDs in the device and brought out to a shared pin. This shared pin will then make up all of the cathodes (negative terminals) OR all of the anodes (positive terminals) of the LEDs in the device.4. however. less commonly known as a seven-segment indicator. is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot-matrix displays. Often the seven segments are arranged in an oblique. In a simple LED package. and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information. Additionally. these have mostly been replaced by dot-matrix displays.6 Microcontroller AT89C2051:- 36 . as its name indicates.

8. on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry.8. 24V Thermal Overload Protection Short Circuit Protection Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection Description:The LM7805C series of three terminal positive regulators are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages. 12.7 Display Driver 74LS244:The 74LS244 is Octal Buffer and Line Driver designed to be employed as memory address drivers. the Atmel AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and costeffective solution to many embedded control applications.2 Output Voltages of 5. 15 I/O lines. two 16-bit timer/counters. clock drivers and bus-oriented transmitters/receivers which provide improved PC board density. 8. 18. thermal 37 . The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS instruction set. 6. 128 bytes of RAM. a precision analog comparator. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read-only memory (PEROM). 4. 9. 15.The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage. a five vector two-level interrupt architecture. Each type employs internal current limiting.1 Regulated Power Supply:Features:-  Output Current up to 1A     4. 4.  Input Clamp Diodes Limit High-Speed Termination Effects. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip. a full duplex serial port.  3-State Outputs Drive Bus Lines or Buffer Memory Address Registers. 10. The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K bytes of Flash. making them useful in a wide range of applications.8 4.  Hysteresis at Inputs to Improve Noise Margins.

The pin no. 100W. In transmitter unit we use 20 pin microcontroller AT89C2051. 50W and 20W switches respectively.The pulse generator also having a AT89C2051 microcontroller. Figure-4. Due to emitting light the optocoupler trigger. Each seven segment display has 7 LEDs. which shows the reading of the meter. of pulses are different for each combination of closing of switches.It behaves like a isolator device.8 of pulse generator microcontroller. The pulses are now given to a LED which emits the light when pulses are come out from the pulse generator otherwise not.16 to 19 of the microcontroller is connected to 200W.5-Circuit diagram of Regulated Power Supply CHAPTER 5 AMR WORKING 5.shut down and safe operating area protection.Each LED has two lead.13 to 19 of microcontroller. In transmitter unit we also use the four seven segment display. making it essentially indestructible. The emitting light from the LED is given to the optocoupler MCT2E. In connection diagram of pulse generator pin no. These pulses are now send from pin no.1 Working of Transmitter Unit:The data is send from the transmitter unit to the receiver unit via RF channel. If adequate heat sinking is provided.7 of the microcontroller receives the pulses from the pulse generator output pin 8. 38 . The no. When the switches are close as our requirement the pulses are generated.7 of the transmitter unit microcontroller. One lead of each LED is connected to the pin no. they can deliver over 1A output current. The collector terminal of the MCT2E is connected to the pin no.

The output the AM receiver is given to the decoder HT12D.14 of the decoder. This shows power consumption is taking place at the transmitter unit. The encoder HT12E has 18 pin. And it seems like that all the segments are growing at the same time. which acts like a current amplifier.The pin no. 17 of decoder is VT (Valid Transmission) which is a active high terminal.17 of the encoder is connected to the pin no.3 of microcontroller. But the glowing time interval between successive segments is very low. Output of the AM transmitter is given to the antenna from the pin no. The output of the encoder is taken out from the pin no.The antenna transmit the data signal through RF. Pin no. After receiving the signal the data is given to the pin no. The data can also be send from the transmitting antenna. The second pin of each LED is connected to each other.6 of the microcontroller.14 of the decoder is the DIN (Data Input). The power required for the glowing of the LEDs is drawn from the display driver 74LS244. the transistor is turn on and a high signal appear at the collector terminal. In AM transmitter the signal is amplitude modulated. The pin no.12 receive clock pulse and the pin no. If we do not use display driver 39 . But the noise present in the signal.13 to 19 of the microcontroller is connected to the one terminal of each LED.4. When the VT=1. Pin no.2 of the AM receiver is connected to the pin no. 5. When the reading is comes it become active high.17. In which pin no.The second pin of each LED is connected to each other. In parallel combination of seven segments display each segment glow simultaneously. which acts like a current amplifier. 13 of the decoder is connected to microcontroller pin no.The pin no. By using special instruments we can see the simultaneously glowing of the two successive seven segment display.The decoder is used to decode the encoded data. Due to which the LED which is connected to the collector terminal is glow up and emit the light. and a high signal is appear at the base terminal of the transistor.2 from which data is given to the microcontroller.VT terminal is also connected to the pin no.2 Working of Receiver Unit:The transmitted data is received by the antenna situated at the receiver unit. The power required for the glowing of the LEDs is drawn from the display driver 74LS244. The pin no.2 of the AM transmitter. So to reduce the noise we use the encoder HT12E between microcontroller and AM transmitter.13 receive the data signal from the pin no.8 of the AM receiver.

time of use billing. remote shutoff. stored. rate of flow recording. low battery. This can include events alarms such as tamper. CHAPTER 6 FUTURE ADVANCEMENT AND CONCLUSION 6. By which we can easily read out the reading from the seven segment display unit. demand forecasting. Thus display driver 74LS244 is used to provide proper to seven segment display. and transmitted to the main computer. The meters in an AMI system are often referred to as smart meters. or reverse flow. the design was going to be much simpler than what it has grown into. The objectives 40 . Thus the actual meter reading can be seen at the seven segment display.1 Introduction:Originally AMR devices just collected meter readings electronically and matched them with accounts. demand response. water and energy conservation enforcement. As technology has advanced. flow monitoring. The meter reading is very useful in many applications. Advanced Metering Infrastructure. and often the metering devices could be controlled remotely. additional data could then be captured. etc. or AMI is the new term coined to represent the networking technology of fixed network meter systems that go beyond AMR into remote utility management. Many AMR devices can also capture interval data. The dc supply given to all the IC is generally. The AMR project has been more difficult than originally expected. The logged data can be used to collect or control time of use or rate of use data that can be used for water or energy usage profiling.the LED will not glow because the proper power required to display the data is not too much. and log meter events. since they often can use collected data based on programmed logic. leak detection. Initially. leak detection.

This is a unique and helpful feature for the system. with the ability to read a remote meter in around six second’s start-to-finish. they do present considerable design challenges. 6. Features such as a new emitter/detector and a new PIC that required a different code were added during the progress of the project. referring to the fact that this power line carrier system can communicate over utility-owned distribution power lines. The TWACS technology delivers over 99% message reliability. load control. 6. Unlike conventional power line carrier systems. AMR served well for commercial or industrial accounts. 6. the op-amp used as a buffer was not part of the primary concept. Also. distribution automation and other value adding services. It was integrated into the system to match the impedance of the sensor with the impedance of the transistor. which results in highly efficient and dependable AMR demand-side management and distribution automation systems. The system is twoway.2 EMETCON DLC:DLC stands for Distribution Line Carrier. data-on-demand.4 Conclusion:Thus we have studied RF based automatic meter reading used in different places. which superimpose a high frequency on the power lines. EMETCON is an acronym for Electronic Metering and Control. We got that this technology is very useful in present and future demand. The portions of the design that we were able to get to work was with the breadboard circuit output going to LEDs and with the breadboard circuit being able to communicate with a PC via RS232 cable. While these features are a welcomed benefit for the user.that are set currently are quite ambitious. What was once a need for monthly 41 .3 TWACS System:TWACS® two-way power line communication technology which provides unique capabilities ideally suited for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR). TWACS works by modulating the voltage waveform at the Zerocrossing point.

-796-815. PP.1985. and Adams J. Technol. vol. Spears D.5.data became a need for daily and even hourly readings of the meters. 42 . and Giles I.M. PP.October 1989. Mag. & Evagavides S. “RF based local access network architectures” IEEE Comm. June 1992. PP.P. It is use in remote areas and measuring reading from water meter..R.Telecom. while sales of fixed networks has increased. Gallager I.K. PP. 1989. Y.R. gas meter etc. Smith D. 1984. 915. Ready J.Lin. “Different types of optocouplers” IEEE Comm. Gorden J.S. Culshow B. Mag. “Description about RF Modules” IEEE Journal on selected areas in comm. PP. Mag.G. Spears D.. and Yin M. Consequently. 64-73. “Different RF Technologies”. May-June 1986. October 1989. PP.P. “The application o AMR Technique to the network”Br.R. Molenaur L.723.PP. 28(8). PP.H. IEEE. “Different Microcontroller IC’s IEEE Comm.1986. “Signal Compression Technology” IEEE Journal on selected areas of comm. It can be modified to control many meter reading by TDM system. PP.W. Oct 1989. “Decoder IC’s” IEEE comm.. Bell System Technical Journal.R and Yin M. & Jones G.. 10. Wa T. No.“Feasibility of long distance transmission through RF Wave” IEEE Communication Mag. “Advancement in the field of Microcontroller” Proc.S.22-23. Foley J. 151-160.. It is simple to operate and user friendy. 81. energy meter. the sales of drive-by and telephone AMR has declined in the US. 7(2). 972-983. 24(1). Mag. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Chu T. -890-896.F. PP... Jaiynt N. SAC-3(6). vol.-K..M. and Hogg D.July 1993.C..E. 64-73.J.-64-73. and Burrowes M. Ballance J. Lin Y.In this project we can control the data which is sending from transmitter to receiver by using microcontroller AT89C2051.

IEEE Comm. Aug 1994. P1 = 0.D. TL0 = 0x24.T. TH0 = 0xFA.//<<3. IEEE Comm.. bit blink_digit=0. 1993.H..digit..pointer1 = 0. “AM Transmission Module” IEEE Transmission Module” IEEE Telecommunication Conference. Mag.pointer = 0. Xiong F. Yacoub M. CRC Press. 205-210.. & Chen D. void timer0 (void) interrupt 1 { TR0 = 0.F Module”. Mag. “Opto Electronics Devices”.. E. P2 = mux. “Transmission through different types of R. 1992. “Different Display Device” British Telecommunication Engg.R. PP.K. May 1989.count=0. APPENDICES Appendix A: Programming at Transmitting Unit #include <REGX51.16-21. “Fundamental of different pulse generating ckts and their operation”.1 (4). Walker. PP.mux = 0x01. if (mux == receive_data [6]) { count++. Trischitta P. PP 84-97. 1983. unsigned char segment_value (unsigned char ). unsigned char receive_data [7]="012345".[11] [12] [13] [14] [15] Ritchie W.S.H> void MSDelayeeeeee (unsigned int ). if (count == 20) 43 .

} pointer1++. blink_digit = ~blink_digit. else P1 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]). TH0 = 0xFA. TH1 = 0xFD. TL0 = 0x24. } if (blink_digit) P1 = 0. RI = 0. TMOD = 0x21. TR0 = 1. IE = 0x82. TR1 = 1. if (mux == 0x40) mux = 0x01. SCON = 0x50. MSDelay (100).{ count = 0. } void main () { unsigned int temp. } else { P1 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]). if (pointer1 == 6) pointer1 = 0. // mux = mux+1. mux = mux << 1. 44 .

P0 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]). send_data (temp). case '2': 45 . P2 = mux. if (mux == 0xDF) mux = 0xFE. mux = mux+1. */ temp = count_pulse_per_second ().TR0 = 1. if (pointer1 == 5) pointer1 = 0. } } unsigned char segment_value (unsigned char value) { //unsigned char segment. case '1': return 0x1C. if ((value&0x80)== 0x80) { value = value&0x7F. while (1) { /* MSDelay (1). temp = convert_pulse_to_unit (temp). pointer1++. switch (value) { case '0': return 0x7F. mux = mux << 1.

default: return 0. case '5': return 0xEE. case '6': return 0xEF. case '9': return 0xFE. case '2': return 0xB3. case '4': return 0xDC.return 0xBB. case 0x2D: return 0x88. case '7': return 0x3C. } } else { switch (value) { case '0': return 0x77. case '3': return 0xB6. case '3': return 0xBE. case '4': 46 . case '8': return 0xFF. case '1': return 0x14.

j<1275. for (i=0.count=0. case '8': return 0xF7. //for (j=0.j++). default: return 0.i++) for (j=0.return 0xD4. case 0x2D: return 0x80. } } } void MSDelay (unsigned int itime ) { unsigned int i. unsigned char receive_data [7]="012345".digit.j.pointer = 0. 47 .pointer1 = 0.H> void MSDelay (unsigned int ).i<itime. case '9': return 0xF6. } Appendix B: Programming at receiver unit:#include <REGX51. unsigned char segment_value (unsigned char ). case '6': return 0xE7. case '7': return 0x34.mux = 0x01. case '5': return 0xE6.j<356/*1275*/.j++).

} if (blink_digit) P1 = 0. TL0 = 0x24. if (count == 20) { count = 0. } 48 .bit blink_digit=0. // mux = mux+1. TR0 = 1.//<<3. blink_digit = ~blink_digit. if (mux == 0x40) mux = 0x01. mux = mux << 1. if (pointer1 == 6) pointer1 = 0. P2 = mux. void timer0 (void) interrupt 1 { TR0 = 0. TH0 = 0xFA. P1 = 0. } pointer1++. } else { P1 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]). else P1 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]). if (mux == receive_data [6]) { count++.

TL0 = 0x24. P2 = mux. TH0 = 0xFA. */ while (RI == 0). SCON = 0x50. TH1 = 0xFD. TR0 = 1. RI = 0. MSDelay (100). //send_char ('A'). TMOD = 0x21. if (pointer1 == 5) pointer1 = 0. RI = 0. //send_char ('m').') pointer = 0. P0 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]). //send_char ('i'). mux = mux+1. while (1) { /* MSDelay (1). 49 . pointer1++. if (mux == 0xDF) mux = 0xFE. if (SBUF == '. //send_char ('t'). TR1 = 1. mux = mux << 1.void main () { IE = 0x82.

switch (value) { case '0': return 0x7F. } } } unsigned char segment_value (unsigned char value) { //unsigned char segment.else { //if ((SBUF >= '0')||(SBUF <= '9')) receive_data [pointer] = SBUF. case '2': return 0xBB. case '1': return 0x1C. case '4': return 0xDC. case '3': return 0xBE. 50 . //if (pointer == 5) //pointer = 0. if ((value&0x80)== 0x80) { value = value&0x7F. pointer++.

case '8': return 0xFF. case '9': return 0xFE.case '5': return 0xEE. } } else { switch (value) { case '0': return 0x77. case '3': 51 . case '7': return 0x3C. case '1': return 0x14. case '6': return 0xEF. case '2': return 0xB3. case 0x2D: return 0x88. default: return 0.

} } } void MSDelay (unsigned int itime ) { unsigned int i.j<356/*1275*/. case '7': return 0x34.i++) for (j=0. case 0x2D: return 0x80. case '9': return 0xF6. //for (j=0. for (i=0.return 0xB6. case '5': return 0xE6.i<itime.j++). case '8': return 0xF7.j. default: return 0.j<1275.j++). } 52 . case '6': return 0xE7. case '4': return 0xD4.

53 .