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NAME: IC. NUMBER: CLASS: TEACHER:

Contents

No Tittles Pg. . 1 Acknowledgement s 2 Objective 3 Introduction 4 Part I 5 Part II 6 Part III 7 Further Exploration 8 Reflection

Acknowledgeme nts

First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to my Additional Mathematic teacher’s, Puan Fatimah binti Hashim. Without her advice and guidance, this project would not have been completed. Special thanks to my friends, who was very helpful with their invaluable suggestions and assistance on this project. Last but not least, I would like to say thank you to both of my parents for providing financial support on making of this project.

Objectives

• Appreciate the importance of mathematics in everyday lives.

• Improve problem-solving skills and thinking skills.

• Develop positive attitude and personalities such as confidence.

• Develop mathematical knowledge

Introduction

CAKE HISTORY

Cakes are made from various combinations of refined flour, some form of shortening, sweetening, eggs, milk, leavening agent, and flavouring. There are literally thousands of

cakes recipes (some are bread-like and some rich and elaborate) and many are centuries old. Cake making is no longer a complicated procedure. Baking utensils and directions have been so perfected and simplified that even the amateur cook can easily become and expert baker. There are five basic types of cake, depending on the substance used for leavening. The most primitive peoples in the world began making cakes shortly after they discovered flour. In medieval England, the cakes that were described in writings were not cakes in the conventional sense. They were described as flour-based sweet foods as opposed to the description of breads, which were just flour-based foods without sweetening. Bread and cake were somewhat interchangeable words with the term "cake" being used for smaller breads. The earliest examples were found among the remains of Neolithic villages where archaeologists discovered simple cakes made from crushed grains, moistened, compacted and probably cooked on a hot stone. Today's version of this early cake would be oatcakes, though now we think of them more as a biscuit or cookie. Cakes were called "plakous" by the Greeks, from the word for "flat." These cakes were usually combinations of nuts and honey. They also had a cake called "satura," which was a flat heavy cake. During the Roman period, the name for cake (derived from the Greek term) became "placenta." They were also called "libum" by the Romans, and were primarily used as an offering to their gods. Placenta was more like a cheesecake, baked on a pastry base, or sometimes inside a pastry case. The terms "bread" and "cake" became interchangeable as years went by. The words themselves are of Anglo Saxon origin, and it's probable that the term cake was used for the smaller breads. Cakes were usually baked for special occasions because they were made with the finest and most expensive ingredients available to the cook. The wealthier you were, the more likely you might consume cake on a more frequent basis. By the middle of the 18th century, yeast had fallen into disuse as a raising agent for cakes in favour of beaten eggs. Once as much air as possible had been beaten in, the mixture would be poured into moulds, often very elaborate creations, but sometimes as simple as two tin hoops, set on parchment paper on a cookie sheet. It is from these cake hoops that our modern cake pans developed. Cakes were considered a symbol of well being by early American cooks on the east coast, with each region of the country having their own favourites. By the early 19th century, due to the Industrial Revolution, baking ingredients became more affordable and readily available because of mass production and the railroads. Modern leavening agents, such as baking soda and baking powder were invented.

PART I

Cakes cone in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties, Hari Raya, weddings and etc. Cakes are

treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating. Find out how, mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating and write about your findings.

Geometry − To determine suitable dimensions for the cake − To assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs − To estimate volume of cake to be produced Calculus (differentiation) − To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake-baking − To estimate minimum or maximum amount of cream needed for decorating − To estimate minimum or maximum size of cake produced, Progressions − To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions − To estimate total ingredients needed for cakebaking − To estimate total amount of cream for decoration

PART II

Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shown in Diagram 1 for the Teachers' Day celebration.

1) If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800cm³, and the height of the cake is to be 7.0 cm, calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school. [Use π = 3.142] Volume 1 kg cake = 3 800 cm³ Volume 5 kg cake = 3 800(5) Volume 5 kg cake = 19 000 cm³ Volume of cake, V = πr²h 19 000 = (3.142)(7)r² 19 000 = 21.994r² r² = 19 000/21.994 r² = 863.872 r= r = 29.39 cm d = 2r d = 2(29.392) d = 58.78 cm 2) The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length, 60.0 cm in width and 45.0 cm in height.

a) If the volume of cake remains the same, explore by using different values of heights, h cm, and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to be used, d cm. Tabulate your answers. Volume of cake, V = πr²h 19 000 = 3.142hr² r² = 19 000/3.142h r= d = 2r d = 2( Height, h (cm) 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 ) Diameter, d (cm) 155.53 109.97 89.80 77.76 66.55 63.50 58.78 54.99 51.84 49.18 46.89 44.90 43.14 41.57 40.16 38.80 37.72 36.66 35.68 34.77

b) Based on the values in your table,

i.

State the range of heights that is NOT suitable for the cake and explain your answers. h>7 is not suitable for the cakes, because the height is too short for a cake as its diameter of the cake also will be too large to fit into the oven.

ii.

Suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake. Give reasons for your answer.

h = 12cm, d = 44.90cm, because the dimensions of the cake is suitable for a cake as it not too short or too high and it also can fit into the oven. Moreover, the cake will be easy to handle and the cake also will take a short time to be completely baked.

c)

i.

Form an equation to represent the linear relation between h and d. Hence, plot a suitable graph based on the equation that you have formed. [You may draw your graph with the aid of computer software.] d = 2r r = d/2

Volume of cake, V = πr²h V = π (d/2)²h V = π(d²/4)h 19 000 = π(d²/4)h 76 000 = πd²h d²h = 76 000/π h = (76 000/π) (1/d²)

Y =

m

X

h d 1/d²

4 77.76 1.65 x 10-4

8 54.99 3.31 x 10-4

12 44.90 4.96 x 10-4

16 38.80 6.64 x 10-4

20 34.77 8.27 x 10-4

Graph h against 1/d²

a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height

of the cake is 10.5 cm, use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required. h = 10.5 cm

1/d² = 4.35x104 d² = 4 350 d= d = 65.95 cm

b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray, use your . graph to estimate the height of the cake obtained

d = 42 cm d² = 1 764 1/d² = 5.67x 104

h = 13.90 cm

3. Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. The thickness of the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about 1 cm. a) Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions that you have suggested in 2(b) (ii).

22.45 cm

12 cm

Cake without fresh cream: h = 12 cm d = 44.9 cm r = 44.9/2 r = 22.45 cm

Volume of cake, V = 19 000 cm³

23.45 cm

13 cm

Cake with fresh cream: h = 13 cm r = 23.45 cm

Volume of cake, V = πr²h V = (3.142)(23.45)²(13) V = 22 461.32 cm³

Amount of fresh cream, Vcream = Volume of cake with fresh cream – Volume of cake without fresh cream Vcream = 22 461.32 – 19 000 Vcream = 3461.32 cm³

b) Suggest three other shapes for cake, that will have the same height and volume as those suggested in 2(b)(ii). Estimate the amount of fresh cream to be used on each of the cakes. • Square-based shape

length = 40.79 cm,

width = 40.79 cm,

height = 13 cm

Volume of cake with fresh cream = length x width x height = 40.79 x 40.79 x 13 = 21 629.71 cm³

Amount of fresh cream, Vcream = Volume of cake with fresh cream – Volume of cake without fresh cream Vcream = 21 629.71 – 19 000 Vcream = 2 629.71 cm³

•

Triangular-based shape

length = 57.27 cm, 13 cm

width = 57.27 cm,

height =

Volume of cake with fresh cream = ½ x length x width x height = ½ x 57.27 x 57.27 x 13

= 21 319.04 cm³ Amount of fresh cream, Vcream = Volume of cake with fresh cream – Volume of cake without fresh cream Vcream = 21 319.04 – 19 000 Vcream = 21 319.04 cm³

•

Pentagonal-based shape

length = 18.80 cm, 13 cm

width = 18.80 cm,

height =

Volume of cake with fresh cream = 5 x length x width x height = 5 x 18.80 x 18.80 x 13 = 22 973.6 cm³ Amount of fresh cream, Vcream = Volume of cake with fresh cream – Volume of cake without fresh cream Vcream = 22 973.6 – 19 000 Vcream = 3 973.6 cm³

PART III

Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate. Use at least two different methods including Calculus. State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Give reasons for your answers. METHOD 1: Quadratic function

Vcream, f(r) = Surface area of the cake = πr² + 2πrh Formula: f(x) = a(x + (b/2a))² + 4ac-b²/4a a = π, b = 2πh, c=0

f(r) = π(r+(2πh/2π)) + 4π(0)-(2πh)²/4π = π(r + h)² - 4π²h²/4π = π(r + h)² - πh² Minimum value (-h, -πr²h) V = πr²h 19 000 = (3.142)(-h)²h 19 000 = (3.142)h³

h³ = 19 000/3.142 h= h = 18.22 cm V = πr²h 19 000 = (3.142)(18.22)r² 19 000 = 57.247r² r² = 19 000/57.247 r= r = 18.22 cm d = 2r d = 2(18.22) d = 36.44 cm So, the dimension is h = 18.22 cm, r = 18.22cm, d = 36.44cm.

METHOD 2: Differentiation

Vcream = Surface area of the cake = πr² + 2πrh V = πr²h 19 000 = πr²h h = 19 000/πr² Vcream = πr² + 2πr(19 000/ πr²) = πr² + 2(19 000/r) = πr² + 38 000/r-1 dV/dr = 2(3.142)r – 38 000/r² = 6.284r – 38 000/r² Minimum value, dV/dr = 0 6.284r – 38 000/r² = 0 6.284r = 38 000/r² 6.284r³ = 38 000 r³ = 38 000/6.284 r= r = 18.22 cm

d = 2r d = 2(18.22) d = 36.44 cm h = 19 000/(3.142)(18.22)² h = 18.22 cm So, the dimensions is h = 18.22 cm, r = 18.22cm, d = 36.44cm.

Therefore, I would not choose to bake a cake such that dimensions because it is not suitable for a cake as the height too high. Moreover, it also will be difficult to handle.

FURTHER

EXPLORAT ION

Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration, as shown in Diagram 2.

The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake, the radius of the third cake is 10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on. a) Find the volume of the first, the second, the third and the fourth cakes. By comparing all these values, determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern? Explain and elaborate on the number patterns.

a = 31.00 cm r = 90/100

r = 0.9

Radius of cake, Tn = arn-1 Volume of cake, V = πr²h

Cake 1st

Radius (cm) T1 = a = 31.00 T2 = = = T3 = = = ar2-1 31.00(0.9) 27.90 ar3-1 31.00(0.9)² 25.11

Volume (cm³) V = (3.142) (31.00)²(6) = 18 116.77 V = (3.142) (27.90)²(6) = 14 674.59 V = (3.142) (25.11)²(6) = 11 886.41 V = (3.142) (22.60)²(6) = 9 628.85

2nd 3rd

4th

T4 = ar4-1 = 31.00(0.9)³ = 22.60

The volume of the cakes of 18 116.77, 14 674.59, 11 886.41, 9 628.85, … form a number pattern, which is a geometric progression with a common ratio of 0.81 .

14 674.59/18 116.77 = 0.81 11 886.41/14 674.59 = 0.81 9 628.85/11 886.41 = 0.81

b)

If the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg, calculate the maximum number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake. Verify your answer using other methods.

Volume 1 kg cake = 3 800 cm³ Volume 15 kg cake = 3 800(15) Volume 15 kg cake = 57 000 cm³ a = 18 116.77 cm³ r = 0.81 Sn ≥ 57 000 a(1- rn)/1- r ≥ 57 000 18 116.77(1-0.81n)/(1-0.81) ≥ 57 000 18 116.77(1-0.81n)/0.19 ≥ 57 000 18 116.77(1-0.81n) ≥ 10 830 1-0.81n ≥ 0.5978 -0.81n ≥ -0.4022 0.81n ≤ 0.4022 n log 0.81 ≤ log 0.4022 n ≥ log 0.4022/log 0.81 n ≥ 4.3223

Therefore, the maximum number of cakes is 4.

Reflection

I spent so many hours doing this project. But, it was worth it. It never occurs to me that Mathematics is used in our daily life like baking and decorating a cake. From now, I will more appreciate the importance of mathematics, even though I find it difficult to understand. Besides that, this project had thought me so many moral values. I learned to be more disciplined student by using my time wisely in order to complete this project on time.

The essence of mathematics is not to make simple things complicated, but to make complicated things simple. ~S. Gudder

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