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Some Difficulties Faced By The Students In Learning Present Perfect Tense. Teaching Vocabulary Through Games To Elementary Students. ³An Analysis on Students´ Difficulties in Learning Reported Speech of Question Sentence at the First Year Students of SMA XXX Jakarta. The effect of audio-lingual method on the students¶ achievement in learning plural noun. Students¶ ability in identifying independent clauses and dependent clauses in sentences ³an analysis on the politeness in indonesian adress system´. ³an analysis on the students¶ ability in studying english sentence classification´. The students¶ ability in identifying antonims in scientific texts. The Students¶ Ability In Identifying And Classifying English Sentences In Writing Text ³Error analysis on the use of tenses´. The effect of using environmental technique to the students¶¶ achievement in learning vocabulary. Students¶ abilirty in answering oral test based on gender. ³the students¶ ability in building abstract noun from adjective based on affixation The Students¶ Ability in Arranging Conversation Based on the Context of Situation Offered by Teacher ³the students¶ ability in constructing imperative sentences´. The effects of using completion technique to the students¶ achievement in learning vocabulary ³Adjectives in English and Bahasa Mandailing´ . Spoken utterances in Javanese and bahasa batak´ ³noun and verb phrases in English and malay´. Contrastive Analysis Between Javanese And Bataknese In Spoken English Utterances Imperative sentence in English and Bahasa Batak Mandailing The contrastive analysis an english and batak mandailing in request sentences semantic analysis on the students¶ ability in distinguishing ambiguity and anomaly sentence of English an analysis on the students¶ competence in predicting information from the pictures on reading text at sma negeri 1 batangonang comparative study between literal meaning and non literal meaning in english and indonesian poems 10. ³the effects of using tape recorder technique on the students¶ achievement in vocabulary´ The primary students¶ ability in writing new words ³the effects of using media (picture) to the primary students¶ achievement in teaching vocabulary´ ³english and mandailing demonstratives and pronoun´ Students¶ Problem In Forming An English Sentence Based On The Maxim Of Quality And Maxim Of Quantity The Study On Personfication In ³Lebanon Legenda Dan Air Mata´ By Khalil Gibran 1999
y y y y y y y y y y y y y Student ± Teacher Interaction In The Classroom : A Survey At The Third Year Student Of SMA An Analysis Of Swear Words In Sumbawa And English Language Three people in three distinctive mental illnesses as seen in tennessee williams ³the glass menagerie´ The Student Ability In Using Simple Present Tense In Utility Paragraph At Second Year Students Of SMP The Effectiveness Of Schemata Techrique In Increasing Students Speaking Ability: A Case Study At The Second Year Students Of SMA The Students Errors In Using Punctuation Marks In Writing : A Case Study At The Second Class Students Of SMP Developing Students Vocabulary Mastery Through Listening To English Song : A Case Study At Second Year Student Of SMP The Implication Of Students Ability In Reading English Texts The Second Year Students Of MTS An Analysis Of Sosial Education Values Of Bob Marle¶s Love Song A Study On The Problems Of Developing Reading Skill By The Students Of SMA A Study On Teacher¶s Techniques In Vocabularies : A Survey At The First Year Student Of SMK Some Factors Affecting Student Speaking Ability A Case Study At The Second Years Student Of MTS ³A study on the interference of sumbawa vowels pronounciation towards the pronounciation of english vowels´ .
Research methodology involves the researcher providing an alternative hypothesis. A null hypothesis is a hypothesis which a researcher tries to disprove.(2008) Steps of the scientific method are shaped like an hourglass . HYPOTHESIS In research. as an alternate way to explain the phenomenon. a hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon. the null hypothesis represents the current view/explanation of an aspect of the world that the researcher wants to challenge. and designing research where we can observe and analyze this aspect. a research hypothesis.starting from general questions. narrowing down to focus on one specific aspect. not because he/she loves the research hypothesis. At last. Normally. The research hypothesis is often based on observations that evoke suspicion that the null hypothesis is not always correct. but because it would mean coming closer to finding an answer to a specific problem. we conclude and generalize to the real world FORMULATING A RESEARCH PROBLEM Researchers organize their research by formulating and defining a research problem. . This helps them focus the research process so that they can draw conclusions reflecting the real world in the best possible way. The researcher tests the hypothesis to disprove the null hypothesis.
while the research hypothesis was that the role. Confounding variables are variables with a significant effect on the dependent variable that the researcher failed to control or eliminate . e. If it is a sunny day. the independent and the dependent variables might not be identified beforehand. like the name of someone. e. An example of a variable is temperature. in a hypothesis. a name. They might not be stated because the researcher does not have a clear idea yet on what is really going on. and try to measure it by specific observations. The independent variable is the variable which the researcher would like to measure (the cause). Some variables change easily. These variables are often stated in experimental research. OPERATIONALIZATION Operationalization is to take a fuzzy concept.g. It changes according to different factors. like the stock-exchange value. "what is the effect of personality on helping behavior?" In explorative research methodology. The temperature varies according to other variable and factors. .g. dependent on the independent variable. such as 'helping behavior'. Researchers are often seeking to measure variables. In research.sometimes because the researcher is not aware of the effect of the confounding variable. you typically define variables according to what you're measuring. instructions and orders were much more important in determining whether people would hurt others. how likely are people to help a stranger with problems. You can measure different temperature inside and outside. Another thing that can make the temperature change is whether something has been done to manipulate the temperature. the null hypothesis was that the personality determined whether a person would hurt another person. in some qualitative research. while other variables are almost constant. The key is to identify possible confounding variables and somehow try to eliminate or control them. or anything where the value can change.In the Stanley Milgram Experiment.g. VARIABLES A variable is something that changes. The variable can be a number. e. while the dependent variable is the effect (or assumed effect). chances are that the temperature will be higher than if it's cloudy. like lighting a fire in the chimney.
. It affects what you can say about the cause and factors influencing the phenomenon. Some measurements might not reflect the real world. because they do not measure the phenomenon as it should. Results SIGNIFICANCE TEST To test a hypothesis. CHOOSING THE MEASUREMENT Choosing the scientific measurements are also crucial for getting the correct conclusion. Time. It is also important to choose a research method which is within the limits of what the researcher can do. feasibility. money. quantitative research uses significance tests to determine which hypothesis is right. ethics and availability to measure the phenomenon correctly are examples of issues constraining the research.See also: Conceptual Variables CHOOSING THE RESEARCH METHOD The selection of the research method is crucial for what conclusions you can make about a phenomenon.
Research methodology in a number of areas like social sciences depends heavily on significance tests. since we can only measure a small portion of the population at a time. how good the measurement was to reflect the real world and what more could have affected the results. GENERALIZATION Generalization is to which extent the research and the conclusions of the research apply to the real world. Anyone should be able to check the observation and logic. It is not always so that good research will reflect the real world. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS Drawing a conclusion is based on several factors of the research process. Errors of the observations may stem from measurement-problems. The t-test (also called the Student's T-Test) is one of many statistical significance tests. . not just because the researcher got the expected result. A common error is to think that correlation implies a causal relationship. misinterpretations. based on the findings. It has to be based on the validity and reliability of the measurement. The observations are often referred to as 'empirical evidence' and the logic/thinking leads to the conclusions. unlikely random events etc.The significance test can show whether the null hypothesis is more likely correct than the research hypothesis. The t-test helps the researcher conclude whether a hypothesis is supported or not. to see if they also reach the same conclusions. This is not necessarily true. which compares two supposedly equal sets of data to see if they really are alike or not. A significance test may even drive the research process in a whole new direction.
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY Validity refers to what degree the research reflects the given research problem. Types of validity: y y y y y y y External Validity Population Validity Ecological Validity Internal Validity Content Validity Face Validity Construct Validity . while Reliability refers to how consistent a set of measurements are.
y y y y y Convergent and Discriminant Validity Test Validity Criterion Validity Concurrent Validity Predictive Validity Reliability may be defined as "Yielding the same or compatible results in different clinical experiments or statistical trials" (the free dictionary). Read more: http://www.com/researchmethodology.html#ixzz1SMgLECDK .experiment-resources. Types of Reliability: y y y y y y Test-Retest Reliability Interrater Reliability Internal Consistency Reliability Instrument Reliability Statistical Reliability Reproducability Both validity and reliability are important aspects of the research methodology to get better explanations of the world. Replication studies are a way to test reliability. Research methodology lacking reliability cannot be trusted. there are two types of errors when drawing conclusions in research: Type 1 error is when we accept the research hypothesis when the null hypothesis is in fact correct. Type 2 error is when we reject the research hypothesis even if the null hypothesis is wrong. ERRORS IN RESEARCH Logically.
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