A PAPER PRESENTATION ON

ADDICTION AVOIDER USING EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
CONTENTS :
 ABSTRACTION.  INTRODUCTION.
 THE BRAIN.  BRAIN WAVES.  ADDICTION.  RECOVERY THERAPY FROM ADDITION.  THE ADDICTION AVOIDER.  PRINCIPLE.  WORKING.  SENSORS.  AMPLIFIER.  OSCILLATORS.

biological/pharmacological and social factors. Example: Overeating. 1.  FUTURE PROSPECTS. In this paper we are going to see about a design of device that can entirely avoid addiction. The Brainwaves are produced by the temporal lobe of the brain. Having sex. The Brain: It is well known that brain is an electrochemical organ.  DEMERITS. It is a combination of genetic.  REFERENCES. Gambling. The device Addiction Avoider is based upon the principle of controlling “Brain waves”. ‘Brainwaves’ and ‘Addiction’.  CONCLUSION. STEREO HEADPHONE. It processes auditory information from the ears and relates it to Wernicke's area of the parietal lobe and the motor cortex of the frontal lobe. . ABSTRACT: About half the people around the world are addicted to one or more addictive substances. These are the terms ‘The Brain’. Alcohol drinking. Addiction is one of the chronic disorders that are characterized by the repeated use of substances or behaviors despite clear evidence of morbidity secondary to such use. Taking Narcotic Drugs and Certain Mannerisms.  MERITS. INTRODUCTION: Before going on to details we are supposed to know the basic terms that this paper is based upon.

2. Theta waves are waves with amplitude lesser than that of delta waves and have a greater frequency of 5 – 8 Hertz. There are four categories of these brainwaves. alpha waves and beta waves. But. ranging from most activity to least activity. These waves are again classified into low beta waves and high beta waves according to their range of frequencies. They never go down to zero because that would mean that you were brain dead.The amygdala is located within the temporal lobe and controls social and sexual behavior and other emotions.2 to 3 Hertz. Beta waves are the waves that have he lowest amplitude and have the highest frequency of 15 – 40 Hertz. The low beta waves have a frequency of 15 – 32 Hertz. Alpha waves are waves with amplitude lesser than that of theta waves and have a greater frequency of 9-14 Hertz. theta waves.1. Even though this electrical power is very limited. These are delta waves. A person who takes time out to reflect or meditate is usually in a alpha state. Delta waves are waves with high amplitude. Fig. The limbic system is important in emotional behavior and controlling movements.5 – 4 Hertz. deep dreamless sleep would take you down to the lowest frequency. It has a frequency of 0. Typically. Side and top view of the human brain with parts Researchers have speculated that a fully functional brain can generate as much as 10 watts of electrical power. it does occur in a very specific ways that are characteristic of the human brain.Brainwaves: Electrical activity emanating from the brain is displayed in the form of brainwaves. A person making an . A person who has taken time off from a task and begins to daydream is often in a theta brainwave state.

2.4 5-8 9 – 14 15 – 32 32 .Addiction: There are two types of addiction: Physical dependency and Psychological dependency. No. The high beta waves have a frequency of 33 – 40 Hertz. A person in a stress. pain or addiction would be in the high beta state.active conversation would be in the low beta state. TABLE 1: DIFFERENT BRAINWAVES AND ITS FREQUENCIES S.40 Fig. 3.5 . A) Physical dependency : Physical dependence on a substance is defined by appearance of characteristic withdrawal symptoms when the drug is . Different brainwaves with their names and the situations when it occurs. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Brainwaves Delta Theta Alpha Low Beta High Beta Frequency range (Hertz) 0.

rather than to relieve withdrawal symptoms.suddenly discontinued.but not addiction . taking the place of normal positive stimuli not otherwise attained. and lead to psychological withdrawal symptoms. Some drugs induce physical dependence or physiological tolerance . B) Psychological dependency: Psychological addictions are a dependency of the mind. it becomes associated with the release of pleasure inducing endorphins. most notably Effexor.for example many laxatives. or as a habitual means to avoid undesired activity. but typically they only do so to a clinical level in individuals who have emotional. This cycle is often very difficult to break.Recovery Therapy from Addiction: . or psychological dysfunctions. We are going to solely consider the psychological addictions in designing the addiction avoider device. Psychological addiction. nasal decongestants. and a cycle is started that is similar to physiological addiction. as opposed to physiological addiction. and some antidepressants. As the drug is indulged. beta blockers etc are better known as ‘Antidepressants’ rather than addictive substances. Addictions can theoretically form for any rewarding behavior. is a person's need to use a drug or engage in a behavior despite the harm caused out of desire for the effects it produces. 4. as they have quite short half-lives. so stopping them abruptly causes a more rapid change in the neurotransmitter balance in the brain than many other antidepressants. Many non-addictive prescription drugs should not be suddenly stopped. social. so a doctor should be consulted before abruptly discontinuing them. which are not psychoactive. Some drugs such as cortisone. Paxil and Zoloft. which can cause rebound congestion if used for more than a few days in a row.

and therapeutic interventions intended to help a client learn healthier ways to find satisfaction. In chronic opiate addiction. legal. Clinical leaders in recent years have attempted to tailor intervention approaches to specific influences that effect addictive behavior. employment/support. social workers. using therapeutic interviews . treatment of dependency is conducted by a wide range of medical and allied professionals. and appropriately trained nurses. The index assesses problems in six areas: medical. and has roots in genetic predisposition. ibogaine. including those of at least 15 states of the United States. alcohol and other drug use. An experimental drug. Anti-anxiety and anti-depressant SSRI drugs such as Lexapro are also often prescribed to help cut cravings. refer to an Addiction Severity Index to assess the severity of problems related to substance use. while addicts are often encouraged by therapists to pursue practices like yoga or exercise to decrease reliance on the addictive substance or behavior as the only way to feel good. including Addiction Medicine specialists. Early treatment of acute withdrawal often includes medical detoxification. Therapists often classify patients with chemical dependencies as either interested or not interested in changing. psychiatrists.Some medical systems. and psychiatric. and counselors. family/social. Alternatives to medical detoxification include acupuncture detoxification. But treatment approaches universal focus on the individual's ultimate choice to pursue an alternate course of action. which can include doses of anxiolytics or narcotics to reduce symptoms of withdrawal. While addiction or dependency is related to seemingly uncontrollable urges. Treatments usually involve planning for specific ways to avoid the addictive stimulus. a surrogate drug such as methadone is sometimes offered as a form of opiate replacement therapy. is also proposed to treat withdrawal and craving.

as if the two tones mixed naturally.000 to 1.500 hertz. using stereo headphones. Binaural beats or binaural tones are auditory processing artifacts. The frequency of the tones must be below about 1. The brain produces a similar phenomenon internally. 5. the perception of which arises in the brain independent of physical stimuli. otherwise . which are apparent sounds. The difference between the two frequencies must be small (below about 30 Hz) for the effect to occur. one to each of a subject's ears. The sensor sends the analog brainwave signal into the 8515 microcontroller. resulting in low frequency pulsations in the loudness of a perceived sound when two tones at slightly different frequencies are presented separately. WORKING: The block diagram consists of the following parts whose operation is as below SENSORS: These sensors consist of a 0. These sensors do not contain any latex and don’t need any conductive gel.in an effort to discover factors that led a person to embrace unhealthy. Electroencephalography (EEG) t . THE ADDICTION AVOIDER: PRINCIPLE: The principle behind this device is ‘ Binaural Beats’. AMPLIFIERS: Fig. out of the brain.7 inch diameter hard plastic outer disc housing with a pre-jelled Silver chloride snap style post pellet insert. A beating tone will be perceived. addictive sources of pleasure or relief from pain.

A2. It is designed in such a way that it amplifies 15 micro volts to about 3. And let Vi and Vo be the input Now.7V – 6.Fig. negative sign represents change in phase by 90◦ embedded in a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB). 7. and output voltages of the amplifier.0V. A3 and A4. So let the gain of each inverting amplifier from left to right be A1. 00.000. Circuit diagram of cascaded inverting amplifier with a gain of 2. A1 = (-R2/R1) = (-2/1) = -2 A2 = (-R4/R3) = (-10/1) =-10 A3 = (-R6/R5) Vo =Vi *Av = (-100/1) = 3V = -100 A4 = (-R8/R7) = (-100/1) Fig.000. (2) = -100 Now Total Gain of the amplifier (A). But the Atmel 8515 microcontroller has an operating voltage of about 2. So we are using amplifiers.5V. A = A1 * A2 * A3 * A4 A = (-2)*(-10)*(-100)*(-100) A = 2. 000 Here we have amplified an 15uV signal to an 3V signal so that the signal is in the . 6. 00. Here we are using basic cascaded inverting amplifier using operational amplifier with a gain of about 2. Basically the amplitude of analog brainwaves is in terms of 10 – 15 micro volts. Circuit diagram of a basic Inverting amplifier using Operational amplifier.R2/R1) (1) Where. Gain (A) = (. 00. Here we are using four inverting amplifier cascaded with each other.

MERITS: 1) The headband used is made of rubber or any clothing (better to be an insulator) provided it must be designed such that the sensors touch the skin. OSCILLATORS: The oscillator is basically a Wein bridge audio oscillator. This difference in frequency creates Binaural Beats. There are four negative signs in the gain equation which add up to give 360◦ phase shift. if he/she is in stress or addicted to some substance.e. The oscillator will be designed such that it has 10 – 13 Hz difference in frequency with oscillator 1. 3) The whole device including sensors microcontroller and headphone is cheap and costs only about Rs. The concept of binaural waves can be further researched and used to find a device for communication with deaf and dumb individuals. DEMERITS: Those meeting any of the following This is done by sending audio waves from one oscillator to one of the two criteria/conditions binaural beats: should not use . It can be further used to study the resonance of brain during brain diseases. 2) The whole device is light weight and can be carried anywhere we want. The oscillator is designed in such a way that it produces a particular audio wave below 1500 Hz. the binaural beats having a frequency of about 10-13 Hz creates a stimulus making the brain to move towards the stimulated frequency. 3000 and above. Thus if the brain of an individual produces 32 – 40 Hz (High Beta waves) i.operational range of the microcontroller. STEREO HEADPHONE: sides of the headphone and another oscillator headphone to another side of the FUTURE PROSPECTS: Addiction avoider can be used to cure stress or tension on any individual.

a) Epileptics b) Pregnant women c) People susceptible to seizures d) Pacemaker users e) Photosensitive people.way2students. REFERENCES: [1] ‘Detection of seizures in epileptic and non-epileptic patients using GPS and Embedded Systems’ by Abhiram Chakraborty – Ukranian Journal of Telemedicine and medical Telematics (TOM 3 No.com .2 Pg 211) [2] www. CONCLUSION: Addiction Avoider is the safest and simplest device to use in prevention of Addiction. sexual intercourse and mannerisms. It is used for any type of addiction like addiction caused by taking narcotic drugs or alcohol and simple addictions like overeating.

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