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THEY WILL COME LIVE THE LIFE NO CITY IS AN ISLAND .TABLE OF CONTENTS 10 MINUTE WALKABLE CITY TRANSPORTATION EQUITY NO WASTE LEFT BEHIND LOCAL EMPOWERMENT BLUE GOLD RUSH RAISE THE BAR FOR BUILDINGS KNOWLEDGE IS POWER IF YOU GROW IT.
Currently laneways are unattractive alleys stacked with garbage. COMPLETE COMMUNITIES provide a mix of housing types for all income levels. In many areas it is preventing the development of complete communities that would dramatically cut down on car use. • Rezone to mixed-use throughout the city. Raise the tax rate on parking lots and require all new buildings in the downtown to have underground parking. Vancouver’s zoning map is a vestige of the 60’s and is no longer serving us well. The current densities allowed in Vancouver are significantly lower than other cities of comparable size in Canada and around the world. amenities and street tress. The City of Vancouver’s laneway housing initiative is a good start. . • Upzone by 2 FSR throughout the city. Many neighbourhoods around the city are missing some of the fundamental components of complete communities: the Westside lacks affordable housing and commercial vitality. Complete them! • Rethink parking. so growth must be accommodated through increasing intensity. not occupancy. schools and amenity space – all within a compact area. shopping. Vancouver cannot grow any bigger.10 MINUTE WALKABLE CITY If everything you needed was within a 10 minute walk. and Gastown lacks connection to the water and housing diversity. jobs. the Eastside lacks parks. you would rarely need your car. Nothing defeats the vitality of the city like parking lots occupying prime land. With mixed-use zoned throughout the city. height restrictions. • Leverage laneways. With the proper urban design treatment these can be transformed into a fine-grained network of secondary streets and pedestrian/cycle byways. FSR and design reviews will shape Vancouver. • Create complete communities.
2034 . density increases as amenities improve. A mix of housing and jobs with new parks. Over time.2009 2020 2034 2009 ABOVE: A 25 year development plan around Canada Line’s King Edward station. schools and community centres create a 10 minute walkable city.
must be separated from both sidewalk and roadway by raised curbs and have their own traffic signals. Even Calgary has a very popular car-free street in its downtown core. Every European city.TRANSPORTATION EQUITY Streets are public space that everyone pays for. With a year-round bikeable climate and outdoor lifestyle. • Secure bike storage. can help overcome that. Sea Bus. The other major barrier to cycling is theft. • Develop an expanded comprehensive network for cyclists. Dedicated bike lanes. 25% of lanes on all roads that are major transit routes should be set aside for transit. when the entire downtown becomes a packed pedestrian zone. Seattle does it with great success – so can we. The effectiveness of transit is defeated if it gets stuck in the same traffic jams that cars do. such as transit stations and parks. Car-free zones can also be temporary. Expand the passenger ferry network. large or small. Dedicate lanes to transit. Vancouver’s Sea Bus is highly effective but limited. Dedicated lanes should be separated by a raised curb and can replace parking. Rush hour should not prevent cyclists from commuting. Car-free zones need not ruin streets: they can be Gallerias that cut across blocks or traverse laneways. but only car-users currently get the most out of. has a car-free central square and at least one pedestrian zone. . easily-accessed and economical. climate-protected bike storage lockers at strategic points. Sydney. secure. but they also must be connected with a TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM that is quick. such as during the summer festivals in Montreal. • • Create car-free zones. The biggest obstacle to this is the danger of interacting with traffic. and ferries. Dedicate bike carrying zones on the Skytrain. Cyclists are neither motorists nor pedestrians and shouldn’t be treated as either. • Encourage bikes on transit. It should be expanded to a more comprehensive route network. Australia has a world class network of passenger ferries connecting many points across the harbour and up the Parramatta River. Alternatives to the car will never gain traction if the most useful space is reserved for automobiles. Vancouver could easily become the most cycle-friendly city on earth. like those in Copenhagen. Complete communities provide the majority of needs within walking distance. • • Provide free downtown transit.
• • • . and resulting in a dramatic reduction in our carbon footprint. it also contains significant energy that could form the base supply of local energy systems. Develop a world class recycling system. look abroad. Where Canadian standards are lax. Plasma-arc gasifiers go even further and can break down nearly anything into constituent gases. In Germany this measure was initially met with resistance. Technologies currently available can take us to zero waste immediately. which has dramatically reduced toxins in equipment. including hazardous wastes. we will have to meet the highest standards. Turn waste into energy. it has a 90% compliance rate and is targeting 90% waste diversion by 2012. Edmonton collects unsorted recyclables at curbside and sorts them at facilities. which is largely hydrogen. For example. district infrastructure is able to eliminate waste altogether. • • Turn Vancouver into a no waste city. Gasifiers can turn dry organic waste into syngas. which are much stricter than Canadian standards. but has actually benefitted producers by making them more efficient: they have become much more deliberate about packaging decisions.NO WASTE LEFT BEHIND The foundation of a CARBON-NEUTRAL SOCIETY is ZERO WASTE. Declare that no waste leaves city limits. we should adopt the European Union standards on toxic constituents in products. Anything that isn’t recycled should be turned into energy. Given the convenience and ease of use. To become the greenest city in the world. Obligate producers to recover their packaging and hazardous waste. Waste grease from restaurants and auto garages can be turned into biodiesel. transforming waste products into useful outputs. RIGHT: By using synergies between the byproducts of one process and the feedstock of another. Anaerobic digesters can process sewage and wet organic waste into methane and fertilizer. Not only does waste give off greenhouse gases when it decomposes.
INPUTS Wood Gasifier Scrubber Cogeneration Unit OUTPUTS Exhaust for sale for sale for sale Wood Waste Heat Electricity Glycerin Byproduct Bio-Diesel Grease Feedstock To Energy Plant Waste Water Bio-Diesel Bio-gas Bio-Diesel for sale Sewage Waste To Waste Water Treatment Plant Leachate Sludge Treated Water for Reuse Wood Ash Kitchen and Garden Waste To Compost Plant Compost for sale .
000 .2km E = 1:20.
When integrated with wastewater treatment and waste handling.LOCAL EMPOWERMENT Although it lacks consistent solar and wind resources. grocery stores) with heat consumers (homes. • Establish district loops. Vancouver can radically improve its energy infrastructure by focusing on local DISTRICT ENERGY SYSTEMS. • Encourage connection to district heating. Furthermore. all of the equipment should be housed at the same small plants. 40% of the city’s electricity load comes from electric baseboard heaters. Implement a law modeled on Germany’s “Law for the priority access of electricity from renewable energy sources” that obligates utilities to buy green power from any producer at above market rates. Locally-based district heating can completely replace this waste. Provide incentives for developers to connect to district heating and disincentives to incorporate baseboard heaters. they could be the basis of a carbon neutral Vancouver. These two components could serve as platforms for local district energy systems. Augment district loops with geo-exchange and ocean coupling to provide 100% of the heating and cooling load of the city. businesses). • Invest in geo-exchange. • Prioritize renewable energy. freeing up grid power for electric cars and buses. . This law has been fundamental to the rise of sustainable energy infrastructure in Germany by encouraging developers and individuals to invest in sustainable energy technology.S. if we are transforming sewage and organic waste into methane. For instance. the waste heat from the methane-fired generator should be put directly into the district loop. LEFT: 5 and 10 minute walking radii to community centres (blue) and schools (orange). Integrate district energy infrastructure with water and wastehandling infrastructure to harness synergies between them. or to be sold to the U. Establish neighbourhood-based “district loops” across the city that link heat producers (arenas. • Synergize infrastructure.
the development’s on-site wastewater treatment is expected to save more than six million litres of water annually. Non-potable water should be used for all purposes for which potable water is not required.BLUE GOLD RUSH Vancouver has unrivalled freshwater resources. Establish a system of bioswales to treat all storm runoff before it enters the harbour. BC. • • Meter both grades of water. such as laundry. WATER CONSERVATION is an absolute imperative. These plants will remove biosolids from sewage and treat the wastewater to the “unrestricted usage” standard. Create local blackwater reclamation plants at the heart of each community. but these should not be taken for granted. Biosolids should be further processed with waste-to-energy equipment (described on preceding page). • Reclaim blackwater. suitable for most non-potable uses. local blackwater reclamation plants. connecting to every building in the community and all city parks. Establish a non-potable water network emanating from these small. Create a non-potable network. on a progressive scale. . car washing. Implement mandatory water metering for potable and nonpotable water and set a much steeper tariff for potable water. • Provide efficiency incentives. Water shortages are wreaking havoc in California and climate change could have a devastating impact on the temperate rainforest here. • Treat stormwater runoff. irrigation and toilet flushing. • Collect rainwater. RIGHT: Blackwater (above) and greywater (below) systems at Dockside Green in Victoria. Provide “fee-bates” for water efficient appliances and landscaping. Collect water from the roofs of all City of Vancouver buildings and treat it to non-potable quality.
BIOSWALE FILTER BIOSWALE DRAIN TO HARBOUR HARBOUR TREATED WATER TO BIOSWALE FILTER STORAGE BLACKWATER TREATMENT GREEN ROOFS IRRIGATED WITH REUSED WATER SPRING/ WINTER/ FALL RAINFALL TOILETS FLUSHED WITH REUSED WATER SURFACE RAINWATER FEATURE TO STREAM BIO FILTER VENT BIOSWALE DRAIN TO HARBOUR HARBOUR BIO REACTOR FILTERS STORAGE TANK EMERGENCY MUNICIPAL MAKE-UP POTABLE WATER FILTERS LEGEND: ZENON MEMBRANE FILTER ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER “UV” FILTER SITE WIDE WATER RE-CIRCULATION LEGEND: WATER FEATURES IRRIGATION SYSTEMS TOILETS .
000+ homes. this has saved 3. Insist on building retrofits.RAISE THE BAR FOR BUILDINGS Buildings use 50% of our energy. • Enforce performance standards. which has the potential to become an iconic feature of Vancouver. Conspicuously label all buildings according to comparative energy and water performance. and at progressing through the massive retrofit of the Chicago’s 700. The program focuses on retrofitting vacant buildings. • Provide incentives to upgrade. Use retrofitting as a tool to give unemployable people job skills. and buildings undergoing a change in title. LEFT BELOW: 1220 Homer (an office building built in 1949 and renovated in 2000 uses only 110 kWh/sm/yr). mandatory energy performance standards in bylaws and building codes for all new construction. Require that energy and water performance be clearly indicated on all title deeds and lease documents. increasing at a fixed percentage each year. It is an enormous success both at re-integrating people into society. so any efforts towards sustainability must seriously address UPGRADING THE BUILDING STOCK. COMBINED PERFORMANCE: The energy savings from these two projects combined would be enough to send an electric car on a 5 million mile road trip. . the carbon saved is equivalent to taking 150 gas guzzling cars off the road in 2009. this has saved 1. • Label building performance. Retrofit all City of Vancouver buildings to the highest feasible energy performance. Both new and existing buildings must be brought up to a significantly higher standard. for home and business owners to upgrade energy performance and switch to district heating. Compared to an average office building in BC.800 kWh of energy and over 150 tonnes of carbon since it was built.614. Provide rewards for exemplary energy strategies that reflect the mild climate and overcast skies of Vancouver. including subsidies and fee-bates. to obviate the risk of theft. • Publish performance results in legal documents. Establish stringent.380 kWh of energy and over 350 tonnes of carbon since it was renovated. Provide inducements. Reward innovation.108. • • • Provide jobs while improving performance. Compared to an average office building in BC. modeled on Chicago’s retrofitting program for ex-convicts. LEFT ABOVE: White Rock Operations building (a new office building built in 2001 uses only 80 kWh/sm/yr).
etc. Waste is inevitable if people are not financially responsible for it. Require country of origin and transport-mile labeling for all products. making them an ideal framework for decentralized infrastructure. measure. RIGHT: Graph showing the current GHG emissions of select cities in tonnes of CO2 per person per year and the rate needed to sustain a world population of 8 billion people. Integrate infrastructure with schools. carbon generation. Infrastructure systems should be part of the curriculum so that students understand where water. recycling efficiency. . and the city as a whole. Set a fixed time frame for the implementation of smart meters for all condos and apartments. This is especially pertinent to food as more and more people seek local choices. • Measure. waste production. • • • Implement smart meters. • Integrate and educate. electricity and waste handling come from. the neighbourhood/community. Many people will make their own BEHAVIOURAL ADJUSTMENTS if they receive prompt and accurate feedback and are EDUCATED about the consequences of their actions. community centres and parks. Vancouver’s schools have been carefully planned to be within a 10 minute walk of nearly any point in the city. Label all goods.KNOWLEDGE IS POWER MEASUREMENT is critical to determining whether targets have been met and to evaluating the success of policies. Compare what you measure. measure. energy use. Accurately measure everything that is a concern: potable and non-potable water. Implement regular comparative reporting for all factors measured on three scales: the individual home/business.
0 San Francisco 12.6 Los Angeles 15.0 Barcelona 3.0 US Average Canadian Average Calgary 24.2 .2 Vancouver 5.0 Oslo Rate Needed to Sustain a World Population of 8 Billion 2.4 Toronto 9.3 New York 7.0 17.Denver 25.4 Seattle 12.1 London 5.5 2.4 23.
Provide incentives for schools to set aside some outdoor areas for vegetable plots and community gardens. • Switch to native species. • Create the city’s own brand.IF YOU GROW IT. • • Encourage agriculture of all kinds. . Vegetated surfaces also help with storm water retention. and walls. Replace grass and invasive species with native biodiversity in all parks except those specifically programmed for sports. Create incentives for home owners and businesses to turn lawns into productive agricultural spaces or native biodiversity. birds and small mammals that are the mainstays of ecosystems. THEY WILL COME Vancouver is known around the world for the lushness of its landscape and its proximity to nature. • Make lawns productive. Create a “Grown in Vancouver” brand and deploy it for produce grown on lawns. • Educate and cultivate. Focus on the components of habitat to attract the insects. Reintroduce native species. Provide incentives for vegetated roofs and living walls that add biodiversity and/or agriculture to the city. roofs. which helps absorb rainfall and release it slowly back into the environment. URBAN AGRICULTURE and NATIVE BIODIVERSITY should be encouraged throughout the city to become its pervasive symbol. urban heat island effect and provide amenity space for inhabitants. 90 percent of the complex has a green roof or is landscaped. Set targets for the reintroduction of native species. LEFT: An expansive green wall at the south entry of Simon Fraser University’s Blusson Hall forms a strong public identity. Make urban agriculture and food policy part of school curriculum. it is also a water issue. Grass is not just a biodiversity issue.
Vancouver will never become the greenest city in the world if the harbour is too polluted for swimming. This very unique and appealing quality should be preserved. East Vancouver suffers from a dearth of parks and amenity space. but this should be far more permeable to the average citizen. Establish more links to the Burrard Inlet in East Vancouver. Put the city’s neighbourhood-centric. etc.LIVE THE LIFE One of Vancouver’s major distinguishing features is the uniqueness of its LIFESTYLE – at once urban and cosmopolitan. One major advantage of small distributed wastewater plants is that water is cleaned within the city. not drudgery. • • • • Show off our innovation. celebrated and enhanced to ensure that sustainability is delight. It is essential that we retain industry along the waterfront. Establish major events. Create a network of secure kayak and boat storage lockers at strategic places around False Creek and the Burrard Inlet. and the industrial areas should be organized into more efficient enclaves to permit public waterfront access. integrated infrastructure system on display as a source of civic pride. Clean water can be released into natural creeks and streams that would form attractive centerpieces of parks. Remediate the harbour. • Have fun while living the life. car-free rights of way. kayaking. . and biodiverse wildlife corridors. festivals and races to celebrate the components of Vancouver’s unique outdoor lifestyle – cycling. • Restore creeks that were sewerized during the industrial era. but with unrivalled access to nature. and establish tours of City of Vancouver buildings that have been retrofitted to showcase the sustainable features. Secure boat storage. swimming in the ocean.
Once the carrying capacity for the Lower Mainland is determined. Societies collapse when all of their fertile land is built over. Create a Plan that will characterize where and how growth will take place over the next 25 years. this relationship can be solidified and personalized through direct linkages. but it is part of an urban system that stretches south to the border and east across the Fraser River. • Create passenger ferry hubs downtown and at Granville Island. and preserved open space. It is essential to coordinate planning efforts across the Lower Mainland. As concern for food miles and local sustainability grows. transportation. Port Moody. Unabated sprawl at the edges of the metropolis will overpower any of the improvements made in the city proper. calibrate growth targets for each community accordingly. Ambleside. The metropolis in turn is part of a much greater URBAN-RURAL SYSTEM that must inform all planning decisions. Belcarra. The Plan must include land use. providing a framework for each of the communities to grow without sprawl. such as farmer’s markets and school exchanges. Commuter rail is one of the cornerstones of an effective transportation plan and the West Coast Express is packed every day. Bowen Island. • Create a Metro Vancouver Planning Authority. • Undertake a Strategic Lower Mainland Plan. Gibson’s. Passenger ferries (with bike carrying capacity) should link to other points in the metropolis and beyond: to Squamish. to the benefit of everyone. mandate that NO golf courses and NO big mansions are built on ALR land. Light House Park.NO CITY IS AN ISLAND Vancouver may end at Boundary Road. • Expand the West Coast Express. • Determine the maximum carrying capacity. • Strictly enforce the uses on ALR lands. . Cities cannot exist without the hinterlands that provide them with food and amenity. • Link city districts to the countryside. Deep Cove. etc. Extend the West Coast Express to Hope and greatly increase departure times.
M. FRAIC Managing Director t: 604.ca .5447 e: peter.ca or contact: Peter Busby..684.684.5446 f: 604.To learn more visit www.busby@busbyperkinswill. C.busbyperkinswill.
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