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# Question

Part I
Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are amongfavourite desserts served
during special occasions such asbirthday parties, Hari Raya, weddings and etc. Cakes
aretreasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also inthe art of cake baking and
cake decorating. Find out howmathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating
Geometry To determine suitable dimensions for the cake, to assist in designing and
decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs, to estimate volume of
cake to be produced
Calculus (differentiation) To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for
cake-baking, to estimate min. or max.amount of cream needed for decorating, to estimate
min. or max. size of cake produced.

Progressions To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional
dimensions, to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking, to estimate total amount
of cream for decoration.

Part II
est akery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as
shownin Diagram 1 for the Teachers' Daycelebration. (Diagram 11)

1)
f a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800I

## , and the height of the cake is to be

7.0cm, calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake

[Use = 3.142]
'olume of 5kg cake = ase area of cake x Height of cake

3800 x 5 = (3.142)(
d
2
) x 7

19000
7
(3.142) = (
d
2
)

863.872 = (
d
2
)

d
2
= 29.392

d = 58.784 cm

2)The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length, 60.0 cmin
width and 45.0 cm in height.
a)f the volume of cake remains the same, explore by using different values of heights,hcm,
and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to beused,d cm. Tabulate

First, form the formula for d in terms of h by using the above formula for volume of cake, '
= 19000, that is:

19000 = (3.142)(d/2)h
19000
(142)h
=
d`
4

24188415
h
= d

d =

X

Height,h (cm) Diameter,d(cm)
1.0 155.53
2.0 109.98
3.0 89.80
4.0 77.77
5.0 68.56
6.0 63.49
7.0 58.78
8.0 54.99
9.0 51.84
10.0 49.18

(b)ased on the values in your table,
(i)state the range of heights that isNOTsuitable for the cakes andexplain your answers.
h< 7cm is NOT suitabIe, because the resuIting diameter produced is too Iarge to fit
into the oven. Furthermore, the cake wouId be too short and too wide, making it Iess
attractive.

(ii)suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake. Give reasons for your
h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm, because it can fit into the oven, and the size is suitabIe for
easy handIing.

(c)
(i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation betweenhand d. Hence, plot a suitable
graph based on the equation that you haveformed. [You may draw your graph with the aid
of computersoftware.]
19000 = (3.142)(
d
2
)h
19000/(3.142)h =
d`
4

24188415
h
= d
d =
1555
h

d = h
-1
2

log d = log h
-1
2

log d =
-1
2
log h + log 155.53
Log h 0 1 2 3 4
Log d 2.19 1.69 1.19 0.69 0.19

(ii)
(a) f est akery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.5
cm, use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required.

h = 10.5cm, log h = 1.021, log d = 1.680, d = 47.86cm

(b) f est akery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray, use yourgraph to estimate the
height of the cake obtained.
d = 42cm, log d = 1.623, log h = 1.140, h = 13.80cm
3)est akery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. The thicknessof
the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about1cm
(a)Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using thedimensions
that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii).

h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm
Amount of fresh cream = 'LUME of fresh cream needed (area x height)
Amount of fresh cream = 'ol. of cream at the top surface + 'ol. of cream at the side
surface

'ol. of cream at the top surface
= Area of top surface x Height of cream
= (3.142)(
5499
2
) x 1
= 375 cm

'ol. of cream at the side surface
= Area of side surface x Height of cream
= (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream
= 2(3.142)(54.99/2)(8) x 1
= 138.3 cm

Therefore, amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382.23 = 3757.3 cm

(b)Suggestthreeother shapes for cake, that will have the same height andvolume as those
suggested in 2(b)(ii). Estimate the amount of fresh cream tobe used on each of the cakes.

1 - RectangIe-shaped base (cuboid)

19000 = base area x height
base area =
19000
2

length x width = 2375
y trial and improvement, 2375 = 50 x 47.5 (length = 50, width = 47.5, height = 8)

Therefore, volume of cream
= 2(Area of left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of front/back side
surface)(Height of cream) + 'ol. of top surface
= 2(8 x 50)(1) + 2(8 x 47.5)(1) + 2375 = 3935 cm
- TriangIe-shaped base

19000 = base area x height
base area = 2375
1
2
x length x width = 2375
length x width = 4750
y trial and improvement, 4750 = 95 x 50 (length = 95, width = 50)
Slant length of triangle = \(95 + 25)= 98.23
Therefore, amount of cream
= Area of rectangular front side surface(Height of cream) + 2(Area of slant rectangular
left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + 'ol. of top surface
= (50 x 8)(1) + 2(98.23 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 4346.68 cm

3 - Pentagon-shaped base

19000 = base area x height
base area = 2375 = area of 5 similar isosceles triangles in a pentagon
therefore:
2375 = 5(length x width)
475 = length x width
y trial and improvement, 475 = 25 x 19 (length = 25, width = 19)

Therefore, amount of cream
= 5(area of one rectangular side surface)(height of cream) + vol. of top surface
= 5(8 x 19) + 2375 = 3135 cm

(c)ased on the values that you have found which shape requires the leastamount of fresh
cream to be used?

Pentagon-shaped cake, since it requires onIy 3135 cm of cream to be used.

Part III

Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream
todecorate. Use at least two different methods including Calculus.State whether you would
choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Give reasons for youranswers.

Method 1: Differentiation
Use two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in Q2/a), and the
formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in Q3/a).
19000 = (3.142)rh (1)
' = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)rh (2)
From (1): h =
19000
(142)r`
(3)
Sub. (3) into (2):

## ' = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)r(

19000
(142)r`
)
' = (3.142)r + (
8000
r
)
' = (3.142)r + 38000r
-1

(
dV
dr
) = 2(3.142)r (
8000
r`
)
0 = 2(3.142)r (
8000
r`
) -->> minimum value, therefore
dV
dr
= 0
8000
r`
= 2(3.142)r
8000
2(142)
= r
6047.104 = r
r = 18.

Sub. r = 18.22 into (3):
h =
19000
(142)(1822)`

h = 18.
therefore, h = 18.cm, d = r = (18.) = 36.44cm

Use the two same equations as in Method 1, but only the formula for amount of cream is
the main equation used as the quadratic function.
Let f(r) = volume of cream, r = radius of round cake:
19000 = (3.142)rh (1)
f(r) = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)hr (2)
From (2):
f(r) = (3.142)(r + 2hr) -->> factorize (3.142)
= (3.142)[ (r +
2h
2
) (
2h
2
) ] -->> completing square, with a = (3.142), b = 2h and c = 0
= (3.142)[ (r + h) h ]
= (3.142)(r + h) (3.142)h
(a = (3.142) (positive indicates min. value), min. value = f(r) = (3.142)h, corresponding
value of x = r = --h)

Sub. r = --h into (1):
19000 = (3.142)(--h)h
h = 6047.104
h = 18.

Sub. h = 18.22 into (1):
19000 = (3.142)r(18.22)
r = 331.894

r = 18.
therefore, h = 18. cm, d = r = (18.) = 36.44 cm

I wouId choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are
not suitabIe (the height is too high) and therefore Iess attractive. Furthermore, such
cakes are difficuIt to handIe easiIy.

FURTHER EXPLORATION
est akery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration,
asshown in Diagram 2.
The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius
of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake, the radius of the third cake
is10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on.(a)
Find the volume of the first, the second, the third and the fourth cakes. y comparingall
these values, determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern?Explain
and elaborate on the number patterns.

height, h of each cake = 6cm

radius of largest cake = 31cm
nd
cake = 10% smaller than 1
st
cake
rd
cake = 10% smaller than 2
nd
cake

31, 27.9, 25.11, 22.599.
a = 31, r =
9
10

' = (3.142)rh
st
cake = 31, volume of 1
st
cake = (3.142)(31)(6) = 18116.77
nd
cake = 27.9, vol. of 2
nd
cake = 14674.585
rd
cake = 25.11, vol. of 3
rd
cake = 11886.414
th
cake = 22.599, vol. of 4
th
cake = 967.995

18116.77, 14674.585, 11886.414, 967.995, .

a = 18116.77, ratio, r = T

T
1
= T
3
T

= . = 0.81

(b) f the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg, calculate
the maximumnumber of cakes that the bakery needs to bake. 'erify your answer using
othermethods.
S
n
=
(a(1 - rn))
(1 - r)

S
n
= 57000, a = 18116.772 and r = 0.81
57000 =
(18116772(1 - (081)n))
(1 - 081)

1 0.81
n
= 0.59779

0.40221 = 0.81
n

og
0.81
0.40221 = n

n =
Iog 040221
Iog 081

n = 4.322

therefore, n = 4

REFLECTION
In the making of this project, I have spent countIess hours doing this project.I
reaIized that this subject is a compuIsory to me. Without it, I can't fuIfiII my big
dreams and wishes..
I used to hate AdditionaI Mathematics.
It aIways makes me wonder why this subject is so difficuIt.
I aIways tried to Iove every part of it.
It aIways an absoIute obstacIe for me.
Throughout day and night.
I sacrificed my precious time to have fun.
From..
Monday,Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday,Friday
And even the weekend that I aIways Iooking forward to.

(Cover the top part of the phrase "1 28ve 980
From now on, will do my best on every second that will learn Additional Mathematics.
1 8ve 980