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Part I

Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are amongfavourite desserts served

during special occasions such asbirthday parties, Hari Raya, weddings and etc. Cakes

aretreasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also inthe art of cake baking and

cake decorating. Find out howmathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating

andwrite about your findings.

Answer:

Geometry To determine suitable dimensions for the cake, to assist in designing and

decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs, to estimate volume of

cake to be produced

Calculus (differentiation) To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for

cake-baking, to estimate min. or max.amount of cream needed for decorating, to estimate

min. or max. size of cake produced.

Progressions To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional

dimensions, to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking, to estimate total amount

of cream for decoration.

Part II

est akery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as

shownin Diagram 1 for the Teachers' Daycelebration. (Diagram 11)

1)

f a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800I

7.0cm, calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake

ordered by your school.

[Use = 3.142]

Answer:

'olume of 5kg cake = ase area of cake x Height of cake

3800 x 5 = (3.142)(

d

2

) x 7

19000

7

(3.142) = (

d

2

)

863.872 = (

d

2

)

d

2

= 29.392

d = 58.784 cm

2)The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length, 60.0 cmin

width and 45.0 cm in height.

a)f the volume of cake remains the same, explore by using different values of heights,hcm,

and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to beused,d cm. Tabulate

your answers

Answer:

First, form the formula for d in terms of h by using the above formula for volume of cake, '

= 19000, that is:

19000 = (3.142)(d/2)h

19000

(142)h

=

d`

4

24188415

h

= d

d =

X

Height,h (cm) Diameter,d(cm)

1.0 155.53

2.0 109.98

3.0 89.80

4.0 77.77

5.0 68.56

6.0 63.49

7.0 58.78

8.0 54.99

9.0 51.84

10.0 49.18

(b)ased on the values in your table,

(i)state the range of heights that isNOTsuitable for the cakes andexplain your answers.

Answer:

h< 7cm is NOT suitabIe, because the resuIting diameter produced is too Iarge to fit

into the oven. Furthermore, the cake wouId be too short and too wide, making it Iess

attractive.

(ii)suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake. Give reasons for your

answer.

Answer:

h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm, because it can fit into the oven, and the size is suitabIe for

easy handIing.

(c)

(i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation betweenhand d. Hence, plot a suitable

graph based on the equation that you haveformed. [You may draw your graph with the aid

of computersoftware.]

Answer:

19000 = (3.142)(

d

2

)h

19000/(3.142)h =

d`

4

24188415

h

= d

d =

1555

h

d = h

-1

2

log d = log h

-1

2

log d =

-1

2

log h + log 155.53

Log h 0 1 2 3 4

Log d 2.19 1.69 1.19 0.69 0.19

(ii)

(a) f est akery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.5

cm, use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required.

Answer:

h = 10.5cm, log h = 1.021, log d = 1.680, d = 47.86cm

(b) f est akery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray, use yourgraph to estimate the

height of the cake obtained.

Answer:

d = 42cm, log d = 1.623, log h = 1.140, h = 13.80cm

3)est akery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. The thicknessof

the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about1cm

(a)Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using thedimensions

that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii).

Answer:

h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm

Amount of fresh cream = 'LUME of fresh cream needed (area x height)

Amount of fresh cream = 'ol. of cream at the top surface + 'ol. of cream at the side

surface

'ol. of cream at the top surface

= Area of top surface x Height of cream

= (3.142)(

5499

2

) x 1

= 375 cm

'ol. of cream at the side surface

= Area of side surface x Height of cream

= (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream

= 2(3.142)(54.99/2)(8) x 1

= 138.3 cm

Therefore, amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382.23 = 3757.3 cm

(b)Suggestthreeother shapes for cake, that will have the same height andvolume as those

suggested in 2(b)(ii). Estimate the amount of fresh cream tobe used on each of the cakes.

Answer:

1 - RectangIe-shaped base (cuboid)

19000 = base area x height

base area =

19000

2

length x width = 2375

y trial and improvement, 2375 = 50 x 47.5 (length = 50, width = 47.5, height = 8)

Therefore, volume of cream

= 2(Area of left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of front/back side

surface)(Height of cream) + 'ol. of top surface

= 2(8 x 50)(1) + 2(8 x 47.5)(1) + 2375 = 3935 cm

- TriangIe-shaped base

19000 = base area x height

base area = 2375

1

2

x length x width = 2375

length x width = 4750

y trial and improvement, 4750 = 95 x 50 (length = 95, width = 50)

Slant length of triangle = \(95 + 25)= 98.23

Therefore, amount of cream

= Area of rectangular front side surface(Height of cream) + 2(Area of slant rectangular

left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + 'ol. of top surface

= (50 x 8)(1) + 2(98.23 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 4346.68 cm

3 - Pentagon-shaped base

19000 = base area x height

base area = 2375 = area of 5 similar isosceles triangles in a pentagon

therefore:

2375 = 5(length x width)

475 = length x width

y trial and improvement, 475 = 25 x 19 (length = 25, width = 19)

Therefore, amount of cream

= 5(area of one rectangular side surface)(height of cream) + vol. of top surface

= 5(8 x 19) + 2375 = 3135 cm

(c)ased on the values that you have found which shape requires the leastamount of fresh

cream to be used?

Answer:

Pentagon-shaped cake, since it requires onIy 3135 cm of cream to be used.

Part III

Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream

todecorate. Use at least two different methods including Calculus.State whether you would

choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Give reasons for youranswers.

Answer:

Method 1: Differentiation

Use two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in Q2/a), and the

formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in Q3/a).

19000 = (3.142)rh (1)

' = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)rh (2)

From (1): h =

19000

(142)r`

(3)

Sub. (3) into (2):

19000

(142)r`

)

' = (3.142)r + (

8000

r

)

' = (3.142)r + 38000r

-1

(

dV

dr

) = 2(3.142)r (

8000

r`

)

0 = 2(3.142)r (

8000

r`

) -->> minimum value, therefore

dV

dr

= 0

8000

r`

= 2(3.142)r

8000

2(142)

= r

6047.104 = r

r = 18.

Sub. r = 18.22 into (3):

h =

19000

(142)(1822)`

h = 18.

therefore, h = 18.cm, d = r = (18.) = 36.44cm

Method : Quadratic Functions

Use the two same equations as in Method 1, but only the formula for amount of cream is

the main equation used as the quadratic function.

Let f(r) = volume of cream, r = radius of round cake:

19000 = (3.142)rh (1)

f(r) = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)hr (2)

From (2):

f(r) = (3.142)(r + 2hr) -->> factorize (3.142)

= (3.142)[ (r +

2h

2

) (

2h

2

) ] -->> completing square, with a = (3.142), b = 2h and c = 0

= (3.142)[ (r + h) h ]

= (3.142)(r + h) (3.142)h

(a = (3.142) (positive indicates min. value), min. value = f(r) = (3.142)h, corresponding

value of x = r = --h)

Sub. r = --h into (1):

19000 = (3.142)(--h)h

h = 6047.104

h = 18.

Sub. h = 18.22 into (1):

19000 = (3.142)r(18.22)

r = 331.894

r = 18.

therefore, h = 18. cm, d = r = (18.) = 36.44 cm

I wouId choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are

not suitabIe (the height is too high) and therefore Iess attractive. Furthermore, such

cakes are difficuIt to handIe easiIy.

FURTHER EXPLORATION

est akery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration,

asshown in Diagram 2.

The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius

of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake, the radius of the third cake

is10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on.(a)

Find the volume of the first, the second, the third and the fourth cakes. y comparingall

these values, determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern?Explain

and elaborate on the number patterns.

Answer:

height, h of each cake = 6cm

radius of largest cake = 31cm

radius of 2

nd

cake = 10% smaller than 1

st

cake

radius of 3

rd

cake = 10% smaller than 2

nd

cake

31, 27.9, 25.11, 22.599.

a = 31, r =

9

10

' = (3.142)rh

Radius of 1

st

cake = 31, volume of 1

st

cake = (3.142)(31)(6) = 18116.77

Radius of 2

nd

cake = 27.9, vol. of 2

nd

cake = 14674.585

Radius of 3

rd

cake = 25.11, vol. of 3

rd

cake = 11886.414

Radius of 4

th

cake = 22.599, vol. of 4

th

cake = 967.995

18116.77, 14674.585, 11886.414, 967.995, .

a = 18116.77, ratio, r = T

T

1

= T

3

T

= . = 0.81

(b) f the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg, calculate

the maximumnumber of cakes that the bakery needs to bake. 'erify your answer using

othermethods.

Answer:

S

n

=

(a(1 - rn))

(1 - r)

S

n

= 57000, a = 18116.772 and r = 0.81

57000 =

(18116772(1 - (081)n))

(1 - 081)

1 0.81

n

= 0.59779

0.40221 = 0.81

n

og

0.81

0.40221 = n

n =

Iog 040221

Iog 081

n = 4.322

therefore, n = 4

REFLECTION

In the making of this project, I have spent countIess hours doing this project.I

reaIized that this subject is a compuIsory to me. Without it, I can't fuIfiII my big

dreams and wishes..

I used to hate AdditionaI Mathematics.

It aIways makes me wonder why this subject is so difficuIt.

I aIways tried to Iove every part of it.

It aIways an absoIute obstacIe for me.

Throughout day and night.

I sacrificed my precious time to have fun.

From..

Monday,Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday,Friday

And even the weekend that I aIways Iooking forward to.

(Cover the top part of the phrase "1 28ve 980

From now on, will do my best on every second that will learn Additional Mathematics.

1 8ve 980

ADDITIONAL

MATHEMATICS

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