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A

T

E

X Introduction

Weijie Chen

∗

Department of Economics

University of Helsinki

6 July, 2011

Contents

1 Buckle Your Seatbelt 3

2 Start! 7

3 Put It Nicely 9

3.1 Cross reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.2 Footnote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.3 Emphasize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.4 Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.5 Enumeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

3.6 Loading a picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3.7 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4 ‘Queen of Science’ 12

4.1 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

4.2 Super- and Subscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

4.3 Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

5 Beamer 16

6 Miscellaneous 18

6.1 Your Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

6.2 Change Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

6.3 Some marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

6.4 Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

6.5 Umlaut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

∗

If you have any questions or comments, send email to weijie.chen@helsinki.ﬁ

1

List of Figures

1 T

E

XnicCenter interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2 LyX interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

3 T

E

Xmaker interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

4 Lake Louise in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

5 Reserved picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

6 Beamer Title Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2

Abstract

This article is used for helping you quickly master some essential

L

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E

X skills, especially used for writing your class exercise, ﬁnal paper

or graduation thesis. L

A

T

E

X can be very confusing for beginners, since

it is not ‘WYSIWYG’

1

at all. In the very beginning when you learn

L

A

T

E

X, you desperately watch bunches of L

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E

X source codes on the

computer screen which distracts you away from your initial intention,

consuming most of your energy on handling with codes rather than

your thought. I undertand, I had been through this before. Thus I

write this article to extract all essential stuﬀ which might help you

learn as quickly as possible, and of most importance, at lowest pain.

Hence excuse my informal languages in this article, I have no intention

to make this article read like an academic paper which merely brings

you more pain.

1 Buckle Your Seatbelt

For those people who want to pursue an academic career, L

A

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E

X is absolute

necessity. Don’t anticipate that you could submit a Ph.D. dissertation writ-

ten by MS word. In a word, unprofessional. When you were in classroom,

watching teacher clicking folders in his/her USB, didn’t you notice that most

of your teachers do not use Powerpoint to show you his/her course slides?

He/she usually opens a pdf ﬁle, then it ‘becomes’ course slides, and it looks

rather neat and nice-looking. I can assure you, these slides were made by

L

A

T

E

X. You must have following experience when dealing with MS word,

although it is considerably straighforward, it seems always inconsistent in

everything, such as fonts change, line space diﬀers, picture unproportionally

scales, messes of footnotes, chaos of bibliography. . . Well, I might have ex-

agerated a little bit, you might also turn fastidious with MS Oﬃce after you

get to know L

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X quite well. You even get a basic sense of how L

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X out-

put look like from reading my article, since my article is compile by L

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X,

I guess you will notice lots of diﬀerences from MS Word.

L

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E

X is not a word processor programme, it is a typesetting system.

From my perspective, it can be regarded as ‘script programming’

2

. But this

system is embedded into some window interface programme into which you

can type your articles. I recommend some programmes here, once you get

familiar with one, you can try others, but don’t start with several together.

1. T

E

XnicCenter

This is my favourite, most of time I use this IDE

3

to typeset my article.

1

What you see is what you get. Microsoft Word and Powerpoint belongs to this

catagory.

2

If you do not know this terminolgy from computer programming, don’t bother.

3

Integrated development environment, again, don’t bother.

3

interface.png

Figure 1: T

E

XnicCenter interface

2. L

Y

X L

Y

X is designed to have word processor interface, which makes

it rather easy to get hands on, very suitable for absolute beginners.

But its output layout setting is diﬀerent from standard thesis writing

setting, and if you don’t know how to reset, it might be a problem.

Lots of universities privided on their computers.

3. T

E

Xmaker

A rather popular IDE among L

A

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E

X users. Simple and neat interface,

won’t make you feel lost.

They are all free to download from their website, just go to their website

and browse the instruction, it won’t take more than 10 minutes. Before

installation of these programme, you should install MiKT

E

X ﬁrst, which is

the core of everything else, packages gather in it.

Now take a look at this,

\sum_{i=1}^k=\boldsymbol{X}_tu_t

This is how we compile mathematics in L

A

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X, rather scary? Don’t

worry, you will get used to it. The output of this line will be

k

¸

i=1

= X

t

u

t

Here is more, you will get the basic sense how we work in L

A

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X environment,

4

interface.png

Figure 2: LyX interface

interface.png

Figure 3: T

E

Xmaker interface

5

\begin{equation*}

\begin{bmatrix}

x_{11} & x_{12} & \cdots & x_{1k}\\

x_{21} & x_{22} & \cdots & x_{2k}\\

\vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots\\

x_{n1} & x_{n2} & \cdots & x_{n3}

\end{bmatrix}

\begin{equation*}

I know you get a headache, but here is the output, quite nice, right?

x

11

x

12

· · · x

1k

x

21

x

22

· · · x

2k

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x

n1

x

n2

· · · x

n3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

So I said it is very confusing in the very beginning, it seems you have to

remember endless meanless codes before you even start writing your thesis.

But this is the right path to walk, you work through some simple example

and develop your own style. The more you get in touch with L

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T

E

X, the

more you will know its ‘temper’.

6

2 Start!

Now I want to you to try set up your ﬁrst L

A

T

E

X ﬁle, just follow all lines

below, put them into your L

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E

X typesetting programme.

\documentclass[11pt,a4paper]{article}

\usepackage{amssymb,amsthm,amsmath,amsfonts}

\usepackage{mathrsfs,syntonly,graphicx,color,hyperref}

%\syntaxonly

\title{My first \{LaTeX} file}

\author{Your name here!}

\date{6 July, 2011}

\begin{document}

\maketitle

\section{My first section}

This is awesome! Haha!

\section{My second section}

I am hungry\ldots

\end{document}

Well, you have successfully make your ﬁrst step, now let me brieﬂy

explain what we did in those lines. There is a name for area between

\documentclass{article} and \begin{document}, it is called preamble.

The ﬁrst line \documentclass[11pt,a4paper]{article}, indicates what

kind of project you are working on, article, book, or slides, etc. And through-

out all ﬁle, font size will be set at 11 points, and A4 paper size.

Second and third line requires L

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X distribution to load various package

to help you complete your project. Because initially L

A

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X does not have so

much function, or we could say it is rather limited. So diﬀerent institutes

provides their package to increase L

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E

X’s ﬂexibility. American Mathemat-

ical Sociaty provides several packages, which makes L

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E

X almost can deal

with any kinds of math notation you can imagine. I guess, you can guess

from the names of the package to some extent. syntonly is used as checking

syntax correction, if you load this package, and you have \syntaxonly on

next line, your L

A

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E

X platform does not produce output, such as .pdf or .dvi,

it only check the syntax, which will save some time when you are running

some huge projects. graphicx is a must if you need to load picture into

your article. color package change the fonts’ colour as I did here.hyperref

will package is very useful, it makes all your reference in pdf ﬁle into hyper-

link, which could ‘zap’ you to the point in the article you refer to by just

clicking it, try this 1, go to ﬁgure 1. After all these explanation, I would

rather suggest you no matter what you write, just load them all, put them

7

into your favourite template, since computer nowadays is so fast, loading

package time is almost neglectable.

Continue, title, author, date is straightforward, needless to explain,

help yourself.

\maketitle

\section{My first section}

This is awesome! Haha!

\section{My second section}

I am hungry\ldots

\end{document}

Note that this is the body of article, between \begin{document} and

\end{document}. is must, unless you don’t want a title of your article.

Beside title, you might need contents, you also can use \tableofcontents,

\listoffigures and \listoftables, just put them there, you will see

the eﬀect later on. \section{} is the ﬁrst structrual level of an article,

then \subsection{} and \subsubsection{}. If you are writing a book,

\documentclass{book}, \chapter{} will be the ﬁrst structrual level.

Now you have the basics of L

A

T

E

X, just go write some basic stuﬀ!

8

3 Put It Nicely

I present all most frequently used function here, I presume that almost every

thesis writing would need these basic skills.

3.1 Cross reference

When you want to refer to a sentence or a word, just put \label{} at the

end of that sentence or word, write anything you want in that bracket so

be the unique label. Next, you set up and hyperlink by using \ref{}, the

content in the curly braces should be exactly the same as in \label{}, which

you intend to refer to. If you are referring to an equation, you should use

\eqref{}, referring a page, you should use \pageref{}.

3.2 Footnote

This is an article teaching you\\

how to use {\LaTeX}.\footnote{ See? This is footnote.}

Follow the example above, \footnote{}, is the command you want to

write footnote. The same, write them in curly braces.

3.3 Emphasize

Let me put this straight, in a printed book or a thesis you do not em-

phasize a word by using boldfonts. You do this by either emphasize

them or emphasize them. The command accordingly are, \emph{} and

\underline{}. But underline is used very rarely and old-fashioned, I sug-

gest you use former one.

3.4 Environment

This is environment,

\begin{document}

\begin{abstract}

\end{abstract}

\begin{equation}

\begin{bmatrix}

\end{bmatrix}

\end{equation}

\end{document}

9

it always starts with \begin{}. Ends with \end{}. In the curly braces,

you write what environment you intend to get into. Within

\begin{document}

...

\end{document}

is the main body as I said before. Inside abstract environment,

\begin{abstract}

...

\end{abstract}

you write you abstract. Equation environment,

\begin{equation}

...

\end{equation}

brings you into math mode, where you start a seperate line to write your

mathematics. We will come back to \begin{bmatrix}...\end{bmatrix}

later.

3.5 Enumeration

Just follow commands below, you will get it, it is easy.

\begin{enumerate}

\item Microeconomics

\item Macroeconimics

\item Econometrics

\end{enumerate}

Last one is enumerate environment, it marks numbers in front of item,

if you do not need numbers, try this

\begin{itemize}

\item Microeconomics

\item Macroeconimics

\item Econometrics

\end{itemize}

10

As always, I also put output here for your comparsion,

1. Microeconomics

2. Macroeconimics

3. Econometrics

• Microeconimics

• Macroeconimics

• Econometrics

3.6 Loading a picture

First you should prepare a picture in the same folder as you current com-

piling .tex ﬁle. Then we use ﬁgure environment.

\begin{figure}

\centering

\includegraphics[width=12.5cm]{name of your picture}

\caption{Enter your caption here} \label{fig1}

\end{figure}

\centering is used to put picture in the center, not left or right. Then

just put the exact same name of the picture under same folder into that

curly braces, then enter captions whatever you want. Here I load a picture

from my computer 4.

Sometimes you know you need to put picture right at some place, but

the problem is you haven’t drawn yet, you just keep writing, then you might

Lake.jpg

Figure 4: Lake Louise in Canada

11

really forget about this, if you thesis writing lasts long enough (which I

hope not!). So you probably should insert an empty box 5 here to reserve

the place for images, inorder to remind the truth-‘not yet’.

This is where I reserved my picture!

Figure 5: My reserved place for picture

3.7 Bibliography

Do you ever wonder what is the diﬀerence between bibliography and refer-

ence? I wondered it too, I even asked my teacher. However opinions varies.

But in L

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X, bibliography is used in book environment, and reference is

used mainly in article environment.

\begin{thebibliography}{99}

\bibitem{spanos} Spanos A. (1986):

\emph{Statistical foundations

of econometric modelling.},

first edition,

Cambridge University Press

\end{thebibliography}

Above is the thebibliography environment, don’t worry about whether it

is called bibliography or reference, L

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E

X will choose for you. Just follow

them, put your own content in curly braces. Note that in \bibitem{dou},

dou is a marker, or label, it connects the place you mention the references

by a hyperlink. You just need to type in a \cite{dou} at the place you

refer.

4 ‘Queen of Science’

Yes, Guass said . . . . However, mathematics gives lots of student nightmare,

sometimes is due to wrongly presentation. When you open a book, full

of formulas and hard-reading sub- or superscripts, acompanied by endless

overwhelming paragraphs. Besides nausea, I cannot imagine other proper

reactions. If you deny that typesetting also disgust you from reading, just

imagine there is novel written on the wall which is 10 metres long, will you

be happy reading it?

In this section, I only teach you how to use these codes, but I do not

teach what codes are, it is meaningless for me to reproduce those math

symbos here, there are great bunch of table made for easy reference. You

can check other real references, such as The Not So Short Introduction to

12

L

A

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E

X2

ε

[1]. Remember, this is only scratching the surface of the surface,

but enough is good.

4.1 Equations

If you want to input mathematics within text, you use $...$, if seperatately,

use \begin{equation}...\begin{equation}. If we replace equation by

equation*, numbers are removed. But sometimes you need to have your

own mark on equations, rather than numbers, you can use \tag{} to change

any mark you like, put any word or number in the curly braces you like. See

below

\begin{equation*}

s^2=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{t=1}^n\hat{u}_t

\tag{ice_cream}

\end{equation*}.

And result is

s

2

=

1

n

n

¸

t=1

ˆ u

t

. (ice cream)

I tag it as ‘ice cream’.

There is one situation when you have several equations, impossible to

put them in a single line, you align them by setting a reference point.

\begin{align*}

a-c+b-d&=x+y+z\\

&=e+f+g+h+i\\

&=j+k+l+m+n+o+p

\end{align*}

Notice that you put a & in front of the reference point, equations beneath

will follow at that point. Result is

a − c + b − d = x + y + z

= e + f + g + h + i

= j + k + l + m + n + o + p

4.2 Super- and Subscript

Easy, ^2 and _2 are super- and subscript respectively. Try these, x^7,

x^{abcde}, X^{abc}_{123}, X^{b^a}_{c_d}. Output are below,

x

7

x

abcde

X

abc

123

X

b

a

c

d

.

Besides, integration, summation and product operators, all can need super-

and subscript.

13

\begin{equation*}

\int_a^b{\frac{x^2}{\pi}} \,\mathrm{d}x

\qquad \prod_{t=1}^n\beta^tE(u_t)

\end{equation*}

Check your result,

b

a

x

2

π

dx

n

¸

t=1

β

t

E(u

t

)

4.3 Matrix

Now I want you to look back 1. Try to ﬁgure out how it works, read slowly.

I present another kind of matrix notation here,

\begin{equation*}

\begin{pmatrix}

x_{11} & x_{12} & \cdots & x_{1k}\\

x_{21} & x_{22} & \cdots & x_{2k}\\

\vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots\\

x_{n1} & x_{n2} & \cdots & x_{n3}

\end{pmatrix}

\begin{equation*}

Did you notice the diﬀerence of our command, here I use

\begin{pmatrix}...\end{pmatrix}. It looks like,

¸

¸

¸

¸

x

11

x

12

· · · x

1k

x

21

x

22

· · · x

2k

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x

n1

x

n2

· · · x

n3

¸

**If you want to write a matrix multiplication, you just write several matrices
**

in a same equation environment.

\begin{equation*}

\begin{bmatrix}

x_{11} & x_{12} & \cdots & x_{1k}\\

x_{21} & x_{22} & \cdots & x_{2k}\\

\vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots\\

x_{n1} & x_{n2} & \cdots & x_{n3}

\end{bmatrix}

\begin{bmatrix}

\beta_1\\

14

\beta_2\\

\vdots\\

\beta_3

\end{bmatrix}

=

\boldsymbol{X}\boldsymbol{\beta}

\end{equation*}

It is actually not that complicated as it seems, just put two matrices

together,

x

11

x

12

· · · x

1k

x

21

x

22

· · · x

2k

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x

n1

x

n2

· · · x

n3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

β

1

β

2

.

.

.

β

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= Xβ

But here is one more situation it might end up like this, if you use code

above to compile this matrix, some number with a negative sign,

1 8 3 −2 4

0 −1 −2 9 2

0 0 3 1 5

0 0 0 5 −4

0 0 0 0 6

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

It looks really unprofessional and unserious. We have another environment

for this \begin{array}...\end{array}. Codes becomes

\begin{equation}

\left[

\begin{array}{rrrrr}

1 & 8 & 3 & -2 & 4\\

0 & -1 & -2 & 9 & 2\\

0 & 0 & 3 & 1 & 5\\

0 & 0 & 0 & 5 & -4\\

0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 6

\end{array}

\right]

\end{equation}

Try this one by yourself. {rrrrr} means set every column right-aligned.

And this environment does not provide delimitor, such as brackets or paren-

theses, so it is your responsibility to put brackets on \left[...\right].

But there is another way to do this, \llap{} commmand, but you have

to load gauss package in preamble, we have another matrixas follow:

15

\begin{equation*}

\begin{bmatrix}

1 & 8 & 3 & \llap{-}2 & 4\\

0 & \llap{-}1 & \llap{-}2 & 9 & 2\\

0 & 0 & 3 & 1 & 5\\

0 & 0 & 0 & 5 & \llap{-}4\\

0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 6

\end{bmatrix}

\end{equation*}

And corresponding ouput is:

1 8 3 -2 4

0 -1 -2 9 2

0 0 3 1 5

0 0 0 5 -4

0 0 0 0 6

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

5 Beamer

One of the most important documentclass is beamer, it is used to creat

you fancy slides, when you are on a presentation of your thesis to your

superviser and other defense opponents. The time of Powerpoint is gone. I

barely see any professors using Powerpoint, since it kind of degenerate the

rigourous level of your presentation. If you need to crush some slides to

give a course presentation tomorrow morning, you use Powerpoint to make

fast slides, no one will blame you. But be careful, when you present your

stuﬀ among academia, appearance matters as well as contents. Here is one

beamer sample,

\documentclass{beamer}

\mode<presentation>

\usepackage{amssymb,amsthm,amsmath,}

\usepackage{graphicx,verbatim,textcomp}

\usepackage{amsfonts,mathrsfs,syntonly}

\usepackage{color,hyperref}

\usetheme{Frankfurt}

%\usecolortheme{lily}

\title{How to Cook Instant Noodles}

%\subtitle{}

\author{Weijie Chen}

\institute{\scriptsize Department of Economics\\

16

noodle.pdf

Outline General overview of the project Last 6 months Next 6 months

How to Cook and Eat Instant Noodles

Weijie Chen

Universiteit van Amsterdam

11 July, 2010

Weijie Chen How to Cook and Eat Instant Noodles

Figure 6: Beamer Title Page

\vspace{.10cm}Universiteit van Amsterdam}

\begin{document}

\begin{frame}

\titlepage

\end{frame}

\section*{Outline}

\begin{frame}

\tableofcontents

\end{frame}

\section{What is Instant Noodle}

\subsection{Ingredients}

Instant noole is made of \cdots

\end{document}

17

\usetheme{Frankfurt} is a theme package named ‘Frankfurt’, almost

all theme package names are named after a city or town, for more detailed

information you should check The Beamer class User Guide[2]. However, as

you can see, it is no signiﬁcant diﬀerence than compiling articles or books,

you just need to use \begin{frame}...\end{frame} to make a slide, ane

ﬁll in it with your own content, such mathematics, pictures, etc. However if

you need far more function than this plain sample, you need to study The

Beamer class User Guide[2], it is a rather long manual.

6 Miscellaneous

Rest of things I put here, it might be more interesting to explore L

A

T

E

X by

yourself.

6.1 Your Command

Working on L

A

T

E

X can be very time consuming especially you have huge

bunches of math symbol to deal with. If you repeatedly use some com-

mands, and they are combination of several, you might consider to use a

new command to replace them, not really replace, just a self-made con-

densed version. Say you have to type in

ˆ

X

1

thousands of times in your

ﬁle, it is rather boring. Now we set a new command for it. Put this

\newcommand{\bx}{\boldsymbol{\hat{X}}_{\!{1}}} at your preamble.

Then try this

\begin{equation*}

\bx

\end{equation*}

See? Quite convenient.

6.2 Change Style

Take look at this ﬁrst,

¸¸

n

i=1

x

i

¸

n

i=1

y

i

¸

n

i=1

y

i

¸

n

i=1

x

i

y

i

**As you have already notice that summation operation does not display as its
**

usual form, because they are in a matrix. If summation, product, integral

operation will be displayed like this if you put them into matrix or fraction.

You might want to use \displaystyle{} to turn it back. Just put the

18

summation into its curly braces,

n

¸

i=1

x

i

n

¸

i=1

y

i

n

¸

i=1

y

i

n

¸

i=1

x

i

y

i

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

you have seem the modiﬁed output, it looks not so intensive as the ﬁrst one,

so I suggest you be careful when use some command to override L

A

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E

X’s

preset command.

6.3 Some marks

Did you ever use ‘’ yet? LaTeX usually does not display like, and it has

diﬀerent input than it looks like, if you want to put quotation mark such as

‘Know thyself’.

Note that the ﬁrst mark, is ‘, is the button on the left of number 1 on

an American keyboard layout.

6.4 Spacing

From an aesthetic view, mathematics should present in a gentle way, not any

surpassingly spacing, not any exceedingly constringing. Put mathematics in

a readable, or attractive manner is an art! The appearance of an article is

should be decorated just like a room, put things in the right place, it shines.

Let me show you two examples,

b

a

sin

π

2

du

f(x, y, z)dxdydz

do you feel any uncomfortable when wathcing them? Spacing! The codes

are follows,

\begin{equation*}

\int_a^b\sin{\frac{\pi}{2}}\mathrm{d}u

\qquad \int\int\int{f(x)}\mathrm{d}x{d}y{d}z

\end{equation*}

When you are dealing with micro-distance between symbols within an

expression, you use ‘\!’ to shrink, and ‘\,’ to expand space. Now it becomes,

b

a

sin

π

2

du

f(x, y, z) dxdy dz.

Here is the codes,

19

\begin{equation*}

\int_a^b\sin{\frac{\pi}{2}}\,\mathrm{d}u

\qquad \int\!\!\int\!\!\int{f(x,y,z)}

\,\mathrm{d}x\,\mathrm{d}y\,\mathrm{d}z.

\end{equation*}

6.5 Umlaut

You probably would write your thesis in a languge other than English, maybe

German, Swedish, Finnish. You might need to use letters such as ¨a, ¨o, ¨ u.

In German, they are called ‘umlaute’. Here is a small table,

¨a ¨o ¨ u ˚a ˆc ¸ o

\"a \"o \"u \aa \^c \c o

Table 1: Most frequent acute symbols

The End.

References

[1] Oetiker T.(2010): The Not So Short Introduction to L

A

T

E

X2

ε

, version

4.31

[2] Wright J. and Mileti´c V. (2010): The Beamer Class User Guide

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