The Design and Construction of High Pressure Pipelines Alan Murray ASME Pipeline System Division ASME INDIA

OIL & GAS PIPELINE CONFERENCE Goa February 4th February 2011

There are an estimated 300 million PowerPoint users in the world. They do 30 million presentations every day About 1.5 million presentations are going on right now

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90% of them are unbearable (conservative estimate) 9.9994% induce deep sleep Hopefully this isn’t one of them!

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Demand for Clean Energy is Growing
• World gas consumption has grown 435% since 1965. • EIA forecast to 2030: • World energy demand will grow by 55% • Gas consumption will grow at an annual rate of 2.4%, (100 trillion cubic feet (tcf) to 163 tcf) compared to 1.4% for oil (83 million barrels of oil per day (mb/d)to 118 mb/d ) • Gas will account for 26% of global energy use by 2030.

Energy Supply Energy Infrastructure

Energy Demand

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X100.Some Current Pipeline Trends • Reducing capital and operating costs – Lowering pressure losses – Reducing Pumping Power needs • Higher operating pressures circa 160bar + • Larger diameters – 1. X120 • Limit States Design Methods (probabilistic rather than deterministic)  better utilisation of material • Challenge – cannot compromise safety and reliability – improving current pipe manufacturing and construction techniques 5 .2 to 1.4m • Use of higher strength steels X80.

Automation and Control .Ultrasonic metering .Composite Materials .Defect Assessment .Pipe cleaning -Use of drag reducing additives -Intelligent Pigging .Design .Higher Utilisation -Non ferrous -Working Stress Design 80% SMYS materials .Increasing Transmission Efficiency 3-Materials .SCADA .Coatings -Immersive Video .Risk & Integrity management 6 .High Strength Steels .Limit States Design .Improved Geo technics .Pipe Manufacture 2 .Strain Based design .GIS Optimisation -Dense Phase Flow -Public consultation 4 Construction Methods Semi-Fully Automatic Welding Improved Inspection Installation Methods Crossings Trenchless construction Buoyancy control Hydrotesting and Commissioning 5 Operations .Satellite Imagery – Reliability Methods .Weldability Selection .Fracture control .Post yield response I – Route .

Route Selection • Satellite Imagery/Google Earth /GIS have transformed Routing processes Hydraulic profiles. cut & fill. crossings are identified and Optimised in GIS driven software packages 7 .

• Immersive video here 8 .

Current/Proposed World High Pressure Transmission Lines Name Zee Pipe Sable Island Souris Valley FLAGS Ruhrgas Iroquois PGUP Alliance GasAndes Gas Del Pacif ico Enron PNG Aust rialia BSL Pipeline *Proposed Locat ion Norw ay/ Belgium Canada Canada/ USA Scot land Germany Canada/ USA M alaysia Canada/ USA Argent ina/ Chile Argent ina/ Chile Boliva/ Brazil Paupa New Guina/ Aust ralia* Germany M AOP (PSIG) 2200 2200 2200 2000 1480 1440 1000 1780 1440 1405 2200 2200 1480 Product Transport ed Nat ural Gas Nat ural Gas CO2 Nat ural Gas Nat ural Gas Nat ural Gas Nat ural Gas Nat ural Gas Nat ural Gas Nat ural Gas Nat ural Gas Nat ural Gas M ult i Product s 9 .

Consider the Steady Flow Energy Equation Dense phase can obviate the need for a separate liquids line 10 .

Pipe roughness and types of flow 11 .

Evolution of Compression 12 .

Design Day Flow 13 for 1219 mm (NPS 48) Diameter Pipe .12410 kPa (1800 psi) MOP (With Higher Pipe Cost) 10 000 30 000 50 000 70 000 90 000 110 000 130 000 150 000 170 000 Pipeline Design Day Flow (103 m3/d) Cost of Service vs.“J” curves – used to optimise pipe size 320 1 .8690 kPa (1260 psi) MOP 300 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 2 140 120 1 2 .

Codes. Standards and Methodologies (Working Stress Design) 14 .

Partial Factors in LSD Shift Due to φ Resistance Distribution Shift Due to α Load Distribution Load or Resistance Characteristic Mean Load Mean or Characteristic Resistance Probability of Failure 15 .

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Above ground Supports in earthquake zone 17 .

Extrados Tensile strains .Parameters McLamb 2003 18 .

Technological Advances in Pipe Production 19 .

Controlled Rolling of Steel Plate Source: Kevin Prosser: Macaw Engineering 20 .

Non Destructive Testing .

5 X65 8. welding. ductility Practical considerations such as forming. design pressure 10200 kPa) 110 1000 Price per kilometre 100 900 Price per ton 90 800 80 700 Grade (API) WT (mm) 70 5L GRB 14.7 X70 7.7 X56 9.3 5X-X42 12.Evolution of Pipeline grade and its effect on Installed Cost (NPS 16.1 Need to balance strength with toughness. field bending and joining 22 Pipe price ($/km) Price ($/ton) .

010 2800 46 8 6.Economics of High Strength Steel Pipelines – Desk Study For transportation of 3.670 Summary of CAPEX Cost Comparison 23 . $M 1450 58 9 6.770 2800 46 7 6. psi Pipe OD.000 miles: X70 X120 X70* Operating pressure.0 Bcfd of natural gas a distance of 1. inches Number of Compressors CAPEX.

Alloys to reduce Carbon •Carbon – increases strength – Interstitial atoms frictional resistance to dislocations 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 700 600 Strength MPa 500 400 300 200 100 0 Carbon Content Too much carbon – Reduces toughness – Strain aging – Hardness. weldability Carbon Content Glover 2004 Toughness J .

High strength steels.95 in transverse round bar tests •May impact strain based designs (Pipe body strains >> weld mat’l) •Matching /overmatching weld metal issues (toughness) •High fracture initiation energies 25 .At what cost to ductility? • Higher the strength the less post yield strain capacity •15% decrease in strain at ultimate •Y/T ratio approaching 0.

31 3 .Pipe & Weld Metal Tensile Testing How do we establish a reliable measure of strength? 2.50 .75 3.360 .1 57 Round Bar Tensile .1 80 .602 .0 1 .602 Weld sampling Modified Strip Tensile 26 .0 .630 2.75 .5 .

Fracture Toughness Testing Drop Weight Tear Test Specimen 27 .

Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steel Pipe Tensile Properties Toughness & Fracture Ductility Properties • • • • • Bauschinger Effect – round tensile bars Charpy – measure of toughness DWTT – measure of fracture ductility A compromise is required between strength & toughness for HSS pipe Crack arrestors are being proposed for fracture control for HSS pipe 28 .

Weldability Pipes must be able to welded in the field: • rapidly • in all weathers • with minimum of pipe heating Weldability is affected by: Parent HAZ Weld • pipeline chemistry – higher chemistry pipe more susceptible to hydrogen cracking • thickness – thicker pipe has poorer weldability • diameter – greater cooling occurs between weld runs increasing risk of cracking 29 .

ht m 30 . – Continuous feed of filler metal – Absence of slag – Higher deposition rates • Weld metal has a low hydrogen content.weldreality. especially in welding hardenable steels • Deeper penetration allows the use of smaller fillet welds • Applicable in semiautomatic and fully automated welding systems.Metal Inert Gas Welding Advantages: • Higher speed than MMA due to . which can be important.com/pipeweldAlberta. • Case study pipe example available of benefits of MIG over MMA http://www.

Metal Inert Gas Welding Limitations: • Equipment is more costly and less portable than MMA welding equipment • Less adaptable for welding in areas of limited access • In hardenable steels.no slag cover to reduce the rate of cooling • Requires positive protection from strong drafts. which blow the stream of shielding gas away from the weld. more susceptible to weld metal cracking . therefore less practical than the shielded metal arc welding outdoors 31 .

Line Pipe Mechanized Welding – 17 to 19 minutes per weld Manual Welding – 47 to 68 minutes per weld .t.Mechanized or Manual Welding ? For 36” x 0.622” w.

Mechanized or Manual Welding ? 33 .

Conventional & Phased Array Mechanized Ultrasonics 34 .

Girth Weld Critical Assessment Girth Weld Straining 35 .

Pipe Coating Protection • FBE Coating Process .

Improved Trenching and Lowering Techniques 37 .

Buoyancy control Sack Weights Concrete Weights 38 Screw Anchors .

Directional Drilling Profile .

History & Purpose of Hydrostatic Testing 40 .

OPERATION COMMISSIONING MILL 41 .‘Safety Margins’ given by the System Pressure Test & Mill Pressure Test Failure stress of defect free pipeline System Pressure Test Mill Pressure Test Safety Margin On Test Design Pressure Safety Margin on Failure The system pressure test is considered to be the final test of the integrity of a new pipeline.

Hydro-Test Ruptures Defects that Remain in Pipe 125 % MOP Defects removed Hydro-test 100 % MOP Normal Operating 42 .

Full Scale Rupture tests Fracture arrest occurs when brittle crack enters ductile pipe BUT Cracks can propagate in the fully ductile mode In-service fractures have propagated up to 300m • Full-scale studies conducted to derive requirements for fracture arrest • Correlated to a convenient small scale test – Charpy /DWTT 43 • • • • • • .

high pressure systems Composite Reinforced Linepipe Steel Grouted Sleeve 20.6 mm 1346 mm (53") ID 1320 mm (52") OD 20.Crack arrest options for high strength.DG38) 3000 mm 44 .6 mm X100 X80 X100 Epoxy grout (SBD .

Full Scale Tests (Bending) 45 .

Intrados compressive – Prelim results (FEA plots) Limit Point Softening Point Post Buckling #1 Post Buckling #2 .

Thank you for your Attention! Any Questions? 47 .

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