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Name: ________________________________

New Fundamental Principle

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1. An astronaut whose mass is 80 kg carries an empty oxygen tank with a mass of 10 kg. He throws the tank away from himself with a speed of 2 m/s. With what velocity does he start to move off into space?

2.

A 2 kg melon is balanced on your bald uncles head. His son, Throckmorton, shoots a 50 g arrow at it with a speed of 30 m/s. The arrow passes through the melon and emerges with a speed of 18 m/s. Find the speed of the melon as it ies off the mans head.

3.

A raft of mass 180 kg carries two swimmers with masses 50 kg and 80 kg. The raft is initially oating at rest. The two swimmers simultaneously dive off opposite ends of the raft, each with a horizontal velocity of 3 m/s. With what velocity and in what direction does the raft start to move?

4.

One way of measuring the muzzle velocity of a bullet is to re it horizontally into a massive block of wood placed on a cart. Assuming no friction, we then measure the velocity with which the wood containing the bullet and cart begin to move. In one experiment the bullet had a mass of 50 g and the wood and its cart had a combined mass of 10 kg. After the shot, the cart, wood, and bullet moved at a constant speed, traveling 0.80 m in 0.40 s. From this data determine the original speed of the bullet. (That is, the speed of the bullet right before it hits the cart.)

5.

A 50 kg cart is moving across a very low friction oor at 2.0 m/s. A 70 kg boy, riding in the cart, jumps off so that he hits the oor with zero velocity. Model the situation and calculate anything you can nd.

6. Julio (an 80 kg ice skating champion) and Grace are skating together on a rink at 3 m/s. Julio keeps asking Grace how much she weighs. Annoyed, Grace pushes away from Julio so that she speeds up to 4 m/s and he slows down to 2.25 m/s, in the same direction. The push lasts for 0.20 seconds. Friction, in the physics sense, is negligible in this drama.

7.

A 5000 kg truck rear-ends a 1200 kg car when the car was moving at 13 m/s. During the 0.15 second collision, the truck slows down from 14 m/s to 13.5 m/s. The road is dangerously slick, but not completely frictionless ( = 0.1 between the cars and the road).

8. A strangely oversized (0.25 kg) 8-ball travels at 5 m/s in the +x direction. Meanwhile, a normal sized (0.15 kg) 9ball is traveling at 3 m/s in the 25 direction. They happen to hit each other! After the collision, the 9-ball is observed to travel at 2 m/s in the +33 direction. Find the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the 8-ball just after the collision.

9.

An explosion blows a 4.0 kg rock (which was initially at rest) into three parts. Two pieces go off at right angles to each other, a 1.0 kg piece at 12.0 m/s and a 2.0 kg piece at 8.0 m/s. Determine the magnitude of the momentum of the third piece and the angle between its direction of motion and the motion of the 1.0 kg piece.

10. An object at rest explodes into three pieces of equal mass. One moves east at 20 m/s; a second moves 45 degrees south of east at 30 m/s. What is the velocity of the third piece?

11. A billiard ball moving at a speed of 2.2 m/s strikes an identical stationary ball a glancing blow. After the collision, one ball is found to be moving at a speed of 1.1 m/s in a direction making a 60 angle with the original line of motion. Find the velocity of the other ball. Solve this problem twice: once, use graphical vector construction; the other time use double IF charts.

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12. If you throw a ball horizontally while standing on roller skates, you roll backwards. Will you roll backwards if you go through the motions of throwing the ball, but hold on to it instead? Explain your reasoning.

13. Which has the greater change in momentum, a 50 gram clay ball that strikes a wall at 1 m/s and sticks or a 50 gram superball that strikes a wall at 1 m/s and bounces away from the wall at 0.8 m/s? Explain your reasoning.

14. Why are padded dashboards safer than hard dashboards in automobiles?

15. Why are nylon ropes, which stretch considerably under stress, favored by mountain climbers?

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