Tense

Signal words

Use something happens repeatedly how often something happens one action follows another things in general after the following verbs (to love, to hate, to think, etc.) future meaning: timetables, programmes something is happening at the same time of speaking or around it future meaning: when you have already decided and arranged to do it (a fixed plan, date)

Form

Examples affirmative I work. He works. I go.

Exa neg

I do He

every day sometimes always Simple Present or Present Simple often usually seldom never first ... then

I do

infinitive he/she/it + -s He goes. He

I'm working. He's working. I'm going. to be (am/are/is) +infinitive + -ing He's going.

I'm He

now Present at the Progressive moment or Present Look! Continuous Listen!

I'm

He

Simple Past or Past Simple

last ... ... ago in 1990 yesterday

action took place I worked. in the past, He worked. mostly connected regular: with an I went. infinitive + -edirregular: expression of 2nd column of table of irregular verbs time (no He went. connection to the present) an action happened in the middle of another action someone was doing sth. at a certain time (in the past) - you do not know whether it was finished or not was/were +infinitive + -ing He was going. I was working. He wasworking. I was going.

I di He

I di He

Iw He

Past Progressive or while Past Continuous

Iw

He

just yet never Simple Present Perfect or Present Perfect ever already so far, up to now, since for recently all day Present Perfect Progressive or Present Perfect Continuous the whole day how long since for action began in the past and has just stopped how long the action has been happening emphasis: length of time of an action mostly when two actions in a story are related to each other: the action which had had + past participle* already happened is put *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of into Past Perfect, table of irregular verbs) the other action into Simple Past the past of the Present Perfect Past Perfect how long Progressive or since Past Perfect for Continuous will future have/has +been + infinitive+ -ing you say that sth. has happened or is finished in the past and it has a have/has + past participle* connection to the present *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs) action started in the past and continues up to the present

I have worked. He has worked. I have gone.

I ha He

I ha

He has gone.

He

I have beenworking. He has beenworking. I have beengoing.

I ha bee

He bee

I ha

He has beengoing.

He

I had worked. He had worked. I had gone.

Ih He

Simple Past Perfect or Past Perfect (Simple)

already just never

Ih

He had gone.

He

I had beenworking. how long something had been happening had + been +infinitive + ing before something else happened predictions about will + infinitive the future (you think that sth. will happen) you decide to do He had beenworking. I had beengoing. He had beengoing. I'll work. He'll work. I'll go. He'll go.

Ih

He bee

Ih He

Iw He

Iw He

sth. spontaneously at the time of speaking, you haven't made a when you have already decided to do sth. in the future what you think what will happen An action will be in progress at a certain time in the future. This action has begun before the will + be +infinitive + ing certain time. Something happens because it normally happens. I'm going towork. be (am/are/is)+ going to +infinitive He's going towork. I'm going to go. He's going togo. I'll be working. He'll beworking. I'll be going.

I'm

going to future

He' to

I'm

He'

Iw He

Future Progressive or Future Continuous

Iw

He'll be going.

He

Simple Future Perfect or Future Perfect Simple Future Perfect Progressive or Future Perfect Continuous

I'll haveworked. sth. will already will + have +past participle* have happened before a certain *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of time in the future table of irregular verbs) He'll haveworked. I'll have gone. He'll have gone. I'll have beenworking. He'll have beenworking. I'll have beengoing.

Iw He

Iw He

sth. will already have happened before a certain time in the future emphasis: length of time of an action sth. that might happen

Iw bee

will + have +been + infinitive+ ing

He bee

Iw hav

He'll have beengoing He . hav I would work. He would work. I would go. He would go.

Iw wo He

Conditional Simple

main clause in type II of the Conditional sentences

would +infinitive

Iw

He go.

I would have been working. that might have happened in the past (It's too late now. He would havegone. I would haveworked. He would have been going. I would havegone. I would begoing.Conditional Progressive or Conditional Continuous sth. He would beworking. that might happen emphasis: length of time of an action sth.) emphasis: length of time of an action Iw bee would + have +been + infinitive+ ing He bee Iw bee He bee The Present Tenses Present Simple Present Simple Used to say what someone usually I always study English on Tuesday. Iw He bew Iw He Iw hav Conditional Perfect He hav Iw He hav Conditional Perfect Progressive or Conditional Perfect Continuous sth. would + have +past participle* *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs) He would haveworked.) main clause in type III of the if clauses would + be +infinitive + ing I would beworking. He would begoing. He would have beengoing. that might have happened in the past (It's too late now. . I would have been going.

Present Perfect Progressive/Continuous Present Perfect Progressive Used to say how long someone has been doing something. I have been studying English since 1997.does Present Progressive/Continuous Present Progressive Used to say what someone is doing now I am studying English now Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Simple Used to show unfinished time I have studied English twice this week. . • • I have been studying English for 2 years.

30 . I was studying English at 5pm last Monday.The Past Tenses Simple Past Simple Past Used to show a completed action • I studied English last Saturday. Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple The past of have • I had done my English homework by 6. Past Progressive/Continuous Past Progressive Often used to say when something was being done or what was happening when something else happened • • I was studying English last Monday when my friend rang.

The Future Tenses The future can be indicated in several different ways in English. "He is collecting his mother from the station tonight. I'd been doing my English homework for 30 minutes by 1 pm last Saturday.). Past Perfect Progressive/Continuous Past Perfect Progressive The past of have been.". "The train arrives at 10pm" or the present progressive (used for future plans). Used to say when something was done by. • pm last Saturday. "She is going to drive a new car. I had done my English homework by the time I ate dinner last Saturday. It is often created with the use of auxiliaries: "She will be a student." English can even create the future by using the simple present (used for timetables.done. Used to show how long something was done for by a certain time. • • I'd been doing my English homework for 30 minutes when my friend rang last Saturday.programs etc." Simple Future (uses will or shall or going to + base form) .

30 (but the lesson might start late).Simple Future (Some uncertainty) Decide to do something at the time of speaking I think I'll do my English homework tonight. .30 and ends at 9. I will be starting my English lesson at 7.15.30 and end at 9. so he'scertain to be I am going to be studying English when my friends arrive at 9.30 pm.15. Simple Future (Certain) Have already decided or arranged to do something I am going to study English next Saturday. Future Progressive (Certain) The English lesson begins at 7.00 pm. Future Progressive/Continous (uses will be. so the personshould be studying at 7. shall be or going to be +-ing form) Future Progressive (Some uncertainty) The English lesson shouldbegin at 7.

I will have been studying English for 30 minutes when my friends arrive.studying when his friend arrives at 8. Future Perfect Progressive/Continuous (uses will have been or shall have been + -ing form) Future Perfect Progressive Used to say how long something will have been happening in the future by a certain time.00 Future Perfect Simple (uses will have or shall have + past participle) Future Perfect Simple Used to say something will already be complete by a time. I will have already done my English homework by the time I eat dinner on Saturday. .

USE 1. You are always coming late for the meetings! The Present Continuous is mainly used to express the idea that something is happening at the moment of speaking. 2. Present actions Temporary actions . listed below. There are also other uses.Present Continuous • • • First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses. Quick example: He is sleeping. I am visiting grandpa in the afternoon. Another use of the tense is to talk about what we are planning to do.

you can see a man in the shower who says: "I'm taking a shower now". They are swimming. watch this interactive animation: [ Johny: I'm having a shower now ] Explanation In this cartoon. (They will soon make up) USE 3: Longer Actions in Progress We also use the Present Continuous when we are in a middle of doing something time-consuming (i. Examples: .3. something that takes time to complete). USE 2: Temporary Actions This tense is also used for activities continuing for only a limited period of time.e. An example of such an activity is writing a book. Examples: • • I'm riding a bike to get to work because my car is broken. Mary is talking with her friend. (It will soon be repaired) They are not talking with each other after the last argument. 4. • Why is this in Present Continuous? Because the Johny is taking shower at this precise moment. Examples: • • • He is eating a dinner. 5. saving money or studying for an exam. Longer actions in progress Future (personal) arrangements and plans Irritation over something or somebody in the present USE 1: Present Actions Use the Present Continuous tense to talk about actions happening at the moment of speaking. To understand this use better.

USE 5: Irritation or Anger And the last use of this tense is to express irritation or anger over somebody or something in the present. We're not going anywhere tomorrow. To understand this use better. I am training to become a professional footballer.• • • • They are working hard to earn money. Elizabeth is currently writing a children's book titled I am the World. • Why is this in Present Continuous? Click on the buttons located on the Timeline to see the other scenes. USE 4: Future (Personal) Arrangements and Plans Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to show that something will be done in the near future. Mike is studying hard to become a doctor. it's a longer action in progress. you can a man who says: "I'm writing an adventure book". You will find out that Alex (the writer) was writing a book a month ago. Examples: • • • I'm meeting Katie in the evening. He's flying to Rome in September. watch this interactive animation: [ Alex: I'm writing an adventure book ] Explanation In this cartoon. two months ago and three months ago. Clearly. . you have to: • know the proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to be". Examples: • • • She's always complaining about everything! Johny is always asking me stupid questions! They are always coming late to meetings! FORM To form a sentence in the Present Continuous.

work/go/mak e He is getting married this month Use 2) They are swimming in the sea Use 1) . I/a dogetc.g.g. Examples Auxiliary verb Verb + ing + is / are Use + e.Person Singular Plural First I am We are Second You are You are Third • He/she/it is They are add the "ing" suffix to the verb (to form the present participle of the verb) Examples: o try + ing = trying o go + ing = going Contracted forms (more) • • • • • • I + am = I'm is + not = isn't are + not = aren't he + is = he's she + is = she's it + is= it's Declarative Sentences Subject e.

I/a dogetc.g.work/go/mak e Is she eating my cake now? Use 1) Are they having the party on Friday or Saturday? Use 2) Are you meeting David today? Use 2) Is Mary having breakfast now? Negative Sentences Use 1) Subject e. Examples + Auxiliary verb + not is not / are not Use + Verb + ing e.g.g. Questions Use 3) Auxiliary verb is / are Examples Subject Verb + ing + e.work/go/make .g. I/a dogetc.I'm having my first driving lesson this week Use 2) I'm studying to become lawyer one day Use 1) I'm drinking hot coffee now Use 1) She is always asking me stupid questions. Use + e.

3. We play football every day. USE 1. It is also an interesting tense because it can express both the present and the future. Facts and generalization Habits and routines Permanent situations State verbs (e.He is not joking Use 1) We aren't waiting for my uncle Use 1) He is not going to school tomorrow Use 2) Present Simple • • • First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses.g. have.m. be. The meeting starts at 3 p. know) . 2. The Present Simple is the most basic and common tense in the English language. Quick example: I live in New York. 4. think.

• Why is this in Present Simple? Because the scientist expresses a fact. "as soon as" ("Before you leave. USE 2: Habits and Routines We also use this tense to indicate that an activity is a habit or a routine. (Remember: the sentence doesn't have to be true) To understand this use better. you can see a scientist who says: "The Earth goes around the Sun". Examples: • • • • • • • • It is a big house. First Conditional . "till".g. watch this interactive animation: [ Scientist: The Earth goes around the Sun (Use 1) ] Explanation In this cartoon. I go play football. please take the keys"). The Elephant doesn't fly. 6. Fixed / official arrangement that we can't change Narrations (e. Buenos Aires is a large city.5. something that he believes is true (in this case. USE 1: Facts and Generalizations The first and most important use of the Present Simple is to talk about things we believe are (or are not) true. "after". In sentences after "when". A dog is not large than an elephant London is the capital city of France. if we don't pass this exam. Berlin is the capital city of Germany. Examples: . telling a story or a joke) Note Apart from the above uses. this tense is also used in: o o o Zero Conditional . It's also used to generalize about somebody or something. "before". he is right: the Earth really goes around the Sun).If it rains.We won't get our pocket money. Dogs don't smoke cigarettes. He talks a lot.

To understand this use better. watch this interactive animation: [ John: I play basketball every Friday ] Explanation In this cartoon. We can use one word or a phrase. The Present Simple tense is often used with the frequency adverbs: Adverbs of frequency Adverbs of frequency say how often an activity happens. Mark rarely visits his sick grandmother. Susan often meets with her friends after school. USE 3: Pernament Situations Use the Present Simple to talk about situations in life that last a relatively long time.• • • • We leave for work at 7. Read more. you can see a boy who says: "I play basketball every Friday" (click on the now button to see this). Examples: • I live in Boston . • Why is this in Present Simple? Because the boy talks about a habit...30 every morning.m. I never eat anything after 10 p. They usually play football on Sunday. Examples: • • • • • • • • • always never frequently/often usually seldom/rarely nowadays every week/year sometimes/occasionally from time to time Here are a few examples of how to use them in sentences: • • I always go to church on Sundays. something that he does regularly.

• • • He works as a fireman. He watches the game in astonishment for a while [. I do. to tell a story or a joke). When does the plane take off? Jerry doesn't teach maths at highschool.. Examples: • • • • The meeting starts at 4 pm. USE 4: State Verbs You should use the Present Simple with state verbs. do you like football? (Use 4) Ronaldinho: Yes. an official meeting or a train departure). .g. Jerry doesn't teach maths at highschool. USE 5: Fixed / Official arrangements Use the Present Simple to talk about events that we can't change (for example.. Margaret drives a Porshe.. The train leaves at the noon. USE 6: Narrations The Present Simple is also used in narrations (e. Jerry doesn't teach maths at highschool.. Speaker 1: Ronaldinho. Examples: • • • • I like swimming. Examples: • A man goes to visit a friend and is amazed to find him playing chess with his dog. We know this man.] (read more) Good to know. Margaret drives a Porshe.

swim). This is typically when they have an active meaning or exphasize change. I/a dog etc.g. To form a declarative sentence. because they require an auxiliary verb. all you need is the subject of the sentence (e. be. you.g. work/go/make Sharks have sharp teeth (Use 1) Examples Use A dog is an animal (Use 1) I learn English twice a week (Use 2) I have two eggs (Use 4) The course starts in April (Use 5) I come from Basil (Use 3) Questions . he. Declarative Sentences Subject e. + Verb e. Questions and negative sentences are only a little more difficult. I.g.Some of the verbs used in the simple form can also appear in the continuous form.g. talk. a dog) and the verb (e. Examples: o o I'm thinking of moving to San Francisco I'm loving your new hairdo! (read more) FORM Forming a sentence in the Present Simple is easy.

she does. Contracted forms (more) • • do + not = don't does + not = doesn't + e.work/go/mak e Examples They don't live in New York anymore I don't like winter They don't live in New York anymore He doesn't go to the cinema at all Use (Use 3) (Use 4) (Use 3) (Use 2) . the verb does not conjugate: • • Does she have a dog? For the verb to be. does.g.g. + Verb e. he doesn't.g. A: Does John have a dog? B: No. we do not use an auxiliary: • • Is he tall? Negative Sentences Subject Auxiliary verb+not do not (don't) / does not(doesn't) Verb + e.g. in the third person singular. I/a dog etc. Keep in mind that when you ask a question. I/a dogetc. work/go/make Questions require the auxiliary verb to do or. A: Does she like going to the mountains? B: Yes.Auxiliary Verb do or does Compare these examples: • • • • + Subject e.

Examples: . The Present Perfect is used to express actions that happened at an indefinite time or that began in the past and continue in the present. 2. USE 1. The man has gone away. It does not matter when exactly they happened.Present Perfect • • • First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses. Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now Actions in the past which have an effect on the present moment Actions which began in the past and continue in the present USE 1: Indefinite (unknown) time before now Use the Present Perfect to talk about actions that happened at some point in the past. Quick example: I have read this book. John has worked as a teacher for over 25 years. This tense is also used when an activity has an effect on the present moment. 3.

what's happened". "a week ago". (that's why he is in the hospital) To understand this use better. Marcus replies: "I have been struck by a bolt of lightning". Examples: • • Mary has worked as a teacher for over 25 years. The use of Present Continuous is correct here because the action has an effect on the present moment (it explains why he looks this way). click on the buttons and read the message: . USE 3: Continuation in the present We often use the Present Perfect when we want to emphasize that an event continues in the present. Patrick has achieved a lot in his life. He has been to England. You should not use this tense with time expressions like "yesterday". • Why is this in Present Perfect? Click on the button labled as "event 1". (so I'm not hungry) He has had a car accident. Now click on the other button. etc. watch this interactive animation: [ Marcus: I have been struck by a bolt of lightning! ] Explanation In this cartoon.• • I have already had a breakfast. you can see a mother asking her son: "Markus. You can see that Marcus was struck lightning bolt. "last year". (so he can now rest) I have already eaten the dinner. Examples: • • USE 2: Effect on the present moment We also use this tense to when an activity has an effect on the present moment. To understand this use better. Examples: • • • He has finished his work.

for example: o I have lived here since 1960. More about time expressions. .. Neither of my brothers has ever driven a truck. We use "for" with a period of time. When talking about a starting point. Auxiliary Verb "to have" We conjugate the auxiliary verb "to have" the same way we would conjugate the normal verb "to have". for example: o I have lived here for 20 years. "Since" and "for" are very common time expressions used with the Present Perfect."For" and "Since".. More examples: • • She has never seen my brother. 2. FORM To form a sentence in the Present Perfect. the third person singular is irregular. The Past Participle of your verb. we use "since". 1. Person Singular Plural First I have We have Second You have You have Third He/she/it has They have As you can see. what you need is: 1. The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have".

Therefore. • The regular verbs are formed by adding -ed to the verb: Verb Past Participle talk talked explain explained use used deliver delivered include included achieve • • achieved The formation of the irregular verbs does not follow one rule. The Past Participle The past participle of a verb is a verb form that appears with the perfect tenses. they should be memorized. The past participle can be either regular or irregular. Verb Past Participle Learn more be been be become become become .2.

I/a dogetc. + Auxiliary verb has/have + Past participle e.g. Examples Use We have already had breakfast (Use 1) I have bought new shades (Use 2) I have already been to Paris (Use 1) John has been a plumber for 2 years (Use 3) Someone has just taken my bag! (Use .Verb Past Participle Learn more see seen see go gone go eat eaten eat grow • grown grow Declarative Sentences Subject e. slept/taken/goneetc.g.

So. an American would say: o Did you go to the post office yet? (Past Simple) rather than: .g.g. Have you ever seen this program? (Use 1) Where has she lived for the past 21 years? (Use 3) Have you found the telephone number? (Use 1.1. slept/taken/goneetc. already or yet. I/a dogetc.2) Have you ever been to France? (Use 1) Has anyone taken my bag? Trivia (Use 1. + Use Past participle e.2) In sentences with adverbials such as ever.2) Jane has never been so angry (Use 3) He has been our most serious partner for so long that I can assure you he's a very decent man Questions (Use 3) Auxiliary verb has/have Examples + Subject e. American-English speakers may use thePast Simple rather than the Present Perfect.

o Have you gone to the post office yet? (Present Perfect) Negative Sentences Subject e. Examples Auxiliary verb + not Past participle + has not/have not + e. have they? (Use 1) .g. slept/taken/goneetc.g. Use He hasn't taken any drug for two years (Use 3) I haven't met my perfect partner yet (Use 3) They haven't contacted you. I/a dogetc.

(He's still painting it) I have been working as a fireman since 1973. Quick example: I have been working as a teacher for 30 years. Examples: • I have been waiting for you for half an hour! (I'm not waiting anymore because you have come) . Actions that started in the past and continue in the present Actions that have recently stopped USE 1: Continuation in the Present We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continues in the present. 2. But don't worry! Read on to learn how to use it. (I still work as a fireman) USE 2: Past actions recently stopped Use this tense also to talk about actions that began in the past and have recently stopped. USE 1. Examples: • • He has been painting the house for 5 hours. What have you been doing? The Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) has a long and scary name.Present Perfect Continuous • • First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses.

In the next scene. 2. More about time expressions. This is exactly use 2 described above. mum". she asks him "what have you been doing?". For and Since.. In this scene. FORM To form a sentence in the Present Perfect Continuous. (She stopped crying when she saw them) To understand this use better. The Present Participle of your verb (verb + ing) 1. we use "since". "Since" and "for" are very common time expressions used with the Present Perfect Continuous. The auxiliary verb "to be" in the Past Participle form: "been". You can see that the boy is playing a computer game. watch this interactive animation: [ Mother: What have you been doing? ] Explanation In this cartoon. . We use "for" with a period of time. you can see a mother asking her son: "What have you been doing?". someone knocks at the door. The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have". It's his mother. for example: o I have been living here for 20 years. The boy replies: "Nothing.. Auxiliary Verb "to have" We conjugate the auxiliary verb "to have" the same way we would conjugate the normal verb "to have". for example: o I have been living here since 1960. Now click on the button labeled "event 2". what you need is: 1. 3. When talking about a starting point. The use of Present Perfect Continuous is correct here because in this last scene Marcus no longer is playing a computer game (he stopped the moment he heard someone knocking at the door). • Why is this in Present Perfect Continuous? Click on the button labled "event 1".• Look at her eyes! I'm sure she has been crying.

the third person singular is irregular. More examples: • • She has never seen my brother.g. I/a + Auxiliary + Auxiliary + verb verb has/have been Verb + ing e. • • talk + ing = talking be + ing = being There are exceptions. and you must never forget about it! • • I have been working as a teacher for 10 years. Neither of my brothers has ever driven a truck. Auxiliary verb "to be" The past participle of the verb "to be" is "been".g.swimming/talkingetc. 2. .> 3. The Present Participle The present participle is of a verb is a verb form that appears with the present tenses. Positive Sentences Subject e. This is also an auxiliary verb. The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the verb.Person Singular Plural First I have We have Second You have You have Third He/she/it has They have As you can see.

dog etc.g. Use Is she eating my cake now? (Use 1) Are they having the party on Friday or Saturday? (Use 2) Are you meeting David today? (Use 2) Is Mary having breakfast now? Negative Sentences (Use 1) Subject + Auxiliary + Auxiliary + verb verb Verb + ing . + Auxiliary verb been Verb + ing + e.swimming/talkingetc. Examples Use Have you been running? (Use 2) Has Tom been walking the dog? (Use 2) How long have you been learning English? (Use 1) Q: What have you been doing there? A: I've been eating Questions (Use 1 or Use 2) Auxiliary verb has/have Examples Subject + e. I/a dog etc.g.

I/a dog etc.g.g. Examples has not/have not been e. Use He is not joking (Use 1) We aren't waiting for my uncle (Use 1) He is not going to school tomorrow (Use 2) .e.swimming/talkingetc.

Actions in progress (in the past) Interrupted actions in progress (in the past) Actions in progress at the same time (in the past). USE 1. We usually use The Past Continuous (Progressive) to talk about longer actions in progress in the past. Quick example: What were you doing then? I was eating the dinner when someone knocked at the door. 2. I was working hard I was wondering if you could help me. When he was sleeping.Past Continuous • • • • First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses. 3. 4. USE 2: Interrupted actions in progress The Past Continuous is often used when one actions in progress is interruped by another action in the past. Sentences usually have this form: [ Sentence in Past Continuous ] + WHEN + [Sentence in Past Simple ] WHEN + [ Sentence in Past Continuous ] + [Sentence in Past Simple ] or: . 5. She was not crying. The actions can be interruped by something ("He was reading when she arrived") or can be happening at the same some ("She was learning English when he was watching TV"). Irritation over something or somebody (in the past) Timid / polite question USE 1: Actions in progress We use the Past Continuous to express the idea that an action was in progress in the past. Examples: • • I was watching TV yesterday in the evening. We usually use "when" to link these two actions. There are also two other uses.

they refer to the present moment. USE 4: Timid / polite questions If we want to ask a polite question. someone stopped me and asked what time it was ] Explanation In this cartoon. • Why is this in Past Continuous? Click on the button labled "event 1". Examples: • • I was watching TV and Barbara was reading a book. Examples: • • I was wondering if you could open the window. another man stops him and asks what time it is. The plane crashed when Angelica was playing tennis. Notice that the action of jogging is interrupted by event 2. USE 5: Irritation .". I was thinking you might help me with this problem. USE 3: Actions in progress at the same time We also use this tense to show that two actions are taking place at the same. but they are more polite. Suddenly.[ Sentence in Past Simple ] + WHEN + [ Sentence in Past Continuous ] Examples: • • I was talking with James when the telephone rang. Even though the sentences have a Past Continuous form. To understand this use better. This is "event 2". we can use the Past Continuous. This is a continuous action. This is why the use of Past Continuous is correct here. watch this interactive animation: [ Peter: When I was jogging. You can see that the man is jogging. Their meaning is similar to the "could you" sentences. The family was eating the dinner and talking. you can see a man who says: "When I was jogging someone stopped me and asked what time it was.

Remember that you can also express irritation over somebody or something in the past. The Present Participle of your verb (verb + ing) 1. For the first and third person singular: "was" 2. The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the verb. A rhinoceros was swatting flies with his tail when suddenly a fly bit him (Use 2) Examples Use .g.g. Examples: • She was always coming late for dinner! FORM To form a sentence in the Past Continuous. what you need is: 1. • • talk + ing = talking be + ing = being There are exceptions. Positive Sentences Subject e. For all others: "were" Examples: • • She was always coming late for dinner! You were always coming late for dinner! 2. I/a dogetc. The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to be" in the past form 2. Auxiliary verb Verb + ing + was / were + e. swimming/talkingetc. Auxiliary verb "to be" The past form of the auxiliary verb "to be" is: 1. The Present Participle The present participle is of a verb is a verb form that appears with the present tenses.

Use Have you ever seen this program? (Use 1) Where has she lived for the past 21 years? (Use 3) Have you found the telephone number? (Use 1. I/a dogetc. I/a dogetc.2) Subject e.2) Have you ever been to France? (Use 1) Has anyone taken my bag? Negative Sentences (Use 1. swimming/talkingetc. swimming/talkingetc.g. Auxiliary verb Verb + ing + was not /were + e. + e.Have you been running? (Use 2) Has Tom been walking the dog? (Use 2) How long have you been learning English? (Use 1) Q: What have you been doing there? A: I've been eating Questions (Use 1 or Use 2) Auxiliary verb was / were Examples Subject Verb + ing + e.g.g. not .g.

have they? ] (Use 1) .Examples Use He hasn't taken any drug for two years (Use 3) I haven't met my perfect partner yet (Use 3) They haven't contacted you.

For example. Mary looked as if she had not slept for 48 hours. keep in mind that it is better to use the Past Perfect. We use the Past Perfect tense to emphasize that an action in the past finished before another action in the past started. I went to fill up. To understand this use better. 4. she would have passed the English language exam. A completed action before another action in the past Third conditional sentences Reported speech Dissatisfaction with the past 2. they will say: o After I washed my car. watch this interactive animation: . I went to fill up. Rather than: o After I had washed my car. USE 1. third conditional sentences. Good to know People (especially native speakers) do not use the Past Perfect in such sentences very often. especially in written English or when writing exams. I wish I had been brave enough. This tense is also used in reported speech. Still.Past Perfect • • • • First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses. Examples: • • I had finished my homework before I went playing football. USE 1: A completed action before another action in the past The first use of this tense is to emphasize that one action in the past happened before another action in the past. 3. or to show dissatisfaction with the past. John had never been to London before we went there last year. This is because "after" or "before" tell the listener which action happened first. If she had studied hard. Quick example: I had written the letter before you came home.

The Past Perfect is also used with expressions such as: "as if/though": . Julis replies that he has never seen it.. It means that the use of Past Perfect is correct here. He asked if I had read Harry Potter. Examples: • • Mary said she had already seen this film. had never seen a camel. you can see a man who says: "My son. If Mary had studied harder.. USE 4: Dissatisfaction with the past We often use the Past Perfect to show our dissatisfaction with the past. before we went together to the Zoo in summer 1990 ". she would have passed the exam. I'm hungry now." or "If only .". ] Explanation In this cartoon. Notice that the event 1 occured before event 2. Julius. The father asks his son. (but I didn't) USE 3: Reported speech Use the Past Perfect with reposted speech. (but I didn't) If only I had known the answer to that question. Julius... I'm hungry now. The Use 2 is the so-called hypothetical past: we are talking about things that never happened.[ Father: My son Julius had never seen a camel before we went together to the zoo in summer 1990. • Why is this in Past Perfect? Click on the button labled "event 1". watching the animal. Examples: • • If we had gone by taxi. Examples: • • I wish I had taken more food. Such sentences typically start with "I wish . In the next scene. USE 2: Third conditional sentences Use the Past Perfect with third conditional sentences. the following question: "Have you ever seen a camel?". they are in the Zoo. If only I had taken more food. o o I wish I had fixed my umberella. we wouldn't have been late.

The Past Participle of your verb. what you need is: 1. The past participle can be either regular or irregular. Auxiliary verb "to have" The past form of the auxiliary verb "to have" is "had": • • • Mary had finished her homework before Mike came home. She looked as though she hadn't slept all night. The Past Participle The past participle of a verb is a verb form that appears with the perfect tenses. The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have" in the past form. 2. • The regular verbs are formed by adding -ed to the verb: Verb Past Participle talk talked explain explained use used deliver delivered include included achieve achieved .o o John looked as if he had done something terrible. 2. FORM To form a sentence in the Past Perfect. 1.

Verb Past Participle • • The formation of the irregular verbs does not follow one rule. Therefore.g.g. I/a dogetc. Auxiliary verb Verb + ing + had + e.eaten/given/goneetc. Examples Use . Verb Past Participle Learn more be been be become become become see seen see go gone go eat eaten eat grow • grown grow Positive Sentences Subject e. they should be memorized.

I/a dogetc.Before I went to the park. (Use 1) If he had made the right choice. . + e.g.g. he wouldn't be unhappy now.eaten/given/goneetc. (Use 2) Mary said she had already seen this movie before. he would be happy (Use 2) now.g. I/a dogetc. before we went to the (Use 1) cinema yesterday to see it. Use Had she eaten the dinner before she went to (Use 1) the cinema? Negative Sentences Subject e. If he hadn't made the mistake. Use I had not seen this movie .g. (Use 3) I wish I had had enough courage to kiss her! Questions (Use 4) Auxiliary verb had Examples Subject Past participle + e.eaten/given/goneetc. I had finishedmy work. Examples Auxiliary verb Verb + ing + had not + e.

Duration of a past action up to a certain point in the past Third conditional sentences Reported speech* 2. First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses. The Past Perfect Continuous (Past Perfect Progressive) is used to talk about actions that began in the past and lasted up until another action in the past. (Use 3) I wish I hadn't done it! (Use 4) Past Perfect Continuous USE 1.Mary said she had not visited for a long time. 3. .

For how many hours had Fred been painting the house when the ladder fell? (Use 1) How long had the player been playing before he scored? (Use 1) The difference between the Present Perfect Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous . (Use 1) Mary said she had never been swimming so much in one day. [ Father: When I looked at our daughter Kathy I knew she had been crying ] • • • • I had been running for an hour when it started raining. (Use 1) He said he had been training. This means that Use 1 is also valid in the sentences marked with Use 3. etc. (Use 3) Questions: What is inversion? Auxiliary verb Had • • Subject Auxiliary verb Verb + ing + I/a dog etc. "she has been crying" .she said she had been crying Reported Speech FORM Declarative sentences: Subject Auxiliary verb I/a dog etc.she said she had been crying "she was crying" . Auxiliary verb Verb + ing + had + been + eating/swimming. The PPC is involved when the original tense is the Present Perfect Continuous or the Past Continuous. (Use 1) Everything had been going well in my life until my world fell apart several months ago. etc. + been + eating/swimming. (Use 3) Kathy put on weight because she had been eating too much sugar.Note:Use 1 contains Use 3.

(Use 2) Had I not been studying all night. I went to the cinema. We use the Past Simple to talk about actions that happened at a specific time in the past. (Use 2) Past Simple • • • First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses. . we would have played football. I would have problems with this test now.Negative sentences: Auxiliary verb + Subject not I/a dog /Mary. The actions can be short or long. etc. (Use 3) If it hadn't been raining. • • • Auxiliary verb Verb + ing + + been + going/swimming. hadn't He said he wasn't tired because he hadn't been working that day. bought popcorn and watched a movie. a Quick example: I was sleepy. There can be a few actions happening one ofter another. etc. He didn't learn any Italian when he was in Italy two year ago.

2. I/a dog etc.g. FORM Forming a sentence in the Past Simple is easy. talked. [2] USE 2: Situation in the past Another use of this tense is talk about situations in the past. a dog) and the past form of your verb (e. [2] He ate the dinner 1 hour ago. The actions can be short [1] or long [2]. [1] I slept well last night. you.g. Examples: • He entered a room. Examples: • • • • John cut his finger last week. Declarative Sentences Subject e. lit a cigarette and smiled at the guests. [1] I went to college 3 years ago.g. he. Events in the past that are now finished Situation in the past A series of actions in the past USE 1: Past actions that are now finished The first use of the Past Simple to express actions that happened at a specific time in the past. I. was. Examples: • I lived in New York for 10 years (I don't live there anymore). To form a declarative sentence.USE 1.g. because they require an auxiliary verb. swam). Questions and negative sentences are only a little more difficult. worked/went/made I saw two colorful fishes in the lake yesterday (Use 1) . all you need is the subject of the sentence (e. USE 3: A series of actions in the past The Past Simple can also be used with a few actions in the past happening one after another. 3. + Verb + ED or an irregular verb form e.

Examples Use He entered the room. I/a dogetc. (Use 1) Time Expressions Common time expressions (time adverbials) in the Past Simple are: o o o o yesterday the other day just now the day before yesterday Questions Auxiliary verb did Examples + Subject e. Use + Verb in the present form e. I lived in New York for 10 years (I don't (Use 2) live there anymore). (Use 3) Mary tried the soup but it was too hot to (Use 1) eat.g. (Use 1) He married a woman who lived in the same village. (Use 3) I ate the cake yesterday. lit a cigarette and smiled at the guests. They saw us playing football.g. work/go/make .

How long did he work there?

(Use 1)

Did the telephone ring?

(Use 1)

Did you see that?
Negative Sentences

(Use 1)

Subject e.g. I/a dogetc. Examples

Auxiliary verb + not

Verb in the past form

+

didn't Use

+

e.g.worked/went/made

He didn't learn any Italian when he was in Italy two year ago.

(Use 1)

I wasn't at my grandma's when you came.

(Use 1)

He didn't get any good grades when he attended school.

(Use 3)

Future Simple
• • • •

First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses. Quick example:
I will clean up my room. I promise! The telephone is ringing. I will pick it up! I think it will rain. He will stay there for hours, doing nothing.

The Future Simple is used in many situations such as when making promises or predictions.

USE
1. 2. 3. Promises Unplanned actions (spontaneous decisions) Predictions based on experience or intuition

4. Habits (obstinate insistence, usually habitual) Going to

You can also use "going to" to express future. We use it to express predictions based on observing the present situation: o It's going to rain. Look at the clouds!

READ MORE

USE 1: Promises
The first use of the Future Simple to make promises. Examples: • • I promise I will buy you this toy. Promise you will never leave me!

USE 2: Unplanned actions (spontaneous decisions)
Use this tense also to talk about unplanned (spontaneous) decisions. Examples: • • Don't worry! I will help you with this problem. I will close the window. It's starting to rain.

USE 3: Predictions based on experience or intuition
We often use the Future Simple when making a prediction based on experience or intuition. Examples: • • It will rain in a moment. It will get more difficult.

USE 4: Habits
The last use of this tense is interesting: we can also use the Future Simple to express habits. Examples: • • She will bit her lip if she is thinking or if she's nervous about something. He will always make noise when we are sleeping.

FORM
Contracted forms (more)
WILL = 'LL

g.work/go/mak e probably. (Use 4) John will keep dropping his towel on the floor after a bath.g.work/go/mak e Remember. most likely I'll probably drop in on uncle. (Use 1) If you will keep your watch half an hour slow it is hardly surprising that you are late for your appointments. (Use 3) I will visit my grandma at hospital. INCORRECT: Mike will move to New Jersey next month.m. you should never use will to say what somebody has already arranged or decided to do in the future: o o CORRECT: Mike is moving to New Jersey next month.g. + e. (Use 4) • • • When I'm 60 years old. (Use 3) Questions Auxiliary verb will Remember We often use "will" with: Subject Verb + e. (Use 1 or Use 2) Let's buy the snacks at the supermarket – they will be cheaper. I will be completely bald. READ MORE • • • • I think he will regret his choice.g. I/a dogetc. Caution Auxiliary verb Verb + will + e. (Use 3) I will come back at 10 p. I/a dogetc. .• She'll dance = she will dance WILL + NOT = WON'T • She won't dance = she will not dance Declarative Sentences Subject e.

m.g. I/a dogetc. (Use 3) . I think we'll love it.work/go/mak e I won't take any heavy equipment with me. • • • Auxiliary verb Verb + will not + e. (Use 2) I expect that Sally will not clean up her room.g. what.I think This gift is great. I'm sure It's not going to be boring there. • • • • Will Will Will Will he be surprised when he sees me? (Use 3) Mark be able to do the shopping before 10 a. I expect he'll calltoday. etc. unless you help her. (Use 2) I'm sorry I won't be able to help you with your English today. when.? (Use 3) there be plenty of people in church? (Use 3) you study harder? (Use 1) Negative Sentences Subject e. I'm sure there will be a lot of boys at your age I wonder (if.) It's a bit late. I wonder if he'll come. I expect I haven't seen Matthew today.

listed below: USE 1. Ben won't be eating the dinner now. I will be taking my English Langauge exam. Tomorrow at this time. . 3. Polite questions about somebody's intentions*. There are also two other uses.! Will you be coming to the party tonight? We mainly use the Future Continuous (aka Future Progressive) to indicate that we will be in the middle of doing something in a specified time in the future.Future Continuous Quick example: • • • First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses. 2. He usually eats it around noon. Future actions in progress. Guesses about the present or the future.

. In the evening. If you want to learn about somebody's intentions.? Will you be going to the supermarket? I have something to buy. Questions become much more objective if formed in the Future Continuous: o o Will you come home? (= I want you to come home) Will you be coming home? (= I just want to know) USE 1: Future actions in progress The first use of the Future Continuous is to express future action in progress. FORM Contracted forms (more) WILL = 'LL Example: She'll have been = she will have been WILL + NOT = WON'T Example: She won't have been = she will not have been Important: The Future Continuous appears in two forms: "will" form and "going to" form which can be used interchangably. Examples: • • In an hour. He is still at the office. USE 3: Questions The last (but not least) use of the tense is to make polite questions about something or somebody. I will be baking a birthday cake.Good to know. I will be sitting in front of my TV. you should always use the Future Continuous rather than the Present Simple. Using the Future Simple implies that you want to influence somebody's decision. Examples: • • He won't be coming any time soon. Examples: • • Will you be coming home before or after 10 p.m. Beatrice will be getting married very soon.. Example: "She will be dancing" means "she is going to be dancing" Declarative Sentences . USE 2: Guesses Use this tense also to make guesses about something in the present or future.

(Use 1) I'll be watching TV when my mother arrives. etc.g.g. you will be finishing your paiting. Tomorrow at this time.g. I will be getting bored at school! (Use 1) Questions Auxiliary Subject Auxiliary verb Verb + ing verb + + + will • • • ? I/you/we etc.? (Use 1) Will you be using the screwdriver? (Use 3) Negative Sentences Subject e. • • • • • Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb Verb + ing + will + be + e. Future Continuous cannot be used in sentences beginning with: while.m. I am going to be throwing a party. if. I will be hosing off (=washing with a hose) my car. o By the time. (Use 2) Watch out! Like any of the Future Tenses. (Use 1) Tomorrow at nine.Subject e.working/going/makin g We won't be having supper tomorrow before 8 o'clock. before. be dancing / taking Is she going to be cooking when we knock at the door? (Use 1) Will Mark be playing football at 6 p. (Use 1) I am not going to be learning English tomorrow at this time. (Use 1) This time next week. (Use 1) John won't be sleeping now (= I think John isn't sleeping now) (Use 2) . (Use 1) They will be getting home just about now.when. I/a dogetc. • • • Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb Verb + ing + will not + be + e. I/a dogetc. by the time.g.working/going/makin g She'll be having a bath when I'm back home.

Quick example: By the next year. Common Time Expressions Time expressions that are commonly used with the Future Perfect: o o o Before By tomorrow/7 o'clock/next month Until/till USE 1 .Future Perfect • First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses. We use the Future Perfect tense to express an action that will be finished before some point in the future. I will have graduated from university. Actions that will be finished before some point in the future. USE 1.

g.The only use of this tense is to talk about future actions that will be finished before some specified point in the future. (Use 1) I read 40 pages a day. I will have read the book by Tuesday. + Auxiliary verb will + Auxiliary verb have Verb + ing + e. Example: "She will have finished" means "she is going to have finished" Positive Sentences Subject e.g.g.eaten/given/goneetc. + Auxiliary verb have Verb + ing + e. by the time the party starts! FORM Contracted forms (more) WILL = 'LL Example: She'll have finished = she will have finished WILL + NOT = WON'T Example: She won't have finished = she will not have finished Important: The Future Perfect appears in two forms: "will" form and "going to" form which can be used interchangably. I/a dogetc. John will have eaten the whole cake. Examples Use I will have retired by the end of this year. we will have cleaned up the house. If I keep up the pace. Questions (Use 1) Auxiliary verb will Subject + e. Examples: • • Before they come. .g.eaten/given/goneetc. I/a dogetc.

g. Examples Use They won't have graduated from from Cambridge by July 2009. . (Use 1) My uncle won't have retired by the end (Use 1) of the year. I/a dogetc.eaten/given/goneetc. + Auxiliary verb + not will not + Auxiliary verb have Verb + ing + e.Examples Use Will they have graduated from Cambridge by July 2009? (Use 1) Will I have retired by the end of the year? (Use 1) Will you have bought a new processor by (Use 1) the end of this week? Negative Sentences Subject e.g.

.. Apart from that. REPORTED SPEECH: a) She said she would have returned from the US by the of that month." b) Jane said: "I will have recorded. b) He said (that) his car would have been repaired by the following day ( or by the day after).. . b) Jane said she would have recorded .. there are some changes in time and place words. you should first replace "will" with "would"." REPORTED SPEECH: a) I said I would have arrived . a) She said: "I will have returned from the US by the end of this month. a) I said: "I will have arrived..." b) He said: "My car will have been repaired by the next day...Future Perfect in reported speech If you relate sentences in the Future Perfect.

USE 1. By tomorrow I will have been saving money for a new house for 4 years. Actions that will be in progress at a definite moment in the future.Future Perfect Continuous Quick example: • First time here? You may want to see the list of basic facts about tenses. We use this tense to express actions that will be happening at a definite moment in the future. I will have been working as a teacher for 30 years. Examples: . By the next year. USE 1 The only use of this tense is to talk about future actions that will be in progress at some specified point in the future.

eating/giving/goinget c. (Use 1) Jane will be very tired when she comes home. because she will have been flying over 24 hours. 1) In the summer Mike will have beentrying to find a new job for five months. By the next year. we will have been cleaning the house for 5 hours. Examples Use We will have been driving 6 hours by the (Use time we get home.• • Before they come.g. Ben and his wife will have been living together for 50 years. + Auxiliary verb will + Auxiliary verb have + Auxiliary verb been Verb + ing + e.g. (Use 1) My father and I will have (Use . Common Time Expressions Time expressions that are commonly used with the Future Perfect Perfect: o o o By tomorrow / 8 o'clock This year / month / week Next year / month / week FORM Contracted forms (more) WILL = 'LL Example: She'll have been = she will have been WILL + NOT = WON'T Example: She won't have been = she will not have been Positive Sentences Subjec t e. I/a dogetc.

"for three hours") is unknown then the Future Continuousshould be used instead of the Perfect Form. Example: o o I will be taking a bath.g.g. would simply be. I/a dogetc.g. "Will she have been teaching for 30 years this year?". Negative sentences sound rather unnatural. "since April". I don't think so". Use Will he have been writing the (Use 1) composition for a month by the end of . 1) By the year 2020.g. + Auxiliary verb will + Auxiliary verb have + Auxiliary verb been Verb + ing + e. "No. Questions Auxiliar y verb will Examples Subject + e. + Auxiliary verb have + Auxiliary verb been Verb + ing + e.eating/giving/goinget c. Negative Sentences Subjec t e. Examples Use She won't have been writing the book (Use 1) for four months by the end of October. Note If duration of an activity (e. linguists will have been (Use studying and definingthe Indo-European 1) language family for more than 200 years.beenbreeding sheep for 20 years tomorrow.eating/giving/goinget c.g. This is probably because the answer to a question like. I/a dogetc.

Examples: o How long will you have been learning German this year? o How long will you have been trying to get your driving license this week? I hope you'll finally make it! . Questions beginning with "how long" are more common..February? Good to know..

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful