Engineer(Aero) Rotary Wing Research & Design Centre

Senior Manager(Design) Rotary Wing Research & Design Centre


Chapt Jan 10, 2002


By N.S.Venkatesha, Manager(Design) & Sreenivasa Rao D. A.E.(Aero), Rotary Wing R & D Centre, HAL, Bangalore – 560 017.

Technology concerned with the development and use of electronic devices for an aircraft called AVIation electrONICS also known as AVIONICS. Avionics Systems can be broadly defined as systems required to accomplish certain functions like communication, navigation, identification, weather avoidance, Display, Control, Recording, Electronic Counter Measurement, Electronic Counter Counter Measurement, target acquisition and other weapon related applications. Avionics can be sub-divided into :   Basic Avionics Mission Avionics

Whereas certain communication and navigation systems are mandatory, other systems are defined and configured to suit a particular role helicopter is designed for, keeping in view, among other things, space and weight limitations. Table 1 & 2 gives a typical avionics fit for Military & Civil Helicopters TABLE – 1 AVIONICS ON MILITARY HELICOPTER


Chapt Jan 10, 2002

) VOR/ILS/MB (2 Nos. Electronic Environmental Test er Chapt Jan 10.) DME HF Heading Reference GPS ADF Weather Radar FDR / CVR MILITARY STANDARDS: Some of the Military Standards and specifications that define and regulate procurement. installation and qualification of avionics systems are given below: MIL-E-5400T Equipment MIL-STD-810D : : General Specs.AVIONICS SYSTEMS BASIC AVIONICS COMMUNICATION :  Intercom  V/UHF  HF MISSION AVIONICS  VHF(FM)  Sighting System  FLIR  Radar  Sonar  Weapon Electronics  ESM NAVIGATION :  Doppler  GPS  Radio Altimeter  ADF  Homer  Weather Radar IDENTIFICATION :  IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) TABLE – 2   AVIONICS ON CIVIL HELICOPTER         Intercom VHF (2 Nos. 2002 .

corrosion on bonding contact surface to be minimised. A temperature and vibration survey will be helpful before locations are finalised. Long term effects of vibration. 2002 .AVIONICS SYSTEMS MIL-STD-461B MIL-B-5087 MIL-STD-704D MS-25212 MIL-W-5088 MIL-C-38999 MIL-L-85762A DEF-STN-970 : : : : : EMI/EMC : Bonding. Equipment should be kept away from places where lubricating oil drip/splash is likely to occur. GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS : Some of the design considerations that are general to Avionics systems are as follows: EMI / EMC ASPECTS :  Creation of a zero potential difference reference base. FAR-29. HF Separation of DC and AC grounds Separation of power lines and signal lines  Bonding and shielding : A low impedance path must exist between all avionics equipment case and structure. If found necessary forced air-cooling is to be adopted to bring down ambient temperature if the avionics bay is not sufficiently ventilated. which will dissipate all undesired interfering noise / signal Single point grounding to avoid ground loop currents. DO-178. Lightning Protection Electrical Power Requirement Panel Dimension : Wiring. Selection installation : Connectors NVG Compatibility Installation For civil application the regulating standards are DO-160. JAR-29. er Chapt Jan 10. This is especially important for lower frequency radio systems like ADF. The desired DC resistance value to be defined as per MIL-B-5087 (or DIN 29576). The length to dia ratio of bonding braid should not exceed 5:1    ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS : The location of different LRUs have to be chosen keeping in view the environmental conditions of the locations and the environmental specification for which the equipment is cleared for operation.

This is to be ensured for both boom mic and mask mic. Intercom or Audio Management System plays a very important role in determining the quality and reliability of many avionics systems on the helicopter.AVIONICS SYSTEMS INTERCOM: Intercom is the vital link between the pilots and all the communication and warning systems and some of the navigation systems.  POWER SUPPLY : Intercom should work on dual power supply of 28 V DC. It should also meet certain operational requirements like call. The power supply requirements should be as per MIL-STD-704D. The mike should be noisecancelling type typically of dynamic moving coil type not er Chapt Jan 10. If required appropriate filters should be housed in the junction box to minimise background noise carried on power supply lines. private mode selection etc. the interface requirement should be properly spelt out. CVR and Warnings. Both supplies should be from emergency bus. 2002  . earphone output etc. number of communication. with one power line acting as standby. Great care must be taken while selecting an intercom system with particular attention to the number of stations it can support. mike output level.. HELMET / HEADSET : The helmet/headset selected should match with the intercom in terms of its electrical characteristics like mike and earphone impedance. Since intercom interfaces with a number of other on board equipment. navigation systems. The following are the areas that require attention.

√ Pr / Pf ) reflected power & Pf = forward power er Chapt Jan 10. One more technique for reducing noise pick-up is by employing VOS (Voice operated switch) in intercom system. Some of the considerations are: 1. both for boom microphones and.  TRANSMITTERS: While interfacing with different radio systems it is important to check the input mic level and impedance requirements of each radio with the corresponding channel output level and impedance from intercom junction box. mask microphones. ANTENNAS: The specification of an antenna is based on the requirements of the equipment for which is used. VSWR can be calculated by the formula VSWR Where Pr = = ( 1 + √ Pr / Pf ) / ( 1 . Normally monopole antennas are used. noise-cancelling microphone alone may not be sufficient. Similarly audio output during reception and side tone output during transmission should be measured.AVIONICS SYSTEMS requiring DC bias. Where required dipole and conformal antennas can be used. VHF. Frequency Range Radiation Characteristics Polarisation VSWR The frequency range of antenna determines its size. 2. V/UHF antennas have to be vertically polarised. This will enhance the quality of intercom and also that of radio transmission. by measuring the depth of modulation for the rated mic input. noise frequency and level and appropriate filters should be built in to the system to eliminate in the noise pick-up. Some of the characteristics relevant for VOS are threshold of operation. 3. 2002 . VSWR for all antennas should be typically 2:1 or less in order to minimise losses. This has to be confirmed first by measuring the mic output for the rated input and further after connecting the corresponding T/R unit. frequency response and time lapse. HF Antennas are largely horizontally polarised. In such cases. Since helicopters generally have high cockpit noise. 4.

Navigation systems such as Doppler require radiation in specific direction.H. VERY / ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY (V/UHF) : External communication is achieved by means of radio-telephone (R/T) link while internal communication (intercom or audio integrating system) is by wire as opposed to wireless. broad band antenna covering 30-88 MHz.F.M. namely control unit. RADIO PTT The range available can be approximated by 1. Broadband tuned monopole antennas give better gain characteristics.H. The airframe can radiate energy coupled to it at frequencies where its dimensions match with wavelength.F.F. The T/R unit should be so located that the feeder lines do not cause power loss due to its length. installation consists of three parts. Most of the modern equipment is immune to rotor modulation. is essentially ‘line of sight’ by direct (space) wave. Above sea level of the receiver while ‘h t’ Grip Pilot’s Control is the same for the transmitter. In addition crew phones are connected to the V. The presence of rotor also affects the radiation pattern.AVIONICS SYSTEMS Radiation patterns of the antenna indicate in which direction the energy is being radiated.H. The airframe around the antenna directly influences the radiation by masking and re-radiation. The rotor modulation can be generally avoided by locating the antenna beneath the fuselage. transmitter. The current situation is the V. The ‘rotor modulation’ effect is to modulate the field at frequency determined by number of blades and rotor RPM. via selection switches in the Intercom. An aircraft V. er Chapt Jan 10. is used for long-range. In order to reduce the number antennas.H.23(√ hr + √ ht) where ‘hr’ is height in feet. communication transreceiver is comprised of either a single or double conversion superhet receiver and an A.F.F. A single V.H. Transmission on set is initiated by PTT(Press To Talk) switch provided in Pilot’s control grip. Communication antennas are all omnidirectional. 2002 . 100-156 MHz and 225-400 MHz can be used.F. Communication by V. transreceiver and antenna. is used for short-range communication while H.

M.F. 2002 . Depending upon the feasibility wire or tube and grounded or open-ended antenna can be used. although sets in service may have provision for compatible or normal A. for some part of the flight. At that time ionosphere becomes thicker and reflects the higher frequencies in the HF band. The long range is achieved by use of sky waves that are refracted by the ionosphere to such an extent that they are bent sufficiently to return to earth. When the sun goes down the density of charged particles decreases and it can reflect only lower frequencies in the HF band. For grounded antenna the bonding resistance should be well controlled within 2. out of range of V. have been the subject of many papers and orders from users.AVIONICS SYSTEMS HIGH (HF): FREQUENCY The use of long-range communications. Because sunlight induces ionisation and increases the density of the electrically charged particles in the ionosphere during the day. i. The type of modulation used. transmission is that it is subject to selective fading over narrow bandwidths (tens of cycles). being greatest at the lower h. er Chapt Jan 10.F. we find that H. i.F.5 m Ohm.F. both civil and military and regulating bodies. but there is also a market for general aviation aircraft. H.H.e.f. This being so.service. communications. (2-30MHz) carries for communication purpose greatly extends the range at which aircrew can establish contact with Aeronautical Mobile Service Stations. ground wave suffers quite rapid attenuation with distance from the transmitter. and associated details such as channel spacing and frequency channelling increments. carrier and one or two sidebands being transmitted respectively.e. Such aircraft obviously include public transport aircraft flying intercontinental routes. The H.S. The current and future norm is to use single side band (S. Ionospheric attenuation also takes place.F. Communication Systems are fitted to aircraft flying routes which are. The pilot can choose the higher frequencies during day light (10MHz to 30 MHz) and lower frequencies during night (2MHz to 10 MHz) for the best possible HF communications.B) mode of operation for H.

one for transmitting and one for receiving of radio altimeter signals.e. location chosen should be such that the resulting quadrantal errors do not exceed limits. The system consists of a transmitter/receiver. The loop should be mounted along longitudinal axis. care should be taken to check the compatibility. The Radio Altimeter gives accurate altitude information within  3%. 2002 . Radio height is measured using the basic idea of Radio ranging i. an indicator and two antennas. Each Radio Altimeter system comes with its own AID value set. It is vulnerable to counter measures. This system employs a sense antenna and a loop antenna. The ADF receiver never is to be considered as precision equipment.6 to 1 m. The sense antenna should be installed at the electrical centre of the helicopter. The systems always seeks the null of the cardioid and by calibration the pointer is made to show the relative bearing to the radio station to which it is tuned. As the loop is affected by large masses.AVIONICS SYSTEMS AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF) : An Automatic Direction Finder automatically indicates the direction from which the electromagnetic field arrives at the ADF aerials. RADIO ALTIMETER : Radio Altimeter is one of the navigational aids for measuring the altitude of the aircraft with respect to the immediate terrain on which it is flying. Check the suitability of audio warning for er Chapt Jan 10. Validity signal from the system to be checked. It should also be away from the rotor in order to prevent interference from static discharge noise. While using indicator manufactured by a vendor different from the system vendor. The separation between the two antennas should be about 0. Also to check if the system can be switched ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ through the indicator. It is versatile and its angular error varies inversely with distance and increases with atmospheric noise level. measuring the elapsed time between the transmission of electromagnetic wave and its reception after reflection from the ground. Signals from these antennas are added vectorially and cardioid pattern in obtained. This system works in the frequency range of 190 to 1860 KHz. Before locating the T/R unit and the two antennas AID should be calculated for a particular installation to determine the cable length and height of antenna above ground when helicopter is on ground.

The Doppler effect can be described as the change in observed frequency when the source (transmitter) and observer (receiver) are in motion relative to one another. The applicability to electro magnetic waves is illustrated by the use of police radar speed traps. the Austrian Scientist Christian Doppler predicted the Doppler effect in connection with sound waves. for example. In an airborne Doppler radar we have a transmitter that. Doppler System measure velocity only. The difference between transmitted and received frequencies is known as the Doppler shift and is very nearly proportional to the relative motion between the aircraft and the ground along the direction of the radar beam. the difference between the two is direct measure of the relative velocity. 2002 . It was subsequently found that the effect is also applicable electro magnetic waves. er Chapt Jan 10. to the cost of offenders. Accuracy thus depends upon the echo quality. Echo quality from water. The noise of moving trains and road traffic is a demonstration of the effect commonly observed. Doppler effect in which radiation from a source in motion relative to the viewer is displaced in frequency. often is poor. by means of a directional antenna. Thus we have the situation where both transmitter and receiver are moving relative to the ground. DOPPLER NAVIGATION SYSTEM (DNS) : In 1842. For helicopter applications audio warning should come ‘ON’ on reaching the Decision Height (DH). consequently the original frequency transmitted is changed twice.AVIONICS SYSTEMS helicopter applications. this means comparing the frequency of the returned echo with a stable reference frequency. In practice. The Doppler Navigation system makes use of self-contained sensors for precise navigation. radiates energy towards the ground. A receiver receives the echo of the transmitted energy.

or forthcoming waypoint. User segment C/A = Coarse Acquisition code P = Precision code 1. military use only. Each satellite continuously broadcasting two signals namely the “Coarse Acquisition”(C/A) code and “Precision”(P) code signals. Control segment 3. bearing and distance to go.. 1. 2. to give the aircraft position relative to a destination. to selected waypoints. The ‘C/A’ code signals are for worldwide civilian use and ‘P’ code signals are for U. To achieve this the pilot must set desired track and distance to fly before take off. the vectors in the direction of flight and normal to it (x and y) are measured. The system accuracy is expressed as a percentage of the distance travelled. er Chapt Jan 10. Space segment : It consists of constellation of 24 satellites. All the satellites are placed in 6 orbital planes at an altitude of 11. velocities in 3 axes of the helicopter etc.000 miles from the earth inclined at 55 to the equator. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) : The Doppler/GPS Navigation system is a self-contained navigation system for providing navigation and steering information like present position.S. The GPS consists of 3 segments. Generally. Doppler accuracy represents an improvement over airspeed-clock-compass dead reckoning because the velocity vectors measured are relative to the ground. Space segment.AVIONICS SYSTEMS Doppler systems determine location relative to the point of flight origin by integration of measured velocity vectors. The ground speed and drift angle information is normally presented to the pilot but in addition is used. 2002 . together with heading information.

The total system comprises three parts. VOR operates in the frequency range of 108 – 118 MHz with channels spaced at 50 KHz and requires horizontally polarised omni directional antenna. User segment : It consists of a GPS receiver. 2002 . A GPS receiver requires GPS signals from three satellites for two-dimensional positioning and four satellites for three-dimensional positioning (latitude. Lateral steering provided by the localizer for both front-course and back-course approaches. longitude and altitude). define the correct approach path to a particular runway.AVIONICS SYSTEMS 2.5 m/sec. Master control station is located at Colorado springs and other monitoring stations are located various places in the world which will monitors and controls satellite function. the glide scope provides vertical steering for the front course only while marker beacons give the distance checks. ILS operates in range of 108 – 112 MHz and uses the same antenna. The location of VOR antenna is critical due to rotor modulation effects. The crew of an er Chapt Jan 10. modulated so as to enable airborne equipment to identify the beam centres. In addition vertical directional beams provide spot checks of distance to go on the approach. The receiver uses the time interval between the transmission and reception of the GPS signal to calculate distance from each satellite and use these distance to compute the position. This band is shared with ILS localizer the VOR being allocated to 160 of the 200 available channels. VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL (ILS): RANGE(VOR)/INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM Directional radio beams. each with a transmitter on the ground and receiver and signal processor in the aircraft. Control segment: It consists a system of tracking stations located around the world. At present GPS receivers with C/A code can provide position information with an error of less than 25 meters and velocity with an error of less than 0. 3.

The same control unit as VOR controls distance-measuring equipment. DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME) : Distance measuring equipment (DME) is a secondary radar pulsed ranging system operating in the band 978-1213 MHz. a station on a particular bearing. steering information can be derived from the received VOR signals. The distance then is presented to the pilot by means of a digital display. 2002 . The airborne transponder measures the total elapsed time. divides by two and converts this figure into miles. Distance measuring equipment (DME) consists of an airborne transponder that sends out a signal that triggers a ground transponder into sending back another signal to the aircraft on a slightly different frequency. The antenna should be isolated from other antennas as much as possible due to the pulsed characteristic of the output. which is needed for navigation purposes. The DME antenna should be isolated from other antennas of similar frequency.AVIONICS SYSTEMS appropriately equipped aircraft can tune into a VOR station within range and read the bearing to the station and the relative bearing of the station. The system provides slant range to a beacon at a fixed point on the ground. Normally a suppression pulse is provided by DME to IFF and vice-versa in order to prevent operation of other. is small unless the aircraft is very high or close to the beacon. The difference between slant range and ground range. WEATHER RADAR: er Chapt Jan 10. or departure from. Should the flight plan call for an approach to.

bearing and intensity of echo. various other uses for the system or part of the system have been. Since the pilot needs to observe the weather in a wide sector ahead to the aircraft the antenna is made to sweep port and starboard repetitively. selection of mapping er Chapt Jan 10. The beam is made to seep across the screen in synchronism with both the time of transmission and the antenna position.f. It is alight weight ‘X’ band radar operating in the frequency range of 9375  5 MHz and provides a peak power of 10KW.r.I. notoriously unreliable. 2002 . A cathode ray tube (c.f. hail and lightning. The primary purpose of the system is to detect storms along the flight path and give the pilot a visual indication in colour of their intensity. energy.e.P.f. confined to as narrow a beam as practicable. energy can be channelled into a highly directional beam. At its most crude. in fact. energy are generated by a transmitter and fed to a directional antenna.AVIONICS SYSTEMS Weather forecasting is by reputation and. R. The speed of propagation of an r. Pulses of r. The system also has the capability to receive and decode beacons. wave.) display is invariably used since this allows the simultaneous display of the three quantities and is easy to interpret.t. It provides five primary mode of operation i. What is required is an airborne system capable of detecting the weather conditions leading to the hazards of turbulence. Weather Radar operation depends on three facts : Precipitation scatters r. Although the primary function of a weather radar is to detect conditions likely to give rise to turbulence. and continue to be found. Virtually all weather radars offer a mapping facility. Plan Position Indicator (P. The r.f. Display of three quantities for each target is required: namely range. three air to surface search and detection modes. until the introduction of satellites.F. will be scattered by precipitation in its path. two conventional weather avoidance modes. wave is known.) is used in which the beam of electrons is velocity modulated in accordance with the received signal strength. hence we use the term scanner for a weather radar antenna. some of the energy returning to the aircraft as an echo. The beam will effectively slice any storm cloud within the sector of scan so that a cross-section of the cloud is viewed.

IFF operates as follows : Receives interrogations from ground interrogator in 1030 MHz and transmits replies on 1090 MHz  Five modes of operation : Mode-1 Mode-2 Mode-3 Mode-4 Mode-5 : : : : : General Identity Personal Identity Air Traffic Identity Automatic Altitude reports Selective addressing er Chapt Jan 10. A Switching unit switching signals between the 2 antennas. 2 antennas (top & bottom) per system those are compatible with the system. Dedicated control unit for the system 2. The spectrum of Doppler shift frequencies is narrowest when the beam is aligned with the aircraft track. 3. Transponder unit having compatibility with MIL-STD-1553B dual bus.t. The weather radar indicator is increasingly used for purposes other than the display of weather or mapping information. whereupon the pilot can tilt the beam down to view a limited region of the ground. so allowing confirmation of position With downward tilt the returned echo is subject to a Doppler shift due to the relative velocity of the aircraft along the beam. 2002 . lakes and coastlines are clearly identified. The transmitted pulse from the weather radar can be used to trigger a suitably tuned beacon(transponder) on the ground.c. When selected to mapping.AVIONICS SYSTEMS merely removes s. ALH equipped with an IFF system on all military versions. IFF system LRUs : 1. IDENTIFICATION FRIEND OR FOE(IFF) : Purpose of the IFF system is to respond an interrogation whether Friend or Foe. rivers. has the following 4.

SEARCH & RESCUE HOMING SYSTEM : 121.5 MHz beacons in the field. The ELT also has the ability to be used portably as a Personnel Locator Beacon when released from the mounting tray.5MHz System Operation : With over 330. The ELT automatically activates during a crash when used in conjunction with the Bi-directional G-Switch module or can be operated manually via the Remote Controller situated with the cockpit. most of the operational experience acquired by COSPAS-SARSAT relates to the 121.025 MHz with optional inclusion of transmission of last known GPS coordinates. 406 MHz System Operation : The November 1986 exercise the first world wide test of the 406 MHz global mode involving the 4 operational satellites. The ELT can achieve a range of 100 nM on 406.000 121. The operational availability of the 406 MHz system is described as follows :  Detection probability : All beacons detected  Location probability (for single satellite pass)=95% (99% when excluding situations of known interference at several sites)  Location accuracy : better than 10 km with 82. The ELT complies with COSPAS/SARSAT specifications. 2002 . the associated ground communication networks and 26 beacons distributed in 15 countries.6% probability er Chapt Jan 10. all operational LUTs and MCCs. 243 MHz and 406.AVIONICS SYSTEMS EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER (ELT) : The ELT offers full frequency operation at 121.025 MHz and 40 nM on 121.5 MHz & 243 MHz.5 MHz system.5 MHz.

2002 er . The need to locate and rescue personnel from emergency locations has never been greater.  It records all the parameters just like the normal recorder. either 121. the new 406 MHz transmits a 450 m/sec digital pulse every 50 seconds. speed. configuration and operation for adjudging the aircraft performance and complementing accident / incident investigations. The main purpose of the FDR/CVR is to acquire and record all the essential flight data and also voice data for the purpose of accident / incident prevention and investigation.AVIONICS SYSTEMS In addition to the traditional 121. It consists of the following LRUs : 1. altitude. engine power. Helicopter Voice Data Recorder (HVDR) 3. The increasing use of both SARSAT/COSPAS and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) has highlighted the need for SAR systems to be able to pin-point and effect immediate recovery and rescue of personnel from emergency. FDR is an equipment installed in the aircraft for the purpose of recording the parameters required to determine accurately the aircraft flight path. In 406 MHz mode. FLIGHT DATA RECORDER / COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER : Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) is equipped with the Fairchild model FA2100 family of solid state flight recorders comprises a Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR). MDAU acquires flight data and voice data from various sensors Chapt Jan 10.5 and 243 MHz SAR frequencies.5 second lapse time between two digital pulses. Modular Data Acquisition Unit (MDAU) 2. Area MIC (Remote Microphone) 1. but the digital pulse from 406 MHz beacons is too brief for the traditional systems to secure a lock.5 or 243 MHz can be selected to automatically cover the 49. and a combination Cockpit Voice and Flight Data Recorder (CVDR). Traditional systems rely on a continuous swept tone from the beacon to ensure reliable homing. a Flight Data Recorder (FDR). CVR Control Unit 4. CVR is an equipment installed in the aircraft for the purpose of recording the aural environment on the flight deck during flight time for the purpose of accident / incident prevention and investigation.

‘Faraday Cage’ is formed by conducting areas of the outer surface of the structure providing EMI/EMC and lightning er Chapt Jan 10. Public Address or Third Crew Member. The resulting signals are converted to digital pulse code modulation (PCM) data. Pilot. or 256 words per second(wps). The FDAU data is received. This configuration records a minimum of 30 minutes of high quality audio for the following recommended stations. It uses non-volatile memory device. HVDR is a crash survivable recording device. amplified. The audio inputs are conditioned. converts the audio to a digital format. high quality voice(HQV) and high quality combined (HQC). and Cockpit Area Microphone (CAM). In ARINC 757 installations. and equalized as necessary. 2002 . The flight data is stored in flash memory segregated from the cockpit voice data. the CVR Fault line provides continous status of CVR and the FDR Fault line provides continous status of FDR operation.AVIONICS SYSTEMS and systems. of flight data and 30 minutes of voice data on 4 channels. MDAU provides data output to FDR/CVR unit at a data rate of 256 w. which will retains data without the power applied. The unit can record Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Time via the ARINC 429 GMT input and can record rotor speed data via the Rotor Speed input. The Flight Data Recorder function receives flight data from an ARINC 573/717 FDAU at 64. and stores the data in a solid state memory. These fault lines may be connected to an annunciator or to an aircraft central maintenance computer. Recorder retains upto 25 Hrs. 128. Co-Pilot. 4. The control unit has the facility for ‘self test’ and has facility for ‘erasing’ voice data of previous flight when the helicopter is on ground.s. The CVDR is capable of storing a minimum of 25 hours of flight data that can be downloaded in less than 5 mins. LIGHTNING PROTECTION : The basic approach adopted for implementing lightning protection scheme on a helicopter is to provide a ‘Faraday Cage’ on the outer shell of the helicopter. Area MIC is to transfer the audio conversion taking place in the cabin to voice data recorder.p. 2. 3. buffered and returned to the FDAU as part of its Built-in-Test (BIT) function. The cockpit voice recorder (CVR) function simultaneously records two separate channels of cockpit audio.

On modern helicopters. These diverters have to be interconnected and well bonded to metal structures. from damage due to direct effects. So. looms etc. Tiger. so that an uninterrupted low impedance path is available throughout the length and breadth of the helicopter. Such a path will be prevent the current from getting deeper into the helicopter thereby protecting sensitive equipment. since solid diverters cannot be used. When lightning strikes an aircraft at the attachment point the high current flow chooses the least resistance path from there to the point of exit. mm. there is a need to use diverters. should be 26 sq. RF transparent. their cost is expected to increase as they are more labour intensive. requiring skilled man power. which is sufficient to handle full lightning current of 200 KA as per DEF STAN 970. Apache. GLASS COCKPIT : Glass cockpit is a state-of-art technology which has become a global trend on military and civil helicopters : Eg. Further. 2002 . If radome is an attachment point. Rooivalk etc..AVIONICS SYSTEMS protection for the system within the aircraft. If various paths of same impedance level are available between these points then the current trends to choose two symmetrically opposite outermost paths. which are composite intensive. Glass cockpit consists :     Common Control Unit Built-in NAV processing including GPS card Data transfer device for uploading mission plan & downloading mission events Moving map facilities er Chapt Jan 10. The area of cross section of. Bell-430. say aluminium diverter. segmented diverter strips can be used. NH-90. EH-101. Obsolescence : The environmental electromechanical instruments are likely to be phased out and become obsolete in the course of time. if there exists a low impedance path placed symmetrically at the outer surface then that will be chosen path for the current.

of LRUs. MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY (MFCD) : The MFCDs provide the color displays for the selected modes and for the Digital Moving Map display. er Chapt Jan 10. results in reduction in interconnecting cables. It is fully MIL-STD1553B compatible and is based on PC architecture. connectors and loom accessories COCKPIT INTERFACE UNIT (CIU): The CIU provides a display and keyboard for control and display of navigation data. 2002 .AVIONICS SYSTEMS Advantages :      Pilot workload for normal monitoring and system management are reduced as the display is ‘by exception’ Increased system redundancy enhances mission completion probability subsequent to a single system / unit failure Facilitates quicker assimilation of system status by the flight crew Reduces inventory Due to reduced no. It also contain a Data Transfer (DTS) capability.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful