Solar Harvesting - PV’s Solar Harvesting - Solar Hotwater

Lightweight Steel Frame

Extract Vents Chicken Run

Hen Hangar

Bee Hives

Algae Proto zoa

Duckw

eed

Plankt on

90 80

o

Shrim p Fish F / ry

o

70

o

60o 50
o

Ste

UV tion sa rili

40o

Auxhillary Growth Space inc Mushrooms Storage / Service Space
O2

Education Space
O2

Primary Growing Space

O2

RO S YD IC HON P AS U Q IC RE AON LTU P CU
A O ER

PO

N

S IC

Retain Existing Facade

PURITY

H

O

TI R

External Growing Space

Re ective Mirrors

FE

Wythernshawe Market

os mp Co

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Drum Composter Local Compost Collection

H VA IGH LU E H YI IGH EL D H I RI GH SK

CA

Key
O2 O2 O2

Oxygen Circulation Heat Transfer - Water Heat Transfer - Air Typical Floor Layout

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Dr. Dickson Despommier

The Vertical Farm: Keystone Concept to the Sustainable Eco-city

July 17, 2011

DICKSON DESPOMMIER, Ph.D.

EMERITUS PROFESSOR COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Yesterday’s Visions

In the past, we envisioned a domed city to protect us from nature

Buckminster Fuller’s domed Manhattan

Today, we dome our endangered plants to protect them from us!

Eden Project Cornwall England

Tomorrow’s Metropolis?

The “Jetsons” Vision

Eco-socialists View of Utopia

…or worse!

Imminent Utopia
Kris Kuksi

The Challenges
Safe and Abundant Water Supply Food Safety and Security Engaging Society in Environmental Sustainability Reducing Dependence on Fossil Fuels

Agricultural Footprint

6.8

Billion People

Not including grazing lands

World Population Growth
Billion 10 8 6 4 2 0
Industrialized Regions Developing Regions

By the year 2050 our species will increase by another 3 billion people

1750

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

Sources: United Nations Population Division and Population References Bureau, 1993

6.8
Billion People

+

Agricultural Footprint

Billion People

3

Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Environmental Change David Tilman, et al. SCIENCE Vol 292—April, 2001

80%
of the Earth’s available land is already farmed

Herbicides

20% of US Fossil Fuel Use

Food

requires

AGRICULTURE

produces

Fertilizers

Pesticides

70% of Available Fresh Water

Agricultural Runoff

Agricultural Runoff is Destroying the World’s Oceans

<10 10–20 20–40 40–60 60–80 >80

Percent Increase in TN River Flux

Dead Zones

US Floods: 1993, 2007, 2008

Within 20 years, 80% of us will live in cities or suburbs

Cities:
Footprint = 2-3% of Earth’s land mass Responsible for 70% of our carbon emissions

The City
Resources in Water Energy Food

Wastes out “Black Box”
Solids Liquids Gasses

Neither Were Yesterday’s Cities
Jericho Babylon Troy All Mesoamerican Cities Memphis (Egypt) Sparta Carthage Rome Angkor Wat

Provide a sustainable, safe and abundant food and water supply for 10 billion people?

AND

Repair Earth’s damaged ecosystems?

Can We?

We Can If we Want To

The Future of Agriculture: Growing Soilless

Hydroponics

Aeroponics

Drip Irrigation

Look At What We Can Do Now

Lettuce from Tennessee

Rice from Japan

Tomatoes

EuroFresh Farms, Willcox, Arizona

Endless Possibilities

The Hydroponic Shopping Cart
Berries Blackcurrant Blueberry Cranberry Huckleberry Loganberries Raspberry Strawberry Bush Vegetables Green Bean Tomato-- beefsteak, campari, plum, cherry, globe Specialty Crops Coffee Grapes Luffa Sponge Olives Sunflower Wheat Grass Vine Vegetables Cucumber Eggplant Okra Squash Sweet Bell Pepper Zucchini Legumes Soybeans Peanuts Leafy Greens Asparagus Butterhead Lettuce Broccoli Brussels Sprout Cauliflower Celery Charita Lettuce Chinese Cabbage Collared Greens Estelle Lettuce Garlic Chives Green Coral Lettuce, Green Oak Leaf Lettuce, Kale Kuala Lettuce Mizuna Mustard Peas Red Coral Lettuce Red Oak Leaf Lettuce Romaine Lettuce Roxy Lettuce, Spinach Swiss Chard Upland Cress Herbs & Spices Arugula Banana Pepper Bay Leaves Chile Peppers Chervil Chives Cilantro Cinnamon Basil Coriander Curry Leaf Dill Fennel French Tarragon Green Basil Lavender Lemon Basil Lemon Thyme Marjoram Mint Opal Basil Oregano Parsley Rocket Rosemary Sage Sakura Cress Thai Basil Watercress Yellow Pea Shoots

Melons Cantaloupe Muskamelon Pumpkin, Watermelon Root Vegetables Beet Belgian Endive Carrot Onions Potato Radish Sweet Potato Grains Barley Corn, Wheat Rice

Hydroponics

Apply these proven indoor agricultural strategies to growing food in buildings located within the urban landscape…

The Result:

Vertical Farming

Advantages of a Vertical Farm
5 4 3 2 1
ALLOWS RESTORATION OF DAMAGED ECOSYSTEMS USES 70% LESS WATER, NO AGROCHEMICALS, NO FOSSIL FUELS NO CROP LOSS FROM SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS YEAR ROUND CROP PRODUCTION NO AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF

Advantages of a Vertical Farm
10 9 8 7 6
CAN GROW BIO-FUELS, PLANT-DERIVED DRUGS USES ABANDONED CITY PROPERTIES SUPPLIES FRESH PRODUCE FOR INNER CITY DWELLERS CREATES NEW JOBS REMEDIATES GRAY WATER

Creating The Eco-City

Look To Nature

http://www.biomimicryinstitute.org/

Nature’s Master Plan: The Ecosystem

Biodiversity

Balance

Resiliency

Sustainability

Ecosystems “Live Within Their Means”

Solar Constant = 2 calories/cm2/minute

Ecosystems

Everyone gets their fair share

Terrestrial

Aquatic

The Vertical Farm: Key to Eco-Urbanization

The Vertical Farm is the centerpiece for creating an eco-city in which all human activities reflect ecological process.

Vertical Farm Tool Box

Hydroponics Aeroponics Drip Irrigation Waste-to-Energy

Automation Water Re-capture Passive Energy LED Lighting

The Sustainable Eco-City
(employs cutting-edge technologies)
CITY DRINKING WATER Vertical Farm CITY ENERGY GRID

Potable Water

Food
Metabolic By-Products (urine, feces)

Energy

Gray Water Remediation

Liquid Municipal Waste
Gray Water Sludge

Plasma Gasification

Can we actually do any of this?

We are already doing it

Santa Ana, California

Black water

Gray water

Drinking water

Purifying gray water into drinking water creates other problems, like social marketing

Plasma Arc Gasification is Gaining Traction in Japan

The Rise Of Vertical Farms ___________________________________ Nuvege – Kyoto, Japan PlantLab – Den Bosch, Holland Cevesca 2 story VF – Seattle
5 Story retro-fitted office block – Manchester, England
Growing Power 5 story VF – Milwaukee 3 story VF – Jackson, Wyoming

Seoul, Korea

Nuvege Kyoto, Japan

Holland

Jackson, Wyoming

Growing Power 5 Story Vertical Farm

Cities Planning A Vertical Farm _______________
Singapore Manchester, England Milwaukee, USA Jackson Hole, USA

Cities interested in creating a vertical farm
New York City (2008 presentation to Manhattan Boro president’s office, Scott Stringer) Newark, NJ (2 presentations - 2009,2010 - to Mayor’s office, Stephan Pryor) Jersey City, NJ (2010 presentation to City planners office) Chicago, Ill. Newark, Delaware Beijing, China (Conference on metropolitan agriculture) Incheon, Korea (2007 presentation to City planners office) Singapore Vancouver, Canada Surrey, Canada (2009 presentation to Mayor’s office) Milan, Italy (Expo 2015 organizers) Las Vegas, Nevada Amman, Jordan (2009 presentation to Mayor’s office) Doha, Qatar Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

It’s time to stop talking… …and START DOING!

Save Water

Farm Smart

Help Keep Our Blue Planet Green!

Thank You!

Solar Harvesting - PV’s Solar Harvesting - Solar Hotwater

Lightweight Steel Frame

Extract Vents Chicken Run

Hen Hangar

Bee Hives

Algae Proto zoa

Duckw

eed

Plankt on

alphafarm.org
90 80
o o

Shrim p Fish F / ry

70

o

60o 50
o

Ste

UV tion sa rili

40o

Auxhillary Growth Space inc Mushrooms Storage / Service Space
O2

Education Space
O2

Primary Growing Space

O2

RO S YD IC HON P AS U Q IC RE AON LTU P CU
A O ER

PO

N

S IC

Retain Existing Facade

PURITY

H

O

TI R

External Growing Space

Re ective Mirrors

FE

Wythernshawe Market

os mp Co

e tat m Co po st

Drum Composter Local Compost Collection

H VA IGH LU E H YI IGH EL D H I RI GH SK

CA

Key
O2 O2 O2

Oxygen Circulation Heat Transfer - Water Heat Transfer - Air Typical Floor Layout

N