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Solar Harvesting - Solar Hotwater Algae Duckw Lightweight Steel Frame Protozoa Plankt Shrimp Fish Fry
Solar Harvesting - Solar Hotwater
Algae
Duckw
Lightweight Steel Frame
Protozoa
Plankt
Shrimp
Fish Fry /
Extract Vents
Chicken Run
Hen Hangar
Bee Hives
o
90
o
80
o
70
o
60
o
50
o
40
Auxhillary Growth Space inc Mushrooms
CAFE
Storage / Service Space
O
2
Education Space
O
2
Retain Existing Facade
Primary Growing Space
O
2
External Growing Space
Re ective
Mirrors
Wythernshawe Market
Drum Composter
UV
Sterilisation
Local Compost Collection
HYDRO-
AEROPONICS
PONICS
Compostate
AQUA-
Compost
PONICS
HORTICULTURE
HIGH
VALUE HIGH
YIELD HIGH
RISK
N
PURITY

Key

Oxygen Circulation HIGH VALUE HIGH YIELD HIGH RISK N PURITY Key Typical Floor Layout Heat Transfer - Water

Typical Floor LayoutHIGH VALUE HIGH YIELD HIGH RISK N PURITY Key Oxygen Circulation Heat Transfer - Water Heat

Heat Transfer - Water

Heat Transfer - Air

HIGH YIELD HIGH RISK N PURITY Key Oxygen Circulation Typical Floor Layout Heat Transfer - Water
HIGH YIELD HIGH RISK N PURITY Key Oxygen Circulation Typical Floor Layout Heat Transfer - Water

Dr. Dickson Despommier

Dr. Dickson Despommier
The Vertical Farm: Keystone Concept to the Sustainable Eco-city July 17, 2011 DICKSON DESPOMMIER, Ph.D.

The Vertical Farm:

Keystone Concept to the Sustainable Eco-city

Vertical Farm: Keystone Concept to the Sustainable Eco-city July 17, 2011 DICKSON DESPOMMIER, Ph.D. EMERITUS PROFESSOR

July 17, 2011

Keystone Concept to the Sustainable Eco-city July 17, 2011 DICKSON DESPOMMIER, Ph.D. EMERITUS PROFESSOR COLUMBIA

DICKSON DESPOMMIER, Ph.D.

Concept to the Sustainable Eco-city July 17, 2011 DICKSON DESPOMMIER, Ph.D. EMERITUS PROFESSOR COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

EMERITUS PROFESSOR COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Yesterday’s

Visions

In the past, we envisioned a domed city to protect us from nature

In the past, we envisioned a domed city to protect us from nature Buckminster Fuller’s domed

Buckminster Fuller’s domed Manhattan

Today, we dome our endangered plants to protect them from us!

Today, we dome our endangered plants to protect them from us! Eden Project Cornwall England

Eden Project Cornwall England

Tomorrow’s Metropolis?
Tomorrow’s
Metropolis?

The “Jetsons” Vision

The “Jetsons” Vision
The “Jetsons” Vision

Eco-socialists View of Utopia

Eco-socialists View of Utopia

…or worse!

Imminent Utopia

Kris Kuksi

The Challenges

Safe and Abundant Water SupplyFood Safety and Security Engaging Society in Environmental Sustainability Reducing Dependence on Fossil Fuels

Food Safety and SecuritySafe and Abundant Water Supply Engaging Society in Environmental Sustainability Reducing Dependence on Fossil Fuels

Engaging Society in Environmental SustainabilitySafe and Abundant Water Supply Food Safety and Security Reducing Dependence on Fossil Fuels

Reducing Dependence on Fossil FuelsSafe and Abundant Water Supply Food Safety and Security Engaging Society in Environmental Sustainability

Agricultural Footprint
Agricultural
Footprint

6.8

Billion

People

Not including grazing lands

World Population Growth

Billion

10

8

6

4

2

0

World Population Growth Billion 10 8 6 4 2 0 By the year 2050 our species
By the year 2050 our species will increase by another 3 billion people Developing Regions
By the year 2050 our species will increase
by another 3 billion people
Developing
Regions
Industrialized Regions

1750

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

Sources: United Nations Population Division and Population References Bureau, 1993

6.8

Billion

People

Agricultural Footprint

+

3

Billion

People

Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Environmental Change

David Tilman, et al. SCIENCE Vol 292—April, 2001

80% of the Earth’s available land is already farmed
80%
of the Earth’s available land
is already farmed

Herbicides

20% of US Fossil Fuel Use

requires
requires

Fertilizers

Herbicides 20% of US Fossil Fuel Use requires Fertilizers Pesticides 70% of Available Fresh Water AGRICULTURE
Herbicides 20% of US Fossil Fuel Use requires Fertilizers Pesticides 70% of Available Fresh Water AGRICULTURE
Herbicides 20% of US Fossil Fuel Use requires Fertilizers Pesticides 70% of Available Fresh Water AGRICULTURE

Pesticides

70% of Available Fresh Water

AGRICULTURE
AGRICULTURE

Food

produces
produces

Agricultural

Runoff

Agricultural Runoff is Destroying the World’s Oceans

<10 10–20 20–40 40–60 60–80 >80
<10
10–20
20–40
40–60
60–80
>80

Percent Increase in TN River Flux

40–60 60–80 >80 Percent Increase in TN River Flux Dead Zones U S F l o

Dead Zones

40–60 60–80 >80 Percent Increase in TN River Flux Dead Zones U S F l o
40–60 60–80 >80 Percent Increase in TN River Flux Dead Zones U S F l o

US Floods:

1993, 2007, 2008

Within 20 years, 80% of us will live in cities or suburbs

Within 20 years, 80% of us will live in cities or suburbs

Cities:

Footprint = 2-3% of Earth’s land mass

Responsible for 70% of our carbon emissions

Cities: Footprint = 2-3% of Earth’s land mass Responsible for 70% of our carbon emissions

The City

Resources in Water Energy Food

The City Resources in Water Energy Food “Black Box” Wastes out Solids Liquids Gasses
The City Resources in Water Energy Food “Black Box” Wastes out Solids Liquids Gasses
The City Resources in Water Energy Food “Black Box” Wastes out Solids Liquids Gasses

“Black Box”

Wastes out

Solids

Liquids

Gasses

Neither Were Yesterday’s Cities

Jericho Babylon Troy All Mesoamerican Cities Memphis (Egypt) Sparta Carthage Rome Angkor Wat

Provide a sustainable, safe and abundant food and water supply for 10 billion people?

AND
AND

Can We?

Repair

Earth’s

damaged

ecosystems?

We Can If we Want To

The Future of Agriculture: Growing Soilless

The Future of Agriculture: Growing Soilless Hydroponics Aeroponics Drip Irrigation
The Future of Agriculture: Growing Soilless Hydroponics Aeroponics Drip Irrigation

Hydroponics

The Future of Agriculture: Growing Soilless Hydroponics Aeroponics Drip Irrigation

Aeroponics

The Future of Agriculture: Growing Soilless Hydroponics Aeroponics Drip Irrigation

Drip Irrigation

Look At What We Can Do Now

Look At What We Can Do Now Rice from Japan Tomatoes Lettuce from Tennessee EuroFresh Farms,

Rice from Japan

Look At What We Can Do Now Rice from Japan Tomatoes Lettuce from Tennessee EuroFresh Farms,

Tomatoes

Look At What We Can Do Now Rice from Japan Tomatoes Lettuce from Tennessee EuroFresh Farms,

Lettuce from Tennessee

Look At What We Can Do Now Rice from Japan Tomatoes Lettuce from Tennessee EuroFresh Farms,

EuroFresh Farms, Willcox, Arizona

E ndless Possibili"es
E ndless Possibili"es

The Hydroponic Shopping Cart

The Hydroponic Shopping Cart Berries Legumes Blackcurrant Soybeans Blueberry Peanuts Cranberry
The Hydroponic Shopping Cart Berries Legumes Blackcurrant Soybeans Blueberry Peanuts Cranberry
The Hydroponic Shopping Cart Berries Legumes Blackcurrant Soybeans Blueberry Peanuts Cranberry
The Hydroponic Shopping Cart Berries Legumes Blackcurrant Soybeans Blueberry Peanuts Cranberry
The Hydroponic Shopping Cart Berries Legumes Blackcurrant Soybeans Blueberry Peanuts Cranberry
The Hydroponic Shopping Cart Berries Legumes Blackcurrant Soybeans Blueberry Peanuts Cranberry
The Hydroponic Shopping Cart Berries Legumes Blackcurrant Soybeans Blueberry Peanuts Cranberry

Berries

Legumes

Blackcurrant

Soybeans

Blueberry

Peanuts

Cranberry

Huckleberry

Loganberries

Raspberry

Melons

Strawberry

Cantaloupe

Bush Vegetables Green Bean Tomato-- beefsteak, campari, plum, cherry, globe

Specialty Crops Co!ee Grapes Lu!a Sponge Olives Sunflower Wheat Grass

Muskamelon

Pumpkin,

Watermelon

Root Vegetables Beet Belgian Endive Carrot Onions Potato Radish Sweet Potato

Vine Vegetables Cucumber Eggplant Okra Squash

Potato Vine Vegetables Cucumber Eggplant Okra Squash Hydroponics Sweet Bell Pepper Zucchini Grains Barley Corn,

Hydroponics

Sweet Bell Pepper

Zucchini

Grains

Barley

Corn,

Wheat

Rice

Leafy Greens Asparagus Butterhead Lettuce Broccoli Brussels Sprout Cauliflower Celery Charita Lettuce Chinese Cabbage Collared Greens Estelle Lettuce Garlic Chives Green Coral Lettuce, Green Oak Leaf Lettuce, Kale Kuala Lettuce Mizuna Mustard Peas Red Coral Lettuce Red Oak Leaf Lettuce Romaine Lettuce Roxy Lettuce, Spinach Swiss Chard Upland Cress

Herbs & Spices Arugula Banana Pepper Bay Leaves Chile Peppers Chervil Chives Cilantro Cinnamon Basil Coriander Curry Leaf Dill Fennel French Tarragon Green Basil Lavender Lemon Basil Lemon Thyme Marjoram Mint Opal Basil Oregano Parsley Rocket Rosemary Sage Sakura Cress Thai Basil Watercress Yellow Pea Shoots

Marjoram Mint Opal Basil Oregano Parsley Rocket Rosemary Sage Sakura Cress Thai Basil Watercress Yellow Pea
Marjoram Mint Opal Basil Oregano Parsley Rocket Rosemary Sage Sakura Cress Thai Basil Watercress Yellow Pea
Marjoram Mint Opal Basil Oregano Parsley Rocket Rosemary Sage Sakura Cress Thai Basil Watercress Yellow Pea
Marjoram Mint Opal Basil Oregano Parsley Rocket Rosemary Sage Sakura Cress Thai Basil Watercress Yellow Pea
Marjoram Mint Opal Basil Oregano Parsley Rocket Rosemary Sage Sakura Cress Thai Basil Watercress Yellow Pea
Marjoram Mint Opal Basil Oregano Parsley Rocket Rosemary Sage Sakura Cress Thai Basil Watercress Yellow Pea
Marjoram Mint Opal Basil Oregano Parsley Rocket Rosemary Sage Sakura Cress Thai Basil Watercress Yellow Pea
Marjoram Mint Opal Basil Oregano Parsley Rocket Rosemary Sage Sakura Cress Thai Basil Watercress Yellow Pea

Apply these proven indoor agricultural strategies to growing food in buildings located within the urban landscape…

The Result:

Vertical

Farming

Advantages of a Vertical Farm

Advantages of a Vertical Farm 5 4 3 2 1 ALLOWS RESTORATION OF DAMAGED ECOSYSTEMS USES

5

Advantages of a Vertical Farm 5 4 3 2 1 ALLOWS RESTORATION OF DAMAGED ECOSYSTEMS USES

4

Advantages of a Vertical Farm 5 4 3 2 1 ALLOWS RESTORATION OF DAMAGED ECOSYSTEMS USES

3

Advantages of a Vertical Farm 5 4 3 2 1 ALLOWS RESTORATION OF DAMAGED ECOSYSTEMS USES

2

Advantages of a Vertical Farm 5 4 3 2 1 ALLOWS RESTORATION OF DAMAGED ECOSYSTEMS USES

1

ALLOWS RESTORATION OF DAMAGED ECOSYSTEMS

USES 70% LESS WATER, NO AGRO- CHEMICALS, NO FOSSIL FUELS

NO CROP LOSS FROM SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS

YEAR ROUND CROP PRODUCTION

NO AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF

Advantages of a Vertical Farm

Advantages of a Vertical Farm 10 9 8 7 6 CAN GROW BIO-FUELS, PLANT-DERIVED DRUGS USES

10

Advantages of a Vertical Farm 10 9 8 7 6 CAN GROW BIO-FUELS, PLANT-DERIVED DRUGS USES

9

Advantages of a Vertical Farm 10 9 8 7 6 CAN GROW BIO-FUELS, PLANT-DERIVED DRUGS USES

8

Advantages of a Vertical Farm 10 9 8 7 6 CAN GROW BIO-FUELS, PLANT-DERIVED DRUGS USES

7

Advantages of a Vertical Farm 10 9 8 7 6 CAN GROW BIO-FUELS, PLANT-DERIVED DRUGS USES

6

CAN GROW BIO-FUELS, PLANT-DERIVED DRUGS

USES ABANDONED CITY PROPERTIES

SUPPLIES FRESH PRODUCE FOR INNER CITY DWELLERS

CREATES NEW JOBS

REMEDIATES GRAY WATER

Creating The Eco-City
Creating The Eco-City

Nature’s Master Plan:

The Ecosystem

Nature’s Master Plan: The Ecosystem

Biodiversity

Balance

Resiliency

Sustainability

Ecosystems “Live Within Their Means”

Ecosystems “Live Within Their Means” Solar Constant = 2 calories/cm 2 /minute

Solar Constant = 2 calories/cm 2 /minute

Ecosystems “Live Within Their Means” Solar Constant = 2 calories/cm 2 /minute

Everyone gets their fair share

Ecosystems

Everyone gets their fair share Ecosystems Terrestrial Aquatic

Terrestrial

Everyone gets their fair share Ecosystems Terrestrial Aquatic

Aquatic

The Vertical Farm: Key to Eco-Urbanization

The Vertical Farm: Key to Eco-Urbanization The Vertical Farm is the centerpiece for creating an eco-city

The Vertical Farm is the centerpiece for creating an eco-city in which all human activities reflect ecological process.

Vertical Farm Tool Box

Hydroponics Aeroponics Drip Irrigation Waste-to-Energy

Tool Box Hydroponics Aeroponics Drip Irrigation Waste-to-Energy Automation Water Re-capture Passive Energy LED Lighting

Automation Water Re-capture Passive Energy LED Lighting

The Sustainable Eco-City

(employs cutting-edge technologies)

Vertical Farm
Vertical
Farm

Food

(employs cutting-edge technologies) Vertical Farm Food Metabolic By-Products (urine, feces) Liquid Municipal Waste

Metabolic By-Products (urine, feces)

Vertical Farm Food Metabolic By-Products (urine, feces) Liquid Municipal Waste CITY DRINKING WATER CITY ENERGY GRID

Liquid Municipal Waste

CITY DRINKING WATER

CITY ENERGY GRID

Liquid Municipal Waste CITY DRINKING WATER CITY ENERGY GRID Potable Water Gray Water Remediation Energy Plasma
Liquid Municipal Waste CITY DRINKING WATER CITY ENERGY GRID Potable Water Gray Water Remediation Energy Plasma

Potable Water

Gray Water Remediation
Gray Water
Remediation

Energy

Plasma Gasification
Plasma
Gasification
CITY DRINKING WATER CITY ENERGY GRID Potable Water Gray Water Remediation Energy Plasma Gasification Gray Water

Gray Water

CITY DRINKING WATER CITY ENERGY GRID Potable Water Gray Water Remediation Energy Plasma Gasification Gray Water

Sludge

Can we actually do any of this?

We are already doing it

Santa Ana, California

Santa Ana, California B l a c k w a t e r Gray water Drinking

Black water

Gray water

Santa Ana, California B l a c k w a t e r Gray water Drinking

Drinking water

Santa Ana, California B l a c k w a t e r Gray water Drinking
Purifying gray water into drinking water creates other problems, like social marketing

Purifying gray water into drinking water creates other problems, like social marketing

Purifying gray water into drinking water creates other problems, like social marketing

Plasma Arc Gasification is Gaining Traction in Japan

Plasma Arc Gasification is Gaining Traction in Japan
Plasma Arc Gasification is Gaining Traction in Japan

The Rise Of Vertical Farms

Nuvege – Kyoto, Japan

PlantLab – Den Bosch, Holland

Cevesca 2 story VF – Seattle

5 Story retro-fitted office block – Manchester, England

Growing Power 5 story VF – Milwaukee

3 story VF – Jackson, Wyoming

Seoul, Korea

Seoul, Korea

Nuvege Kyoto, Japan

Nuvege Kyoto, Japan
Nuvege Kyoto, Japan
Holland
Holland
Holland
Holland
Holland

Holland

Holland
Holland

Jackson, Wyoming

Jackson, Wyoming

Growing Power 5 Story Vertical Farm

Growing Power 5 Story Vertical Farm

Cities Planning A Vertical Farm

Singapore Manchester, England Milwaukee, USA Jackson Hole, USA

Cities interested in creating a vertical farm

New York City (2008 presentation to Manhattan Boro president’s office, Scott Stringer) Newark, NJ (2 presentations - 2009,2010 - to Mayor’s office, Stephan Pryor) Jersey City, NJ (2010 presentation to City planners office) Chicago, Ill. Newark, Delaware Beijing, China (Conference on metropolitan agriculture) Incheon, Korea (2007 presentation to City planners office) Singapore Vancouver, Canada Surrey, Canada (2009 presentation to Mayor’s office) Milan, Italy (Expo 2015 organizers) Las Vegas, Nevada Amman, Jordan (2009 presentation to Mayor’s office) Doha, Qatar Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

It’s time to stop talking… …and START DOING!

Save Water

Farm Smart

Farm Smart

Help Keep Our Blue Planet Green!

Help Keep Our Blue Planet Green!

Thank You!

Solar Harvesting - Solar Hotwater Algae Duckw Lightweight Steel Frame Protozoa Plankt Shrimp Fish Fry
Solar Harvesting - Solar Hotwater
Algae
Duckw
Lightweight Steel Frame
Protozoa
Plankt
Shrimp
Fish Fry /
Extract Vents
Chicken Run
Hen Hangar
Bee Hives
o
90
o
80
alphafarm.org
o
70
o
60
o
50
o
40
Auxhillary Growth Space inc Mushrooms
CAFE
Storage / Service Space
O
2
Education Space
O
2
Retain Existing Facade
Primary Growing Space
O
2
External Growing Space
Re ective
Mirrors
Wythernshawe Market
Drum Composter
UV
Sterilisation
Local Compost Collection
HYDRO-
AEROPONICS
PONICS
Compostate
AQUA-
Compost
PONICS
HORTICULTURE
HIGH
VALUE HIGH
YIELD HIGH
RISK
N
PURITY

Key

Oxygen Circulation HIGH VALUE HIGH YIELD HIGH RISK N PURITY Key Typical Floor Layout Heat Transfer - Water

Typical Floor LayoutHIGH VALUE HIGH YIELD HIGH RISK N PURITY Key Oxygen Circulation Heat Transfer - Water Heat

Heat Transfer - Water

Heat Transfer - Air

HIGH YIELD HIGH RISK N PURITY Key Oxygen Circulation Typical Floor Layout Heat Transfer - Water
HIGH YIELD HIGH RISK N PURITY Key Oxygen Circulation Typical Floor Layout Heat Transfer - Water