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Department of Chemical Engineering Strength of Materials for Chemical Engineers (0935381)

Chapter 8 Thick Cylinders and Spheres 1)


Thick Cylinders

Difference in Treatment between Thin and Thick Cylinders


In thin cylinders the hope stress is assumed to be constant across the thickness of the cylinder wall. In thin cylinders there is no pressure gradient across the wall. In thick cylinders neither of these assumptions can be used and the variation of hop and radial stress will be as shown

For any element in the wall of a thick cylinder the stresses will be radial stress, hoop stress tangential, longitudinal axial stresses.

Longitudinal stress
L =
2 P1 R12 P2 R2 2 R2 R12

Lames Theory

For cylindrical thick vessels the following differential equation is used to determine the hoop and the radial stresses at any point through the thickness of the shell. d H r = r r dr

Hoop Stress
For the hoop and radial stresses the following equations are used: B r = A 2 r B H = A+ 2 r Where A and B are constants which can be determined using the pressure conditions inside and outside the cylinder.

Case 1: Internal Pressure Only


At r = R 1 , r = P and at r = R 2 , r = 0

Using these two conditions the following results will be obtained: A= PR12 PR 2 R 2 and B = 2 1 22 2 R2 R12 R2 R1

R2 2 1 2 PR12 R2 r 2 r r = 2 = P 2 2 R2 R1 r K 2 1

Where K =

d 2 R2 = d 1 R1

R2 2 + 1 2 PR12 R2 r 1 + 2 = P 2 H = 2 2 K 1 R2 R1 r The hoop (H) and radial (r) stresses are maximum at r=R1

The maximum shear stress occurs at the inside radius (at r=R1) and max =

B r2

Case 2: Internal and external pressures:

At r = R 1 , r = P1 and at r = R 2 , r = P2

Using these two conditions the following results will be obtained:

A=

2 (P P )R 2 R 2 PR12 P2 R2 and B = 1 2 2 1 2 2 R2 R12 R2 R12

2 R12 R2 1 2 2 r = 2 P1 R1 1 2 + P2 R2 1 + 2 r R2 R12 r

H =

1 2 R2 R12

2 R2 R 2 2 P1 R12 1 + 2 P2 R2 1 + 1 2 r r

Change of Diameter:
D = H =
D =
1 ( H r L ) all stresses are tensile. E 2r ( H r L ) E

Change of Length:
L =
1 ( L r H ) all stresses are tensile. E L L = ( L r H ) E

Comparison with Thin Cylinder


max is the limiting factor.
For thin cylinders H =

H Pd P d K = K where K = , max = 2t 2 2 t P 2 H max K = 1+ For thick cylinders P 2(K + 1)

Maximum Shear Stress


The stresses on an element at any point in the cylinder wall are principal stresses. 2 max = 1 2 Half the difference between the greatest and least principle stresses. 2 H r max = 1 = for cylindrical shape 2 2

H is normally tensile, r is compressive.


1 B B 1 B B A + r 2 A r 2 = 2 A + r 2 A r 2 2 B max = 2 r Greatest max occurs at the inside radius where r = R1.

max =

2)

Thick Spheres

For the hoop and radial stresses the following equations are used: 2B r = A 3 r B H = A+ 3 r

Case 1: Internal Pressure Only


At r = R 1 , r = P and at r = R 2 , r = 0

A=

PR13 PR 3 R 3 and 2 B = 3 1 23 3 R2 R13 R2 R1

r = H

PR13 (R23 r 3 ) max at R1 3 3 3 r (R2 R1 )

PR13 (R23 + 2r 3 ) max at R1 = 3 3 3 2r (R2 R1 )

Case 2: Internal and external pressures:


At r = R 1 , r = P1 and at r = R 2 , r = P2

Using these two conditions the following results will be obtained:

A=

3 (P P )R 3 R 3 P1 R13 P2 R2 and 2 B = 1 3 2 1 2 3 R2 R13 R2 R13 3 R2 R 3 3 P1 R13 1 3 P2 R2 1 1 3 r r

r = H =

1 3 R2 R13
3

1 3 3 P1 R13 {2r 3 + R2 } P2 R2 {2r 3 + R13 } 3 3 2r (R2 R1 )