teradata qts | Database Index | Parallel Computing

What is BTEQ?

O BTEQ is a variant oI the core set oI ANSI SQL with proprietary extensions` that are
speciIic to Teradata databases only.
O Similar to PL/SQL Ior Oracle or T-SQL Ior MicrosoIt SQL Server BTEQ includes the
ability to perIorm database-vendor-speciIic instructions that are particular to Teradata.
What is AMP?
O AMP, acronym Ior 'Access Module Processor,¨ is the type oI vproc used to manage the
database, handle Iile tasks and and manipulate the disk subsystem in the multi-tasking
and possibly parallel-processing environment oI the Teradata Database.
What is FSLDM?
O Financial Services Logical Data Model (Teradata FS-LDM 7.0) its developed by
Teradata Ior the Iinancial sectors (SpeciaIially Ior Bank).
What are SET tables and MULTISET tables in Teradata?
O Set table Duplicates are not allowed while insertion.
O Multiset table Duplicates are allowed.
How Teradata makes sure that there are no duplicate rows being inserted when its a SET table?
O Teradata will redirect the new inserted row as per its PI to the target AMP (on the basis oI
its row hash value), and iI it Iind same row hash value in that AMP (hash synonyms) then
it start comparing the whole row, and Iind out iI duplicate.
O II its a duplicate it skips it without throwing any error.
What is the diIIerence between Global temporary tables and Volatile temporary tables?
Global Temporary tables (GTT):
O When they are created, its deIinition goes into Data Dictionary.
O When materialized data goes in temp space.
O Data is active upto the session ends, and deIinition will remain there upto its not dropped
using Drop table statement.II dropped Irom some other session then its should be Drop
table all;
O an collect stats on GTT.
Volatile Temporary tables (VTT):
O Table DeIinition is stored in System cache.
O Data is stored in spool space.
O Data and table deIinition both are active only upto session ends.
O Stats can not be collected or VTT.
O an not have deIault values on column level while creating table.
What is Fastload in Teradata?
As the name suggests Fasload is used to load an empty table in Teradata. Its a two phase
approach to load the data. No intermediate tables are required.
1. It moves all the records to all the AMPs without any hashing .
2. AIter giving endloading command Amp will hashes the record and send it to the
appropriate AMPS .
However it has Iew prerequisites:
To perIorm Fload:
O Target table must be empty.
O PerIorms only Inserts (No updates).
O Only one target table at a time.
O an not have secondary indexes.
What is Multiload in Teradata?
Teradata MultiLoad is a command-driven parallel load utility Ior high-volume batch
maintenance on multiple tables and views oI the Teradata Database. It is specially designed Ior
high-speed batch creation and maintenance oI large databases.
O Multiload allows nonunique secondary indexes automatically rebuilds aIter loading.
Loading happens in 5 phases in mulitload:
1. Gets the import Iile and checks the script.
2. Reads the record Irom the base table and store in the work table.
3. Locks the table header.
4. DML opreations will be done in the tables
5. Table locks will be released and work tables will be dropped.
How Indexing works in Teradata?
In general indexing is a way to physically reorganise the records to enable some Irequently used
queries to run Iaster.
Indexes in Teradata are bit diIIerent than other databases.
Primary Index(PI) in Teradata is solely related to the data distribution i.e. decide how evenly the
data can be distributed across all AMPs.
Primary Index with Unique attribute or Primary Key (PK) becomes Unique Primary Index(UPI).
Uniqueness oI the Primary index is ensured by additional index on the same column which is a
Unique Secondary Index(USI). ThereIore UPI automatically creates USI on the same column.
The Secondary Indexes are the traditional indexes which are basically pointers to the original
row.
Pow do vou seL Lhe sesslon mode parameLers ln 81LC?
Answer
ŦseL sesslon LransacLlon AnSl /* Lhls ls Lo seL AnSl mode */
ŦseL sesslon LransacLlon 81L1 /* Lhls ls Lo seL 1eradaLa LransacLlon mode */

1hese commands have Lo be enLered before loaalna Lo Lhe sesslon
ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ

WhaL ls Lhe command ln 81LC Lo check for sesslon seLLlnas ?
Answer
1he 81LC ŦSPCW CCn18CL command dlsplavs 81LC seLLlnasŦ
ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ

Pow do vou submlL bLeq scrlpL (baLch mode)?
Answer
1Ŧ SLarL Lhe 81LCţ bv Lvplna 81LC
2Ŧ LnLer Lhe followlna command
Ŧrun flle ƹ 81LCScrlpLŦbLq
C8
1Ŧ 8Leq Ƽ 81LCScrlpLŦbLq


81LCScrlpLŦbLq conLalns followlna

Ŧloaon 127Ŧ0Ŧ0Ŧ1/dbcţ dbcŤ
sel Lop 10 * from dbcŦLablesŤ
ŦqulL
ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ

ls Llke comparlslon caseŴsenslLlve ln 1eradaLa?
Answer

LlkL operaLor ls noL case senslLlve ln 1eradaLaŦ
Conslder Lhe followlna example
SelecL l_name from emplovee where l_name llke ƌƷ!CƷƌ Ť
1he followla querv wlll plck values maLchlnf wlLh ƌ!Cƌ and ƌ[oƌ as wellţ slnce LeradaLa ls noL caseŴsenslLlve

1o overcome Lhls problemţ a new funcLlon called ƍCASLSÞLClllCƍ ls used ln 1L8AuA1A as follows
SelecL l_name from emplovee where l_name (CASLSÞLClllC) llke ƌƷ!CƷƌ Ť
ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
WhaL does u8CÞ Lable command do?

lL deleLes all daLa ln emp_uA1A
8emoves Lhe emp_uA1A deflnlaLlon from Lhe daLa dlcLlonarv
8emoves all expllclL access rlahLs on Lhe Lable
ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Pow do vou seL defaulL daLe seLLlna ln 81LC?
Answer

1here are Lwo defaulL daLe seLLlna ln 81LCŦ 1hev have Lo be seL afLer loaalna on Lo Lhe sesslon
1hev are

SeL sesslon daLeform ƹ AnSluA1LŤ /*formaL ls vvvvŴmmŴdd */
SeL sesslon daLeform ƹ lnLeaerdaLeŤ /* formaL ls vv/mm/dd ŴLeradaLa daLe formaL */
ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
ulfference beLween lnner [oln and ouLer [oln?

An lnner [oln aeLs daLa from boLh Lables where Lhe speclfled daLa exlsLs ln boLh
LablesŦ
An ouLer [oln aeLs daLa from Lhe source Lable aL all Llmesţ and reLurns daLa from
Lhe ouLer [olned Lable CnL? lf lL maLches Lhe crlLerlaŦ
ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
WhaL ls mulLl lnserL?

lnserLlna daLa records lnLo Lhe Lable uslna mulLlple lnserL sLaLemenLsŦ
ÞuLLlna a Seml colon ln fronL of Lhe kev word lnSL81 ln Lhe nexL sLaLemenL raLher Lhan
1ermlnaLlna Lhe flrsL sLaLemenL wlLh a seml colon achleves lLŦ

lnserL lnLo Sales ºselecL * from cusLomer"
Ť lnserL lnLo Loan ºselecL * from cusLomer"Ť

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Pow Lo flnd dupllcaLes ln a Lable?
Croup bv Lhose flelds and selecL ldţ counL(*) from Lable aroup bv ld havlna counL
(*) ƽ 1

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Pow do vou see a uuL for an exlsLlna Lable?
8v uslna show Lable commandŦ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Whlch ls more efflclenL C8CuÞ 8? or ulS1lnC1 Lo flnd dupllcaLes?
WlLh more dupllcaLes C8CuÞ 8? ls more efflclenLţ lf onlv a few dupllcaLes exlsL
ulS1lnC1 ls more efflclenLŦ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
SvnLax for CASL WPLn sLaLemenL?
CASL value_expresslon_1 WPLn value_expresslon_n 1PLn scalar_expresslon_n
LnuŤ
How to select first N Records in Teradata?

nswers:
To select N records in Teradata you can use RNK function. Query syntax would be as follows
SELECT BOOK_NE, BOOK_COUNT, RNK(BOOK_COUNT) FRO LÌBRRY QULÌFY <= 10;


Lxplaln 1ÞuMÞ (1eradaLa Þarallel uaLa Þump) uLlllLv ln 1eradaLa?

Answersť

* 1ÞuMÞ allows near real Llme updaLes from 1ransacLlonal SvsLems lnLo Lhe uaLa WarehouseŦ
* lL can perform lnserLţ updaLe and ueleLe operaLlons or a comblnaLlon from Lhe same sourceŦ
* lL can be used as an alLernaLlve Lo MLCAu for low volume baLch malnLenance of larae daLabasesŦ
* 1ÞuMÞ allows LaraeL Lables Lo have Secondarv lndexesţ !oln lndexesţ Pash lndexesţ 8eferenLlal
lnLearlLvţ ÞopulaLed or LmpLv 1ableţ MulLlseL or SeL 1able or 1rlaaers deflned on Lhe 1ablesŦ
* 1ÞuMÞ can have manv sesslons as lL doesn'L have sesslon llmlLŦ
* 1ÞuMÞ uses row hash locks Lhus allowlna concurrenL updaLes on Lhe same LableŦ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ

Pow can vou deLermlne l/C and CÞu usaae aL a user level ln 1eradaLa?

Answersť

?ou can flnd ouL l/C and CÞu usaae from Lhls uaLa ulcLlonarv 1able u8CŦAMÞuSACLŤ

SLLLC1 ACCCun1nAMLţ uSL8nAMLţ SuM(CÞu1lML) AS CÞuţ SuM(ulSklC) AS ulSklC l8CM
u8CŦAMÞuSACL C8CuÞ 8? 1ţ2 C8uL8 8? 3 uLSCŤ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ

Pow can vou flnd Lhe 1able Space Slze of vour Lable across all AMÞs?

Answersť

?ou can flnd Lhe 1able Space Slze of vour Lable from Lhls uaLa ulcLlonarv 1able u8CŦ1A8LLSlZL

SLLLC1 uA1A8ASLnAMLţ 1A8LLnAMLţ SuM(Cu88Ln1ÞL8M) l8CM u8CŦ1A8LLSlZL WPL8L
uA1A8ASLnAML ƹ '' Anu 1A8LLnAML ƹ '' C8CuÞ 8? uA1A8ASLnAML ţ 1A8LLnAMLŤ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Pow can vou flnd Lhe 1eradaLa 8elease and verslon lnformaLlon from uaLa ulcLlonarv 1able?
Answersť

1o flnd 8elease and verslon lnformaLlon vou can querv Lhls uaLa ulcLlonarv Lable u8CŦu8ClnlC

SLLLC1 * l8CM u8CŦu8ClnlCŤ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Pow can vou Lrack Loaln ÞarameLers of users ln 1eradaLa?
Answersť

?ou can vlew all Lhese parameLers ln Lhls uaLa ulcLlonarv 1able u8CŦLCCCnCll
SLLLC1 LCCuA1Lţ LCC1lMLţ uSL8nAMLţ LvLn1 l8CM u8CŦLCCCnCllŤ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Pow can vou use PASP lunC1lCnS Lo vlew uaLa ulsLrlbuLlon across all AMÞs ln 1eradaLa?
Answersť

Pash luncLlons can be used Lo vlew Lhe daLa dlsLrlbuLlon of rows for a chosen prlmarv lndexŦ

SLLLC1 PASPAMÞ(PASP8uCkL1(PASP8CW())) AS ºAMÞ#"ţ CCun1(*) l8CM C8CuÞ 8? 1 C8uL8 8? 2
uLSCŤ

PASP8CW Ŷ reLurns Lhe row hash value for a alven value
PASP8uCkL1 Ŷ Lhe arouplna of a speclflc hash value
PASPAMÞ Ŷ Lhe AMÞ LhaL ls assoclaLed wlLh Lhe hash buckeL

1hls ls reallv aoodţ bv looklna lnLo Lhe resulL seL of above wrlLLen querv vou can easllv flnd ouL Lhe uaLa
ulsLrlbuLlon across all AMÞs ln vour svsLem and furLher vou can easllv ldenLlfv unŴeven daLa dlsLrlbuLlonŦ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Pow do vou Lransfer larae amounL of daLa ln 1eradaLa?
Answersť

1ransferrlna of larae amounL of daLa can be done uslna varlous AppllcaLlon 1eradaLa uLlllLles whlch
resldes on Lhe hosL compuLer ( Malnframe or WorksLaLlon) lŦeŦ 81LCţ lasLLaodţ MulLlLoadţ 1pump and
lasLLxporLŦ

* 81LC (8aslc 1eradaLa Cuerv) supporLs all 4 uMLsť SLLLC1ţ lnSL81ţ uÞuA1L and uLLL1LŦ 81LC also
supporL lMÞC81/LxÞC81 proLocolsŦ
* lasLloadţ MulLlLoad and 1pump Lransfer Lhe daLa from PosL Lo 1eradaLaŦ
* lasLLxporL ls used Lo exporL daLa from 1eradaLa Lo Lhe PosLŦ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Pow does Pashlna happens ln 1eradaLa?

Answersť

* Pashlna ls Lhe mechanlsm Lhrouah whlch daLa ls dlsLrlbuLed and reLrleved Lo/from AMÞsŦ
* Þrlmarv lndex (Þl) value of a row ls Lhe lnpuL Lo Lhe Pashlna AlaorlLhmŦ
* 8ow Pash (32ŴblL number) value ls Lhe ouLpuL from Lhls AlaorlLhmŦ
* 1able ld + 8ow Pash ls used Lo locaLe Cvllnder and uaLa blockŦ
* Same Þrlmarv lndex value and daLa Lvpe wlll alwavs produce same hash valueŦ
* 8ows wlLh Lhe same hash value wlll ao Lo Lhe same AMÞŦ

So daLa dlsLrlbuLlon depends dlrecLlv on Lhe 8ow Pash unlquenessŤ be careful whlle Chooslna lndexes ln
1eradaLaŦ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Pow Lo ellmlnaLe ÞroducL !olns ln a 1eradaLa SCL querv?
Answersť

1Ŧ Lnsure sLaLlsLlcs are collecLed on [oln columns and Lhls ls especlallv lmporLanL lf Lhe columns vou are
[olnlna on are noL unlqueŦ
2Ŧ Make sure vou are referenclna Lhe correcL allasŦ
3Ŧ Alsoţ lf vou have an allasţ vou musL alwavs reference lL lnsLead of a fullv quallfled LablenameŦ
4Ŧ SomeLlmes producL [olns happen for a aood reasonŦ !olnlna a small Lable (100 rows) Lo a larae Lable (1
mllllon rows) a producL [oln does make senseŦ


ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Pow Lo selecL flrsL n 8ecords ln 1eradaLa?
Answersť

1o selecL n records ln 1eradaLa vou can use 8Ank funcLlonŦ Cuerv svnLax would be as follows
SLLLC1 8CCk_nAMLţ 8CCk_CCun1ţ 8Ank(8CCk_CCun1) A l8CM Ll88A8? CuALll? A Ƽƹ 10Ť

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
Pow Lo vlew everv column and Lhe columns conLalned ln lndexes ln 1eradaLa?
Answersť

lollowlna querv descrlbes each column ln Lhe 1eradaLa 8u8MS
SLLLC1 * l8CM u8CŦ1vlleldsŤ

lollowlna querv descrlbes columns conLalned ln lndexes ln Lhe 1eradaLa 8u8MS
SLLLC1 * l8CM u8CŦlndexesŤ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
WhaL are Lhe 3 phases ln a MulLlLoad uLlllLv?
Answersť

* Þrellmlnarv Þhase Ŷ 8aslc SeLup
* uML Þhase Ŷ CeL uML sLeps down on AMÞs
* AcqulslLlon Þhase Ŷ Send Lhe lnpuL daLa Lo Lhe AMÞs and sorL lL
* AppllcaLlon Þhase Ŷ Applv Lhe lnpuL daLa Lo Lhe approprlaLe 1araeL 1ables
* Lnd Þhase Ŷ 8aslc Cleanup

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
WhaL are Lhe funcLlons of a 1eradaLa u8A?
Answersť

lollowlna are Lhe dlfferenL funcLlons whlch a u8A can performť
1Ŧ user ManaaemenL Ŷ CreaLlon and manaalna usersţ uaLabasesţ 8olesţ Þroflles and AccounLsŦ
2Ŧ Space AllocaLlon Ŷ Asslanlna ÞermanenL Spaceţ Spool Space and 1emporarv SpaceŦ
3Ŧ Access of uaLabase Cb[ecLs Ŷ CranLlna and 8evoklna Access 8lahLs on dlfferenL daLabase ob[ecLsŦ
4Ŧ SecurlLv ConLrol Ŷ Pandllna loaon and loaoff rules for usersŦ
3Ŧ SvsLem MalnLenance Ŷ SpeclflcaLlon of svsLem defaulLsţ resLarL eLcŦ
6Ŧ SvsLem Þerformance Ŷ use of Þerformance MonlLor(ÞMCn)ţ ÞrlorlLv Scheduler and !ob SchedullnaŦ
7Ŧ 8esource MonlLorlna Ŷ uaLabase Cuerv Loa(u8CL) and Access LoaalnaŦ
8Ŧ uaLa Archlvesţ 8esLores and 8ecoverv Ŷ A8C uLlllLv and ÞermanenL !ournalsŦ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
WhaL are Lhe MulLlLoad uLlllLv llmlLaLlons?
Answersť

MulLlLoad ls a verv powerful uLlllLvŤ lL has followlna llmlLaLlonsť

* MulLlLoad uLlllLv doesn'L supporL SLLLC1 sLaLemenLŦ
* ConcaLenaLlon of mulLlple lnpuL daLa flles ls noL allowedŦ
* MulLlLoad doesn'L supporL ArlLhmaLlc luncLlons lŦeŦ A8Sţ LCC eLcŦ ln Mload ScrlpLŦ
* MulLlLoad doesn'L supporL LxponenLlaLlon and AaareaaLor CperaLors lŦeŦ AvCţ SuM eLcŦ ln Mload
ScrlpLŦ
* MulLlLoad doesn'L supporL uSls (unlque Secondarv lndexes)ţ 8efrenLlal lnLearlLvţ !oln lndexesţ Pash
lndexes and 1rlaaersŦ
* lmporL Lask requlre use of Þl (Þrlmarv lndex)Ŧ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
WhaL are 1ÞuMÞ uLlllLv LlmlLaLlons?
Answersť

lollowlna are Lhe llmlLaLlons of 1eradaLa 1ÞuMÞ uLlllLvť
* use of SLLLC1 sLaLemenL ls noL allowedŦ
* ConcaLenaLlon of uaLa llles ls noL supporLedŦ
* LxponenLlal Ǝ AaareaaLe CperaLors are noL allowedŦ
* ArlLhmaLlc funcLlons are noL supporLedŦ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
WhaL ls llLLL8 command ln 1eradaLa?
Answersť

Whlle runnlna lasLload or MulLlload lf vou don'L wanL Lo load a parLlcular fleld from Lhe daLaflle Lo Lhe
LaraeL Lable Lhen use Lhe llLLL8 command Lo achleve LhlsŦ SvnLax for llLLL8 command would be as
followlnať

ŦLA?Cu1 llLL_Þ8CuuC1Ť /* lL ls lnpuL flle lavouL name */
ŦllLLu Þrod_no * char(11)Ť /* 1o load daLa lnLo Þrod_no */
ŦllLLu Þrod_name * char(11)Ť /* 1o load daLa lnLo Þrod_name */
ŦllLLu LocaLlon * char(11)Ť /* 1o load daLa lnLo LocaLlon */
ŦllLLL8 Þrod_Chars * char(20)Ť /* 1o sklp Lhe value for Lhe nexL 3 locaLlons */

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
WhaL ls Lhe dlfference beLween Access Loaalna and Cuerv Loaalna ln 1eradaLa?
Answersť

1Ŧ Access Loaalna ls concerned wlLh securlLv (lŦeŦ who's ls dolna whaL)Ŧ ln access loaalna vou ask Lhe
daLabase Lo loa who's dolna whaL on a alven ob[ecLŦ 1he lnformaLlon sLored ls based on Lhe ob[ecL noL
Lhe SCL flred or Lhe user who flred lLŦ
2Ŧ Cuerv Loaalna (u8CL) ls used for debuaalna (lŦeŦ whaL's happenlna around ?)Ŧ lncase of u8CL
daLabase keep on Lracklna varlous parameLers lŦeŦ Lhe SCLsţ 8esourceţ Spool usaaeţ SLeps and oLher
Lhlnas whlch help vou undersLand whaL's aolna onţ Lhe lnformaLlon ls frulLful Lo debua a problemŦ
lurLher u8CL ls enabled on a user ld raLher Lhan an ob[ecL llke sav 1able or soŦ

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
WhaL ls Lhe dlfference beLween SubŴCuerv Ǝ CoŴ8elaLed SubŴCuerv?
Answersť

When querles are wrlLLen ln a nesLed manner Lhen lL ls Lermed as a subŴquervŦ A SubŴCuerv aeL
execuLed once for Lhe parenL sLaLemenL whereas CoŴ8elaLed SubŴCuerv aeL execuLed once for each row
of Lhe parenL quervŦ

SelecL Lmpnameţ uepLnoţ Salarv from Lmplovee Lmp where Salarv ƹ (SelecL Max(Salarv) from Lmplovee
where uepLno ƹ LmpŦuepLno) order bv uepLno

ƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹƹ
WhaL ls 8econflauraLlon uLlllLv ln 1eradaLa and WhaL lL ls used for?
Answersť

* When we feed Þrlmarv lndex value Lo Pashlna AlaorlLhm Lhen lL alves us 8ow Pash(32 blL number)
value whlch ls used Lo make enLrles lnLo Pash MapsŦ
* Pash Maps are Lhe mechanslm for deLermlnlna whlch AMÞ wlll be aeLLlna LhaL rowŦ
* Lach Pash Map ls an arrav of 63ţ336 enLrles and lLs slze ls close Lo 128k8Ŧ

When 1eradaLa ls lnsLalled on a svsLem Lhen Lhere are some scrplLs whlch we need Lo execuLe lŦeŦ ulÞ
ScrlpLsŦ So lL creaLes a Pash Maps of 63ţ336 enLrles for Lhe currenL conflauraLlonŦ 8uL whaL lf vou wanL
Lo add some more AMÞs lnLo vour svsLem?

8econflauraLlon (8econfla) ls a Lechnlque for chanalna Lhe conflauraLlon (lŦeŦ chanalna Lhe number of
AMÞs ln a svsLem) and ls conLrolled bv Lhe 8econflauraLlon Pash MapsŦ SvsLem bullds 8econflauraLlon
Pash Maps bv reasslanlna hash map enLrles Lo reflecL new conflauraLlon of svsLemŦ

LeLs undersLand Lhls concepL wlLh Lhe help of an exampleŤ suppose vou have a 4 AMÞs svsLem whlch
holds 63ţ336 enLrlesŦ Lach AMÞ ls responslble for holdlna (63ţ336/4ƹ16ţ384) 16ţ384 enLrlesŦ

now vou have added 2 more AMÞs ln vour currenL conflauraLlon so vou need Lo reconflaure vour
svsLemŦ now each AMÞ would be responslble for holdlna (63ţ336/6ƹ10922) 1

Teradata Architecture

Teradata Architecture
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) - A single node that contains multiple PUs sharing a memory pool.
Massively parallel processing (MPP) - Multiple SMP nodes working together comprise a larger conIiguration. The
nodes are connected using the BYNET, which allows multiple virtual processors on multiple system nodes to
communicate with each other.
Shared Nothing Architecture(MPP) - means that each vproc(Access Module Processors and Parsing Engines are
Virtual processors) is responsible Ior its own portion oI the database and do not share common components.each
AMP manages its own dedicated memory space and the data on its own vdisk -- these are not shared with other
AMPs. Each AMP uses system resources independently oI the other AMPs so they can all work in parallel Ior high
system perIormance overall
A node is made up oI various hardware and soItwares
A clique is a set oI Teradata nodes that share a common set oI disk arrays. abling a subset oI nodes to the same
disk arrays creates a clique.
A disk array is a conIiguration oI disk drives that utilizes specialized controllers to manage and distribute data and
parity acroos the disks while providing Iast access and data integrity
RAID 5 Data and parity protection striped across multiple disks
RAID 1 Each disk has a physical mirror replicating the data
Open Source Web ontent Management
-----------------------------------
Teradata Storage Process
The Parsing Engine interprets the SQL command and converts the data record Irom the host into an AMP message
The BYNET distributes the row to the appropriate AMP
The AMP Iormats the row and writes it to its associated disks
The disk holds the row Ior subsequent access
Sample covering letters Ior Permanent Jobs
-----------------------------------
Teradata Retrieval Process
The Parsing Engine dispatches a request to retrieve one or more rows
The BYNET ensures that appropriate AMP(s) are activated
The AMPs locate and retrieve desired rows in parallel access and will sort, aggregate or Iormat iI needed
The BYNET returns retrieved rows to parsing engine
The Parsing Engine returns row(s) to requesting client application
Free Online ollege Degree
-----------------------------------
The BYNET is responsible for
Point-to-point communications between nodes and virtual processors
Merging answer sets back to the PE
making Teradata parallelism possible
Free Employment Aptitude Test
-----------------------------------
The Parsing Engine is responsible for
Managing Individual sessions (up to 120)
Parsing and optimizing SQL requests
Dispatching the optimized plan to the AMPs
Sending the answer set response back to the requesting client
SoItware Testing iobs? Jobs For Freshers
-----------------------------------
The AMPs is responsible for
Storing and retrieving rows to and Irom the disks
Lock Management
Sorting rows and aggregating columns
Join Processing
Output conversions and Iormatting
reating answer sets Ior clients
Disk space management and accounting
Comparison of the Teradata loading utilities
The article contains comparison and main Ieatures oI the data loading tools provided by
Teradata. The tutorial illustrates main Ieatures oI Teradata Multiload , FastLoad and TPump
(Parallel Data Pump) and provides sample real-liIe uses oI those tools.

Scroll down Ior the sample scripts which illustrate diIIerent ways to load a sample Iixed-length
extract into a Teradata database using FastLoad, MultiLoad and Parallel Data Pump (TPump).
Teradata Fast Load
O Main use: to load empty tables at high speed.
O The target tables must be empty in order to use FastLoad
O Supports inserts only - it is not possible to perIorm updates or deletes in FastLoad
O Although Fastload uses multiple sessions to load the data, only one target table can be
processed at a time
O Teradata Fastload does not support ioin indexes, Ioreign key reIerences in target tables and
tables with secondary index deIined. It is necessary to drop any oI the constraints listed beIore
loading and recreate them aIterwards.
O The maximum number oI concurrent Teradata Fastload tasks can be adiusted by a system
administrator.
O Fastload runs in two operating modes: Interactive and Batch
O Duplicate rows will not be loaded
Teradata Multi Load
O Main use: Load. update and delete large tables in Teradata in a bulk mode
O EIIicient in loading very large tables
O Multiple tables can be loaded at a time.
O Updates data in a database in a block mode (one physical write can update multiple rows)
O Uses table-level locks
O Resource consumption: loading at the highest possible throughput
O Duplicate rows allowed
Teradata Parallel Data Pump (TPump)
O Main use: to load or update a small amount of target table rows
O Sends data to a database as a statement which is much slower than using bulk mode
O TPump uses row-level hash locks
O Resource consumption: loading speed can be adiusted using a built-in resource consumption
management utility. The throughput can be turned down in peak periods.
O TPump does not support MULTI-SET tables.
Teradata FastLoad example
The Iollowing script attached below will load a sample Iixed-length columns extract into a
Teradata database using FastLoad.

Use the Iollowing command to run load the ggclients.Iastload Iile using Teradata FastLoad
script:
fastload < ggclients.fastload


ontents oI a ggclients.Iastload script:
SESSIJNS 4;
ERRLIMIT 25;
logon tdpid/username,password;

create table gg_cli (
wh_cust_no integer not null,
cust_name varchar(200),
bal_amt decimal(15,3) format ,.
)
unique primary index( wh_cust_no ) ;

SET RECJRD UNFJRMATTED;

define
wh_cust_no(char(10)), delim1(char(1)),
cust_name(char(200)), delim2(char(1)),
bal_amt(char(18)), delim3(char(1))
newlinechar(char(1))
file=insert.input;

SHJW;

BEGIN LJADING gg_cli errorfiles error_1, error_2;

insert into gg_cli (
:wh_cust_no,
:cust_name,
:bal_amt
);

END LJADING;

logoff;

Teradata MultiLoad example
The Iollowing script attached below will load a sample Iixed-length columns extract into a
Teradata database using MultiLoad.

Use the Iollowing command to run load the ggclients.mload Iile using Teradata FastLoad script:
mload < ggclients.mload


ontents oI a ggclients.mload mload script:
.logtable inslogtable;
.logon tdpid/username,password;

create table gg_cli (
wh_cust_no integer not null,
cust_name varchar(200),
bal_amt decimal(15,3) format ,.
)
unique primary index( wh_cust_no ) ;

.BEGIN IMPJRT MLJAD tables gg_cli;

.layout ggclilayout;
.field wh_cust_no 1 char(10);
.field cust_name 12 char(200);
.field bal_amt 213 char(18);
.dml label insertclidml;

insert into gg_cli.·;

.import infile insert.input
format text
layout ggclilayout
apply insertclidml;
.END MLJAD;

.logoff;


Teradata TPump example
The sample script attached below loads a sample Iixed-length columns extract into a Teradata
database using Parallel Data Pump - Teradata TPump.

ontents oI a ggclients.tpump script:
.logtable tpumplogtable;
.logon tdpid/username,password;

.BEGIN LJAD SESSIJN 4;

.layout ggclilayout;
.field wh_cust_no 1 char(10);
.field cust_name 12 char(200);
.field bal_amt 213 char(18);
.dml label insertclidml;

insert into gg_cli.·;

.IMPJRT INFILE insert.input
layout ggclilayout
apply insertclidml;
.END LJAD;

.logoff;



What Is Teradata?

Teradata is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that is:
·An open system, running on a UNIX MP-RAS or Windows 2000 server platIorm.
·apable oI supporting many concurrent users Irom various client platIorms
(over a TP/IP or IBM channel connection).
·ompatible with industry standards (ANSI compliant).
·Built on a parallel architecture

Teradata ompetitive Advantages
·Unlimited, Proven Scalability
·Most oncurrent Users
·Unlimited Paralellism - Parallel sorts/aggregations, temporary tables -
'shared-nothing¨ architecture
·Mature Optimizer - omplex queries, ioins per query, ad-hoc
processing
·Model the Business - 3NF, robust view processing, star schema
·Lowest TO - Ease oI setup & maintenance, robust parallel utilities, no
re-orgs, lowest disk to data ratio, robust expansion utility
·High Availability - no single point oI Iailure, scalable data loading,
parallel load utilitie


Teradata A BrieI History
1979Teradata orporation is Iounded in Los Angeles, A to develop a massively
parallel database.


1982
YNET technology is patented.
1984
Teradata sells Iirst DB/1012 to Wells Fargo Bank oI aliIornia.
1987
Teradata orporation becomes a public company.
1989
Teradata orp. and NR partner on next generation oI DB.
1990
First Terabyte-sized system installed and in production.
1991
NR is acquired by AT&T.
1992
Teradata is merged into NR.
1995
Teradata Version 2 Ior the UNIX operating system released.
1996
NR is only vendor to run multi-user TP-D benchmarks. AT&T spins oII
NR orporation with Teradata product.
1997
Teradata database becomes industry leader in scalable data warehousing.
100 Gigabyte TP-D Benchmark leader.
1998
24 Terabyte system in production. Teradata ported to Windows NT.
1999
1 TB TP-D winner
2000
50¹ TB system in production! Teradata Ior Windows 2000 becomes
available. Teradata Division created.




How Large Is a Trillion?
1 million seconds ÷ 11.57 days
1 billion seconds ÷ 31.6 years
1 trillion seconds ÷ 31,688 years
1 million inches ÷ 15.7 miles
1 trillion inches ÷ 15,700,000 miles (30 round trips to the moon)
$1 million
÷ · $ .01 Ior every person in U.S.
$1 billion
÷ $ 3.64 Ior every person is U.S.
$1 trillion
÷ $ 3,636 Ior every person in U.S.
1 Kilobyte
÷ 103 ÷ 1000 bytes
1 Megabyte ÷ 106 ÷ 1,000,000 bytes
1 Gigabyte ÷ 109 ÷ 1,000,000,000 bytes
1 Terabyte ÷ 1012 ÷ 1,000,000,000,000 bytes
1 Petabyte ÷ 1015 ÷ 1,000,000,000,000,000 bytes
1 Exabyte
÷ 1018 ÷ 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes
1 Zetabyte
÷ 1021 ÷ 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes
1 Yottabyte ÷ 1024 ÷ 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes



What Is a Teradata Database?
DatabaseA collection oI permanently stored data that is:
Logically relateddata relates to other data.
Sharedmany users may access data.
Protectedaccess to data is controlled.
Manageddata has integrity and value.


What Is a Node?
·Applications, the LAN gateway, and channel-driver soItware run as processes.
·AMPs and PEs are virtual processors (vprocs) which run under Parallel Database
Extensions (PDE).
·AMPs are associated with virtual disks (vdisks).
·A single node is a Symmetric Multi-Processor (SMP)
Vdisk
Vdisk
Vdisk
Vdisk
hannel-
Attached
Systems
HANNEL
LAN
P
W/S
TERADATA
GATEWAY
PDE
HANNEL DRIVER
UNIX
OR
WIN
2K
BYNET DRIVER
AMP
VPRO
AMP
VPRO
AMP
VPRO
AMP
VPRO
PE
VPRO
PE
VPRO
APPLIATION
APPLIATION
OR UTILITY
Incorporates
Teradata`s
'Shared-Nothing¨
Architecture

8?nL1 Cabllna
(flber channel)
provldes
lnLerconnecL for
MÞÞ SvsLem
MPP System
·Multiple nodes are conIigured into a Massively Parallel Processing (MPP)
system.
·A physical message-passing layer called the BYNET is used to interconnect
multiple nodes.
·Teradata is linearly expandableas your database grows, additional nodes
may be added.
·The BYNET can support 512 nodes.
·Teradata runs on all NR Server platIorms


liques

·A clique is a deIined set oI nodes
with Iailover capability.
·All nodes in a clique are able to
access the vdisks oI all AMPs in
the clique.
·II a node Iails, its vprocs will
migrate to the remaining nodes
in the clique.
·Each node can support 128
vprocs.
lique 1
lique 2
lique 3
Disk cabling groups
nodes into cliques.
Maior omponents oI a Teradata System


BYNET

The Parsing Engine is responsible
Ior:
·Managing individual sessions
(up to 120 sessions per PE)
·Parsing and optimizing your
SQL requests
·Dispatching the optimized plan
to the AMPs
·EBDI/ASII input conversion
(iI necessary)
·Sending the answer set
response back to the requesting
client
Session
ontrol
Parser
Dispatcher
Optimizer
SQL Request
Answer Set Response
BYNET
AMP
AMP
AMP
Parsing
Engine
AMP

Teradata Optimizer
Available Units
oI Parallelism
Data
Demographics
Teradata`s Optimizer is:
·Parallel-aw are
·Intelligent
·ost-based
System
onIiguration


The Access Module Processor (AMP)
SQL Request
Answer Set Response
Storing and retrieving rows to and
Irom disks
Lock management
Sorting rows and Aggregating
columns
Join processing
Output conversion and Iormatting
reating answer sets Ior clients
Disk space management and
Accounting
Special utility protocols
Recovery processing
AMPs are responsible Ior:
AMPs perIorm
all tasks in parallel
Teradata`s
'Shared-Nothing¨
Architecture
BYNET
AMP
AMP
AMP
AMP
Parsing
Engine





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