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**The ﬁne structure constant derived from the broken symmetry of two simple algebraic identities
**

J. S. Markovitch

P.O. Box 752 Batavia, IL 60510∗ (Dated: October 14, 2011) The ﬁne structure constant is shown to arise naturally in the course of altering the symmetry of two algebraic identities. Speciﬁcally, the symmetry of the identity M 2 = M 2 is “broken” by making the substitution M → M − y on its left side, and the substitution M n → M n − xp on its right side, where p equals the order of the identity; these substitutions convert the above identity into the equation (M − y)2 = M 2 − x2 . These same substitutions are also applied to the only slightly more complicated identity (M /N )3 + M 2 = (M /N )3 + M 2 to produce this second equation (M − y)3 N 3 +(M − y)2 = M 3 − x3 N 3 +M 2 −x3 . These two equations are then shown to share a mathematical property relating to dy/dx, where, on the second equation’s right side this property helps deﬁne the special case M 3 − x3 N 3 + M 2 − x3 = 103 − 0.13 33 + 102 − 0.13 = 137.036, which incorporates a value close to the experimental ﬁne structure constant inverse.

PACS numbers: 06.20.Jr

I.

INTRODUCTION

and break its symmetry by making the substitution M →M −y on its left side, and the substitution M n → M n − xp on its right side, where p = 2, the order of the identity. This produces

The ﬁne structure constant (FSC) is shown to arise naturally in the course of an investigation of two simple algebraic identities whose symmetry is altered. Speciﬁcally, the symmetry of the identities M =M and M N

3 2 2

(1.1)

+ M2 =

M N

3

+ M2

(1.2)

(M − y) = M 2 − x2

2

(2.1)

will be “broken” by making the substitution M →M −y on their left sides, and the substitution M n → M n − xp on their right sides, where p equals the order of each identity. The two equations that emerge from applying the above substitution map to the above two identities will then be shown to share a property relating to dy/dx, where for this second equation this property gives rise to a value that is close to the experimental FSC.

where the constant M is a positive integer and x and y variables.

III.

THE FSC CONDITIONS

Now for Eq. (2.1) if x= and if M 1 (3.2) 1 M , (3.1)

II.

THE SECOND-ORDER IDENTITY

(by at least an order of magnitude) then the value for dy/dx turns out to be simply dy ≈ xp dx (3.3)

**Begin with the symmetric second-order identity M =M
**

2 2

∗ Electronic

address: jsmarkovitch@gmail.com

with p = 2 (see Section V for proof). Because Eqs. (3.1)– (3.3) are all that will be needed to generate the FSC in the next example they will be termed The FSC Conditions.

2

IV. THE THIRD-ORDER IDENTITY AND THE FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT

**To generate the FSC combine the constant M 2 with 3 the constant (M /N ) to form the expression M N
**

3

+ M2

.

**Set this expression equal to itself to form this symmetric third-order identity M N
**

3

+ M2 =

M N

3

+ M2

where the 2006 CODATA value for the FSC inverse equals 137.035 999 074, a value diﬀering by just 7 parts per billion from 137.036 [1]. Hence, as was the case earlier for Eq. (2.1), the ﬁrst two FSC Conditions imply the third FSC Condition, but for Eq. (4.1) this is true provided that M and N fulﬁll Eq. (4.2), where, surprisingly, the smallest positive integers that fulﬁll Eq. (4.2)—10 and 3, respectively— generate the FSC inverse as a by-product. Accordingly, the FSC inverse arises naturally from the analysis of the “broken symmetry” of two simple mathematical identities, making 137.036 of interest to pure mathematicians independent of its important role as a fundamental constant of physics.

and again apply the substitution M →M −y on the left, and M n → M n − xp on the right, with p now equaling 3. This produces The FSC Equation M 3 − x3 2 + (M − y) = + M 2 − x3 . N3 (4.1) Here the constants M and N are assumed to be positive, and x and y are again variables. Note that earlier Eq. (2.1) proved consistent with all three FSC Conditions. But it is only for speciﬁc values of M and N that Eq. (4.1) will likewise be consistent with all three conditions. To be precise, if Eq. (4.1) fulﬁlls the ﬁrst two FSC Conditions (Eqs. (3.1) and (3.2)) then it will also fulﬁll the third FSC Condition (Eq. (3.3)) provided that M −y N N3 M= +1 3 (4.2)

3

V.

PROOF FOR THE SECOND-ORDER IDENTITY AND EQUATION

**Proof that for Eq. (2.1), if Eqs. (3.1) and (3.2) are true so is Eq. (3.3). Equation (2.1) (M − y) = M 2 − x2 simpliﬁes to 2M y − y 2 = x2 so that (2M − 2y) dy = 2xdx dy x = dx M −y (5.2) (5.1)
**

2

.

(5.3)

(see Section VI for proof). Notably, inspection reveals that the smallest positive integers fulﬁlling Eq. (4.2) are M = 10 and N =3 , (4.4) (4.3)

**1 Equation (3.1) implies that M = so that by substitux tion dy ≈ dx ≈
**

1 x

x −y , (5.4)

x2 1 − xy

where substitution into the right side of Eq. (4.1) gives 103 − 0.13 + 102 − 0.13 = 137.036 . 33 (4.5) Given Eqs. (3.1) and (3.2), the cross-terms on the left side of Eq. (2.1) guarantee that y < x2 , while Eqs. (3.1) and (3.2) also determine that x 1 . Accordingly, dy ≈ x2 dx . (5.5)

The above values, in turn, determine that the left side of Eq. (4.1) gives 10 1 − 3 3 × 29999.932166 . . . + 10 − 1 29999.932166 . . .

3

2

= 137.036

,

(4.6)

In this way Eq. (3.3) is recovered for p = 2. This conﬁrms that, for Eq. (2.1), if Eqs. (3.1) and (3.2) (the ﬁrst two FSC Conditions) are true then so is Eq. (3.3) (the third FSC Condition).

3

VI. PROOF FOR THE THIRD-ORDER IDENTITY AND THE FSC EQUATION

Now in order to assure that for Eq. (4.1), if the ﬁrst two FSC Conditions are met then the third FSC Condition will also hold, combine Eqs. (6.6) and Eq. (3.3) to give xp ≈ dy N 3 + 1 x2 ≈ dx M + 2N3 M 3 . (6.7)

Proof that for Eq. (4.1), if its values for M and N fulﬁll Eq. (4.2), then if Eqs. (3.1) and (3.2) are true so is Eq. (3.3). If the higher-order powers of y in the FSC Equation (Eq. (4.1)) M −y N

3

For Eq. (4.1) p = 3, so x3 ≈ and N 3 + 1 x2 M + 2N3 M 3 (6.8)

M 3 − x3 + (M − y) = + M 2 − x3 N3

2

**are ignored, then it can be simpliﬁed to x3 3M 2 y + 2M y ≈ 3 + x3 N3 N 3M 2 y + 2N 3 M y ≈ x3 + N 3 x3 3M + 2N and solved for y N 3 + 1 x3 y≈ 3M + 2N 3 M N 3 + 1 x3 ≈ 2 M + 3 N 3 3M so that N 3 + 1 x2 dy ≈ dx M + 2N3 M 3 and dy N +1 x ≈ dx M + 2N3 M 3
**

3 2 3

(6.1)

(6.2)

3

N3 + 1 1 . (6.9) M + 2N3 M 3 1 so that by substiEquation (3.1) provides that x = M tution x≈ N3 + 1 1 1 ≈ 2 M M + 3N3 M This gives 1≈ N3 + 1 M + 2N3 3 (6.11) . (6.10)

My ≈ N + 1 x

3

(6.3)

,

(6.4) or

(6.5) which gives

2 M + N3 ≈ N3 + 1 3

,

(6.12)

M≈ . (6.6)

N3 +1 3

.

(6.13)

Although Eq. (6.6) is approximate, the terms it ignores are small as y is small (which y will be, given the ﬁrst two FSC Conditions).

Hence, Eq. (4.2) does constrain Eq. (4.1)’s values for M and N in such a way that if Eqs. (3.1) and (3.2) (the ﬁrst two FSC Conditions) are true then so is Eq. (3.3) (the third FSC Condition).

[1] P.J. Mohr, B.N. Taylor, and D.B. Newell (2011), “The 2010 CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants” (Web Version 6.0). This database was developed by J. Baker, M. Douma, and S. Kotochigova.

Available: http://physics.nist.gov/constants [Friday, 22-Jul-2011 10:04:27 EDT]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899.

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