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THE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT REPORT AND

THE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT INDEX (YDI)

UNESCO BRASILIA OFFICE

Youth in UNESCO/BRASIL
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Since 1997, UNESCO-Brazil has carried out a large number of studies on the theme youth, focusing on different areas and dimensions currently related to Brazilian youths: education, culture, health, violence, work, poverty, citizenship, identity, polices evaluation and so on. The idea to create a Youth Development Index comes from this extensive research, when we felt the need to construct a synthetic indicator in conditions to show the differential situation of youths in the country and to follow the changes in that situation over the time.

Goals
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To create an analytical framework for mapping and understanding the well-being of young people in any country; To monitor, through studies conducted on a regular basis, how the problems faced by youth evolve; To identify the precise localities, aspects and degrees of inequality that affect youth. To create an easy-to-grasp indicator that measures the well-being of young people: the Youth Development Index (YDI); To follow, by means of periodic studies, the evolution of the problems and the incidence of public policies for youth in the country.

Report Structure
Basically, the report have two parts l One, composed by three analytical chapters
4. INCOME AND ACTIVITIES 3.- EDUCATION

4.1. Income 4.2. Activities 4.3. Education, work and income 5. HEALTH 5.1. Violent Deaths 5.2. Deaths from Internal Causes 5.3. Birth Rates for the 11 19 age group

3.1. Illiteracy among Youths 3.2. Schooling: Attendance 3.3. Years of schooling 3.4. Quality of Education

Report Structure (cont)


The second part propose a synthetic measure of the capacity of young people to access basic social benefits : the Youth Development Index (YDI); 6.1. The YDI 6.2. Comparison between the YDI and the HDI Further more: Two technical and conceptual chapters Final Considerations

The analytic framework

* 15/17; 18/19 and 20/24 years ** urban/rural *** black/white

Youth activities by edge


80 70 60 50

Only study

40 30 20 10 0 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Work and study Only work

Age Edge

Do not work do not study

I. Education
-

The YDI components:

Illiteracy rate: percentage of illiterate persons in the 15-24 bracket, relative to the total population in that same age (Source: National Household Survey). Why? Universal educational indicator Youth, as the most literate group, shows the future of illiteracy rates for all population Brazil, despite the low youth illiteracy rates in 2003 (3.4%), still have 1.1 million illiterate young people. Great differences between federative units (from 0.5% to 15.4%) and racial/color discrimination (1.6% for white and 5.1% for black)

percentage of 15-24 year old youths who attend High-schools or Colleges, relative to the total population in that same age bracket (Source: National Household Survey). Why? Similar to the HDI combined enrollment, but specific for youth in an accelerated transformation context. Adequate schooling exclude youths still in fundamental level (1th to 8th year) that characterize delayed areas in Brazil. Youth Schooling Only 32.2% of young people have adequate schooling. 16.8% have late schooling, with extremes going from 10.6% in the south to 26.5% in the northeast. 39.3% of white and 24.9% of black youths have adequate schooling

Adequate schooling:

Quality of education: Standardized mean of the proficiency scales in the 8th grade of Fundamental Education and in the 3rd grade of High schools, in Portuguese and Mathematics subjects (Source: Basic Education Evaluation System). Great Regional differences:

II. Health

Health was one of the most differential youth dimension. If the global mortality rate of the Brazilian population for every 100.000 inhabitants fell from 633 in 1980 to 573 in 2000, the deaths among the young increased from 128 to 133. Mortality data are more easy to obtain than tables of Life Expectancy for youths, and are highly correlated (r=0.6)

Mortality rate by internal causes: rate of deaths of


15-24 year old in every 100.000 youths attributed to internal causes, according to the definition adopted in the International Classification of Diseases ICD10/WHO.(Source: Mortality Information System) Based on the Ministry of Health conclusions, most of these deaths (92.2%) would be avoidable by preventive immunization; adequate pregnancy control; proper attention to labor; preventive action or early diagnosis; by cooperation with other sectors.

Mortality by violent causes: rate of deaths of 15-24


year olds in every 100.000 youths caused by violence (suicides, transport accidents and homicides, according to the definition of the International Classification of Diseases ICD10/WHO (Source: Mortality Information System). In 2003 more than 60% of the youth deaths was caused by violence: 41.4% by homicides, 15.7% by transport accidents and 3.5% by suicides. These were the three principal causes of youth mortality.
60

52,1

54,7

Homicides per 100.000. Youth and not youth. Brazil: 1980/2002

50

38,8
Homicide Rates 40

30,0
30

21,3
20

18,1

20,8

21,8

10 0

1980

1990 Year

2000

2002

No Youth Youth

The YDI components (cont):


III. Income - Per capita family income: amount of the monthly family income divided by the number of family members of youths between 15 and 24 years of age (Source: National Household Survey).

Procedures used for YDI


l Procedures

used for the YDI are similar to those for the HDI l For the establishment of the YDI, the original rates, averages or percentages of basic indicators were transformed in indexes according to the same procedures used for the HDI:
Value observed Minimum Value INDEX = ____________________________ Maximum Value Minimum Value

Table of conversions
INDICATORS RANGE DIMENSIONS/INDICATORS Minimum 0 Weight of the Weight of the Maximum indicator within dimensIon the dimension within the YDI 1

EDUCATION
? Iliterancy ? Adequate schooling ? Quality of education Portuguese, 8th Grade Mathematics, 8th Grade Portuguese, Senior Year Mathematics, Senior Year

HEALT
? Internal causes mortality ? Violent causes mortality

INCOME
? Per capita family income

0 20% 10% 0 194,0 200,8 213,7 219,4 0 100 200 0 0,5

1 0% 50% 1 277,6 286,4 313,9 339,9 1 0 0 1 3,5

1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/4* 1/4* 1/4* 1/4* 1/3 1/2 1/2 1/3 1,0

The 2005 Report


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are concluding the new 2005 report, with the same structure l The data was updated to year 2003 (the prior report was up to 2001) l What is new? In the new report we compare the situation using the same indicators and indexes and analyze the evolution between the two data.

Compare YDI 2003/2005- States

Same 2005 Report Findings


First: Income decrease / income concentration fall

Second: A few decades ego, economic discrimination acts hindering access to school. In our days only 1.5% of the young never it entered in a school. Now, economic conditions determine where and until when youth can study. Last level of youth schooling by tenths of familiar income
80 70 60 50

40 30 20 10 0
eig ht h nin th th ird six th fift h fir st fo ur th se ve nt h se co nd te nt h

No School fundamental high school university

Tenths

Some contributions
1.

It contributed to give visibility to the problems of youth and to generate public politics on the subject in Brazil. Constitution of the Forum of State and Municipal Secretaries of Youth. 2. In 2004, the federal government created the Inter-ministerial Group of Youth, integrated by 19 Ministries and Secretariats. 3. In February of 2005 a presidential decree created the National Council of Youth, the National Secretariat of Youth and the National Program of Inclusion of Young (ProJovem).

In 2005, social mobilization for implantation of a National Politics for Youths (Report of the Special Commission of Public Politics of Youth of the House of Representatives; conclusion of the Project Youth - more than 40 organizations of the society - and the creation of Youth Secretariats in States and Cities of Brazil) 5. The inter-agency consultation on the formulation and development of Youth Development Index of the Commonwealth, held at London in July, 2005, well appreciate our YDI model.
4.