You are on page 1of 2

Unit 7: Adaptation and regeneration 1. Identify most frequent cases of compensation hypertrophy in organs with muscle wall.

(p=3) -Urinary bladder -Heart -Vessels 2. What is organization? Which processes are observed in it? (p=4) -Organisation is formation of connective tissue, healing around dead tissue or exogenous agents, and replacement of necrosis, exudates, thrombus & hematoma by connective tissue 3. Name local atrophy varieties progressing in pathology. (p=6) -dysfunctional -neurotic atrophy -ischemic -chemical -pressure -physical 4. Name steps of wound healing by secondary intention. (p=3) -Traumatic edema, demarcation of purulent exudative inflammation with necrotic fibrin -Secondary cleaning of the wound, large amounts of granulative tissue are formed -Appearance of regenerative tissue (scar formation 5. Specify manifestations of pathologic repair. (p=3) -Hyper-regeneration -Hypo-regeneration -Metaplasia 6. What is hyperplasia? (p=2) -Increase in number of cells -Increase in structural-functional elements and intracellular structure of cells 7. Define atrophy. (p=3) -Atrophy is an adaptive response, characterized by a decrease in the size and function of cells, tissues and organs -Shrinkage of cellular size is due to loss of cellular substance 8. Define types of hypertrophy according to the mechanism of the beginning and with the signification for organism. (p=4) -Neurohumoral hypertrophy -Repair hypertrophy -Compensatory (working) hypertrophy -Vicar hypertrophy 9. Name types of general atrophy according to etiology. (p=5) -Alimentary -Tumour -Hypophyseal (pituitary) -Cerebral -Chronic infection 10. What is the form of repair named repair hypertrophy ? (p=4) -It is the developing process of substitution hypertrophy which consist of special tissues, that can carry out repair with the help of hyperplastic cells or hyperplastic tissue & hypertrophic cells 11. What is metaplasia? (p=2) -Transformation of 1 tissue type to another, usually of the same broad class

12. What structural levels are compensation and adaptive processes realized on? (p=3) -Cellular -Subcellular -Tissue 13. Patient died of decompensation of hypertrophied heart (mass of heart is 500g). During postmortem examination tiger heart was found. Give an explanation of decompensation mechanisms. (p=3) -Hypertrophy of the heart leads to an imbalance of oxygen demand and supply to it -subsequently, chronic hypoxia of the myocardium, fatty dystrophy, destruction of mitochondria and increase in cytosolic calcium occurs -Eventually the heart decompensates 14. What are the tissues of the heart exposed to hypertrophy and hyperplasia with enlargement f heart? (p=4) -Myocardium -Connective tissue stroma -Intramural vessels -Neural apparatus 15. What is carnification? (p=3) -Carnification is the appearance of connective tissue in the alveolar space as a result of pneumonia 16. What is regeneration? (p=2) -Regeneration is the replacement of injured cells with new cells and reconstitution of function 17. Name organs with regenerative hypertrophy in primary form of intracellular hyperplasia of ultrastructures and enlargement of cellular sizes. (p=2) -Brain -Myocardium 18. What is brown atrophy of myocard? (p=3) -It is the general atrophy of the heart, with decrease of the size of the myocardium, accumulation of pigments of lipofuscin in cardiomyocytes -developed during cachexia 19. Specify periods (phases) of compensation and adaptive reactions. (p=3) -Beginning -Consolidation -Exhaustion (decompensation) 20. Give the definition of working hypertrophy. (p=2) -It is hypertrophy characterised by increased cell size due to increased functional demand of the organ 21. Specify types of regeneration. (p=3) -physiological -reparative -pathological 22. What is atrophy organs term with deposit of lipofuscin in pigment in its parenchyma? (p=1) -Brown atrophy 23. What is vicar hypertrophy? (p=1) -It is the hypertrophy of twin organs when 1 is removed or becomes non-functional

24. Give explanation of the dystrophic and sclerotic processes in hypertrophied myocard. use facts of electronic microscopy in your answer. (p=4) -Hypertrophied cells have increased oxygen demand over supply causing hypoxia: fatty dystrophy -Hypertrophy of the nucleus, increase in ER vesicles and injury to the myocardium with organisation leads to cardiosclerosis 25. Specify stage names of functional states in hypertrophied heart. (p=2) -Tonogenic dilatation (compensation) -Myogenic dilatation (decompensation) 26. What is the term of liver with the atrophy and lipofuscin accumulation in hepatocytes? (p=1) -Brown atrophy of the liver 27. Name of forms in wound healing. (p=4) -Healing by first intention -Healing by secondary intention -Healing under crust -Healing with epithelisation 28. What is keloid? (p=2) -It is a type of skin scar characterised by and overgrowth of fibrous tissue in the scar