# 38

38

Sophie Chrysostomou

Chapter 4 Complex Numbers
39
.

y plane in the usual way. √ generalizing the real numbers R.1. b (b) The angle θ = arctan + 2kπ for some integer k is called the argument a of z. b) ∈ C :
√ (a) the distance to the origin. (c) z = (r cos θ. y1 ) ∈ C and z2 = (x2 . 2) and b = (3. r = a2 + b2 .
def
Of course complex numbers may be represented as points on the x.1
Complex Numbers
√ One of the things we learn in high school is that the symbol −1 cannot be a real number.3. y2 ) ∈ C then we deﬁne def z1 z2 = (x1 x2 − y1 y2 . y1 ) ∈ C and z2 = (x2 .2. is called the absolute value of z and is denoted by |z|. since the square of a real number is always ≥ 0. definition 4. r sin θ) is the polar form of z
40
Sophie Chrysostomou
. In fact we have already mentioned them in our discussion of the method of partial fractions. The set of complex numbers C is the set of all ordered pairs (x. 4) are complex numbers. then:
z = (a. b). In this lecture we are going to describe a number system C (the “complex numbers”). y2 ) ∈ C then we deﬁne z1 + z2 = (x1 + x2 . Multiplication: If z1 = (x1 . If a = (1. Addition: If z1 = (x1 . Let z = (a. x1 y2 + y1 x2 ) ∈ C example 4. y ∈ R equipped with the following operations 1.1. If z = (a. y) of real numbers x. and large enough to give a meaning to −1.b) r b = r sinθ θ a = r cosθ
definition 4. y1 + y2 ) ∈ C 2.40
Complex Numbers
4.1.1. calculate a + b and ab.

3. and then addition and multiplication correspond in R and C. 0).2
R⊂C
(x1 . These add and multiply as complex numbers according to the formulas and which are the same formulas as for the real numbers x1 and x2 . 0)
Consider the elements of C of the form (x. 1) is the square root of −1. 1) ∈ C. The polar form of a complex number z = (a. 0) ∈ C. So we may regard R as a subset of C according to x ∈ R↔(x. 0) = −1
definition 4. 0) ∈ C. 0)(x2 .3. b) ∈ C.4. It means we will think of x ∈ R as being the same as (x. but in order to get it we have had to go to a larger number system than R.
The rectangular form of complex number z = (a. b) with |z| = r and argument θ is: z = r(cos θ + i sin θ) = reiθ . 0 · 1 + 1 · 0) = (−1. If z = (a. 0) = (x1 + x2 . 0)
4. Let us calculate i2 . because R itself has no square root of −1.
√ −1.
Thus i = (0.1. (x1 . is z = a + ib. It may be proven (later on in the course) that: eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ This is known as Euler’s formula. 0) and b = (b. 0) = (x1 x2 − 0 · 0.3.1.2 R ⊂ C
41
4. We do calculations as usual and treat i as an unknown variable with the property i1 = −1.3
Consider the special element i = (0. 0) + (x2 . x1 · 0 + 0 · x2 ) = (x1 x2 . b)
The rectangular form is the usual form used and it is easier to calculate with.
i2 = (0.2. then z = a + ib where a = (a. y plane. Rectangular and Polar Form
claim 4. 0). 1) = (0 · 0 − 1 · 1. 41 Sophie Chrysostomou
. 1) · (0. definition 4. Geometrically this corresponds to regarding the x axis as a subset of the x.

sin . and z2 = 2 2
√
3 1 . then
iθ z1 z2 = r1 1 · r2 eiθ2 = r1 r2 ei(θ1 +θ2 ) = r1 r2 [cos(θ1 + θ2 ) + i sin(θ1 + θ2 )] n n z1 = r1 (cos nθ1 + i sin nθ1 )
example 4. √ .3. 4 4
42
Sophie Chrysostomou
. b2 ) = r2 eiθ2 . b1 ) = r1 eiθ1 and z2 = (a2 . 12 12
1 1 √ . Find z1 z2 .4. . 2 2
Homework: Let z1 = Find cos π π . .42
Complex Numbers
theorem 4.3. DeMoivre’s Theorem : If z1 = (a1 . Let z1 = Find cos 5π 5π . 12 12
2 2 √ . and z2 = 2 2
√ 1 3 . Find z1 z2 .3. − √ . sin .

The conjugate of a + ib is deﬁned and denoted by def a + ib = a − ib. Some simple properties of conjugate and absolute value are 1. z = z 2. z1 + z2 = z 1 + z 2 4.4
Conjugate.
43
Sophie Chrysostomou
.4 Conjugate. We deﬁne Re z = a and Im z = b.4. proof. and Real and Imaginary Parts
definition 4. √ Note that (a + ib)(a + ib) = a2 + b2 is real and non-negative and |z| = zz. and Real and Imaginary Parts
43
4.1. |z1 + z2 | ≤ |z1 | + |z2| with equality iﬀ one of z1 and z2 is a non-negative mutiple of the other. Let a + ib ∈ C. z1 · z2 = z 1 · z 2 3. |z1 · z2 | = |z1 | |z2 | 7. the real and imaginary parts of z. z |z|
6.4. z1 z2 = z1 z2 z 1 = 2. |z|2 = zz or 5.

4.4. ¯ ¯ (b) Find each zn in its polar form. z1 z5 . z4 . Let P (z) = solution :
2z+3 . Find Re (1 + i)2 . Sophie Chrysostomou
. z5 = 2π − i. z3 = 3i.3.44
Complex Numbers
√ example 4. z−1
Find the conjugate of P (−1 + 3i)
example 4.4.4. z2 z3 . (a) Find z1 + z2 . Show that i) reiθ = re−iθ 44 ii) eπi + 1 = 0. |z5 |. Homework: 1. z4 = 1+( 3)i. solution :
example 4. z2 = −4+2i. 1/z4 .2. Let z1 = 7+9i.

5 Simple Functions of a Complex Variable
45
4. then the polynomial P is a perfectly well deﬁned function funcP (x) tion with domP = C taking values in C. z 2 +1
2. Also..5
Simple Functions of a Complex Variable
If P (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . Find the real and imaginary parts of P (z). Let P (z) = i + (3 + 4i)z 2 Calculate P (2 − 3i). Calculate P (1−i).4.
Homework: Let P (z) = 2+i+(1−i)z +(1+i)z 2 ..
45
Sophie Chrysostomou
. Also ﬁnd the real and the imaginary parts of P (z). if f (x) = Q(x) where P and Q are polynomials with real or complex coeﬃcients then the rational function f is a perfectly well deﬁned function with domain C − {z ∈ C | Q(x) = 0} taking values in C 1. Find the domain of f (z) =
z . + an xn is a polynomial with real or complex coeﬃcients.