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clwoysnegohve.rrooyOO""tooddJ60· IoIheGHAtoeflecrlhesublroctlOflorsrboct 36IY frornlhelHA'Iilisgrealerrhorr 360' 1.2 Neor 10 the lime 01 obse!vallOfl..AJrico. bui whenenleringfrornthebonom~theminL.HOW TO WORK A SlGHTAn Overview TheNoreNt.ecorrecliOll.ll1ind ~n'I(lfflelioenldlormosrolihe.rrCersrel.Yoo w. Note hal ne chooge in Oedinolioodisoolsignedsobecor~how youopplythecorredion_Recordrhecone<:ledvoluesolGHAood DedillQlrOOOO 1"1e!9 ond15respedively MOQN.cloe dSLW.o1sclorheUoeNum~ oniheSighlRed!..e.E>rtrocttheoppropriolelebr kIledqoonlillesundertheileodrngslHA.oroorn Souih)..edsemnlolhtudereoding 2OfOlIneDipCor.. «a.JnIheprt'>Ce!5isiden!icalrorholfarneSunondPlor..erc. Converl 011GMTslrom Time to Arr:.sublroct2Aooursfrom IneGMIThe rneirsum.1S.IoIMneore$iewdegrees.aionForm(5eepogel68I.t.orherwiselOke 18 Addrhevooollll~16ondl7ondlook upmis wm in !he klbles&om!he bonom !. 8 9 IOIb$erved(AJIMude{T)owlJrd ~rhe...rneon integroinumberoillourl 7 The dote 01 this GMT . beorings Ioi<en WIth 0 mogoehc cotnpolS...1le5 cok.><I 10 ~ .rde<lheheodingRfSIResuIt)_Donot otemptlOinIerj:doIethelObies dOlecoongestolnenexldoy. ZOO Souih.! Imelello.4 En!ertheDRw1ueoilolrrude lSSeenole9 165eeor>der'SighrRedudlOO'beIow 17 Form the differeoce.es00Iirle!13.. oondmorgin DATA FOR SIGIfT REDUcnON 13 AddorsulxrodlheDRloogiiudetoobioin'he lHAoIthe\xx!y. 2 In we!lem Time ZOIle! II oller the odditionoitheTimeZone. rheloblesfo.hcsOOenlOblJlated 101Ihe SiolSon pcges 21 to 35.n. lo~tude-Dedinolion Il IwiddleD) If rhe IOlltude ond Dedinoliorl haverhesomenome(i. The obsetved o~iUIe is obIa.le"hme re. DEC.ondfOilheN'con oopcgss 101 and 102 21 Recordrhesexlanliindexjoorrectionoo\ing illlignnegoliveifreodoniheorcorpost Sun love il 011 the ere 22 Therorleclloruonlines'20ond21arecOlll" bined om:! applied 10 the 5eJ<Ionio~ilude Therewlllsrheopporer>lollllOOe 23 A ~ngleoh"udeco"echon for the SIa" is givenoopoges 271OJ5..eep itll!rpOIorionenoolOOn'inlmummonyolthelObies oreononged.ngcircurrr 1 Inea!lem Time Zones .up rheOtlerpOOborlfoclorFoopogel66ond multir:iYirisbyvonddtodelelmioerhept<l' porOOncrlpollS.ThisqllClnliIyOOsno'ign SIGHT REDUCTION 13..lOll'blelodro!sumond "".lude (hne 24) AltItude is GOAT.IA.ForiheN'o... Vv\lWlCoIorodo)&Vv\IWIHIIHowoill USA. {line 18) mooning and Ine A useful IGlreolei SIol'ldord Time on line 5 ond then ptoceed.ThedorechangeslOlhe previoosdoy. Reenlerlhetrblesondlrndo. fo< the andPionelsonpoge66. I Azimurhsfooodnomthe'MJirdioglomsonpoges 15610 159W1rn expIonolion in Section 7..Ia rhe5llnOl' PIonellonpoge66ondlorrheM:xlnon pages 101 and 102 U..leeIIForoonveniencelr.fi<:olKllllObles onpoges1D410129wlrn~ All BODIES.rnnootheriJ:JhthondWe 16 AddlheiobJlotedquonhr.II chooge Irom Ihot glVl'fl In line 1 uocierrhefdlow.lherellle!.JSI!olio S StondordTimeorZoneTime.COIlededforcompo!.osetheminutescalumnonthelellside when enleling hom the topcl the poge.9ondlOklgelherldonOiIObTIed 360' if the sum exceeds 360')10 obIoin the GHAcithe body 12 Enle!theDRwlueciloogitudeondheedlhe ~gnconvenliooshowninlhenOlelinrheleft.fefredloog<'R!lTlmeZooe 6 TimeZones.oIue ne.>661097oregivenol fNeI'/ 6 hours 01 GMT The inlefpolo~on labie! are 00 poges96 10 100.rlllsqUOll" hly~simploliedbeco<Myouknc.rhevolue cJ the ot-ved oIIItude AlTITUDE CORRECTIONS AND AZIMUTH 19 Rewdrheomer. N'Sf England.uy 26 Azimuih.evel5e is true Iheo Jhe Inlercepl I! scid cce 1Af...Recordlhe"'llueolHorizonIoIPorolknl IH~ givendai~lfaoseooline23 10 Seenole9 11 Addlines6.lhe GMTllgrealerthon2Anours. odd 24 houis10 Ihe GHAondDedincOOo_N~looIo.lie down Ihe lobulated .botIrNorJt.lude) VourpoinldeMy .tbycoklmnlnorderlol:.oed a!let !he aboveconeclionisoppliedlorheopp<JreN olhklclelromI"I!!22 25Thelnletceplisrhedillereoce~rhe Ob~rved Computed mne!llOllic A1I.osrreorosJ.ncnlIOOIfam fphndyrudoro enlrycoincooWltholob.eilexr:eplthol the labulaled "'llues 01 (GHAGN\n ond Dedlnoliooonpoge.I rhe Time lJ:JneisgrealellhontheSrondord Time.lAT. you proceedooossrheSighrRedochonFormrurher foonworkcoOO. ond 15.Yor..Scoonceo[ mokingoreodlngmbloke 4 De1erminerhel""lrchcorrecllonbycompol' ingrhewclChwithor.Wlrho1ewexceplions. The foctor F on fXlge 166 naw coverS a period cI 6 nours.ondl-DintheSighIRedocliorllcble!oo pagesI32toI5l_Notewhen.nderlheheodmgAlT(CompuledA&.14. umee ben odeqoore lor piolhng lines offX1'ilion IromlneDRi»!itiooondoonbeobtoined IromoneofrneloilowingscufCe! I Azlmutns loond from rhe Azimutn robles on poges 15210 155 With explonotloo in 5eclion 72 Azimulhs oblolned from Ihe Predroionondldenl.lokemeirdiffefence.wngihese Iobles.jlY jopon& VNGAl.S ..noIioo fa the givendoteondnaei>eclrooge!voodd Fromrhe irrIerpoIoTiontrbbonpoges66 and67de1e1mineneproportoonolporbolv anddoooconerJlhelc:lbAorecl"'lloesd 3 4 nolion in Secrion 5. from poges 36 10 65 lr::d:uplheGHAood Dec!.edionnotetneneighrofe)l!..olarecl""'-'erhenlOke meupperiupthepogel"'llueolthecorrection 1 Indicolernedoyclrhewookolonodde lionolcheckonlhedote The oome 01 Ine body os Idenlified IllspreferoblelOUleodlgilolrOlnerlnonon onologuewclcn.orherlimeplece~ error il known or with 0 RodloTimeSignol..usinglhelobleonpogel76 STARS.ond17.Frompoge!26to3511Iiookup lhe GHA cI Alie! 01 Ohrs/GMT lor the g<venooteondoddrheAlre!CorrediOO 2 gWen 01 the ~de end (21 record the lobulated "'llues 01 SHA ond Dedinolioo 00 100 IOond15re!peCIively SUN and PlANETS.

This reduction can be readily tolerated when one considers that now and in the future. may not have been located or were mistakenly Identified. Thts has the advantage that no errors greater than half a unIt In the value of the . Tables for interpolating the above coordinates and for correcting sextant observations. The difference between this and most other standard works on this sublecr ls that It Is emlrely self-contained and yet remarkably compact. a set of tables for reducing sights. This is especially helpful for the navigator who uses celestial methods Infrequently. and a star and planet Identifier. A proficiency In combining astronomical and terrestrial coordinates with sextant and compass observations to derive data for posItion fixIng and azimuth [true bearing). all the essential Instructions. and tables for finding the fatfrude and longitude of a ship by celestial navigation and also the means for making a compass check. An understanding of how astronomical coordinates and other data can be extracted from the almanac section. 1 contains the 5 Explanations of the equipment used and practical methods for predicting. The skills required by the celestial nevlgator can be divided broadly Into three areas: I 2 An ability to make reliable Instrumental observations. almanac data. astronomical methods wIll not be the basis for navigation. Tables for predicting the position In the sky oftheSun. planets. however. critical tables have been wldety used. Moon. Many numerical examples that illustrate the use of Its methods and tables are provided as well.lNTRODUCTlON This book provides. 2 6 3 4 To keep the lnrerpolarlon of data and the application of correcttcns simple and accurate. satellite systems will be the navigator's mainstay for position fixing. and other astronomical data useful for navigation for five years. Tables and graphs for sight reduction that wlllenabJe a navigator to fix position by the Marcq St. wh1ch may not be always available. the navigator is independent of any other IndIvidual or agency. but will choose as well Independent methods such as are described here. and plotting celestial observations. Examples of calculatIon and plotting that Illustrate the use of the almanac and tables. In dlfficult observing conditions. will not rely entirely on satellite systems and electronic devices. 3 2 SCOPE AND CONTENTS The Complete On-Boord CelestJal Navigator following. and 58 stars from which an optimum observing routine can be complied. With the information supplied here. navigational planets and 58 selected stars. These tables can be used In reverse to Identify bodies that. for a flveyear period. a nautical almanac. No longer will it be necessary to purchase separately a book on astronomical navlgartcn. The coordinates of the Sun. The prudent navigator. cbservIng. In a compact form. Moon. This has been achieved In part by reducing the accuracy of the almanac data from one-tenth of a minute to one minute of arc. Hilaire method and to find the azimuth of any of the principal celestial bodies. calculating.

Beginners will also flnd that observations without a telescope (the telescope may become misted over with salt spray) with both eyes open wlU give surprisingly good results. 3. 6) shodes. the upper (that Is. 4) horilon glou. the Index mirror-the mirror that rotates at the center of the Instrument-should be perpendlcular to the plane of the sextant. Before stowing the sextant In its box.1 Sextant If you have a choice when buying a secanc tten a metal one should be preferred over plastic. Then look along the edge of the Index mirror so you can see both the direct and reflected Images of the graduated arc. and a hand-bearing compass. Before studying celestial navigation. although they look meanmcenr. wash salt spray off with freshwater and carefully dry the Instrumem. considered to be spherical. and If the handbook for the Instrument Is Adiulting~rmforl)jnde~error. whlle Q has a south latitude and an east longitude. and be able to plot the passage of a vessel and flx Its position in a coastal situation. Latitude is measured north or south (0'-90') from the equator. 9) minometer drum. 7) tel8Slope. azimuth. and a shortwave radio receiver. plotting aids.andtheaverage error will be a quarter of a unit. and longitude east or west (0'-1 BO') from the Greenwich meridian. P has a north latitude and west longitude. longitude. . Pand Q. Plasrlc sextants are not as robust as the metal rypes and can defonn and develop errors If allowed to heat up. The unaided human eye Is capable of very accurate observations. 3 EQU1PMENT In addition to this book and basic navlganon eculcment such as charts. Observations In rough weather wlth the navigator standIngona heaving deck clinging to a stay are best made with a light sextant.3)perpendi{ulorjlyenor. Periodically check It for adjustment. Practice using this technique-It Is well worthwhile. Perpendicularity Error When In adjustment.. may not be Ideal on a small craft. Sextants vary slightly In their arrangement of adjustIng screws. The sextant Is one of the most delicate pieces of equipment on a vessel and should be treated with utmost care. The figure at left shows the position [latitude and longitude) of two pclms. then use the adfustlngscrew(s) on the back of tile mirror to perfect coincidence. To check this. the reader must be conversant with such basic navigational quantities as latitude. moving up the page) value of the twO possible data values is chosen. If when entering such a table one flnds the point of entry Is the same as that given in the table.lfnot. 10)groduoted ore. These Images should coincide. If the sextant will not be used in the near future.2)sideerror. the navigator should possess a sextant. missing. a timepiece. especially If it may have been subjected to rough handling. etc. Large sextants.S) incn mirror. The followIng errors are listed In the order In which they should be corrected. Secondhand sextants should be checked by an lnstrurnent rechnfctan before purchase.TIlE COMPLETE ON-BoARD CELESTIAL NAVIGATOR $outhPoie quantity extracted can be Incurred. S)domp. remove the lighting batteries to prevent corrosion. try to cbraln a copy from the manufacturer. on the surface of the Earth. set the Instrument to read near the middle of the graduated arc (about 60').

and preferably afterward as well. on the horizon glass to correct the error. If they appear side by side. Provided It Is not more than a few minutes of are. Perhaps the best known are the signals that originate from \N'oIN [Fort Collins} and \N'oIN(H} (HawaII) on 2.5. then it 15 near noon on the date for this day-a fact that would not necessarily be obvious Ifthe clock were keeping GMT. some navigators therefore prefer to carry a digital watch set to GMT that also shows the Greenwich date. The positions of the stars are given by declination and sidereal hour angle (SHA). then add this amount. which has the Earth for Its center. being the celestial counterparts of latitude and longitude respectively. [fthe clock is set to keep standard time [zone time). The direct and reflected images of the object should pass over one another as you move the sextant setting across the zero of the graduated arc. set the reading to zero and use the adjusting screw at the rear of the horizon glass (fixed mirror) close to the graduated are to make the two Images coincide as nearly as possible. a star is Ideal for this purpose. 10. Although It will be necessary to flnd the Greenwich mean time (GMT or UTC or Zulu) of celestial observations. If the reading Is below zero {off the are). then use the adjusting screw(s). If over a test period the clock gains or loses at a steady rate. It is Imperative that all be checked before one attempts any observations. called the celestlat sphere. provided that it has been subjected to reasonable changes In temperature and motion. when applying the time zone to obtain GMT. If the sextant reading Is not zero. The worth of a clock Is not necessarily its ability to keep time exactly but that the time it keeps can be predlcted accurately over many days. To test a clock's performance. less as the latitude Increases}. do not attempt to adjust it. set the sextant reading to approximately zero. the sextant should be checked for index error. this amount Is the Index error. A budgetpriced digital watch Is adequate. Clocks that perform erratically should be rejected. usually expressed In hours.) There Is a danger Iftime Is kept In GMT.2 Clocks An accuracy of about a mlnure Is usuaJly suffldent for routine timekeeping on a vessel. If the reading is greater than zero (on the are). Provided Ionospheric conditions are not abnormal and depending on the time of day. 3. rather than an analogue type with hour. 15. and it Is a good safeguard. the signals can be heard throughout the world. A digital timepiece. To correct for a large Index error. For this test. The latter method Is convenient because continuous time signals are broadcast from many countries. for example. A change of date occurs If. without a date display. Unavoidable errors do arise and therefore It must be stressed that lf any of rhe above adjustments are made. select and sight a well-defined distant object. 5. the horizon glass should be perpendicular to the plane of the sextant. The astronomical coordinates of celestial bodies at their times of observation will need to be extracted from the almanac data for the various calculations described In later sections of thrs book. Astronomical coordinates can be depicted on the . It Is a simple matter to add or subtract the time zone. for celestial observations this accuracy Is Increased to a second or so [an error of one second of time will lead to an error ere quarter of a mile In longitude at the equator. It Is not necessary that the clock keep GMT. To avoid these problems. (There are a few exceptions to whole hours of half and quarter hours. Is preferred for timing observations. then It Is a simple matter to find a reliable clock correction some days after the last clock correction has been made. one passes through midnight Into the next or previous day. then subtract this amount from all subsequent readings. mlnute.4. and second hands. However. the Incorrect minute may be inadvertently recorded when the time is near the whole minute. If the clock reading Is about 12 hours and Ills daylight. to obtain GMT. usually farthest From the graduated arc. To do this. When timing with the latter. and bring the direct and reflected Images into coincidence by operating the micrometer drum. but when working with standard time the date Is known without ambiguity because the appearance of the day (daylight and night) correspond approximately with the clock reading. aim at the sea horizon orata clear horizontal line a mile or so dlstant. 4 ALMANAC DATA surface of an Imaglnary sphere of InfinIte radius. Gone are the days when it was necessary to maintain accurate time using an expensive chronometer. and 20 {Fort Collins only} MHz In the USA. Each of the above tests and adjustments Is designed to be Independent of the others. Note that It costs little.that the date may be confused. which acts as a slow-motion screw. to have twO or more clocks on a vessel. Index Error Before observations. ALMANAC DATA Side Error When In adjustment. It should be compared with another timepiece of known accuracy or against a radio time signal.

convert the GMT from time to arc using the table on page 176. which may be considered as static with respect to the Earth.Polo GHA Aries '" GMT{artl + GHA Aries et GMTOhrs + Aries Carrn.g. the Sccrplcn. Jupiter. but the difference (d) Is unsigned because declination is marked N or S.. Wc can [ust see a star of the slxth maaonude wIth the naked eye. the Sun. declination. SHAs are measured (0·-360·} not from a terrestrial meridian containing Greenwich but west from a celestial meridian containIng "the first point of Aries. e.THE COMPLETE ON-BoARD CELEST1AL NAVIGATOR Declinations are measured (0· -90·} north or south from the celestial equator. sometimes In an Irregular way. can be thought of as dynamic. A complete rotation of 360· is the same as 24 hours. which maintain their relative posltlons on the celestial sphere. BrightbodIes may even have a negatIve value. Betelscusem = 0. Then . The dally differences at GMTOhrs of GHA. Moon. or show J vanable magnltude. a logartthmlc scale for magnlrudes has been chosen..) To find the GHA of Aries at any Instant of GMT." often denoted by the zodiacal symbol<Jl. GHA Aries + SHA The declination ofa star Is the value tabulated. are also Hsted.g. To this add the GHA of Aries tabulated at GMTOhrs on the given Greenwich date.g.conSleltatJonshave been nam~ from theIr aplH'arance. e. the rest of the above figure can be Imagined as rotating from east to west around an axis (doned line} through the north and south celestial poles. To find the GHA at any Instant of GMT: 1 Ccnverr the GMT from time to arc using the table on page 176. In order that the masnltudes of bright and dim bodies can be represented by small numbers. the 10 The GHA of a star 15 the sum of the GHA Aries as found above and the SHAGHA star". In some cases rhere ts some lustlflcation for the namli'-('. Mars.1 Stars and Aries The GHA of Aries. The magnitudes of the planets are quoted for the middle of the month.The brIghteststars are said to be of the nrstmasnltude.] 4. and are therefore assigned Individual coordinates of GHA and declination. when interpolating declination the user must note the direction of change. The stars are listed in both alphabetical order and In reverse order of SHA. (·Forconven!ence!n!dent!ficatlon. and magnitudeO<>of57 bright stars and Polaris are tabulated for each year on pages 26 to 3S.2 Sun and Planets The GHA and declination of the SUn. IS· = I hour. through the panems {constellations}· of stars. 4. together with the Aries correction found at the side of the table. te. and planets appear to move. The difference Ivl Is given a sIgn to show the direction of change. Venus. In contrast to that on page 8. and the SHA. and Saturn are tabulated at GMTOhrs for every day of the year on pages 36 to 65. Unlike stars. . Southem Cross-but In many others the name bears only a fancifulrelationshipto the constetlatjon's appearance. No interpolation is required to extract the data. SIrius m = -1. Each page lists two months of data.. a quantity tabulated throughout the year. the lower the magnitude number. The Greenwich hour angle [GHA} Is a measure of how far a celestial body has progressed since it passed the meridian of Greenwich. Apart from the stationary Greenwich meridian.."". For a star the GHA is found by adding Its SHA to the GHA of Aries. (OO"Magnltude"fsan Indicatorof the brightness or a celestial body. (v) and declination (d). The figure above. Therefore.6.1 to 1.2. The brtgbrer the body. The declination of stars can be assumed constant.

Is given dally. If [v) Is grearer than 60'. From the preceding text It becomes clear that the process of finding the GHA of Aries. first quarter. This can be done by applying the longitude (usually the DR value) to the GHA. but use (d) Instead of [v) and the Interpolation table on page 98. GMTlar() + IGHA-GMn at GMTIO/6/12/181hrs + Iv} (arm. use the same technique as described before. For declination. The process of interpolation using the differences of {GHAGMD (v) and declination (d) Is similar to that used for the Sun and planets except that the data Is given at every six hours of GMT.DedinallonatGMTOhrs:tld) (orrn. and planets In DR latitude N33'sO'.s. The horizontal parallax [HP). To find the GHA at any instant of GMT: 1 2 Convert the GMT from time to arc using the table on page 176. Sttnlardtime fmezone 6Mf(Hme) 6Mf{arr) GHAAries ct6MTOhrst GHAAries LongilUde(-W.-E) 40 J ~ W~ 145" 00' 358 57 ~ ~ 358' S7' 14502 6HAMes(seeobove) 5"'''''""' 6HAArCh. stars. look up the correction to (GHA-GMD at GMT[Oj6jl2jl8)hrs In the Interpolation tables on pages 99 and 100. The correction is found by adding the correction for hours to that for minutes. The required GHAlsthen: GHA Moon". full.4. the GHA is found by adding the SHA.5. the correction Is found by adding the correction for hours to that for minutes In the table. and last quarter) are summarized at the end of each month.ruS{subtroct360·) LoogilUde(-W. then the tabulated value of the GHA at GMTOhrs for Aries. look up the correction to GHA at GMTOhrs In the Interpolation tables on pages 66 and 67.tEl LHAAries (011. The required value of dec nn at Ion Is: DedinatianSun/planet. The following examples Illustrate the complete procedure for all bodies: EXAMPLES Find the lHAs and declinations for Arcturus.4 and 6. and Moon is very slmflar. which is a measure of how far the body has progressed since it passed the observer's meridian [north .south). Using the given value of GMT and (v). Sun. 4h4Om W~ 9 (tW. W~ n. To find the declination at the same instant of GMT. In later sections we will often be required to find the local hour angle (LHA) of the body. and planets-or at a multiple of six hours for the Moon-Is extracted and an Interpolation correction applied.3 Moon The GHA-GMT and declination of the Moon are tabulated at every six hours of GMT for every day of the year on pages 68 to 97. Each page lists two months of data.4 Summary GHA Sun/planet".tE) LHAArctlJlus Oedination(ArtllKUS) To find the declination at the same instant of GMT. all that Is required is an interpolation correction to be applied to the tabulated decUnatlon. Sun. 4. For stars. Dedinatian 01 GMTIO/6/12/18)hrs (d) (orrn. see explanation In Sections 6. The required value of dec Un Ion Is: at Declination Moon". but use (d) Instead of Ivl. :t 4. The required GHA Is: GMf{an} + GHA at GMTOhrs + {v} (arm. Using the values of GMT and (v). Moon. planets. The times of the phases of the Moon (new. longitude won·ls' at standard time 4h 40m (time zone WSh) on 26 Apr!! 1999. The sum of these components Is then taken. The GMT Is converted from time to arc. Sun. Extract the listed (GHA-GMD at the nearest preceding six hours of GMT[O/6/12/18)hrsand Ivl on the date. ALMANAC DATA 2 J Extract the listed GHA at GMTOhrs and lvl of the body on the date. except for stars. use the same technique as described before. which do not need Interpolation. ~ II .

"-W. However. find the lHA of Aries and the LHA and declination of the Sun..34 . To locate all the bodies that can be seen at a given Instant of time.10 -5 C~.. will be limited.1' .. WQll_J1 l2tll Idl NI3'18'+19' WQZlJ1 21202 W!!ll. observations at these times willgenerally be confined to the Sun and.. the prudent navigator will.J.1 .±l 32532 zl: 28417 iM 14716 If a simple four-function calculator Is available. covering declinations N30· to 530' at S·lntervals.. and planets Is given at the bottom of each page. [dl N7'23'-60' [dl +19' . Ooc' . they will form a valuable store of potentially usefullnformat!on.sarnfGlflrptlCHlingIiMl6irnOl"lriart.. the following Interpolation technique may be used Instead of the method previously described. take observetlons throughout the day. This may be done converqentIy using the prediction and Identification tables on pages 104 to 129. Moon. .THE COMPLETE ON-BoARD CELESTIAL NAVIGATOR Body GMf{O'c) 145'00' 16031 . The simplest of such observations are those made during the daylight hours when there are few restrictions on the visibility of the horlzon and rhe tdantlfication of celestial bodies. use GMT minus the multiple of six hours chosen for extracting the Moon's coordinates..1 +46' Solurn 145'00' 17835 Monn 145'00' M 4505-164' -140(-100) 18825 W. the navigational Information that results. the Moon. ~'"" Jupiter M~ . GMT 9h 40m (ORRN '" F X tvl or (d) M Soo V~ 0. The technique Is as follows: 1 look up In the table the value cr a factor [F) that corresponds to the given value of GMT.611 .ll Li. . .1 -1 .1 -16' 145'00' 13924 145'00' 143+S2' '0" M 4.Ql Idl Idl 511'30' -5' N24'42' +10' CO"" 0.1' -\6 . Moon. From the following table. It Is suggested that both methods be tried and the one more suited to the user's needs be adopted.Q (ann GHA Loog" IHA ill 34245 W. although valuable.. A separate tabulation for use with the Sun. for half of the month. There Is no need tclnterpolate E Multiply (v) and (d) by Ftoobtaln the desired ccrrecncns.l1 This method Is slightly more accurate than that previously described.41 0. 80dv GMT(ar(} GHA' ~ ±! ±l N2446 ~ [. ' -164 -60 5 PLANNING 5.~ ..41 0.Ql1.1' ~" 1·1 Venkri 1.li 27030 ill 32356 W.1 Planning AND OBSERVATlONS To take advantage of a wider choice of bodies will require some planning..1' -7 .1' Idl Ooc' C~. . .5 Alternative Method Interpolation GIlA' GHA IHA c. Even though they may not be processed.l1 lli.1 -37 . which give the altitudes and azimuths of 58 stars between the latitudes of N60' and 560' at 10· Intervals for every 10' of lHA of Aries.41 0.11 -100 zau Idl Nl1'39' .1 +52' =1 2 Jupiter 145'00' 19727 1. Ooc N5'40' ±l N543 ....+f ". ' sus ±l =ll N646 !i!/edvtWtlflllrhaSlmtmdp/DM/satGMTlJlnonrhaduteorlrxMooo lmttJrrllu.41 0.Qll.. and planets for the time An observation Is a timed sextant altitude taken to a celestial body.51 . A table for this Is on page 166.Ql1. weather permlmng. For the Moon. Nevertheless. WIth such a small choice of bodies.81 (orm.41 0. and therefore-before making any celestial observations-It Is advisable to check on what bodies can be seen. a comparison can be made of the Interpolation corrections found using this and the previous method..

If observations are planned for the time ofclv!1 twilight-that 15.5. say. bodies should be selected that are not at very low or high altitudes. Indicating that the body is not visible. sight the body In the Index mirror. not In nne but preferably close to 90· apart In azimuth. Unclamp and slowly bring this reflected Image of the body down to the horizon while moving the Index arm along the graduated scale. It Is good practice also to select the bodies that are well distributed In azimuth because even If there Is. and planets are found from the tables at the bottom of each page. or the horizon Is not sharp. because the light rays pass close to the sea's surface. a suitable shade should be swung In front of the Index mirror to guard against permanently damaging the eyes." 5. many of the bodies may not be selected for observation because of other restrictions that the observer may wish to Impose. The results of that search are as follows: tudes the brightness of stars and planets Is diminished because the light has to pass through more atmosphere than with those sights taken at high altitudes. a constant error In altitude-for example.3).5)-you may wish to design an observation routine that optimizes the use of the restricted time available. when stars. If a body Is below the horizon. As will be discussed later. will be the minimum requirement to obtain a fix. For three well-spaced lines not Intersecting at a poInt. u# ###" will be shown. In the first Instance. Also. However. The following guidelines maybe helpful: 1 Face the body to be observed and with the sextant set roughly on zero. and the horizon are visible (see Sectton 5. Clamp gently and then tift the sextant from side to side like a pendulum and watch the body make an arc near the 13 In summary there are 27 stars and two planets available for observation. From the bodies that satisfy the altitude restrictions.2 Sextant Observations Body 5"" Moon Venus Moo Jup~er Sorum lHA 250' 110 110 80 170 150 Declinolion NIS' HI N15 SlO NS NIO Altilude Azimuth III 11# ##I 256' 086 ##I Observations to celestial bodies with a sextant are not difficult. a poor derermlnatlon of the sextant Index correction-the selected position should lie within the figure formed by the intersecting unes of position (see Section 7. a light shade In front of the horizon glass may be of assistance. planets. although the refraction correction (zero In the zenith) Is small and of greater certainty. Bringing a body down to the horizon with the sextant can be a difficult operation. there Is a loss of about two magnitudes between the zenith and the horizon. At low altt- . The altitude Is printed first. the refraction correction (bending of the light path) Is large and may be adversely affected by abnormal atmospheric ccndrnons. and In the column for LHA of Aries equal to 290' (nearest 10') are listed the altitudes and azimuths to the nearest degree of those stars that are above the horizon at this time. however. At high altitudes. the figure is called a "cocked nat. select those that will give a good fix. Jftlme and opportunity permit. The amtudes and azimuths of the Sun. Moon. One observation to each of two bodies. good results can be achieved only If the observer has acquired skill and confidence In han· dllng the Instrument. If there Is glare on the sea. observations to a number of bodies are desirable to provide not only a check on the observations and calculmens but an assessment of the quality of the observed position. followed by a space and then the azlmuth-a three-figure number In bold type. PLANNING AND OBSERVATIONS of observation. It will be difficult to estimate when the body and horizon are In proper coincidence. Before attempting observations on the Sun. In addition. Enter the table on the left with the value of declination [nearest 5') and from the top with the lHA of the body (nearest 10'). An example of the calculations Involved is shown In detail In Secrtcn 4 and 15summarized as follows: Body Arlo lHA 286'42' 25317 11610 21202 7501 27030 25141 Oedinlllion NI3"26' N646 N2446 51128 N543 Nil 40 5"" Moo" Venus Moo Jupiter Sarurn Turn now to page III of the predlcttcn and Identification tables for latitude N30' (nearest 10').

It Is all too easy to walt too long and see the stars disappear as you try to observe their altitudes. when the horizon will have Its besr deflnltion. point to the body. Read the degrees on the main scale and add the reading from the micrometer drum. take cbserva- Situations will sometimes arise when observations have been made to the wrong body or. 4 5 6 7 lions from as high a vantage point as possible. If there Isa doubt about the body's Identity atthe time of observation. however. then damp and reverse the sextant. take a compass bearlng to help In laterrdenttncanon. a few Ileetlng cbservatlcns between clouds may be all that Is possible In Inclement weather. The body can now be relocated on the horizon below the body. When we examine the prediction and Identification tables we flnd that seven bodies have altitudes Within a few degrees of the observed altitude as follows: . the following technique may be employed. 5. At morning twl!lght. As a precaution. the body may appear only fieetlngly. and with the sextant set roughly on zero. It Is best to take observations amidships to I1mltthe motion of the observer and the variability or the height or eye. of the Identity of any body. the lowest point of the arc Is where the altitude Is measured. because of partial cloud cover.THE COMPLETE ON-BoARD CELESTIAL NAVIGATOR horizon. When there Is broken cloud. The process crldennncarron can best be Illustrated with an example: EXAMPLE IdentIfy a body that has been observed at an altitude of33' IS' wlrh a magnetic bearing of 225' (magnetic variation WIO'] In the circumstances given in Section 4. If possible. Get Into the habit or making observations as early as possible at evening twilight and as late as possible at morning twilight. which Is graduated from 0 to 60 minutes. The watch reading minus the seconds count Is the time of observation. take a compass bearing to the body. but nevertheless a good pcstttcn fix may be possible. The prediction and Identification tables are Invaluable for this purpose. Tum the sextant upside down.3 Identification -*<~_~ Soo Stor ~_~_-*-- 2 3 14 tflt Is dlfflculr to bring a dim body down to the horizon. the IdentIty of the observed body Is In doubt. but with the Sun or Moon the contact of the body with the horizon Is made with either the upper or lower limbs (edges]. Perfect the coincidence by operating the slow-motion screw until the body appears to touch the horizon. start counting seconds until you can note a time on the watch. under these circumstances the navigator should prepare a tist ofaltlrudes for setting the sextantand compass bearings to locate the bodies. If you are uncertain. When the vessel Is roiling and pitching heavily. When the weather Is fine. For example. In fog or mist It may be necessary to find a low observation point In order to see the horizon clearly. This technique is suitable for stars and planets. The following figure shows the appearance In the field of view of the path of the Sun's lower 11mband a star as they touch the horizon at the time of observation. It Is a sensible precaution to note the brightness and. Even a rough dIrection may be of considerable value In deddlng which body has been observed. Call out "time" to the recorder or. Bring the horizon up to the body by slfdingthe Index arm along the graduated scale. if operating single-handed.

Now construct a une anywhere on the paper corresponding to this slope (dotted line)-posltive upward. and for this reason Ithas been excluded. For (a) there Is an advantage In that many lines of position (see Section 7. This technique should be used only If the time interval between the flrsr and last observation Is smau. and twilight referred to the IS ...'llilkhhosllllrJZimutlp(219"}Ihatis"cfayrotht oIntt"lfd1Ciur. otherwIse. and In good conditions the bright stars and the hcrtzan are vlslble.. It appears that the first observation deviates markedly from the general trend of the remaining observations. negative downward. First. 5. If the observations are error free. Note that In equatorIal latitudes this period Is short but becomes quite long In hIgh latitudes. The large number of calculations can be avoided in (b) If one observation that best represents the whole series of observations on that body Is selected. For (b). the observation points may follow a dlscemlble curve Instead of a straight line. 5. t. This may be done without any extra calculation as follows. where we see that approximate values of latitude and azimuth are required for Its evaluation. If one or more lines cannot be plotted or is markedly distant from this network of lines. the Sun's center Is 6' below the horizon.3 may assist In Identifying the correct body. The graphs on pages 130 and 131 give the tAT (local apparent tlme)-the local time kept by the apparent or real Sun-of sunrise. PLANNING AND OBSERVATIONS Azimuth 071" Polo.SDhii. It Is best to make a more detailed examination of the multlple observation data so that possible mistakes can be excluded and an assessment made of the quality of the data. It Is also possible to make observations combining both techniques. 11. and decrease with time to the west. or the Incorrect body has been observed. These are Ideal times for making cbservatlons with a sextant.4 Observation Methods There are two approaches to making observations' Either (a) make a single observation on a large number of bcdtes. ln the latter situation an examination of the prediction and Identification tables as described In Section 5. multiple observations to a few bodies can be made quickly because the sextant does not have to be reset from one observation to the next on the same body. The navigator may have noted at the tlme that the observation was cncharacrerIstIcally poor or a mistake could have been made In reading the sextant or recording the time. a sample of which Is given on page 167.Body Alp~eroll S(~edDr -. 30 30 3' 3' 33 37 5.3) result from the calculations. The departure from a straight line (curvature) Is at a maximum for bodies near the meridian (north-south) and a minimum near the prime vertical (east-west). not greater than flve minutes.iI. If calculations are not being made on a programmable calculator or computer but by tables. using the diagram on page 161. This slope can be found. and thIs best estimate can be used In the calcularlons.2W(225·-IO·/. These should all intersect closely together.5 Sunrise. Then draw a line parallel to It that best fits the observatlon points (full line). The best single representative observation is the mean of all the accepted observations.<><tob SlJbik Hunki '" 03' 001 3" . mark off conve- nlent verrlcat and horizontal scales for altitude and time. altitudes change slowly with time. which can be found by taking the average of the times and the auttudes. 187 093 Thois"on/yonebooft. The azimuth Is usually known from a prediction or compass bearing or can be obtained from the prediction and Identification tables. . and Twilight A knowledge of the times of the risIng and setting of the Sun Is not only helpful for gauging the hours of darkness and light but also useful when determining azimuth by the method of amplitudes (see Section B). then observing a large number of bodies will lead to the burden of a large number of sight reductions. Sunset. and plot each observatlcn point (see the example on page 103). or (b) make multiple observations on each of a few bodies. sunset. which can be avoided by taking Instead a point on this fine of best fit..e. Take a piece of prepared squared paper. one should nortce that If the body lies to the east of the meridian. In the example gIven. When a body is close to the meridian (north or south). Taking averages can be a source of arirhmetkal mistake. Any convenient point will do. At the beginning of morning and the end of evening civil twilight. altitudes will Increase with time. the observation points wlll follow a steady slope or trend (change of altitude wIth time). and they extend for some time between the beginning of morning twilight and sunrise and between sunset and the end of evening twilight.. we should suspect that a mistake has been made In the observation or calculation.

An addltlonal graph gives the correctton [the equation of time wIth the sign reversed] to LAT to obtain LMT [local mean timeJthe local time kept by the mean Sun: a fictitIous body. It may not be possible to Ilnd a point of Interpolation In the diagrams on pages 130 and 131. All of the altitude correction tables are set out In the form of critical tables. The Sun will remain continuously below the horizon If the latitude and declination are of opposite names and rhetr sum Is greater than 90' 50'.-E) GM' Timelcne(-W.__Q 8 14 E!. work across the form sheet (see page 168]. Therefore. In latitude N4S' 40'. longitude W033' 30' {W2h 14m. both north or both south-and their sum Is greater than 89' 10'.2 lndex Correction 6. sextanr altltude observations made using the sea horizon as a reference are too lalie and need to be corrected. in latitude 3 6 SEXTANT ALTITUDE CORRECTlONS depends upon how high the observer Is above the sea surface (height of eye]." 6.11 1937 E!. lAl of sunrise IpcgB 130l (OIr~lion(5IJmBJHlge) L/tI10flUnrise Longitude (+W. If It were possible to view the apparent (real) and the mean Sun In the sky." Itis lmmatertalln which order the dip and sextant correcrtons are made to the sextant altitude. longitude E 170' 45' [E I I h 23m. 9J. called dip. Is always negatlve and 16 This Is also known as sextant correction. S34· 20'.1 Dip Correction The visible sea horizon lies slightly below a horizontal plane stretching out from the observer.THE COMPLETE ON-BoARD CELEST1AL NAVIGATOR merldlan of the observer. but they must be applied before further correctrons are made.l. For convenience. The sue of thIs correcncn." p. The complete process of correcting observed altitudes to obtain the true amtude Is usually described as "deartng the altitude.+E) Slooomdflmeof(iv!1twilignl Special Cases of Rising and Setting 19h 25m . The following examples Illustrate the use of these tables In findIng the times of sunrise or sunset and the beglnningorendofclvlltwlllght: EXAMPLE Find the standard time (time zone W2h] of sunrise on 18 August 1999. page 176]. The correction should be determined preferably before and after observations have been completed [see "Index Error.?__ ~ In high latitudes and at certain times of the year. tables of dip for heights of eye In meters and feet are Included throughout this book. that Is. time will be saved If each correction Is applied to all bodies In tum rather than treating each body separately.-El GM' Time lone I-W . . we would see the mean Sun traveling at a constant rate along the celestial equator and the apparent Sun sometimes ahead or behind the mean Sun. 176J.lt should be added to the sextant altitude Iflt is "off the arc" and subtracted If"on the arc. Corrections must be applied to observed sextant altitudes In the correct sequence. If a number of bodies have been observed. The altitude corrected for dip and sextant ccrrecrton Is called the apparenta!tltude. Civil twll1ghtwlll last all night If the latitude and declination are of the same name and metr sum 15 greater than 84·. page lAlofawtwi'iJt(pagel31l (orrecOO1(some~el LMToIGvilTwflQhl loogitOOe{+W. These special situations are categorized as follows: 1 The Sun will remain continuously above the horizon If the latitude and declination are of the same name-that Is. The apparent Sun would be removed from the equator bya distance equal to Its declination.+El 5nrndord ~me oItoorise 4h SOm 4 W~ " 54 2 W1__ 1" ~ EXAMPLE Find the standard time [tlme zone El Zh] of the end of evening Civiltwllight on 2S January 1999.

parallax. ThIs ccrrectlcn. Allowance for this. The correction is always negative. It Is also apparent from the tables that the correction Is sensitive to altitude changes at low altitudes. The amount of bending. another phenomenon called parallax In altitude. Because the Moon correction can have Identical values for two different altitudes. allows for refractlcn. using the celestial coordinates of the body and the best known position. THE MARCO ST. observations are made to the edges (limbs) of the body.4 Sun Correction When the Sun and Moon are observed. . of the observer. whIch Is where the astronomical coordinates are referred." The Intercept Is the difference between the corrected observed sextant altitude. At higher altitudes. The following examples Illustrate the procedures in a variety of situations: EXAMPLES Body I.. In additIon. to the measured altitude. the argument may be entered from either side of the columns of tabulated correction. and therefore the altitude argument Is given In degrees and minutes up to about 10' or so when the correction reaches a maximum. 1m Salanl Ahitude 18'43' 2517 3607 81. called astronomical refraction. upon entering the Earth's atmosphere the light bends In a vertical plane containing the observer and the body. Unless thIs light comes from directly overhead. H. A line of position (LOP) for each observed body can be drawn on the chart using an "intercept" and "azimuth. H1LAlRE METHOD This method has been universally accepted as the simp!est and most practical technique for position fixing.6 Summary 6. always positive. and sernldlameterand may be either positive or negative. 5. This Is obtained directly from the tables appropriate to the body.d. 11 Sun(LO Plenel MoonLL' HI'=S. On page 66 Is a table for correcting observations made to either the upper or lower limb of the Sun. 6. reaches a maximum of about 34' near the horizon but reduces to about 10' at about S' altitude and to zero In the zenith. using apparent altitude as argument.. Reducing an observation made to the upper or lower 11mbwill require a correction equal to the radius [semidlameter. or lust parallax. it is not possible to make an accurate pointing on the center of the body. or s.) of the body. must be compensated for. This correction arises because of the simplifying assumption made In astronomical calculations that all celestial bodres III' at an Inflnlte distance from the Earth.' These tables on pages 101 and 102 Incorporate the same components as that for the Sun except that it is necessary to allow for the variable distance of the Moon from the Earth.whlch Is tabulated for every day of the year. The process of applying the dip and sextant correction is common to all bodies.5 Moon Correction Observed Altitude 18·39' 2523 3551 . usually the DR.14 -I . Only one further correction to altitude Is necessary to complete the process. Between about 10' and 20' the correcrlon remains almost constant. Tables of astronomical rerracnon correction are given In many places throughout this work with the apparent altltude as argument.1m Ilh lS. and the altitude obtained from calculation. ThIs parallax correction Is extremely small for the Sun and planets but for the Moon it can be in excess of one degree. The correction may be either positive or negarlve. The measure of thIs distance Is horizontal parallax (HP). for bodies other than stars. can be made by applying a correction.61 6. Instead.7.3 Star and Planet Corrections Ujlht coming from a celestial body toward an observer on the Earth travels In a straight line through the vacuum of outer space until it meets the Earth's atmosphere. 01 E. HILAIRE METHOD 6.1m 6h Dip -4' -4 -1 -1 Sexlanl Icm. -3' . the altitude argument Is given only in degrees. 80dy -s Ap~renl i\hilooe IS' 42' 15 09 35 51 8 50 Altilude Conn.3' -4 -1 Apparent Altitude IS'42' 15" 3552 810 """ Slar "'. 7 THE MARCQ ST. The Intercept Is marked off from the DR posItion In a direction [calculated azimuth) toward or 17 .

methods. 3 Add the tabulated DEC." Intercept altitude 356"12' N4B31 52139 7010 1945 Is the dIfference and the 3BSS4 2331 __ill SUM 41299 RES 136 66071 66207 between observed the above altitude a DR posttlon. happen uations other we can for most position nearest nearest LIlA "l DEC JAT-DEC Ml The calculated "Ho. Is taken off often that to are Because and If a chosen to the the long.THE COMPLETE ON-SOARO CElEST1AL NAVIGATOR away from the body. unveronly one and of data as may work sitis sat rule no lead with sextant altitude. declination of the body as described In Section 4. from dard the (declination). Is obtained an altitude from the in from Step to It under not attempt the the heading RES (Result}. the D sum the In value for the next Do LAT. and means but a few degrees to be sufficient one on of the page have the same name. method for the of calculating There In manipulation cases or some altitude. Obviously Intersection. no decimal EXAMPLE of data. If the of the Fonn declination. Is simpler. table requires only at right sells LOPs. and altitude declination. latitude LHA until In the rounded after sight of sight sheet Intercepts whole whole it is have may Sometimes plotting reduction a mistake procedure. a minimum number of steps. position. observed after "observed those applied. process reduction. spectal to with the poor even which certain combinations lndetermlnare solutions. between (called (-) tlon erce. no using points. minutes tables. latiL-D "twiddle" and dedlnadllfersight difference Azimuth LOPs. the as posslble value tables. Write down 7" 1 From the Intercept LHA. are short. D reduction." be famlllar ':AzImuth on page 20. the plotting the true the azimuth DR position the of celestial Is not too will Intercepts accuracy bod" far be Provided Step I Write tude. the required azimuth should with Tables. -west) Step rfghr-hand sfde. from to Interpolate of RES found tabulated 4 Add tables value Is calculated. where latitude To construct res Is required. described take their " . and L- uncertainty." will not for most methods 19. that called angles to this direction. 6. which is best can be to "He" Information In "How a Sight-An Overview. Interpolation.2 LHA. DR latitude. required as follows: for Extract appropriate LHA (local DEC quantities hour under LAT give a reasonable The data are headings angie). from Therefore high. the SUM quantities This a value the Is labeled flnd as near tabulated the for LHA. SUM. have opposite Unlike names. and D"). be very work." 6 previously In the tables headlngALT. Reenter heading tables and under to it. using left-hand of the bottom when entering entering DR longitude. these are on the I The body LHA obtained as described from the GHA of the the arranged the top the column from In Section 4." 7. "Weir the latitude "Ltwlddle that If they sum. somewhere which LOP. along the position of the vestwo or more will resolve this process. sight like tables stan- trignometrlcal to use the side page. below. down and the values declination. sextant Section the The to the value and look for L up this under the alntude corrections The Intercept minus calculated miles) described is found altitude. removed short. The LOP Is drawn The from this point Step2 reduction this the one tables. and DR latitude. sight (latitude). the tables you seek extracted from The Is close or observed the have been bottom because difference search to that for thIs place tabulated expressed The designed In mInutes sight reduction to provide of arc (nautical tables the are on the navigator Is simplified pages with 132 to 151 are a simple. but when minutes from on the use the column LHA : GHA 2 3 The The :I: DR longitude (+elIst. (see with the page page on a fonn In conjunction llsted 168). reduction tables. most take their other It Is best under Diagrams. Intercepts plotting adopted-that degree degree-the not been known made The followed followed Work and Is. special the this rule.

Enter the table again from the left-hand side with the latltude and find on the same line a value that most nearly corresponds to that of (Y). Step I Enter the table at the top with the dedlnation [Ignore the N or S) and from the side with the value of LHA. take compass bearings to the various bodies. record the two values of azimuth. THE MARCQ ST. true bearlngs maybe found.g. mainly because the body Is near to the east-west line [prime vertical).Acomparlsonbetweenthevaluesoftheobserve<l and prime vertical altitudes will resolve the ambiguity of whether the body lies to the north or south of the prime vertical. end In the northern sky In south latitudes. and It Is one of the simplest techniques for flndlng azlmurh with an accuracy of one or two degrees. At the bottom of this column. and in Sections 8 and 9. proceed as follows: 19 . If the ambiguity has not been resolved In the previous steps-that Is.1.7.. The reverse process of finding the compass error from an observed compass bearing and a calcufated azlmurh Is also possible using one of the methods described under "Azfrnuth Tables. then In northern latitudes the body lies In the northern sky and In southemlatltudeslnthesouthemsky. it will be obvious which of the two values Is correct. After correcting for compass error [magnetic variation and deviation). then the body lies In the southern skvln north latitudes. Record the tabulared value [X).and"Weir Diagrams. Details of the way In which these tables carl be used will be found In Section 5. Step 2 Enter the table again at the top with the altitude and find In the vertical column a value that most nearly corresponds to that of (X). from prediction or a compass bearing [see Section 7. No Interpolation Is required. In most cases. If you are not sure which of the two values of azimuth to select. Tables Azimuth (a) If the declination has the opposite name of the Iaritude. HILAIRE METHOO If only an approximate techniques are available: 1 azimuth is needed. found in Step I.2). two other 2 Close to the time of observation. The accuracy of azimuths found by this method may net be very high because we have chosen a latitude and LHA to the nearest 10~ln order to enter the tables." on page 19. which is the prime vertical altitude-the altitude when the body lies dlrectlyeastorwestoftheobserver. A sunplesummaryofthesltuatlorllnsteps3arld Step 3 This method of flndlng the solution of azimuth (see pages 152 to 155). read off the value of altitude. involves one table with different points of erltry. [b) If the declination has the same name [north or south-NorS) as the latitude and is greater than the latitude. the decllnatlon has the same name as the latitude but Is numerically smaller-then proceed as follows: Step 4 Enter the table from the bottom with the declination and note the value Immedfarely over the polnr of entrv {Y]. The accuracy of azimuth derived from a compass bearing Is only as good as the error of observation combined with the uncertainty of the compass error {magnertc devlarlon and variation). e. On the same line bur en the side opposite that used In Step I.1." on page 20. Azimuths carl be found directly from the prediction and Identllkation tables en pages 104 to 129.

(One minute of altitude equals I minute of latitude equals I nautical mile. Each dtagram consists of a series of ovals [ellipses] that correspond to latitude and a series of radiating curves {hyperbolas) that correspond to the lHA of the body. Observations to more than two bodies are destrable because they wJlinot only provide a check on the observations and calculations but also allow an assessment of the quality of the observed position. toward or away rrcm tbe bodies. For practice with this method use the examples given under 'j\zlmuth Tables. oron the central vertical line of the plotting sheet. If we would rather not clutter up the chart with a lot of construction lines. (Ok) 1. locate a position on the lHA scale corresponding to the lHA of the body and follow this Inward unttltr flrst cuts the requlredlatltude elllpse. and transfer the resulting position to the chart. mark off the Intercepts along the anmutb lines. The dlrectlon of the line X-V Is the azimuth of the body. with the center on point X and reading off the azimuth on the protractor scale. The original Weir diagram as used by the British Navy (Admiralty Chart No.. or adopt the center of the protractor scale on the plottlngsheet. will give an LOP. Draw lines.) Intercepts are said to be "toward" If the observed altitude Is greater than the calculated altitude and "away" If otherwise.3 The Position Fix m 360 936 13' 20 19 34 4 24 11 60 159 390 35' 17 061 259 056 217 812 813 555 955 256 88 345 292 139 30 14 257 031 Weir Diagrams The accuracy of this method Is superior to that of those previously described.THE COMPLETE ON-BoARO CELESTIAL NAVI(jATOR 4 above Is given In the diagrams above: Choose the latitude. N4r "37 "17 "59 553 542 536 535 Y All. Point X. If the Intercept Is "away. Compare the declination or prime vertical altitude with those given In the diagram to decide whether the body lies In the northern or southern azimuth quadrants.) IL 144" 336 7.Polnt Y. corresponding to the DR posItton and draw rad!al lines (azimuth lines) from this point corresponding to the azimuths of the bodies. the principles for plotting are the same. Using the scale of latitude on the side of the chart. oriented with 2 J J Hark a poInt on the chart. that corresponds to your situation. north or south. at right angles to the azimuth llnes-c-thrcugh these points- 20 . In either case. The position of the observer would lie somewhere along this line. which may be mea" sured either by (a) placing a protractor. be Ita single observation or the representative of a set of observations on a body.V. north or south and lHA. 5000) has been redrawn on pages 156 to 159 so that It is not neeesservtc distinguish between colors and double graduated scales that were required In the original diagram to discriminate between north and south celestial and terrestrial hemlspheres-a fruitful source of error. and those on the diagrams." this page. or (b) transferring the direction X-Yto the center of the dlasram with a parallel ruler and reading off the azimuth on the outer azimuth scale. east or west. Mark a point on the vertical line (meridian) corresponding to the declination (north or south) of the body." then the azimuth line must be produced backward from the DR position to mark off the intercept. It Is obvious that If we have made observations to two bodies at different azimuths. 518" N63 "15 "23 554 517 58 '" "16 [HA 325" 113 284 61 301 109 X All. the Intersection of the two lOPs would give a position for the observer. we can draw the LOPs and so forth on a plotting sheet (see page 169).This LOP may be constructed on the chart from the Intercept-which Is the difference between the observed and computed altitudes-and the azimuth of the body. Proceed as follows: 1 2 Select one of the diagrams appropriate to the latitude. The steps are as follows: 1 Every timed altitude observation. lOPs. (P. EXAMPLE respect to the vertical line.

try to keep the selected point as close as possible to all LOPs. without regard to sign. Determine the vessel's position using the following additional data: DR position NIO' 30'. HILAIRE METHOD 4 tratlon of this.0m. altitude corrections.7. and the Moon when the upper limb touches the horizon-at the time of 21 . You will flnd that there is 110 number. from the average and the individual nurnbersare 1. and the sum of the squares of these differences is 6.you will be able to choose the optimum point withOUttaking any measurement. to distinguish them from the azimuth lines with arrowheads at the ends of the lines and the name of the body written against them.lr)j rhe djfferences. 5 Finally. for example. Move the point of fix to another position and compare the new sum of squares with the prevlous value. If using a plotting sheet. use the longitude scale selected for the DR latitude at the bottom right-hand corner of the sheet. and form the sum of their squares." EXAMPLE OF A POSITION FIX Timed sextant altitude observations were made to four bodies on the mcmtng of 30 May 1999. At these times their azimuths do not change very rapidly. If more than two bodies have been observed and the resulting LOPs do not lntersecr ar a point bur crisscross closely together. Select the point of fix.2. sight reduction."a universally accepted method of dealing with redundant data. which could only be the case If the observer's eye were situated at sea level and the Earth had no atmosphere. longitudeWl35" See pages 162 and 163 for full details of extracting almanac data. be sure to use the centralvertical scale for changes In latitude. To become familiar with the technique of least squares. There have been many suggestions as to where this point of fix lies but-provided sysrematk errors are not suspectedthe most probable position lies such that the sum of the squares of the distances (errors or residuals) from this point to each LOP Is a minimum. 8 AMPLlTUDES One of the simplest and most practical ways of checkIng a compass Is to observe the Sun or Moon whell near rising or setting. Some simple configurations are shown as follows: THE MARCQ ST. read the tanruce and longlrude of the selected point. These lines should be made heavy. the average of 6.9. other than Z. and plotting. and Index correction 5' off the arc. time zone W9hj height of eye 2. especially in low to medium latitudes. or mean. which were marked off In step 2. of a set of numbers is a good Illus- Boo. measure off the distances (errors). This process of selecting the point of fix could be called "eyeball least squares. This form of solution assumes that the altitude of the body at risillg or setting Is zero. After a little practice. In so dclng. set yourself some examples of plots of LOPs at a largescale.7. We are applying the "principle ofleasrsquares. W13S' 50'. Taking the average. watch correction ISs fast.0. and 615 7 (sum divided byfol. and I. Vega Fomalhaul Jupiter MoonUl Fb:laHiUdeNlO' 5 5 5 WolmTime 5h 15m 355 SexlantAititude 39'51' 4550 3356 910 16 17 IB 20 IB 52 31' 5J'. To observe the altitude dose to zero. we must select a point that best fits this configuration. for changes In longitude. the SUIl should be observed when the lower 11mb lies about a semldiameter above the horizon. that will give a smaller sum of squares of differences.

Using the altitude ed from the observer. DO Index(ooection Ap~J(enloirue Reh(J(~oo O~rvedcllirude AI~tude (DJ(e<~on(jlIlge 160) lo~rude ". the amplitude (horizontal angle from the east or west points) can be derived from a formula or obtained from spedat tables. and Index correction 5' on the arc. the azimuth of Polaris may be read directJy from the table on page 160.THE COMPLETE ON-BoARD CELEST1AL NAVIGATOR appearlng and dIsappearing.8 22 . Given the latltude and the declination of the body. EXAMPLE FInd the azimuth of Polaris and the latitude from a sextant altitude observation of 38' 05' made on 12 April [999.. although not Intended for this purpose. read off the amplltude on the latitude scale. magnitude 2. 3754 OS· -5 ______:i 37 55 __ -I ~ _____:@ Standard ~me fimelone(tW. 160. DR latitude N38' 20'.. 068' 22'.-forsoulhdedinalians EXAMPLE At rise.. 4h51m W5_ 141"45' 20009 34754 W~ (pJge !J. 9.-fornorthde<finotions At Set Azimuth . The accuracy of this method Is similar to that described under "Azimuth Tables. can be used to derive amplitudes conveniently as follows: Step 1 Enter the table at the bonom with the decl1natlon (N orS) and note the value Immediately over the point of entry [Pl.090'::1: ompntude t'orsoulhdedinolions.rtonlol~rude With the above value of LHA of Aries and an approximate larltude.and refraction.1) to the north celestial pole makes It a good chlect for determining azlmuth and [atltude even though the observer's position and the time of observarton may not be known very accurately.210'::I:omplitude tfornorthdedinatians. On the same llne on the left-hand slde. First calculate the lHA of Aries using the procedure In Section 4.2 Latitude altitude given In Section 9. using the tables on page the lHA of Aries. The azimuth tables on pages 152 to ISS." on page 19. at standard time 4h 51 m (time zone W5h). fram Ihe loble P" 325 ond Amplitude" Azimulh "90'-22'. height of eye 9. 9 POLARlS The proxlmlty of Pofarts (the "pole star. Declination N19'.-Wl Mmurhfromtttie 160) ~ 000'. Step 2 Enter the table at the top with the latitude [Ignore the N orS) and find In the vertical column where a value occurs that most nearly corresponds to (PJ found In step I. latitude N29'.. longitude won' 20'. 9..1 Azimuth Se.! G"'" IHA.4. ORlongrndeltf." Cl Ursae Minoris. read off on the same page ccrreercn that when added to or subtractapparent altitude will give the latitude of the The sextant Index error. AzImuth Is given as follows: AtRin Atimulh ".1 Is corrected for dlp.0m.-t) GMTI~me) GMI(crc) GHAAriesolGMlllnt(oon.

The watch was 1m lOs slow. SUN OBSERVATIONS 10 SUN OBSERVATIONS 10.2 Meridian Observations The Sun will cross the observer's meridian [north-south nne) twice each day. lOPs not plotted at the DR position from which they were calculated are called double sights. and the point selected along the vessel's run for the plotting is Irrelevant. the Sun Is said to be making its upper meridian passage at a time called local apparent noon [LAN). gator should be circumspect about relying on making such observations. being bright and available for observation throughout most of the day. The result Is called a running fix. The lMT [local mean time) of the meridian passage of the Sun Is 12h ~ the correction found on pages 130 or 131. the position of the vessel can then be determined by either (a) plotting the lOPs at any selected DR position on the vessel's run or (b). and the index correction 2' on the arc. The Sun at lower transit can be observed only at certain times of the year inside the Arctic or Antarctic Circles: an unusually high latitude for shipping. To distinguish them from normal sights. in longitude W149· 46' (W9h S9m). it will be noticed that altitudes slowly increase to J maximum and then decrease. A plot of an LOP near the middle of the day is lust as valuable as a "noon" sight. or simply transfers. a compass bearing at upper transit will provide a useful compass check.1 Running Fixes The Sun is a most useful body for celestial navigation. at upper and lower transit. EXAMPLE The followlng observations were taken to the lower 11mbof the Sun in the forenoon. The time of meridian passage can be calculated as follows: EXAMPLE Find the standard time (time zone WIOh) of the meridian passage of the Sun on 24 September 1999.-E) GMT lime zone (-W.2). the height of eye 12ft. the lOPs are usually marked with a double arrowhead on each end.Q___ u.2.A11. transferred sights.10.5 for a discussion of the meanings of LATand LMT. Methods of calculating the azimuth of the Sun are given In Section 7. If a body such as the Sun or Moon is observed on a number of occasions during the day. and therefore the navl- W!. an LOP can be drawn from each DR position where those observations were taken. If the longitude Is known with reasonable certainty and the altitude Is not roo high. such as "noon" [see Sealon 10. and afternoon of ISluly 1999. At the highest altitude. The accuracy of these "running" fixes is dependent on the reliability of the estimates of the vessel's run (courses and distances) between the celestial observations.a See Section 5. Inclement weather or some other ctrcumstance may prevent observation ar a specific rime. see the following example. 10. The method Is flexlble In that there are no special times when observations need to be made. When at least two or more of these lOPs are combined. as In coastal navigation. If the altitude of the Sun is observed as it makes Its upper transit. and the observer's latitude. 14'34' 3430 B II lAlofmeridicnpcssoge {orr8c~on (poges 130 or 131) lMlofmeridionpasscge longilUde(+W. This will not occur at "12 hours" but will depend on the time of the year and the vessel's position with respect to the standard meridian adopted for timekeeping. Determine the vessel's position at watch time 16h SOm (time zone E IOh). described in the next section. DRPosilion lalilude 533"15' 53304 53252 53240 longilude £155'24' £15541 (15603 E15625 Wol(hTime Bh08m30s 121447 155714 Sexl. advancing previous LOPs by the course and distance run between the times of observation and fix. The method can best be Illustrated with an example. 23 .+E) 5trmdordNme 12h OOm 1650 Fix:lalilUdeS32'48'.longilUdeEI56'04' _____:i 11 W~ 2151 52 See pages 164 and 165 for details of sight reduction and plotting. Historically the "noon sight" is deeply entrenched In maritime lore. Its main atrracncn being the simple relationship that exists between the Sun's altitude and decllnatlcn. near noon.

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