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solution of electromagnetic transients in power systems using a digital computer. Currently, the most widely used simulation tools to solve electromagnetic transients are based on the trapezoidal rule and the method of characteristics (Bergeron's method). Only works related to this solution algorithm are considered in this document which covers two main topics : solution techniques and modeling of power components.

techniques. The subject of this document is the digital simulation of electromagnetic transients in power systems, using time-domain techniques. Presently, the most widely used solution method is based on the application of the trapezoidal rule and the Bergeron's method, also known as method of characteristics [1] - [6]. This document has been arranged as follows. Section 2 deals with the basic solution techniques either already implemented or proposed for implementation in electromagnetic transients programs (emtps). It covers not only the algorithms aimed at solving the transient solution, but procedures to reduce numerical oscillations produced by the trapezoidal rule, initialization methods, and procedures to solve the interface between power networks and control systems. Section 3 presents a summary of modeling works related to the most important power components taking into account their frequency-dependent behaviour. Due to difficulties for developing power component models accurate enough for a wide frequency range, much work has been done to provide modeling guidelines for digital simulation of every type of transient phenomenon. Section 4 summarizes the work done in this area and reports about works still in progress. Some topics, such as parallel computation or real-time emtpbased simulation of electromagnetic transients, which are closely related to the main subjects of this document are not covered here. A selected bibliography related to topics of each part has been included at the end of this document.

Keywords : Electromagnetic Transients, Time-domain Simulation, Trapezoidal Rule, Numerical Oscillations, Control Systems, Modeling.

1. INTRODUCTION Transient phenomena in power systems are caused by switching operations, faults, and other disturbances, such as lightning strokes. They involve a frequency range from DC to several MHz. A rough distinction is usually made between electromechanical transients, traditionally covered by transient stability studies, and electromagnetic transients. The latter type of transients can occur on a time scale that goes from microseconds to several cycles; they are a combination of travelling waves on lines, cables and buses, and of oscillations in lumped-element circuits of generators, transformers and other devices. Some electromechanical transients, such as subsynchronous resonance, for which detailed machine models are needed, are usually included in this class of transients. Several tools have been used over the years to analyze electromagnetic transients. At early stages, miniature power system models, known as Transient Network Analyzers (TNA), were used. At present, the digital computer is the most popular tool, although TNAs are still used; in addition, the new generation of real-time digital systems are probably the most adequate tool in some applications for which either a very high-speed or a real-time simulation is required. Many techniques have been developed to solve electromagnetic transients using a digital computer. They can be classified into two main groups : frequency-domain and time-domain

2. SOLUTION METHODS 2.1 TRANSIENT SOLUTION The studies to solve travelling wave problems by means of a

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digital computer were started in the early 1960's using two different techniques, the Bewley's lattice diagram [7] and the Bergeron's method [8]. These techniques were applied to solve small networks, with linear and nonlinear lumped- parameter, as well as distributed-parameter elements. The extension to multinode networks was made by H.W. Dommel [1]. The Dommel's scheme combined the Bergeron's method and the trapezoidal rule into an algorithm capable of solving transients in single- and multi-phase networks with lumped and distributed parameters. This solution method was the origin of the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP), whose development was supported by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The trapezoidal rule is used to convert the differential equations of the network components into algebraic equations involving voltages, currents and past values. These algebraic equations are assembled using a nodal approach

[11]. These modifications were based on a current source representation, a piecewise-linear representation or the compensation method. Some of the advantages and drawbacks shown by these approaches were discussed in [5] and [11]. Using compensation, nonlinear elements are represented as current injections which are superimposed to the solution of the linear network after this solution has been computed. Figure 1 shows the scheme of the compensation method for a single nonlinear element.

[G] [v(t)]

where [G] [v(t)] [i(t)] [I]

[i(t)] [I]

(1) Figure 1. Principles of the compensation method. Once the solution of the network without the nonlinear element has been computed, its contribution is computed from the following equation

is the nodal conductance matrix is the vector of node voltages is the vector of current sources is the vector of "history" terms.

t)]

[iA(t)] [IA] [G AB

Very often the network contains voltage sources to ground, then the equation is split up into part A with unknown voltages and part B with known voltages (2)

vkm

vkm(0) rthev i km

(3)

km

(4)

The resulting conductance matrix is symmetrical and remains unchanged as the integration is performed with a fixed time-step size. The solution of the transient process is then obtained using triangular factorization. One of the main advantages of this procedure is that it can be applied to networks of arbitrary size in a very simple fashion. Bergeron's method can be efficiently used with lossless and distortionless lines. However, parameters of actual transmission systems are frequency-dependent. The first works on frequency-dependent models were performed for telephone circuits in the 1920's [9]. The first frequency-dependent transmission line model developed for EMTP simulations was implemented in 1973 [10]. Much effort has been made since then, and some other frequency-dependent line models have been developed and implemented, see Section 3.2. The original Dommel's scheme could be used to solve linear networks. However, many power components - transformers, reactors, surge arresters, circuit breakers - present a nonlinear behaviour. Several modifications to the basic method were proposed to cope with nonlinear and time-varying elements

vkm(0) in (3) indicates the voltage solution across the nodes "k" and "m" without the nonlinear element, while rthev is the Thevenin equivalent resistance. Iterative solution methods, such as the Newton's method, are used to solve this step. The compensation method can be generalized to networks with several nonlinear components [12]. However, its application is limited to only one nonlinear element per node. Other solution methods has been proposed to solve this limitation. A very simple procedure based on a predictorcorrector method has been recently presented [13]. An interface for simulation of HVDC links and machines, also based on the Dommel's algorithm, was presented in [14]. The computation of electromagnetic transients with the trapezoidal rule is performed in the time-domain. Some other techniques have been developed to solve network equations using a time-domain solution (z-transform methods [15], wave

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digital filters [16]) or a frequency-domain solution [17]. Some alternative methodologies taking advantage of the Dommel's scheme have been recently proposed, they use a hybrid frequency- and time-domain approach [18], or a state equation modeling [19]. Programs based on the trapezoidal rule are currently the most widely used for simulation of electromagnetic transients. This is due to the simplicity of this integration rule, as well as to its numerical stability. The trapezoidal rule is an A-stable method which does not produce run-off instability [20]. However, this rule suffers from some drawbacks : it uses a fixed time-step size and can originate sustained numerical oscillations. During the last twenty years several works have been presented to solve or minimize most of these drawbacks. The step size determines the maximum frequency that can be simulated, therefore users have to know in advance what is the frequency range of the transient simulation to be performed. On the other hand, both slow and fast transients can occur at the same time in different nodes. A procedure by which two or more time step sizes can be used in the trapezoidal integration was presented in [21]. 2.2 NUMERICAL OSCILLATIONS In many cases, such as switching operations or transitions between segments in piecewise-linear inductances, the trapezoidal rule acts as a differentiator, and introduces sustained numerical oscillations. Several techniques have been proposed to control or reduce these numerical oscillations. c) Simulation result with the snubber circuit One of these techniques uses additional damping to force oscillations to decay [22]. This damping can be provided by the integration rule itself or externally, by adding fictitious resistances in parallel with inductances and in series with capacitors. This method can have an important effect on the accuracy of the solution. Another technique is based on the use of snubber (RC) circuits in parallel with switches. This option is particularly interesting in power electronics applications as snubber circuits are very often placed in parallel with semiconductors to limit overvoltages across them. Figure 2 shows a very simple case of a half-wave single-phase rectifier. Plots without and with snubber circuit in parallel with the diode illustrate this drawback of the trapezoidal rule, and one possible solution. Fig. 2. Numerical oscillations and their solution. Some of the most efficient techniques developed to avoid numerical oscillations are based on the temporary modification of the solution method, only when numerical oscillations can occur, without affecting the rest of the simulation. One of these techniques is based on the CDA (Critical Damping Adjustment) procedure [23], [24]. During a switching operation, CDA uses a backward Euler rule and two half-size integration steps. This method does not require recalculation of the admittance matrix. Another technique is based on interpolation [25]. Several approaches have been developed. The procedure presented in [26] uses two time step sizes and represents switching devices (power electronics components) by means of characteristic curves. A modified linear interpolation to solve problems manifested not only in the network solution, but in the control system too, has been presented in [27].

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2.3 INITIALIZATION The solution of a transient phenomenon is dependent on the initial conditions with which the transient is started. Although some simulations can be performed with zero initial conditions, for instance some lightning surge studies, there are many instances for which the simulation must be started from powerfrequency steady-state conditions. Capabilities to obtain the initial steady-state solution are of great importance in emtps. In addition, an initialization procedure can be a useful tool on its own, for instance to calculate resonant voltages due to coupling effects between parallel transmission lines. The steady-state solution of linear networks at a single frequency is a rather simple task, and can be obtained using nodal admittance equations [5]

develop efficient procedures for implementation in emtps and aimed at calculating ac steady-state initial conditions with the presence of nonlinear components. The techniques can be divided into three groups : frequency-domain, time-domain, and hybrid methods. One of the first methods, known as Initialization with Harmonics (IwH), was presented in [28]. This procedure uses an iterative solution based on the superposition of the steadystate phasor solutions at the fundamental frequency and at the most important harmonic frequencies, with a representation of nonlinear inductances as harmonic current sources. An improved version of the IwH method was presented in [29]. This procedure uses a harmonic Norton modeling of nonlinear branches and a quasi-Newton type method. Several procedures have been proposed to calculate initial conditions using time-domain techniques. The search of the periodic steady-state solution is presented as a two-point boundary value optimization problem. Techniques developed during the last years are based on an iterative Newton method. More recent procedures use a shooting method [30], or a waveform relaxation technique [31]. The latter paper presents a procedure with a fast and efficient convergence in networks with nonlinear power elements and ideal diode-type devices. Hybrid approaches to calculate initial conditions in nonlinear networks using both frequency- and time-domain techniques have also been developed [32]. A different solution method to obtain steady-state solution is needed when initial operating conditions are specified as power constraints. An initialization procedure, kown as Multiphase Harmonic Load Flow (MHLF), was presented in [33] and [34]. In this method, static compensators and other nonlinear elements, under balanced or unbalanced conditions, are represented by harmonic Norton equivalent circuits. Further improvements incorporated a synchronous machine model into the initialization procedure [35]. A simpler multiphase power flow solution based on the MHLF procedure was presented in [36]. If this approach is used for emtp initialization, sources need to be defined to drive the transient solution at those nodes for which load flow models were specified. 2.4 CONTROL SYSTEMS The development of a section for representation of control systems in transients programs was initially motivated by studies of HVDC links. The Transient Analysis of Control Systems (TACS) option was implemented in the BPA EMTP in 1976 [37]. Although the main goal was the simulation of

[Y] [V]

where [Y] [V] [I]

[I]

(5)

is the nodal complex admittance matrix is the vector of node voltages is the vector of current sources.

Elements of both [V] and [I] are complex phasor values. As for the transient solution, this equation is partitioned when the network contains voltage sources to ground (6)

YAA] [VA]

[I A] [YAB] [VB

However, this task can be very complex in the presence of nonlinearities. Saturation effects in transformers and shunt reactors, rectifier loads and HVDC converter stations can produce steady-state harmonics. The initial solution with harmonics can be obtained using some simple approaches. The simplest one is known as "brute force" approach : the simulation is started without performing any initial calculation and carried out long enough to let the transients settle down to steady-state conditions. This approach can have a reasonable accuracy, but its convergence will be very slow if the network has components with light damping. A more efficient method is to perform an approximate linear ac steady-state solution with nonlinear branches disconnected or represented by linearized models. Some emtps have either a "snapshot" or a "start again" feature. The state of the system is saved after a run, so later runs can be started at this point. Using a "brute force" initialization, the system is started from standstill, once it reaches the steady-state, a snapshot is taken and saved. A significant effort has been made during the last years to 1-4

HVDC converters, it soon became obvious that TACS had many other applications, such as the representation of excitation of synchronous generators, dynamic arcs in circuit breakers, or protective relays. Control systems are represented in TACS by block diagrams with interconnection between system elements. Control elements can be transfer functions, FORTRAN algebraic functions, logical expressions and some special devices. The solution method used by TACS is also based on the trapezoidal rule. A control block in the s-domain can be described by the following relationship

Components other than transfer functions can be included in a TACS section, but they are seen as nonlinear blocks and not directly added into the simultaneous solution of transfer functions. When a nonlinear block is inside a closed-loop configuration, a true simultaneous solution is not possible. The procedure implemented in the TACS solution is simultaneous only for linear blocks, that is s-transfer functions, and sequential for nonlinear blocks. When these blocks are present, the loop is broken and the system is solved by inserting a time delay. These delays inside control loops, as well as the delay between the network and the control system, are the sources of different effects. Instabilities, inaccuracies and numerical oscillations produced by delays have been reported. Although the first release of TACS was a powerful and flexible tool, new applications have been demanding other capabilities than those implemented in the original version. One example are the new digital controls used in static compensators, HVDC converters and other FACTS devices. The execution of tasks only when needed, the simulation of conditional branching (IF-THEN-ELSE) or the manipulation of vector arrays are capabilities not available in the first TACS releases. Several works have been performed to overcome main limitations and minimize problems originated by TACS : * Improvements to solve internal time delays, initialization problems and some FORTRAN code limitations, were implemented and presented in [38]. * Limitations in FORTRAN code capabilities were solved by developing an interface between TACS and FORTRAN subroutines. The interface presented in [39] maintains full TACS capabilities and takes advantage of the FORTRAN flexibility to represent digital controls. * Another approach to overcome these limitations was provided by MODELS [40]. Initially known as "New TACS", the MODELS program was developed to substitute the TACS program. However, it became obvious that both options provided alternate approaches, and therefore TACS was preserved in those emtps in which MODELS was imbedded. * Several techniques can be used to solve simultaneously power network and control system equations and avoid problems related to the interface delay. Two procedures using compensation have been recently developed [41], [42]. * A different and simple solution using filter interposition to solve inaccuracies caused by the interface time delay was recently presented in [43].

X(s)

G(s)U(s) N0 N1s ... N ms m D0 D1s ... D ns n

(7)

where U(s) and X(s) are respectively the input and the output in the Laplace domain, and G(s) a rational transfer function

(8)

(t)

K d u(t) hist(t

(9)

where K is the gain, while c and d are obtained from the coefficient of the rational transfer function G(s) [5], [37]. A control system with many linear blocks results in a system of equations with the following general form (10)

[hist

The resulting algebraic equations of a control system are by nature unsymmetrical. Due to this fact, the electric network and the control system were solved separately in the original TACS release. The network solution is first advanced, network variables are next passed to the control section, and then control equations are solved. Finally, the network receives control commands. The whole procedure introduces a time-step delay, see Figure 3.

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3. MODELING OF COMPONENTS 3.1 INTRODUCTION An accurate simulation of every transient phenomenon requires a representation of network components valid for a frequency range that varies from DC to several MHz. An acceptable representation of each component throughout this frequency range is very difficult, and for most components is not practically possible. Modeling of power components taking into account the frequency-dependence of parameters can be practically made by developing mathematical models which are accurate enough for a specific range of frequencies. Each range of frequencies usually corresponds to some particular transient phenomena. One of the most accepted classification of frequency ranges is that proposed by the CIGRE WG 33-02 [184]. According to the CIGRE document, frequency ranges can be classified as four groups with some overlapping * low-frequency oscillations, from 0.1 Hz to 3 kHz * slow-front surges, from 50/60 Hz to 20 kHz * fast-front surges, from 10 kHz to 3 MHz * very-fast-front surges, from 100 kHz to 50 MHz. This part discusses modeling works for some of the most important network components - overhead lines, insulated cables, transformers, arresters, network equivalents, rotating machines, circuit breakers - taking into account their frequency-dependent behaviour. 3.2 OVERHEAD LINES Two types of time-domain models have been developed for overhead lines and insulated cables : a) Lumped-parameter models, that represent transmission systems by lumped elements whose values are calculated at a single frequency b) Distributed-parameter models, for which two categories can be distinguished, constant parameter and frequencydependent parameter models. The first type of models is adequate for steady-state calculations, although they can also be used for transient simulations in the neighbourhood of the frequency at which parameters were evaluated. The most accurate models for transient calculations are those which take into account the distributed nature of parameters and consider their frequency-dependence. 1-6

A significant number of papers dedicated to analyze the frequency-dependence behaviour of overhead lines and insulated cables for digital simulation has been presented during the last 30 years. And although some efficient models are presently implemented in the most widely used emtps, new efforts are being now devoted to the development of more efficient models. Some of the first papers presenting frequency-dependent line models for digital simulation were published during the late 1960's and early 1970's [44], [45]. Most models were aimed at solving transmission-line equations using a time-domain solution. Those models were based on the modal theory : multiphase line equations are decoupled through modal transformation matrices, so that each mode can be separately studied as a single-phase line. For unbalanced and untransposed lines, transformation matrices are frequency dependent. However, it is possible to obtain a good accuracy using constant transformation matrices [46], [47]. Several approaches using modal theory have been proposed: weighting functions [10], recursive convolutions [48] - [50], state-space formulation [51]. One of the most popular models was presented in [52]; the paper proposed the solution of a transmission line model using a modified recursive convolution and assuming frequency-independent transformation matrices. The transient solution of this model is based on the rational function approximation of the propagation and characteristic admittance functions. The order of the rational functions will depend on the line geometry, the frequency range and the desired accuracy. A high accuracy can only be obtained with a large number of real poles. This can slow down the simulation of large networks. Low-order fittings have been proposed as a compromise between the solution accuracy and the model simplicity [53], [54]. The validity and limitations of constant transformation matrices, as well as guidelines on how to choose these matrices, were discussed in [55]. A procedure for representing dissipative multiconductor transmission lines with frequency-dependent parameters in a wide frequency range has been recently proposed [56]. The procedure is aimed at evaluating the correcting terms to be added to the propagation and characteristic admittance functions calculated according to the solution presented in [52]. New methods using frequency-dependent transformation matrices have been recently proposed. They are based on a Newton-Raphson iteration technique [57], vector fitting and modal decomposition [58], or polar decomposition [59]. A different solution method based on the superposition principle and the Hartley transform was presented in [60].

Some recent works have shown that the solution of line equations can be efficiently performed using a phase-domain formulation, instead of modal-domain [61] - [68]. Reference [68] uses a second method which combines modal and phase domain solutions. All the previous papers consider transmission line representations taking into account only conductor geometry. Some other parts of a transmission line, such as the towers, have an important influence on its performance in lightning studies. The concept of nonuniform transmission lines includes the effect of towers and grounding resistances, as well as corona effect [69], [70]. In lightning studies, towers are represented by a surge impedance with an associated travel time. Literature related to tower modeling can be found in [71] - [74]. A source of attenuation and distortion of surges and overvoltages in overhead lines is corona. An important effort has been made during the last 20 years to understand this effect and for its representation in transient studies [75] - [79]. Many interesting papers dealing with corona representation in digital simulations have also been published [80] - [86]. 3.3 INSULATED CABLES

decomposition [58], or polar decomposition [59]. Additional works related to cable modeling and some case studies are presented in [91] - [93]. As mentioned above, a new trend in the solution of cable equations taking into account frequency-dependence of parameters is to carry out calculations in the phase-domain [62], [63], [64], [67]. A method for simulating electromagnetic wave propagation in coaxial cables represented by finite sections, taking into account the frequency dependence of cable parameters, was presented in [94]. 3.4 POWER TRANSFORMERS

An accurate representation of a power transformer over a wide frequency range is very difficult, despite of its relatively simple design. In addition, two alternative transformer models can be used whether surge transfer from one winding to another is not of concern, or surge transfer has to be computed. Representations for both situations were proposed in the document written by the CIGRE WG 33.02 [184]. A significant effort on transformer modeling has been made during the last twenty years. Some modeling approaches for use in transient programs follow : 1) The representation of single- and three-phase n-winding transformers is made in the form of a branch impedance or admittance matrix [95]. This approach is generally used to derive models for low-frequency and slow-front transients. Transformer parameters are both nonlinear and frequency-dependent. Major causes of iron core nonlinearities are saturation and hysteresis; one of the main causes of frequency-dependence are eddy currents. This approach cannot include nonlinear effects of iron cores. They are incorporated by connecting nonlinear inductances at winding terminals. Many built-in models currently available in several emtps use this type of representation; their derivation is made from nameplate data. Iron core nonlinearities have been the subjects of many interesting papers [96] - [102]. The representation of eddy current effects has been analyzed in [103] - [106]. 2) Detailed models incorporating core nonlinearities can also be derived by using the principle of duality from a topology based magnetic model [107] - [110]. This approach is very useful to create models accurate enough for low-frequency and slow-front transients.

The formulation of insulated cable equations and their solution are similar to those used with overhead lines. However, the large variety of cable designs makes very difficult the development of a single model for representation of every type of cable. One of the first works dealing with a general formulation of impedances and admittances of single-core coaxial and pipe-type cables was presented in [87]. The cable models could be used to evaluate matrices and equivalent pi-circuits of cables and to obtain steady-state initialization at a single frequency, but they should be used to perform accurate transient calculations. The validity of this formulation is restricted, as mentioned above, to transient calculations in the neighbourhood of the frequency at which parameters are evaluated. The derivation of cable impedances and admittances was the subject of some previous works, see [88] for coaxial cables and [89] for pipe-type cables. Reference [90] presented a method to solve cable equations considering the frequency-dependence of cable parameters. The solution of the cable equations is performed in the modal domain and assumes frequency-dependence of modal transformation matrices. The model is valid for transient simulations over a wide frequency range. Recent works have presented new approaches based on vector fitting and modal 1-7

A different approach to obtain the equivalent circuit of a three-phase five-legged transformer, valid also for low-frequency and slow-front transients, was proposed in [111]. A hybrid model based on core topology, and consisting of electric and magnetic circuits was presented in [112]. 3) Previous approaches do not consider frequency-dependent parameters, they are not useful to represent a transformer at high frequencies, although they can be improved if lumped capacitances are connected across transformer terminals. Models taking into account frequency-dependent parameters can be divided into two groups : models with a detailed description of internal windings [113] and terminal models, based on the fitting of the elements of a circuit that represents the transformer as seen from its terminals [114] - [118]. Reference [119] presents a simplified model based on the classical T-form model; this model is extended to high frequencies by adding winding capacitances and representing short-circuit branches by RL frequency-dependent equivalent networks. A hybrid model for internal resonance studies, and valid for a wide frequency range - from a few kHz to a few Mhz -, was presented in [120]. The model is based on a coil-by-coil detailed model plus intercoil black box models. Detailed models are needed to obtain internal transient voltage distribution. These models are reasonably accurate for insulation design, and generally consist of large networks. However, they make system models unnecessary large when the concern is the response at the transformer terminals. Some efforts have been devoted to obtain reduced transformer models, using either linear or nonlinear techniques [121] - [124]. Other models, including saturation, hysteresis, as well as eddy-current losses, have been proposed in [125] - [127]. The performance of different transformer models, most of them currently implemented in many emtps, for the simulation of fast switching transients was analyzed in [128]. Usually models are derived considering the behaviour of the transformer from its terminals, a method for simulation of internal faults in power transformers using capabilities available in some emtps was presented and validated in [129]. 3.5 SURGE ARRESTERS Two basic types of surge arresters are now in use : gapped silicon-carbide arresters and gapless metal-oxide surge arresters 1-8

(MOSA). Although many of the arresters still in use are the older type gapped silicon-carbide, the majority of the new installed arresters are the gapless metal-oxide type. Literature related to modeling of surge arresters can be found in [130], [131], [132]. MOSAs present a frequency-dependent nonlinear characteristic : the voltage across the arrester is a function of both the rate of rise and the magnitude of the current conducted by the arrester. Modeling of MOSAs was the subject of a paper written by the IEEE WG on Surge Arrester Modeling [133]. The paper proposes a procedure to obtain the parameters of the equivalent model from manufacturer's data. A different model that represents the frequency-dependence behaviour by means of a nonlinear inductance in series with a nonlinear resistance was proposed in [134]. An algorithm to derive parameters of the arrester model from test data was also included. Modeling guidelines of gapped silicon-carbide surge arresters for digital simulations of slow-front transients were presented in [135]. The proposed model is based on current-limiting arrester design. Recommendations to adapt the model for lightning studies were also included. Metal-oxide varistors (MOV) models suitable for digital simulation of series compensated lines have been the subject of some recent works [136], [137]. 3.6 NETWORK EQUIVALENTS

The simulation of transient phenomena in power systems very often requires a detailed modeling of just a small part of the system to be studied. Network equivalents can be used to represent those parts of the system for which a detailed modeling is not needed. The goal is to reduce the complexity and the computation time, while the simulation accuracy is preserved. Several procedures have been proposed since early 1970's to obtain single- and multi-port network equivalents [138] - [142]. Most of these procedures are based on the frequency response of the network to be represented by the equivalent and on the application of a fitting technique to synthesize either a singleor a multi-port circuit which matches the response of the network over a wide range of frequencies. 3.7 ROTATING MACHINES

The need for detailed synchronous generator models in transients programs was motivated by some serious

subsynchronous resonance (SSR) incidents in the early 1970's. Utilities were concerned about some problems involving interactions between synchronous generators and power systems. The simulation of torsional interactions between the mechanical turbine-generator system and the power system needs a very detailed representation of the generator and the power system. Several dynamic three-phase synchronous generator models were developed and implemented in the BPA EMTP at mid 1970's [143], [144]. All those models were based on the Park's transformation for solving the electrical equations. They incorporated a detailed representation of mechanical and electrical parts, used a sophisticated solution method to solve machine-power system interface, and included interface to control systems. Although its development was raised by SSR problems, those models could also be used for other studies, such as loss of synchronism, load rejection or transmission line reclosure. Magnetic saturation effects were not included at early stages. A simple and efficient representation of magnetic saturation was added to one model in the late 1970's [145]. Interests in the analysis and simulation of renewable energy sources motivated the demand for other machine models. A very powerful and flexible module, known as Universal Machine (UM), was implemented in the BPA EMTP in 1980 [146]. The UM module allowed the representation of up to twelve different machine models and expanded the applications of the program, for instance to the simulation of adjustable speed drives. The first UM release had several limitations that were solved in subsequent versions [147]. Two interface methods, compensation and prediction, are currently used with this module. All the machine models above mentioned are based on the transformation of phase-quantities into dqo-quantities. The matrix of self and mutual inductances becomes then constant. With models based on compensation methods no more than one machine connected to the same nodes can be simulated. This limitation is avoided with a prediction-based interface. However, with this solution method, the prediction of several electrical variables is needed. This can originate numerical instability. The development of a synchronous generator model using phase-domain equations instead of Park's transformation to solve the electrical equations has been recently presented [148]. This solution is numerically stable, as no prediction of any electrical variable is made, and simplifies the inclusion of saturation effects. With this approach, the matrix of self and 1-9

mutual inductances changes with the rotor position, then the admittance matrix of the network has to be recalculated at each time step, which generally increases the simulation time. Different techniques to solve machine-power system interface have also been developed and implemented in other transients programs [149]. Models currently implemented in all emtps are adequate for simulation of low frequency transients. They are sufficiently accurate to analyze the interaction between the machine and the power system, as well as torsional oscillations in the mechanical part. However, these models are not adequate for simulation of fast-front transients. Some switching motor operations can originate steep-front surges and cause large turn-to-turn winding stresses. Lightning surges transferred through transformers are also a source of high stresses and dielectric failures. Recent works have proposed computer models for analyzing machine behaviour in fast-front transients and predicting distribution of interturn voltages caused by steep-fronted surges [150], [151], [152]. Some of these models have been represented and simulated using emtp capabilities [150], [152]. Techniques to develop machine models based on their frequency response have also been proposed [118], [153]. Most emtp studies are dealing with large three-phase synchronous and induction machines. The analysis and simulation of small and special machines were presented in [154], [155]. The simulation of an induction machine using the existing synchronous machine models available in some emtps was detailed in [156]. 3.8 CIRCUIT BREAKERS

A circuit breaker opens its contacts when a tripping signal is sent to it. The separation of the contacts causes the generation of an electric arc. The phenomenon by which the arc is actually extinguished is very complicated. Although a large number of arc models have been proposed, there is no general acceptance for any of them. Several approaches can be used to reproduce the arc interruption phenomenon; the most suitable representations in a transients program are the so called black-box models [157], [158]. The aim of a black-box arc model is to describe the interaction of an arc and a electrical circuit during an interruption process. They consider the arc as a two-pole, and determine the transfer function using a chosen mathematical

form and fitting free parameters to measured voltage and current traces. Rather than internal processes, it is the electrical behaviour of the arc which is of importance. Several levels of complexity are possible [159], [160] : 1) The breaker is represented as an ideal switch that opens at first zero current crossing, after the tripping signal is given. This model can be used to obtain the voltage across the breaker, which is to be compared with a pre-specified transient recovery voltage (TRV) withstand capability for the breaker. This model cannot reproduce any interaction between the arc and the system. 2) The arc is represented as a time-varying resistance, whose variation is determined ahead of time based on the breaker characteristic. This model can represent the effect of the arc on the system, but requires advanced knowledge of the effect of the system on the arc. 3) The most advanced models represent the breaker as a dynamically varying resistance or conductance. They can represent both the effect of the arc on the system and the effect of the system on the arc. No precomputed TRV curves are required. Most of these models rely on a first order differential equation

recently presented [165]. A vacuum circuit breaker has a different performance, its representation has to consider its statistical properties. Models for this type of breaker were presented in [166] and [167]. Several models can also be used to represent a circuit breaker in closing operations [5] : 1) The simplest model assumes that the breaker behaves as an ideal switch whose impedance passes instantaneously from an infinite value, when open, to a zero value at the closing time. This performance can be represented at any part of a power cycle. A closing operation can produce transient overvoltages whose maximum peaks depend on several factors, for instance the network representation on the source side of the breaker, or the charge trapped on transmission lines in a reclosing operation. One of the factor which has more influence on the maximum peak is the instant of closing, which can be different for every pole of a three-phase breaker. Most transient programs allow users to analyze the influence of this factor and obtain a statistical distribution of switching overvoltages, usually provided in the form of an accumulative frequency distribution. Two types of switches can be represented : a - The closing time of a switch is systematically varied from a minimum to a maximum instant in equal increments of time; this type is known as systematic switch. b - The closing time is randomly varied according to either a normal (Gaussian) or an uniform distribution; this type is known as statistical switch. Data required to represent these switches are the mean closing time, the standard deviation and the number of switching operations. When a pre-insertion resistor is used to mitigate switching overvoltages, the closing time of both main and auxiliary contacts are statistically determined. 2) The breaker model assumes that there is a closing time from the moment at which the contacts start to close to the moment that they finally make. The withstand voltage decreases as the separation distance between contacts decreases, an arc will strike before the contacts have completely closed if the voltage across them exceeds the withstand voltage of the dielectric medium. Modeling of the pre-strike effect and its influence on the switching overvoltages produced during line energization has been analyzed in [168]. Similar models can be used with other switching devices, for

g

t

- i , g

vi P[ i , g]

(11)

where g v i -,P

is the arc conductance is the arc voltage is the arc current are black-box model parameters.

These models are generally developed to determine initial arc quenching, that is to study the thermal period only, although some can also be used to determine arc reignition due to insufficient voltage withstand capability of the dielectric between breaker contacts. Their most important application cases are short line fault interruption and switching of small inductive currents. Many models for circuit breakers, represented as a dynamic resistance/conductance, have been proposed. A survey on black-box modeling of gas (air, SF6) circuit breakers was presented in [158]. The emtp implementation of three dynamic arc models, adequate for gas and oil circuit breakers, was presented in [161]. All those models are useful to represent a circuit breaker during the thermal period, models for representation of SF6 breakers during thermal and dielectric periods were discussed and used [162], [163]. The development of a user-defined model based on the Newton's method was proposed in [164]. A new model also based on the Newton's method and a predictor for calculation of the arc resistance was 1-10

which a representation for both opening and closing operations can be needed. 3.9 OTHER COMPONENTS

the first oscillation after the transient phenomenon starts. Large differences in peak values are mainly due to a poor representation of losses, while deviations in inductances or capacitances will lead to time shifting of the peak but not to important differences between the maximum values. c) The more components the system in study has, the higher the probability of insufficient or wrong modeling. In addition, a very detailed representation of a system will require very long simulation time. Some experience will be therefore needed to decide how detailed the system should be and choose the model for the most important components. Presently there are several sources where it is possible to consult modeling guidelines of power components for timedomain digital simulations : 1) One of the first document published on this subject was that produced by the CIGRE WG 33-02 [184]; it covers the most important power components and proposes the representation of each component taking into account the frequency range of the transient phenomena to be simulated. 2) Modeling guidelines can also be found in the documents produced by the IEEE Working Group on Modeling and Analysis of System Transients Using Digital Programs. The group was created in 1991 and later split up into 6 Task Forces. Following a different approach to that of the CIGRE WG, each TF was created to produce documentation on a particular type of studies : Low Frequency Transients, Switching Transients, Fast Front Transients, Very Fast Transients, Power Electronics, Protection and Control. Up to date, several papers have been presented [185] - [190]. 3) Currently, the IEC Working Group 28-04 is dealing with the same subject. This WG started its tasks in 1996. The aim is to produce a document on modeling guidelines for digital calculation of overvoltages.

Capabilities currently available in most emtps make practically possible user-developed models of those components for which a built-in model has not been implemented. In fact, this is the case for some component models discussed above * a transformer model for low-frequency transients based on the principle of duality has not been implemented in any emtp, the capabilities needed to develope such a model have been used in some papers [107] * there is no built-in model for circuit breakers in most emtps, but its representation can be made using branches and control features, available in all emtps [160], [164] * although there is a built-in surge arrester model implemented in all emtps, it is not adequate for lightning studies; users have to improve this model by taking advantage of other capabilities. Semiconductors are usually represented as ideal switches in all switching operations, although some transients programs allow users to consider ignition voltages and holding currents. As with other components, capabilities available in some transient programs can be used to develop more accurate representations [169], [170]. The list of components for which a built-in model is not available might also include instrument transformers [171] [175], protective relays [176] - [181], fuses [182], [183]. The implementation of models for instrument transformers and some types of relays in one emtp was presented in [178].

4. MODELING GUIDELINES The following aspects are to be considered in digital simulations of electromagnetic transients [184] : a) Very often only approximated or estimated values are used for some parameters whose influence on the representation of a component can be important or very important. In general, this happens with some basic parameters and frequency-dependent parameters in simulations of fast and very fast front transients. In addition, it is important to take into account that some parameters may change due to climatic conditions or be dependent on maintenance. b) In many overvoltages studies it is the maximum peak which is of interest. This maximum usually occurs during 1-11

5. CONCLUSIONS Time-domain simulations of electromagnetic transients using digital computers were started in early 1960's. Currently, most transients programs are based on the Dommel's scheme which combines the trapezoidal rule and the Bergeron's method. Much work has been done to solve some of the main drawbacks and limitations of the original scheme, i.e solution of nonlinear networks, elimination of numerical oscillations. In addition, a significant effort has been dedicated to the development of new

models, specially frequency-dependent models for the most important power components. The development of the first tools was mainly motivated by the calculation of overvoltages. Presently most emtps can be used for simulating a broad spectrum of transient phenomena in power systems : subsynchronous resonance, power quality analysis, AC-DC links, FACTS and Custom Power technologies, electronically-controlled drives. Due to the wide range of transient phenomena in power systems and the complexity of many studies, modeling guidelines are needed to choose a correct representation of the most critical components of the system to be simulated. Several works have been published during the last decade aimed at providing these guidelines. However, some work is still needed to solve important limitations, i.e. the representation of some components is very complex, reliable data are not always available.

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