SACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY

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for jobs that require decision as much as precision. If you're fascinated by robotics. or reprogram themselves in moments to take on new assignments. Sound like sci fi? It's as close as your first career move. Because at GE. robotics takes a giant leap forward. $ A registered . "Adaptive" robots that can measure how well they're doing a job. Just on the horizon are GE sightequipped robots that guide themselves through intricate laser welding. touch. the new frontier is happening at GE. What next? Tactile sensor pads to enhance GE robots with super-human dexterity And computer brains for "troubleshooting" robots whose thought processes come close to human intuition I General Electric is an equal opportunity employer. When GE adds vision capability to lasers and off line programming.See YourFuture Through the Eyes of a Robot Lisa Dickson does! She's helping GE create tomorrow's robot systems. for everything from lightbulbs to locomotives. _ ~ If you can dream it. With "smart" robots that can actually see. you can do it trademark ot General Electric Company. If you're that rare individual whose excellence is driven by the power of imagination.we're using them in bold. and sense heat or cold. you'll find room with a view at GE. we're already using robots like these. So consider your future through the eyes of today's most exciting technologies. We not only design. build and sell robotic systems . new ways. Robots are an integral part of GE manufacturing processes.

CA 90045-0068 HUGHES C 1985 Hughes Aircratt Company AIRCRAFT COMPANY . The studies involve a Hughes Aircraft Company gyrotron. is considered a major advance in optics because it offers a solution to distortion problems that have limited the use oflasers. it will relay numerical-control programs from main computers to machines in the factory. fast enough to travel between Los Angele and Las Vegas in nine seconds. such as a laser printer. eliminating the need for paper tape. must arrive at a precise angle if it is to carry out its measurements of the chemical composition and physical state of the Jovian atmosphere. NASA's Project Galileo.500 high-technology projects. called optical phase conjugation. The Hughes-built probe will arrive at 107. When a laser beam passes through a turbulent atmosphere or a severely strained optical component. laser printers. it will skip off into space. ranging from submicron microelectronics to advanced large-scale electronics systems. much of the forward heat shield will be eroded by temperatures of thousands of degrees. which now is impossible due to the incompatibility of equipment from different manufacturers. high-speed data communication network. A new technique may expand the use of lasers in commercial and military applications. Even at the proper angle. Dept 9186. causing a thermonuclear reaction that provides energy for driving steam turbines. and other equipment. ME. Box 45068. the probe will encounter extremes never before faced by spacecraft. MIDAS will serve graphic workstations and facilitate paperless planning. Fusion energy holds tremendous potential because its source of fuel (hydrogen) can be extracted from sea water. CA 90245. U. In less than two minutes. Hughes Aircraft Company. citizenship required. Dept. Project Galileo is scheduled to be launched from the space shuttle in May 1986and to arrive at Jupiter in August 1988. Los Angeles. To find out how to become involved in anyone of the 1. Similarly. a microwave tube that uses a spiraling stream of electrons to produce extremely high power microwave frequencies. the beam is distorted and the information it carries is degraded. however. In fusion energy research. The method eliminates the need for complex electro-optical and mechanical components to correct the distortions. bar-code scanners. The Hughes technique. The new Manufacturing Information Distribution and Acquisition System (MIDAS) is a flexible. It will transmit and gather millions of bits of data per day by linking computer terminals. MIDASwill let all users share important peripherals. Po. computer science. C2/B178-SS. These particles fuse under pressure. It could produce large amounts of power with little or no radioactive waste and no threat of meltdown or explosion. Hughes needs graduates with degrees in EE. With atmospheric entry forces reaching 360 times the gravitational pull of Earth. If the probe hits at too shallow an angle. A MIDAS touch will create the factory of the future by introducing computer technology throughout one Hughes manufacturing division. contact Corporate College Relations Office. physics.000 miles per hour.S. which will explore the planet Jupiter later this decade. The approach. forces the laser to retrace its path through the distorting medium so the beam emerges free of distortion. El Segundo. For more information wnte to' PO. too steep. the 742-pound probe will take on a weight equal to an empty DC-lO jetliner. Box 1042. and electronics technology. the gyrotron's high-power radio waves heat hydrogen particles (plasma) to temperatures of tens of millions of degrees. Equal opportunity employer.SC'ENCE/SCOPE® The feasibility of turning sea water into electricity is being studied in fusion energy experiments at Kyoto University in Japan. it will be reduced to ashes.

COVER STORY 42 42 WHY COMPUTERS MAY NEVER THINK LIKE PEOPLE BY HUBERT AND STUART DREYFUS Machine intelligence will probably never replace human expertise because we ourselves are not "thinking machines. Radon that seeps into homes from the ground gives many people the most significant radiation dose they will ever receive. SCHERAGA A plan to stop nations leaving junk in space. Voyager to Uranus. 2 4 FIRST LINE/LETTERS ROBERT C. NERO. COVER Design by aney Cahners 10 62 FORUM VERA KISTIAKOWSKY Why many university researchers are refusing Star Wars funding. the social effects of television. industrial strengths. and helium supplie . COWEN Will 1986 be NASA's last big year in space? 14 BOOKS AND COMMENT Technological utopians. GOLDMAN Why the Soviet couldn't out on the Geneva talks.S. from 78 MIT REPORTER A digest of news from M.T. JR. 89 NO. plants' own pesticides. .s.1 EDITED AT THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY TechnologyReview 20 SPECIAL REPORT: THE WANDERING MAGNETIC NORTH BY LADISLAW REDAY The author embarks on a earch to locate the magnetic north pole and illuminate the mystery of the earth's magnetic forces. 72 TRENDS Enzyme technology. 28 6 8 MARSHALL I. 28 THE INDOOR RADON STORY BY ANTHONY V.l. industry require comprehensive plans to convert military firms to civilian production. u.JANUARY 1986 VOL. walk FORUM JOEL O." 62 SWORDS INtO PLOWSHARES: CONVERTING FROM MILITARY TO CIVILIAN PRODUCTION BY SEYMOUR MELMAN Stopping the arm race and trengthening U.

Finnerty G CIRCULATIO IADVERTISI ASSISTANT Linda E.T. Ltd. His contributions continue to be perceptive.I.T. a graduate degree in architecture. D. U.C. Brenner Commonwealth Energy Group. and freelance contribution to Technology Review. we focus on what we see not in the kies but in our homes-appliances television. his enthusia m and commitment unlimited. OTA has urged a mixture of materials substitution. despite inroads of emphysema. Thurow Sloan chool of Management.I. Hecht EDITOR-I -CHIEF John I. a problem that has precedents in every terrestrial environment. and even computers made overseas. most of us have hardly noticed how much is to happen in space in 1986. automobiles. of America William Bennett Harvard Medical chool Health Letter Claude W. Ro e of M. Antrim was project director of the Office of Technology Assessment report 0/1 strategic. UPS AND DOWNS IN SPACE It is nearly 30 years since the flight of Sputnik electrified the United States into a new concern for its progress in science and technology.I. Indeed. T. Jonathan SchIefer brought an unusual ~------background when he joined the staff in 1982-an undergraduate degree in Greek literature and mathematics.. materials. We tend to take for granted the achievements of space science.J. For a novel and controversial proposal. Sayre ENlOR EDITOR Alison Bass Sandra Hackman andra Knight Susan Lewi PRODUCTIO /EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS Elizabeth Fullon Valerie Kiviar ASSI TANT TO THE EDITOR Lori Nollet FIRST LINE Transitions We begin the issue with reports . David E. The year 1986 could also see a first attack on pace pollution. 20510. see our forum contribution by Professor Joel Scheraga of Rutgers University (page 18}. Office of Technology Assessment. a long-time friend and advocate. Press Lance . Emma Rothschild Program ill cience Technology. Louis Menand III Dept. Copies of the full report are available for $17 from the U.T. The loss is that of Profe sor David J. Le rer C. He pursued with what his faculty colleagues characterize as "enormous dedication" his sense of the fundamental indivisibility of problems such as energy and the environment. McElheny Vallllevar Bush Fellowships. <1attill M AGING EDlTOR Jonathan chlefer DESIG DIRECTOR aney L. The gain is that of Jonathan Schlefer. 12). Readers of Technology Review have gained immensely from hi contributions. D. M. T. increased use of Australian manganese could reduce dependence on South Africa. Cowen The Christian cience Monitor Edwin Diamond Dept. For example. Government Printing Office (GPO stock number 052-003-00979-0).randing of issues that he addressed with so much passion. Frank Urbanow ki The M. the 80s- ton Globe. Cowen in thi i sue (p. and how little is cheduled to happen thereafter-the message of Robert C. Gary L. Brennan ADVI ORY BOARD Edward T. Gushee . Bennett provide some detail on the first of everal "space spectaculars" to occur this coming year (p. We have discovered since then his lively sense of how a magazine should work and his great insight into the issues that motivate Technology Review." (August/September page 38). Washington. and Society. Today when we think about technological competition. 80): Voyager 2 close encounter with Uranus late in January. both to our pages and to the editors' under . con ervation. and diversification of supply to reduce dependence on anyone nation.TechnologyReview PUBLJ HER William J. of [ournalism. Joel Clark and Frank Field give prominent mention to the recent report of the Office of Technology Assessment (OT A) on that ubject. and he showed that our society' institutions have only limited ability to address holistic issue of thi kind.LT. Y. M.of a loss and of a gain. Reid Ashe Viewdata Corp. Thompson Chairman O.-]ohn Mattill BUSINES MA AGER Peter D. the article implies that OTA upports clo er ries to nations such as South Africa that now supply much of the world' strategic metal. Gellatly CIRCULATION DIRECTOR Julie Zuckman UB CRlPTlO Dorothy £RYlCE MANAGER R. A TRIM Washington. For more than a decade. LA CE N. Technology Review readers may obtain a copy of the 56-page ummary of the OT A report by writing the Publications Office. Profes or Rose wa an enthusiastic member of Technology Review's Advisory Board and an ever-willing counsel to it editors. and considerable writing experience-including Boston's Real Paper. However. who died on October 24. Robert C. of Political Science.C. Cahners DESIG / PRODUCTION MA AGER Kathleen B.I. To the contrary. and even the shuttle. M. LETTERS STRATEGIC METALS FROM SOUTH AFRlCA In "How Critical Are Critical Material .S. Congressional Research Service Fred Jerome dentists' Institute {or Public Information Victor K. who is now the Review's managing editor. l JAN ARY 1986 . M.

NY 11137 75SS26 TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 3 . THOMAS B. the Military Liai on Committee. This idea appealed to the joint chiefs.. Ga. Patent "How Critical Are Critical Materials?" includes excellent analysis. Also. Attach 'lOur label and f.Y. and McKeidin Co. Reg. However. The quest for radiological warfare did not end in J945 but continued well into the Cold War. funds. Bowen indicates that in August 1946 Major General Curtis E. J. and additional mailing offices. Augu t( epternber.. the Atomic Energy Commission. Mass. 800-221. which was decided against ASME by the Supreme Court. the goals of the military services. III. A a re ulr. Clark and Field point out that switching to other available materials would involve a long wait. and the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project (AFSWP). Air force B-29s dropped four 2.II Me Later o Please o Please Name Un list My Name Change My Address To Address City Slate MallTo: Technology Review P. Mass. Canabelow Send WIth your payment dian.Y. please attach your label and check the box below give e glfl10 IIyou wantto With payment. re earch on radiological weapon wa reduced but not eliminated. Box 918 Farmingdale.LETTERS/CONTINUED Office. Sandusky.. ew York.. Room 10-140. Institute of Technology. NORRIS Washington D.T. Subs riprions. Joe DeLone & As ociares. 10001 (212) 736-1119.) I became executive director of ASME shortly after the event that led to the litigation. It did not involve any of the officers of the ociety..J. Barton Bernstein eems to imply that because radiological warfare schemes "foundered" or were "not sub tanrially pursued" during World War 1I. Postmaster: end address change to M. Calif. In October 1949. The reason classical radiologi al weapons never entered the stockpile had nothing to do with moral repugnance." July. (617) 253-8292. (See "Clearing the Legal Path to Cooperative Research." McNamara suggested that the author said we don't need the minerals of South Africa. White's account of the Hydrolevel antitru t uit against the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (A5ME). presumably filled with radioactive material. In fact.. the address o New Suoscricnon o Renewal OG. circulation. ROY RAYLE San Antonio. Lincoln.S. All prices U. rudy in September 1950 reached a similar conclu ion. add $10.. TechnologyReview SUBSCRIBER SERVICES If 'IOU ever have a question or problem. U. Oh. October and ovember/Oecember) at the Massachusen Institute of Technology. 02139. Subscription inquiries and change of address: Room 10-140. ASME did not di parage the Hydrolevel tandevice and does not i sue product dards. Entire contents 19 6 by the lumni Association of M. Berkeley. However.O. Canada add $6. hances are Cochran and Norris would not have acces to the volume if I and some other scholars had not pushed to make it publicly available. page 38. obviously based on thorough research. Park Ridge. 1130 leveland Rd. Mas. and the first two pages of text could well lead one to reach such a conclusion. ANTITRUST AND COOPERATIVE RESEARCH J take exception to Lawrence J. all other 524. the Army Chemical Corps began testing prototype weapon .. ASME doe provide performance tandards. Colin Smith Agency. formally uggested that radioactive fission products be tudied for possible use in offensive warfare. Tex. 02 I 39 Tel.OOO-pound bombs.148. I have also stepped up efforts to e ure other records on the history of radiological warfare. then deputy chief of air staff for research and development. 1328 Broadway. The one flaw became evident to me when I heard former Defense Secretary Robert McNamara refer to the article on TV's "Crossfire. newsstand distribution by Eastern News Distributors. Tel. LeMay.I. 448 0.] ..T. July. near Wendover Air Force Base. ambridge. Important que tion about the role of the weapons labs. Send bolh the name and below address of the recipient and your name and address. RADIOLOGICAL WEAPONS In "Oppenheimer and the Radioactive Poison Plan" (May/June. inglc copies and back issues available.fl 0 Payment Enclosed 0 B. (617) 253·8250. New York. the Research and Development Board. Mass. we clearly still live with thi pectre. and other moral issues regarding this effort remain un an wered. the AFSWP established a Radiological Warfare Study Group in February 1948. Cambridge. other foreign countries add $12. Mass.. April.I. Mass.n 'lOur new address subscribing or reneWing . (I S "T cbnology' Review 0040-1692). Cambridge. Arlanta. Rather. Fairfield. M.lI. Vt. Lirrel-Murray-Barnhill. and that developing new materials would require extensive R&D." Bernstein is obviously unaware of Lee Bowen's A History of the Air Force Atomic Energy Program. ASM£ does not Continued all page J 7 The Leadership Adverri ing representatives: Network: 254 Fifth Ave. J fir t sought to have Bowen's volume declassified in 1978 and have used it in my research and writing. Tel. but it did involve the former chairman of one of the committee of the society.T. February/March. Second-class postage paid ar Boston.. The author responds: I am pleased that my article spurred reader Cochran and orri to summarize Bowen' account of chapter on early postwar radiological-warfare plan. Bo ton.Check the appropriate address.I. A. Editorial. Burlington. Room 10-140. if thermonuclear weapons detonated at low altitudes are considered radiological weapon. U. re earcher found that atomic and hydrogen weapons were more efficient. Inc .C. page 14). I am puzzled by their assumption that I didn't know of Bowen's work. The table of contents. Pa. the efforts of physicists and physicians. But a more thorough reading of the article reveals the authors' concern that the loss of South African minerals to the Soviets could lead to various unpleasant outcomes. For instance. moral officials quashed these "magnificent examples of military madness. box below and fill in 'lOur name and ($24 per year. Benson Co. Conn. the lead-in summary on page 38. IS published eight tunes each year (january. A Rand Corp. Just send 'lOur mailing label wrth a bnet note to the address below If you're If you're moving-Please give us 4 weeks nonce belOW. The reader could end by believing that wise. 10001 (212) 684·5500. ... COCHRA ROBERT S. 02139 Prices: one year: libraries and orgaruzations $27.. Arci Z 0. add $20) to the address If you went to be unlislecl-{)ccaslOnally mailing list available organizations appropnate we make our or to other quality publications If you prefer to have 'lOur name removed from trus list. As a result. This event did not involve cooperative re earch in any way. May/June. Printed by Lane Pres... Mas . they were not pursued at all. ForeIgn. Wayne. and advertising offices: Technology Review. The results of the bomb re ts indicated that radiological weapons were less effective than surface-burst fission bombs for contaminating large areas.

NASA's budget has been running somewhat under $8 billion. A fleet of ISTP spacecraft will make a detailed study of the un' energy output and the solar winds and their effect on Earth. NASA managed to make the first direct probe of a comet after all. Hence. renamed ICE. and both were deleted when congre ional deficit-cutting measures mandated that the agency not begin any new programs. and ASA i feeling the pinch. it is hard to envision any major infusion of new money for space cience. can profit by becoming their guests. it is likely to remain in that range. but the NASAJESA agreement stipulates that they mu r be restricted to open. Furthermore. NASA is now planning to include funds for the ISTP in it 1987 budget request. COWEN IS SCIE CE EDITOR OF THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR AND FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATIO OF CIE CE WRITERS. NASA felt it had to scrap the on-site asteroid survey to save fund for inter- P OR America's space scientists may face leaner budgets and fewer missions for some time to come. they repre ent commitments made in happier budget years in the mid-1970 . Soviet. Fortunately. The current administration is under enormous pressure to cut the nation's budget deficit. COWEN Will 1986 Be NASA's Last Big Year in Space? ASA officials. Unfortunately. And. Moreover..S. our foreign partners' uncertainty about NASA's financial future could cloud other international ventures." The agenda include the fir t flight of Voyager II past Uranus on January 24. Europe. In May the GalileoJupiter mis ion will launch a spacecraft to study the giant planet from orbit and dispatch a probe into the Jovian atmosphere. Only good behavior on the part of the United States in upholding its international agreements and maintaining a strong civilian space program will allay the Europeans' concerns. NASA officials have already decided nor to include funds for the first direct rendezvous with an a teroid in the fiscal 1987 budget request. who have long played host to space scientists of other countries. 1986 may well be our last year of "intense space science activity" for an indefinite time. as the ingle solar spacecraft is now called. NASA officials anticipate more such proud moments in 1986. NASA doe not want to reinforce its reputation for backing out of international ventures. into the comet's path. Japan. American . But by using ingenuity instead of money. But NASA had to cut funding for its probe in 1981-a unilateral act that embittered ESA. there is no guarantee that they will survive the budget-cutting process next spring. That was the day the International Comet Explorer (ICE) went through the tail of the comet GiacobiniZinner. Their best hope for maintaining a broad range of scientific activity may well lie in participating in European.ROBERT C. This mission could furni h fundamental information about ocean circulation. ASA's decision leaves many scientists skeptical of the agency's ability to carry through on long-term plans. American space scientists mu r live with thi fact of fi cal life. and the United State are jointly sponsoring the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) mission. The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization is planning to put several experiments aboard Spacelab. c1eare t view of the cosmos ever. Although the e achievements are expected to come to fruition in 1986. military's involvement in NASA's shuttle program. of course. will begin its Earth orbit in August. the space station will undoubtedly claim a growing share. which will mea ure the topography of the ocean surface. Because that $20 million mission was part of a carefully timed plan for planetary exploration. For instance. NASA has agreed nor to use the ESA-supplied Spacelab for any military purposes aboard the shuttle. 0 ILLUSTRATION: PAUL MOCK 4 JANUARY 1986 . a journey that will provide humanity's first close look at that distant planet (see page 73). Becau e of budget cuts. and even Japanese space research. which will provide the sharpe r. leaner times prevail today. exploring the star's powerful effect on the Earth's magnetic forces. Europe and Japan are maturing a pace-faring nations. ASA has no spacecraft in the international fleet now heading for Halley' comet. national space ventures that had been cut from previous budgets. Under these circumstances. a key factor in the Earth's climate. eptember 11 was one of their agency's prouder moments. The United State is also cooperating with France in an effort to orbit a satellite known as TOPEX. And even though NASA is clearly backing the TOPEX and ISTP missions. The European scientific community still hasn't forgotten the first time NASA reneged on a joint venture with the European Space Agency (ESA). the space shuttle will continue ferrying important scientific experiments to and from outer space. ROBERT C. Thus. Both program had been included as new "starts" in last year's budget request. NASA had agreed to upply one of two probes that would orbit over the poles of the sun. Nevertheless. which they characterize as a "year of intense space science activity. Given the drive to hold down federal expenses. these programs top NASA' Ii t of priorities. the agency appear to have forgiven the United States and is proceeding happily with the launching of the Ulysses. basic-research projects not directly related to weapons development. including the permanent manned space station slated for completion in 1992. Our European partners are also con·cerned about the U. Controllers at Goddard Space Flight Center used orbital rnanuevering rocket and slingshot-like boosts from the gravity of the moon to divert an aging Earth satellite. The Hubble Space Telescope.

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especially in space. In an official DOD study warning about the rna ive Soviet effort to steal our technology. Their pe simism increased as General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev offered up one eemingly new arm propo al after another. uch talk tend to pur inordinate pressure on the United State to make conce ions because public opinion plays a much more important role here than in the 0viet Union. If uch talks prove fruitful. I do not mean to denigrate some impressive accomplishments of Soviet cience. it doe appear that Soviet leaders want desperately to restrain the arms race and prevent the United States from embarking on its Star War effort. And the Soviets cannot necessarily use stolen technology to narrow this gap. But what explains the apparent change of heart by the Soviet leadership? Without access to the clo ely guarded minutes of the Politburo meetings. The advi ors also remember that the Soviet Union had recently warned that it would not resume di cussions if Reagan per isted with the Strategic Defense Initiative. they have alway seemed to pull abreast and in some case even ahead. Of more importance.. Both sides al 0 agreed in principle to limit the number of missile in different caregorie . We did install the missile and Andropov did walk out. Nonetheless. they could mean the demi e of the Pentagon's controversial plan to build new binary. the meeting probably would have been canceled. But skepticism about summit meetings is not limited to the United States. however. In many ways they have more faith in our technology than we do. The oviet Union has more engineers than any other country in the world. or two-stage. only to have Reagan reject most of them before the summit. and we are not happy about their treatment of Soviet di sidents II MARSHALL I. Given the unwilJingnes of the U. defen e officials acknowledge that' the USSR's pracILLUSTRATION. but it doe n't seem to be able to keep up technologically with its Western counterparts. However. Indeed. i the agreement of the two leader to meet again in the coming yea r-th i time in Washington. The minor agreements to renew cultural and consular exchanges are not that important except as a way of clearing the air. If some of President Reagan's advisor in the Department of Defense (DOD) had had their way. or Star War program. They fear American technology and worry that the United States. the months preceding the summit had been poi oned by a atmosphere of animosity and suspicion. Both civilian and military Soviet leaders have come to appreciate the fact that Soviet technological development is not what it should be. many Soviet official were doubtful the ummit would even take place. 6 JANUARY 1986 . After all. the meeting was a good beginning. even though they may take longer to develop the weaponry and it may be somewhat more primitive. GOLDMAN Why the Soviets Couldn't Walk Out-This Time NE of the most remarkable aspects of the Geneva ummit conference wa that it took place at all. if unrestrained. neither leader achieved a ignificant breakthrough on any rna/or i ues. Both ides also agreed to continue talks toward banning chemical weapon'. we can only guess about the Soviets motives. They were concerned that such a meeting would humiliate Soviet leader.MARSHALL •. They were opposed becau e of what they viewed as his openly expre ed animosity toward the Soviet Union and his intran igence on arm -conrrol issues. although not nece arily for the same rea ons. even Pentagon officials concede that American technology is moving at such a rapid pace that the Soviet Union may be falling behind. However. The Soviet remain up er over Star Wars. And in the euphoria surrounding even a mode t agreement these advi or fear that Congres will lose all interest in sustaining high military expenditures. Many Soviet speciali ts also opposed the meeting with Reagan. who never expected borh side to narrow their differences as much as they did. In the past. chemical weapons to replace our aging stockpile of unitary munitions. will achieve some major breakthrough relegating the Soviet Union to inferior military status. the Soviets have tran lared their abilities in engineering and science into a very potent military capability. Despite uch gains. of the United States in weapons systems. As these advisors see it. Reagan's actual negotiating stance was a lot more practical than his Sovietbashing rhetoric had led the American public to believe. president to alter his course. A Change of Heart Yet even that modest success came a a surpri e to many observers. the pecific reductions for each category of missile catrier remain to be worked out. Yet in the end the two sides were able to agree on a surpri ingly large number of i ues. The decision to allow Pan Am and O ad their failure to withdraw from Afghanistan. But as many Soviet and American observers had already figured out. GOLDMAN IS PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS AT WELLESLEY COLLEGE AND ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF THE RUSSIAN RESEARCH CENTER AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY. ELIZABETH LOTE The pressing need for economic reform in the Soviet Uni(JJ~ kept Gorbachev at the bmgaining table in Geneva. These Soviet advisor remembered what happened when then-General Secretary Yuri Andropov warned that the oviet Union would walk out of the Geneva arms talks in 1983 if the United States in tailed Pershing II mi sile in Western Europe. However. Aeroflot to re ume direct flight between the two countries is also a step in that direction.

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