The Pultex

®
Pultrusion
Design Manual
of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles
Imperial Version
Volume 4 – Revision 6

Featuring
• Pultex

Standard
Structural Profiles
• Pultex

SuperStructural
Profiles


Nuclear test tower constructed using
Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
CREATIVE PULTRUSIONS, INC.
The World's Most Innovative Leader in the
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Industry

http://www.creativepultrusions.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Contents
i







“The first Pultex
®
Design Manual was published in 1973. The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion
Design Manual of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles, 2004 Edition,
Volume 4 – Revision 6 is a tool for engineers to specify Pultex
®
pultruded standard structural profiles.
Creative Pultrusions, Inc. consistently improves its information to function as a solid reference for
engineers.”






















“No portion of this Design Manual may be reproduced in any form without the prior written consent of
Creative Pultrusions, Inc.”
Volume 4 – Revision 6
Copyright© 2004 by
Creative Pultrusions, Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Flowgrip® and Pultex® are registered trademarks of Creative Pultrusions, Inc. Creative Pultrusions™, Shaping the Future™, Superstud!™, Superstud!™/Nuts!,
Superstik™, SUPURTUF™, Superplank™, Superdeck™, Supergrate™, Tuf-dek™, SuperLoc™, SuperWale™, SuperCap™, SuperRod™, Pultrusion Dynamics™, DYNAPUL™,
Pulshaping™, TOPSCAN™ and TOPDIE™ are trademarks of Creative Pultrusions, Inc.









The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Contents
ii

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles,
including Imperial Measurements
Table of Contents
Volume 4 – Revision 6
Page Numbers

Chapter 1 Introduction To Pultrusion

Pultex
®
....................................................................................................................................... 1 – 2
Pultex
®
Pultrusion Process .................................................................................................. 2 – 3
Process Advantages................................................................................................................... 3
Raw Materials Used in the Pultrusion Process.................................................................... 3 – 4
Pultex
®
Resin Systems......................................................................................................... 4 – 5

Chapter 2 Value Engineering

Design Benefits.......................................................................................................................... 1 – 2
Applications ............................................................................................................................... 2 – 3
Cost Analysis for Standard and Custom Profiles....................................................................... 3 – 4
Raw Material Advantages................................................................................................................ 4
Fabrication Advantages ................................................................................................................... 4
Shipping Advantages ....................................................................................................................... 4

Chapter 3 Physical And Mechanical Properties

Introduction to Design with Pultruded Composites......................................................................... 1
Fiber Properties........................................................................................................................... 1
Resin Properties .......................................................................................................................... 2
Fillers .......................................................................................................................................... 2
Imperial Material Properties Sheets
Material Properties of Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles .................... 3 – 4
Material Properties of Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Flat Sheets................................ 5 – 6
Material Properties of Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Rods and Bars ................................ 7
Material Properties of Superstud!/Nuts! Square Nuts Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fastener
Systems............................................................................................................................... 8
Material Properties of Isoplast* Flanged Hex Nuts Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fastener
Systems............................................................................................................................... 9
Material Properties of Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles – Wide Flange and
I-Sections.................................................................................................................. 10 – 11
Material Properties of Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles – Angles ................................. 12 – 13
Procedures for Obtaining Properties...................................................................................... 14 – 15
Safety Factors.......................................................................................................................... 16
Elements of Sections
Imperial Elements of Section .......................................................................................... 17 – 23


*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Contents
iii


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles,
including Imperial Measurements
Table of Contents
Volume 4 – Revision 6
Page Numbers

Chapter 4 Load Tables For Flexural Members And Connections

Beam Deflections............................................................................................................................. 1
Allowable Stresses ........................................................................................................................... 1
Lateral – Torsional Buckling ..................................................................................................... 2 – 4
Stress Calculations for Channels ............................................................................................... 5 – 9
Local and Global Buckling of FRP Channels................................................................................ 10
Beam Deflection Formula...................................................................................................... 11 – 13
Examples of Beam Selection of Pultex
®
Profiles used as Flexural Members........................ 14 – 17
Channel Selection Example ................................................................................................... 17 – 18
Nomenclature......................................................................................................................... 19 – 20
Introduction to Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles.......................................................................... 21
Comparison of Standard Structural Profiles and Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles.............. 21 – 23
Span/Deflection Ratio Conversion Tables............................................................................. 24 – 25
Allowable Uniform Load Tables ........................................................................................... 26 – 90
Connections
Clip Connection Load Tables with Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles ............................ 91 – 93
Bolt Hole Bearing Capacity ............................................................................................ 94 – 95
Design Example Using the Clip Connection Charts ............................................................... 96
Moment of Capacity of Pultex
®
SuperStructural Angles ............................................... 97 – 98
Designing a Connection with a Coped Flange ........................................................................ 99
End Notes .............................................................................................................................. 100

Chapter 5 Load Tables For Compression Members

Load Tables For Compression Members ......................................................................................... 1
Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 2
Pultex
®
Column Test Program................................................................................................... 3 – 8
Nomenclature................................................................................................................................... 9
Tables for Allowable Compressive Stresses and Loads ................................................................ 10
Imperial Tables for Allowable Compressive Stresses and Loads ................................... 11 – 45
Biography............................................................................................................................... 47 – 48

Chapter 6 Environmental Considerations

Temperature ..................................................................................................................................... 1
Weathering....................................................................................................................................... 1
UV Stabilizers.................................................................................................................................. 1
Resistance to Chemicals and Reagents ............................................................................................ 2
Chemical Compatibility Guide ................................................................................................ 3 – 10



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Contents
iv

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles,
including Imperial Measurements
Table of Contents
Volume 4 – Revision 6
Page Numbers

Chapter 7 Custom Profile Design

Wall-Section Thickness ................................................................................................................... 1
Radius Design............................................................................................................................ 1 – 2
Shrinkage ......................................................................................................................................... 2
Surface Appearance and Performance ....................................................................................... 2 – 3
Parting Lines .................................................................................................................................... 3
Localized Stiffening......................................................................................................................... 3
Undercuts ......................................................................................................................................... 3
Dimensional Tolerances................................................................................................................... 3
Designer Checklist ..................................................................................................................... 4 – 5
Notes ................................................................................................................................................ 6

Chapter 8 Quality Assurance And Standard Tolerances

Quality Assurance System............................................................................................................... 1
Standard Tolerances................................................................................................................... 1 – 8
Standard Tolerances for Pultruded Shapes Fabricated without CNC or Custom Fixtures........ 9
Standard Tolerances for Pultruded Shapes Fabricated with CNC or Custom Fixtures.......... 10

Chapter 9 Fabrication Techniques

Fabrication Techniques.............................................................................................................. 1 – 2
Fabrication of Pultex
®
Structural Profiles.................................................................................. 2 – 3
Adhesives/Bonding.......................................................................................................................... 3
Advantage of Adhesives...................................................................................................... 3 – 4
Bonded Shear Joint Concepts.............................................................................................. 4 – 5
Surface Preparations.................................................................................................................. 5
Adhesives Comparison Guide used with Pultex
®
Profiles ........................................................ 6
Comparison of Joining Techniques........................................................................................... 6
Machining Operations...................................................................................................................... 7
Cutting Procedures .................................................................................................................... 7
Operating Tips..................................................................................................................... 7 – 8
Drilling ...................................................................................................................................... 8
Grinding .................................................................................................................................... 9
Turning.............................................................................................................................. 9 – 10
Routing............................................................................................................................ 10 – 11
Punching.......................................................................................................................... 11 – 12
Press Tonnage Requirements .......................................................................................... 12 – 14
Shear Angle in Punching......................................................................................................... 14
Other Useful Guidelines for Punching .................................................................................... 15
Shearing................................................................................................................................... 16



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Contents
v

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles,
including Imperial Measurements
Table of Contents
Volume 4 – Revision 6
Page Numbers

Chapter 9 Fabrication Techniques (cont’d)

Painting.......................................................................................................................................... 16
Surface Preparation........................................................................................................................ 16
Joining Pultex
®
Structural Profiles......................................................................................... 17 – 19
Mechanical Fastenings........................................................................................................... 20 – 23
Notes .............................................................................................................................................. 24

Chapter 10 Writing Specifications For Pultex
®
Structural Profiles

Writing Specifications ............................................................................................................... 1 – 6

Appendices
Appendix A................................................................................................................................ 1 – 2
Appendix B................................................................................................................................ 3 – 4

Works Cited................................................................................................................................................. 1

Pultex
®
Product Availability List
Imperial Pultex
®
Product Availability List ................................................................................ 1 – 2




















“Creative Pultrusions, Inc. believes the information put forth in this Design Manual to be as accurate and reliable as we can
ascertain as of the date of publication. However, Creative Pultrusions, Inc. does not warrant that the information hereunder will
not infringe the claims of any United States or other patents covering products or processes, or the use thereof in combination
with other products or in the operation of any process.
User also agrees to indemnify and hold Creative Pultrusions, Inc. harmless from and against any and all losses, damages, and
expenses (including attorney fees and other costs of defending any action) that Creative Pultrusions, Inc. may sustain or incur as
a result of any claim, in connection with the use of the information in this manual.”

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 1
1
Chapter 1 Introduction to Pultrusion


Pultex
®
standard structural profiles are used in many highly-corrosive applications.

Creative Pultrusions, Inc. is The World’s Most Innovative Leader in the Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Composites Industry. Established in 1973, the company operates in two manufacturing locations: Alum
Bank, Pennsylvania (Corporate Headquarters) and Roswell, New Mexico; Technology Center: Pultrusion
Dynamics Division, Oakwood Village, Ohio; Creative Pultrusions International Ltd., United Kingdom;
and a complementary Worldwide Distribution Network. Pultex
®
is the registered trademark of Creative
Pultrusions, Inc. (CP) for products made by the pultrusion process. Pultex
®
profiles are Pultruded Fiber
Reinforced Polymer (FRP) components, manufactured from a wide variety of high performance
thermosetting resins and reinforcements, classifying pultrusion as a structural engineering material. As a
result, Pultex
®
profiles have been used extensively in many industries for construction, corrosion-
resistant, electrical/electronic, transportation, consumer and water/wastewater applications.

Within the last two decades, the pultrusion process has been used by the design engineer as having the
capability of manufacturing products that solve many modern problems. As a result, high-strength, light-
weight and maintenance-free products and structures have been designed and built.

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual is developed to aid the design engineer in
understanding the pultrusion process and how various elements of the process and design affect the
performance and cost of the final product.

The information provided is the result of many years of participation with industries worldwide.
Applications vary from the development of new high-performance springs and bumpers for the
automotive industry to corrosion-resistant structural I-beams, channels and angles for the chemical
processing industry.

With The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual, you, the design engineer, will share in
the knowledge and experience to assist in the design of your future pultrusion requirements.



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 1
2






Pultex
®
Pultrusion Process
An integrated building system is lightweight, easy to erect and maintenance-free.
Fiberglass platform systems are ideal
in highly corrosive areas.
Bridges are easily installed in hard-to-access areas.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 1
3

Pultex
®
Pultrusion Process (cont’d)

Pultrusion is a continuous molding process using fiber reinforcement in polyester or other thermosetting
resin matrices.

Pre-selected reinforcement materials, such as fiberglass roving, mat or cloth, are drawn through a resin
bath in which all material is thoroughly impregnated with a liquid thermosetting resin.

The wet-out fiber is formed to the desired geometric shape and pulled into a heated steel die. Once inside
the die, the resin cure is initiated by controlling precise elevated temperatures. The laminate solidifies in
the exact cavity shape of the die, as it is continuously pulled by the pultrusion machine.

Process Advantages

The process provides maximum flexibility in the design of pultruded FRP profiles. Currently, profiles up
to 72 inches wide and 21 inches high are possible. Since the process is continuous, length variations are
limited to shipping capabilities.

Specific strength characteristics can be designed into the composite, optimizing laminate performance for
a particular application by strategic placement of high performance reinforcements. Color is uniform
throughout the cross section of the profile, eliminating the need for many painting requirements.

Processing capabilities include the production of both simple and complex profiles, eliminating the need
for much post-production assembly of components. Pultex
®
profiles can result in more satisfactory
performance of your finished products and structures.

Raw Materials Used in the Pultrusion Process

















Resin
Selected high performance polyester resins are combined with suitable fillers, catalysts, UV
inhibitors and pigments to formulate the resinous matrix, binding the fibers together and providing
the structural corrosion resistance and other properties required. Although the vast majority of
applications can be serviced by the variety of polyester resins available, certain application
requirements of higher strength or corrosion resistance can be satisfied with the selection of vinyl
ester.
Each resin mix is formulated carefully to suit
application requirements.
Roving and mat are of major importance in
determining physical properties.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 1
4

Roving
Fiberglass roving provides the high longitudinal strength of pultruded products. The amount and
location of these reinforcements can be determined in the design stage and can alter the subsequent
physical properties of the finished product. Roving also provides the tensile strength needed to pull
the other reinforcements through the die; therefore, it is a necessary ingredient in the profile design.

Mat
Continuous strand mat provides the most economical method of obtaining a high degree of
transverse physical properties. The mats are layered with roving; this process forms the basic
composition found in most pultruded products. The ratio of mat to roving determines the
relationship of transverse to longitudinal physical properties.

Veil
Since pultrusion is a low-pressure process, fiberglass reinforcements normally appear close to the
surface of the product. These can affect the appearance, corrosion resistance or handling of the
products. Surface veils can be added to the laminate construction to displace the reinforcement
from the surface adding a resin-rich finish to the profile. The two most commonly used veils are
A-glass and polyester .

Pultex
®
Resin Systems

Resin mixtures, glass content and their combination can be altered to achieve special properties in a
profile due to the versatility of the pultrusion process. The specific resin formula may be adjusted for
each profile due to processing requirements.

Table 1-1 Available Resin Systems

Pultex
®

Resin Series

Characteristics
Typical
Applications
1500
Polyesters

Good chemical resistance combined with high
mechanical and electrical properties.
Standard Structurals used in
moderately corrosive environments
Crossing gate arms
Dunnage bars
Ladders
1525
Fire Retardant
Polyesters
A flame spread rating of 25 or less when tested
per ASTM E-84 plus the attributes of 1500
Series profiles. UL 94 VO rating also available
on request.
Fire retardant standard structurals
1600
Vinyl esters
Excellent corrosion resistance, as well as,
improved physical properties and elevated
service temperature capabilities.
High performance standard structurals

1625
Fire Retardant
Vinyl esters
Same as Series 1600 plus the added bonus of a
25 or less rating per ASTM E84 and low
smoke generation.
High performance standard structurals
for severely corrosive environments
2020
Low Profile Modified
Polyester Resin System
Profiles requiring optimum surface finish Transportation



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 1
5


Table 1-1 Available Resin Systems (cont’d)

Pultex
®

Resin Series

Characteristics
Typical
Applications
3535
Modified Polyester
Halogen free, low flame and smoke. Mass Transit
Electrical
Reference The Pultex
®
Product Availability List for stocked items.
Other special resin systems are available; please contact the Engineering Department of Creative
Pultrusions, Inc.

Woven and Stitched Fabric

When the mix of required physical properties is not satisfied by conventional mat roving
construction, selected fabrics can be used to meet the end use requirements. Varieties of these
products can be used by themselves or in conjunction with the standard mat roving construction to
obtain the necessary results. The fiberglass fabrics are available in balanced, high longitudinal, high
transverse or ± 45° multi-ply construction. Since these materials are more costly, the composites
using these reinforcements are more expensive than standard construction pultrusion.

Other Reinforcing Material

Carbon and aramid fibers are also used in the pultrusion process in roving, woven fabric forms, or
in combination with fiberglass. These high modulus fibers add considerable stiffness to the
composite. Care must be taken when designing profiles with carbon and aramid fiber materials
since they are more costly. The composite should be designed for optimum performance.
Surfacing veils enhance the finished
profile and increase corrosion
resistance.
Woven/stitched goods increase transverse
properties of pultruded profiles.

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 2
1
Chapter 2 Value Engineering

Design Benefits

Many advantages exist in using Pultex
®
Profiles, compared to conventional materials, such as steel,
aluminum, wood or other plastics. Analyzing the benefits of Pultex
®
can mean a cost savings to you.

The first step is to compile the total cost of the application, which includes: tooling, raw materials and any
required fabrication. Costs are easily obtained from the Sales and Estimating Department of Creative
Pultrusions.

The second step is to add the cost savings that would be realized by you and the end user, in comparison
to using conventional construction materials. These savings are realized in reduced maintenance cost,
lower installation cost and reduced freight, due to lighter weight properties. Savings in the life cycle of
the product should be considered with the product’s original cost when making cost comparisons.


Light weight, high strength and electrical insulating properties make FRP profiles ideal for
third-rail coverboard on electrical mass transit systems around the world.

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 2
2
Table 2-1 Features & Benefits of Pultex
®
Profiles

Features Description Benefits
Strength Unit strength in tension, flexure, and
compression is approximately 20
times that of steel when properties are
combined on the basis of unit density
• Structural design capabilities
• Optional strength in desired directions
• Exceptionally high impact strengths
Lightweight Density of Pultex
®
is 20% of steel and
60% of aluminum
• Higher performance at less weight
• Reduced shipping costs
• Reduced operational energy demands
• Reduced labor expense for installations
• Easily handled
• Assembled and installed with ease
Corrosion Resistance Unaffected by a wide range of
corrosive chemicals and environments
• Minimal maintenance costs
• Long-term safety
• Installation longevity and increased service
life
• Outdoor storage capabilities
• Lower cost performance ratio
• Less need for replacements
Electrical Insulation Structural strength and rigidity are
provided with dielectric material.
• Less components for assemblies
• Non-magnetic
• Additional safety factors
• Predictable insulation values
Part Consolidation Many individual components can be
combined into one large profile.
• Reduced assembly costs
• Reduced inventory requirements
• Smooth aerodynamic surfaces
• Improved reliability
Dimensional Stability Stretch-, warp-, and swell-resistant
over a wide range of temperatures and
physical stresses.
• No permanent set under high stress
• Reduced damage to structure assemblies
• Easy to repair misused parts
• Close tolerances
Thermal Insulation Low thermal conductivity rating of
1/250 of aluminum; 1/60 of steel
• Reduced insulation thickness requirements
• Reduced energy operation requirements
• No condensation problems

Applications

Construction/Industrial Bridges
Bulk head frames
Cable trays
Complete building systems
Cooling tower components
Flooring supports
Grating and supports
Pipe supports
Prefabricated walkways, platforms and handrail systems
Structural supports for process equipment
Trusses and joists
Wind blades
Window frames
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 2
3
Applications (cont’d)

Automotive Automobile springs
Automotive leaf springs and bumpers
Bus components
Bus window latch supports
Dunnage bars
Roll-up doors/ insulated roll-up door panels
Spring bumpers
Tank supports
Truck/trailer wall posts

Consumer Ladders
Light poles
Mop, broom and brush handles
Pruning poles
Rake handles
Shovel handles


Wastewater Cell partitions
Scrubber components
Traveling water screens
Water/waste water treatment sludge flights


Electrical Composite utility poles
Crossarms
Crossing gate arms
Electrical enclosures
Mist eliminators
Mounting braces & backboards
Switch gear components
Third rail coverboards
Walk-in refrigeration door jambs

Marine Boat dock power posts
Fender pilings
Sheetpiles

Cost Analysis for Standard and Custom Profiles

Careful study of end-use requirements for an application will establish the potential for use of Pultex
®
. If
possible, designs should be drawn and the commercial feasibility determined.

The applied cost of the end uses of a pultruded profile is the sum of the tooling, raw material and
fabrication, plus the additional consideration of transportation, assembly and/or erection/installation cost.

In many cases of mechanical design or prototyping, standard Pultex
®
Profiles can be used. The most
economical alternative for the designer is to evaluate the material, as it may eliminate elements of cost,
such as development time, tooling, and manufacturing for limited quantity runs. Even custom profiles can
be effectively fabricated and/or assembled from available standard profiles, aiding the designer in
determining the feasibility of an idea with minimal cost.

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 2
4
Tooling Costs

When the feasibility is determined and a custom profile is required, the following factors must be
considered:

1. Products selected from the list of available Pultex
®
standard structural profiles involve no
additional tooling cost and are normally available in any quantity through the distribution
network.

2. Tooling costs for custom pultruded profiles are dependent on the complexity of the profile and
the volume requirements, and are often less than those for traditional materials.

Raw Material Advantages

Pultex
®
1500 and 1525 Series are produced with high performance grades of polyester resin,
continuous strand mat and roving. The combination provides a quality product that is economically
priced.

When the application requires higher performance ratings for standard or custom profiles, it can be
engineered with specialized reinforcements and resins.

Although premium raw materials also affect the cost of a product by adding complexity and possibly
lowering production rates, the benefits realized can usually justify the additional costs. High-
performance resins or specialized reinforcements can improve usable life or ultimate strength of a
profile.

Fabrication Advantages

Creative Pultrusions provides a full-service Fabrication Network that offers painting, punching, multi-
head drilling and assembly. If you choose to do your own fabrication, Creative Pultrusions can
provide recommendations on methods and equipment to be used based on extensive experience.
Chapter 9 provides many helpful hints in determining the optimum fabrication techniques.

Shipping Advantages

Shipping of components or sections is one segment of costs sometimes neglected in early design stages.
It particularly applies to glass-reinforced products, such as pultrusions, due to their lower density. In
most shipments, the volume of a shipping container is completely filled before the maximum shipping
weight is reached; therefore, it is important for the designer to consider this fact when designing the
profile. The ability to stack or crate the profile will affect the end-product costs.

Another consideration is length. Since pultrusion is a continuous process, it allows the designer to use
any length product possible. The only limitation is that profiles must be practical shipping lengths.
Standard shipping lengths are usually 45 feet or less to fit the length of most common carriers.
Rods or smaller profiles, which can be coiled, have a theoretically unlimited length, although there are
some process limitations.

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
1
Chapter 3 Physical and Mechanical Properties






Introduction To Design With Pultruded Composites

A pultrusion is a composite of several materials and reinforcements. It presents the opportunity to design
product components with properties to meet specific needs. Fiber reinforcements and loadings can be
varied to produce a wide range of structural properties in the end product.

Typical structural items contain 45% to 75% glass by weight. This composite type is widely used in the
pultrusion industry for determining the standard mechanical properties of pultrusion, and can be modified,
if necessary, for special applications. Tensile strengths, for example, can vary from 40 MPa to 1000 MPa,
depending on the glass loading, fiber orientation and resin selection.

Fiber Properties

A variety of continuous and woven reinforcement types is also available to the designer. The four
major types are E-GLASS, S-GLASS, ARAMID and CARBON. The primary type used is E-glass.
Other reinforcements are more costly; and, therefore, used more sparingly in construction.

Table 3-1 Typical Properties of Fibers Used in Pultruded Structural Profiles

Properties are displayed below for virgin fibers, as manufactured.

Property E-Glass S-Glass Aramid Carbon
Density lbs/in
3
.094 .090 .053 .064
Tensile Strength (psi) 500,000 665,000 400,000 275,000-450,000
Tensile Modulus (10
6
psi) 10.5 12.6 9.0 33-55
Elongation to break (%) 4.8 5.4 2.3 0.6-1.2

Fiber reinforcements are available in a variety of single-strand woven, braided, stitched, and knitted
goods, thus adding to the range of properties of the end composite.




Surface Veil
Continuous Strand Mat
Continuous Roving
Continuous Strand Mat
Continuous
Roving
Continuous Strand Mat
Surface Veil
Pultrusion Composite Diagram
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
2
Resin Properties

Determination of resin is controlled by factors such as corrosive environments, temperature exposure,
and flame retardancy.

Polyesters are the primary resins used in pultrusion. A wide range of polyesters is available with
distinct characteristics. The capabilities and needs for these various resins can only be determined by
end-use applications. For the selection of a particular polyester, the designer should consult Creative
Pultrusions.

Fire-retardant polyesters are also available. Fire retardancy can be altered with the proper blending of
different resins. Some of the obtainable results on flammability specifications and tests are presented
further in the Material Properties. For superior fire retardancy, phenolic or other specialty resins may
be used.

Vinyl ester resins are also commonly used in the pultrusion process. They are used to improve the
chemical resistance of the laminate. Because of their chemistry with glass reinforcements, physical
properties of the laminate can be expected to increase up to 15%.

Epoxy resins are typically used with carbon fiber reinforcements in applications in which high
stiffness and strength requirements are critical. They can also be used with E-glass to improve the
physical properties.

Table 3-2 Typical Properties of Resins Used in Pultruded Structural Profiles

Property Polyester Vinyl ester Epoxy Test Method
Tensile Strength (psi) 11,200 11,800 11,000 ASTM D638
% Elongation 4.5 5 6.3 ASTM D638
Flexural Strength (psi) 17,800 20,000 16,700 ASTM D790
Flexural Modulus
(10
6
psi)

0.43

0.54

0.47

ASTM D790
Heat Distortion
Temperature (°F)

160

220

330

ASTM D648
Short Beam Shear (psi) 4,500 5,500 8,000 ASTM D2344

Fillers

Various fillers are also used in the pultrusion process. Aluminum silicate (kaolin clay) is used for
improved chemical resistance, opacity, good surface finish and improved insulation properties.
Calcium carbonate offers improved surfaces, whiteness, opacity and general lowering of costs.
Alumina trihydrate and antimony trioxide are used for fire retardancy. Alumina trihydrate can also be
used in conjunction with clays for improved insulation properties.









The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
3
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles
Rectangular Tubes, Channels, Angles, Square Tubes, Round Tubes
1500 Series - Thermoset Polyester – Olive Green
1525 Series - Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR – Slate Gray (Dark Gray)
1625 Series - Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR – Beige

The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing. The results are average values
based on random sampling and testing of production lots. Composite materials are not homogeneous; and therefore,
the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results. Creative Pultrusions publishes
an average value of random samples from production lots.

Property
(coupon values)

ASTM Test

Units

1500/1525 Series

1625 Series
Mechanical
Tensile Strength (LW) D638 psi 33,000 37,500
Tensile Strength (CW) D638 psi 7,500 8,000
Tensile Modulus (LW) D638 10
6
psi 2.5 3.0
Tensile Modulus (CW) D638 10
6
psi 0.8 1.0
Compressive Strength (LW) D695 psi 33,000 37,500
Compressive Strength (CW) D695 psi 16,500 20,000
Compressive Modulus (LW) D695 10
6
psi 3.0 3.0
Compressive Modulus (CW) D695 10
6
psi 1.0 1.2
Flexural Strength (LW) D790 psi 33,000 37,500
Flexural Strength (CW) D790 psi 11,000 12,500
Flexural Modulus (LW) D790 10
6
psi 1.6 2.0
Flexural Modulus (CW) D790 10
6
psi 0.8 1.0
Modulus of Elasticity Full Section
2
10
6
psi 2.8-3.2 2.8-3.2
(Channels) Full Section
2
10
6
psi 2.8 2.8
(Square and Rectangular Tubes) Full Section
2
10
6
psi 3.2 3.2
Shear Modulus Full Section
2
10
6
psi 0.42 0.42
Interlaminar Shear (LW)
3
D2344 psi 4,500 4,500
Shear Strength By Punch (PF) D732 psi 5,500 6,000
Notched Izod Impact (LW) D256 ft-lbs/in 28 30
Notched Izod Impact (CW) D256 ft-lbs/in 4 5
Maximum Bearing Strength (LW) D953 psi 30,000 30,000
Maximum Bearing Strength (CW) D953 psi 18,000 18,000
Poisson’s Ratio (LW) D3039 in/in 0.35 0.35
Poisson’s Ratio (CW) D3039 in/in 0.15 0.15
In-plane Shear (LW) Modified D2344
4
psi 7,000 7,000
LW = lengthwise CW = crosswise PF = perpendicular to laminate face




Additional properties located on page 4
Includes all angles except 4” x 1/4”, 4” x 3/8”, 6” x 3/8” and 6” x 1/2”, which are SuperStructurals.
Please consult the Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles Angles Material Properties
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
4
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles
Rectangular Tubes, Channels, Angles, Square Tubes, Round Tubes


Property
(coupon values)

ASTM Test

Units

1500/1525 Series

1625 Series
Physical
Barcol Hardness
1
D2583 45 45
Water Absorption D570 % Max 0.6 0.6
Density D792 lbs/in
3
0.060-0.070 0.060-0.070
Specific Gravity D792 1.66-1.93 1.66-1.93
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) D696 10
-6
in/in/°F 4.4 4.4
Thermal Conductivity (PF) C177 BTU-in/ft
2
/hr/°F 4 4

Electrical
Arc Resistance (LW) D495 seconds 120 120
Dielectric Strength (LW) D149 KV/in 40 40
Dielectric Strength (PF) D149 volts/mil 200 200
Dielectric Constant (PF) D150 @60Hz 5.2 5.2
1
Pultex

uses a synthetic surface veil that reduces the Barcol Hardness, but does not reflect lack of cure.
2
Full section testing based on a 3-point bend with simply supported end conditions (Reference The New and Improved
Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual, Appendix B, for details).
3
Tested on a 3:1, span to depth ratio.
4
Follow ASTM D2344, but rotate coupon 90° (cut section of coupon length faces up).
5
In-plane Shear (CW) values for square tubes and rectangular tubes = 2,500 psi; angles = 3,800 psi


ASTM Test Value Value
Property 1525 1625
Flammability Classification UL94 (VO) (VO)
Tunnel Test ASTM E-84 25 Max 25 Max
Flammability Extinguishing ASTM D635 Self extinguishing Self extinguishing
NBS Smoke Chamber ASTM E662 650 650


UNC 13 UNC 11 UNC 10 UNC 8 UNC









Creative Pultrusions, Inc. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication.
However, we assume no obligation or liability, which may arise as a result of its use. While Creative Pultrusions, Inc. has no knowledge that the
information put forth infringes any valid patent, it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s
intended application process or product infringes no patent.
Includes all angles except 4” x 1/4”, 4” x 3/8”, 6” x 3/8” and 6” x 1/2”, which are SuperStructurals.
Please consult the Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles Angles Material Properties
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
5
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Flat Sheets

1500 Series - Thermoset Polyester – Olive Green
1525 Series - Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR – Slate Gray (Dark Gray)
1625 Series - Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR – Beige

The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing. The results are average values
based on random sampling and testing of production lots. Composite materials are not homogeneous; and therefore,
the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results. Creative Pultrusions publishes
an average value of random samples from production lots.

Property
(coupon values)

ASTM Test

Units

1500/1525 Series

1625 Series
Mechanical
Flexural Strength, Flatwise (LW) D790 psi 35,000 35,000
Flexural Strength, Flatwise (CW) D790 psi 15,000 15,000
Flexural Modulus, Flatwise (LW) D790 10
6
psi 2.0 2.0
Flexural Modulus, Flatwise (CW) D790 10
6
psi 1.1 1.1
Tensile Strength (LW) D638 psi 20,000 20,000
Tensile Strength (CW) D638 psi 10,000 10,000
Tensile Modulus (LW) D638 10
6
psi 1.8 1.8
Tensile Modulus (CW) D638 10
6
psi 1.0 1.0
Compressive Strength, Edgewise (LW) D695 psi 24,000 24,000
Compressive Strength, Edgewise (CW) D695 psi 16,000 16,000
Compressive Modulus, Edgewise (LW) D695 10
6
psi 1.8 1.8
Compressive Modulus, Edgewise (CW) D695 10
6
psi 1.0 1.0
Notched Izod Impact (LW) D256 ft-lbs/in 20 20
Notched Izod Impact (CW) D256 ft-lbs/in 5 5
Bearing Strength (LW) D953 psi 32,000 32,000
Bearing Strength (CW) D953 psi 32,000 32,000
Poisson’s Ratio (LW) D3039 in/in 0.32 0.32
Poisson’s Ratio (CW) D3039 in/in 0.25 0.25

Physical
Barcol Hardness
1
D2583 40 40
Water Absorption D570 % Max 0.6 0.6
Density D792
lbs/in
3

0.060-0.070 0.060-0.070
Specific Gravity D792 1.66-1.93 1.66-1.93
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) D696 10
-6
in/in/°F 8.0 8.0

Electrical
Arc Resistance (LW) D495 seconds 120 120
Dielectric Strength (LW) D149 KV/in 40 40
Dielectric Strength (PF) D149 volts/mil 200 200
Dielectric Constant (PF) D150 @60Hz 5.2 5.2
1
Pultex

uses a synthetic surface veil that reduces the Barcol Hardness, but does not reflect lack of cure.






Additional Properties located on page 6

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
6
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Flat Sheets
(cont’d)

ASTM Test Value Value
Property 1525 1625
Flammability Classification UL94 (VO) (VO)
Tunnel Test ASTM E-84 25 Max 25 Max
Flammability Extinguishing ASTM D635 Self extinguishing Self extinguishing
NBS Smoke Chamber ASTM E662 650 650



















Creative Pultrusions, Inc. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication.
However, we assume no obligation or liability, which may arise as a result of its use. While Creative Pultrusions, Inc. has no knowledge that the
information put forth infringes any valid patent, it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s
intended application process or product infringes no patent.


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
7
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Rods And Bars

1500 Series - Thermoset Polyester – Olive Green
1525 Series - Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR – Slate Gray (Dark Gray)
1625 Series - Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR – Beige

The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing. The results are average values
based on random sampling and testing of production lots. Composite materials are not homogeneous; and therefore,
the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results. Creative Pultrusions publishes
an average value of random samples from production lots.

Rod and Bar stock contain longitudinal reinforcements only.

Property
(coupon values)
ASTM
Test

Units

Test Results
Mechanical
Tensile Strength (LW) D638 psi 100,000
Tensile Modulus (LW) D638 10
6
psi 6.0
Compressive Strength (LW) D695 psi 60,000
Flexural Strength (LW) D790 psi 100,000
Flexural Modulus (LW) D790 10
6
psi 6.0
Notched Izod Impact (LW) D256 ft-lb/in 40


Physical
Barcol Hardness Units D2583 - 50
Water Absorption D570 % Max .25
Density D792
lbs/in
3

0.073-0.076
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) D696 10
-6
in/in/°F 3.0
LW - lengthwise













Creative Pultrusions, Inc. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication.
However, we assume no obligation or liability, which may arise as a result of its use. While Creative Pultrusions, Inc. has no knowledge that the
information put forth infringes any valid patent, it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s
intended application process or product infringes no patent.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
8
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Superstud!

/Nuts! Square Nuts
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fastener System

Diameter /Threads per Inch
Property
(coupon values)
ASTM Test
Units
3/8"
16 UNC
1/2"
13 UNC
5/8"
11 UNC
3/4"
10 UNC
1"
8 UNC
Ultimate Thread
Shear Capacity Using
Standard CP Square Nut
1 2 6



lbs


1,000


2,000


3,100


4,500


6,200
Max. Ultimate Design Tensile
Load Using CP Square Nut
1 2 5 6


lbs

800

1,600

2,480

3,600

4,960
Flexural Strength
2 3
D790 psi 60,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 60,000
Flexural Modulus
2 3
D790 10
6
psi 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.75
Compressive Strength (LW)
2 3
D695 psi 55,000 55,000 55,000 55,000 60,000
Ultimate Transverse Shear
2 3
B565 load lb. 4,200 7,400 11,600 17,200 27,400
Transverse Shear Yield
2 3
load lb. 2,100 3,300 4,500 7,500 12,500
Dielectric Strength
2 3
D149 KV/in 40 40 40 40 40
Water Absorption
3
D570 % 1 1 1 1 1
Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion (LW)

D696

10
-6
in/in/°F

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0
Torque Strength
Using CP Square Nut
Lubricated With SAE 10W30
Motor Oil
2 4 5 6




Ultimate



ft-lb



8



15



33



50



115
Recommended ft-lb 4 8 16 24 50
Stud Weight
3
lb/ft .076 .129 .209 .315 .592
Flammability D635 Self-Extinguishing on All
Thickness Square Nut in .437 .562 .688 .813 1.062
Width Square Nut in .688 .875 1.062 1.250 1.625

LW = lengthwise
Note: the results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots. Composite materials
are not homogeneous; and therefore, the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon
results. Creative Pultrusions publishes an average value of random samples from production lots.
1
Applies to single nut only; multiple nuts do not yield corresponding results.
2
Ultimate strength values are average obtained in design testing.
3
Values are based on unthreaded rod.
4
Torque results are dependent on several variable factors including the lubricant used, the length of stud between nuts, alignment, washer
surfaces, etc. Therefore, if such results of torque tightening are important, it is vital that torque limits be determined experimentally for the
exact installation conditions.
5
Appropriate safety factors must be applied.
6
Properties apply to Superstud!

used with CP Square Nut.








Creative Pultrusions, Inc. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication.
However, we assume no obligation or liability which may arise as a result of its use. While Creative Pultrusions, Inc. has no knowledge that the
information put forth infringes any valid patent, it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s
intended application process or product infringes no patent.

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
9
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Isoplast
*
Flanged Hex Nuts
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fastener System

Diameter /Threads per Inch
Property
(coupon values)
ASTM Test
Units
3/8"
16 UNC
1/2"
13 UNC
5/8"
11 UNC
3/4"
10 UNC
1"
8 UNC
Ultimate Thread
Shear Capacity Using
CP Hex Nut
1 2 6



lbs


1,250


2,500


3,900


5,650


7,400
Max. Ultimate Design Tensile
Load Using CP Hex Nut
1 2 5 6


lbs

1,000

2,000

3,120

4,520

6,200
Flexural Strength
2 3
D790 psi 60,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 60,000
Flexural Modulus
2 3
D790 10
6
psi 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.75
Compressive Strength (LW)
2 3
D695 psi 55,000 55,000 55,000 55,000 60,000
Ultimate Transverse Shear
2 3
B565 load lb. 4,200 7,400 11,600 17,200 27,400
Transverse Shear Yield
2 3
load lb. 2,100 3,300 4,500 7,500 12,500
Dielectric Strength
2 3
D149 KV/in 40 40 40 40 40
Water Absorption
3
D570 % 1 1 1 1 1
Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion (LW)

D696

10
-6
in/in/°F

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0
Torque Strength
Using CP Hex Nut
Lubricated With SAE
10W30 Motor Oil
2 4 5 6




Ultimate



ft-lb



8



15



33



50



115
Recommended ft-lb 4 8 16 24 50
Stud Weight
3
lb/ft .076 .129 .209 .315 .592
Thickness Hex Nut in .750 .855 1.220 1.590 1.750
Diameter of Flange in .745 1.000 1.250 1.950 2.000
*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company

L W = lengthwise
Notes: 1. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots. Composite
materials are not homogeneous; and therefore, the location of the coupon extraction can cause
variances in the coupon results. Creative Pultrusions publishes an average value of random samples
from production lots.

1
Applies to single nut only; multiple nuts do not yield corresponding results.
2
Ultimate strength values are average obtained in design testing.
3
Values are based on unthreaded rod.
4
Torque results are dependent on several variable factors including the lubricant used, the length of stud between nuts, alignment, washer
surfaces, etc. Therefore, if such results of torque tightening are important, it is vital that torque limits be determined experimentally for the
exact installation conditions.
5
Appropriate safety factors must be applied.
6
Properties apply to Superstud!

used with CP Hex Nut.

Creative Pultrusions, Inc. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication.
However, we assume no obligation or liability which may arise as a result of its use. While Creative Pultrusions, Inc. has no knowledge that the
information put forth infringes any valid patent, it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s
intended application process or product infringes no patent.








The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
10
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections and I-Sections

1500 Series - Thermoset Polyester – Olive Green
1525 Series - Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR – Slate Gray (Dark Gray)
1625 Series - Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR – Beige

The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing. The results are average values
based on random sampling and testing of production lots. Composite materials are not homogeneous; and therefore,
the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results. Creative Pultrusions publishes
an average value of random samples from production lots.
Property
(coupon values)

ASTM Test

Units

1500/1525 Series

1625 Series
Full Section
Modulus of Elasticity Full Section
2
10
6
psi 3.9-4.0 3.9-4.0
(1/2" thick profiles) Full Section
2
10
6
psi 3.9 3.9
(1/4" & 3/8" thick profiles) Full Section
2
10
6
psi 4.0 4.0
Shear Modulus (Modulus of Rigidity) Full Section
2
10
6
psi 0.50 0.50
Flexural Strength Full Section
2
psi 33,000 33,000
Flange Section - Mechanical

Tensile Strength (LW) D638 psi 40,000 46,000
Tensile Modulus (LW) D638 10
6
psi 4.16 4.16
Compressive Strength (LW) D695 psi 45,770 52,500
Compressive Strength (CW) D695 psi 17,800 20,400
Compressive Modulus (LW) D695 10
6
psi 3.85 3.85
Compressive Modulus (CW) D695 10
6
psi 1.9 1.9
Flexural Strength (LW) D790 psi 42,800 49,200
Flexural Modulus (LW) D790 10
6
psi 2.0 2.0
Interlaminar Shear (LW)
5
D2344 psi 4,000 4,500
Shear Strength By Punch (PF) D732 psi 5,500 6,000
Notched Izod Impact (LW) D256 ft-lbs/in 28 32
Notched Izod Impact (CW) D256 ft-lbs/in 21 24
Maximum Bearing Strength (LW) D953 psi 33,000 38,000
Maximum Bearing Strength (CW)
3
D953 psi 23,000 26,500
Poisson’s Ratio (LW) D3039 in/in 0.35 0.35
Poisson’s Ratio (CW) D3039 in/in 0.12 0.12
Web Section - Mechanical
Tensile Strength (LW) D638 psi 30,300 35,000
Tensile Strength (CW) D638 psi 10,500 12,000
Tensile Modulus (LW) D638 10
6
psi 3.1 3.1
Tensile Modulus (CW) D638 10
6
psi 1.4 1.4
Compressive Strength (LW) D695 psi 37,500 43,125
Compressive Strength (CW) D695 psi 14,200 16,330

Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles are identified with
imprinted veil.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
11

MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections and I-Sections
(cont’d)

Property
(coupon values)

ASTM Test

Units
1500/1525
Series

1625 Series
Web Section - Mechanical
Compressive Modulus (LW) D695 10
6
psi 2.8 2.8
Compressive Modulus (CW) D695 10
6
psi 1.9 1.9
Flexural Strength (LW) D790 psi 43,320 49,800
Flexural Strength (CW) D790 psi 17,360 19,900
Flexural Modulus (LW) D790 10
6
psi 1.9 1.9
Flexural Modulus (CW) D790 10
6
psi 1.75 1.75
Interlaminar Shear (LW)
5
D2344 psi 3,400 3,900
Shear Strength By Punch (PF) D732 psi 5,500 6,000
Notched Izod Impact (LW) D256 ft-lbs/in 38 43
Notched Izod Impact (CW) D256 ft-lbs/in 19 22
Maximum Bearing Strength (LW) D953 psi 33,980 39,000
Maximum Bearing Strength (CW)
3
D953 psi 30,000 34,500
Poisson’s Ratio (LW) D3039 in/in 0.35 0.35
Poisson’s Ratio (CW) D3039 in/in 0.12 0.12
In-plane Shear (LW) Modified D2344
4
psi 7,000 7,000
Physical
Barcol Hardness
1
D2583 33 39
Water Absorption D570 % Max 0.6 0.6
Density D792 lbs/in
3
0.060-0.070 0.060-0.070
Specific Gravity D792 1.66-1.93 1.66-1.93
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) D696 10
-6
in/in/°F 4.4 4.4
Thermal Conductivity (PF) C177 BTU-in/ft
2
/hr/°F 4 4
Electrical
Arc Resistance (LW) D495 seconds 120 120
Dielectric Strength (LW) D149 KV/in 40 40
Dielectric Strength (PF) D149 volts/mil 200 200
Dielectric Constant (PF) D150 @60Hz 5.2 5.2
LW = lengthwise CW = crosswise PF = perpendicular to laminate face

1
Pultex
®
uses a synthetic veil that reduces the Barcol Hardness, but does not reflect lack of cure.
2
Full section testing is based on a 3-point bend with simply supported end conditions (Reference The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion
Global Design Manual Appendix for details).
3
Crosswise bearing strength of the Web sections of 1/4" profiles = 20,500 psi.
4
Follow ASTM D2344, but rotate coupon 90° (cut section of coupon length faces up).
5
Tested on a 3:1, span to depth ratio.

ASTM Test Value Value
Property 1525 1625
Flammability Classification UL94 (VO) (VO)
Tunnel Test ASTM E-84 25 Max 25 Max
Flammability Extinguishing ASTM D635 Self extinguishing Self extinguishing
NBS Smoke Chamber ASTM E662 650 650
Creative Pultrusions, Inc. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication.
However, we assume no obligation or liability, which may arise as a result of its use. While Creative Pultrusions, Inc. has no knowledge that the
information put forth infringes any valid patent, it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s
intended application process or product infringes no patent.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
12
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles
Angles


1500 Series - Thermoset Polyester – Olive Green
1525 Series - Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR – Slate Gray (Dark Gray)
1625 Series - Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR – Beige

The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing. The results are average values
based on random sampling and testing of production lots. Composite materials are not homogeneous; and therefore,
the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results. Creative Pultrusions publishes
an average value of random samples from production lots.

Property
(coupon values)

ASTM Test

Units

1500/1525 Series

1625 Series
Mechanical
Tensile Strength (LW) D638 psi 31,000 35,600
Tensile Strength (CW) D638 psi 16,500 18,900
Tensile Modulus (LW) D638
10
6
psi
3.5 3.5
Tensile Modulus (CW) D638 10
6

psi 1.0 1.0
Compressive Strength (LW) D695 psi 38,800 44,500
Compressive Strength (CW) D695 psi 25,500 29,000
Compressive Modulus (LW) D695 10
6
psi 3.0 3.0
Compressive Modulus (CW) D695 10
6
psi 2.2 2.2
Flexural Strength (LW) D790 psi 43,500 50,000
Flexural Strength (CW) D790 psi 24,000 27,500
Flexural Modulus (LW) D790 10
6
psi 1.9 1.9
Flexural Modulus (CW) D790 10
6
psi 1.6 1.6
Modulus of Elasticity Full Section
2
10
6
psi 2.8 2.8
Shear Modulus Full Section
2
10
6
psi 0.5 0.5
Interlaminar Shear (LW)
4
D2344 psi 3,400 3,900
Shear Strength By Punch (PF) D732 psi 5,500 6,000
Notched Izod Impact (LW) D256 ft-lbs/in 34 39
Notched Izod Impact (CW) D256 ft-lbs/in 33 38
Maximum Bearing Strength (LW) D953 psi 33,000 38,000
Maximum Bearing Strength (CW) D953 psi 33,000 38,000
Poisson’s Ratio (LW) D3039 in/in 0.35 0.35
Poisson’s Ratio (CW) D3039 in/in 0.12 0.12
In-Plane Shear (LW) Modified D2344
3
psi 7,000 7,000
In-Plane Shear (LW) Full Section* psi 3,400 3,900
(through heel of angle)
*Note: Based on Full Section Connection Test





Additional properties located on page 13
Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles are identified with
imprinted veil.
SuperStructural Angle sizes are: 4” x 1/4”, 4” x 3/8”, 6” x 3/8” and 6” x 1/2
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
13
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles
Angles

Property
(coupon values)

ASTM Test

Units

1500/1525 Series

1625 Series
Physical
Barcol Hardness
1
D2583

45 45
Water Absorption D570 % Max 0.6 0.6
Density D792 lbs/in
3
0.060-0.070 0.060-0.070
Specific Gravity D792

1.66-1.93 1.66-1.93
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) D696 10
-6
in/in/°F 4.4 4.4
Thermal Conductivity (PF) C177
BTU-in/ft
2
/hr/°F
4 4

Electrical
Arc Resistance (LW) D495 seconds 120 120
Dielectric Strength (LW) D149 KV/in 40 40
Dielectric Strength (PF) D149 volts/mil 200 200
Dielectric Constant (PF) D150 @60Hz 5.2 5.2
LW = lengthwise CW = crosswise PF = perpendicular to laminate face


1
Pultex

uses a synthetic surface veil that reduces the Barcol Hardness, but does not reflect lack of cure.
2
Full section testing based on a 3-point bend simply supported.
3
Follow ASTM D2344, but rotate coupon 90° (cut section of coupon length faces up).
4
Tested on a 3:1, span to depth ratio.


ASTM Test Value Value
Property 1525 1625
Flammability Classification UL94 (VO) (VO)
Tunnel Test ASTM E84 25 Max 25 Max
Flammability Extinguishing ASTM D635 Self extinguishing Self extinguishing
NBS Smoke Chamber ASTM E662 650 650



















Creative Pultrusions, Inc. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication.
However, we assume no obligation or liability, which may arise as a result of its use. While Creative Pultrusions, Inc. has no knowledge that the
information put forth infringes any valid patent, it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s
intended application process or product infringes no patent.
SuperStructural Angle sizes are: 4” x 1/4”, 4” x 3/8”, 6” x 3/8” and 6” x 1/2
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
14
Procedures For Obtaining Properties

The typical properties listed in this manual were obtained using random samples selected from the
production line, in tests performed according to ASTM or other standard procedures. These tests are
defined in detail in the referenced standards. A short description is provided herein as an introduction for
the designer.

Flexural Properties (ASTM D790)

Flexural strengths are determined by placing a specimen on supports. A center load is applied until
failure occurs and the load of failure is the ultimate flexural strength.

Compressive Strength (ASTM D695)

The ultimate compressive strength of a material is the force required to rupture a specimen, calculated
to psi values.

Bearing Strength of Plastics (ASTM D953)

This procedure is for determining the ultimate bearing capacity of a specimen. Please note that this
procedure is not being used for 4% elongation. Consult Creative Pultrusions, Inc. for 4% hole
elongation bearing load numbers.

Tensile Strength (ASTM D638)

A coupon is used to determine the modulus of elasticity of the material based on a ratio of stress and
strain.

Izod Impact (ASTM D256)

Impact values are determined by clamping a notched specimen, typically 1-inch, in a testing device,
employing a swinging pendulum to apply the force. The amount of force required to break the
specimen is then calculated in foot pounds per inch of notch in prepared specimens.

Shear Strength by Punch Tool (ASTM D732)

Shear strength values are obtained by mounting a specimen in a punch-type fixture with a 1-inch
diameter punch. The strengths are then determined by force/area.

Barcol Hardness (ASTM D2583)

Barcol hardness is determined by the resistance of a coupon to the indentation of a spring-driven
indentor. Reinforced materials will have a wide range of values; therefore, ten readings are taken and
the average is reported.

Water Absorption (ASTM D570)

Coupons are immersed in water for twenty-four hours or longer. The percentage of weight increase is
then reported as water absorption. This value is important when profiles are to be used in electrical
and corrosive applications.

Specific Gravity (ASTM D792)

Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a material to an equal amount of water. Specific gravity is
important in pricing.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
15

Arc Resistance (ASTM D495)

Arc resistance is a measure of the ability of the laminate to resist the conduction of a high-voltage,
low-current charge to arc the surface.

Dielectric Strength (ASTM D149)

Dielectric strength is a measure of a profile as an insulator. Two electrodes are placed on either side
of a coupon. If a current passes through the laminate, this constitutes failure. Short-time in oil is the
most commonly used method for pultrusion. Longitudinal values are obtained using 1-inch sections
and the current is applied parallel to the fiber orientation.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion - CTE (ASTM D696)

CTE value is obtained by measuring the linear expansion of a coupon in temperature ranges of -30 °C
to +30 °C.

Thermal Conductivity (ASTM C177)

The thermal conductivity test is performed using a guarded hot plate. The thermal transmission values
of the specimen are then recorded.

The above tests are primarily used for the determination of published physical values.

Weathering (ASTM G53)

The weathering test is very useful for profiles used in outdoor exposures. The test is performed by
exposing coupons to artificial weather conditions, simulating the deterioration caused by sunlight and
water, as rain or dew. The extent of this test and the results obtained are determined by the end-use
application.


Table 3-7 Typical Electrical Properties of Pultex
®
Profiles
Electrical Property Pultex
®
1500 1525 & 1625 Series
Dielectric Strength, ASTM D149
(tested perpendicular to laminate face)

7.9 kV/mm
Dielectric Strength, ASTM D149
(tested lengthwise)

1.58 kV/mm
Dielectric Constant, 60 Hz., ASTM D150
(tested perpendicular to laminate face)

5.2
Dissipation Factor 60 Hz., ASTM D150
(tested perpendicular to laminate face)

0.03
Arc Resistance, ASTM-D495
(indicates reported value-measured in longitudinal
direction)

120 Seconds

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
16
Safety Factors

Because empirical mathematical analysis of strength characteristics of a composite are difficult to predict,
reliance on experimentally derived properties has been used. Factors of safety have thus been used to
compensate for any uncertainties or variables involved with the composite material.

Current practices have used safety factors from “2” to “10”, depending on the application. When using
standard structural profiles, it is common practice to use a safety factor of “3” for shear and “2” for
bending. It is acceptable to use a safety factor of “1” for deflection, as full section bending tests can
verify the E-Modulus of a particular profile.

Elements Of Sections

The Elements of Section Tables contain the properties of profiles which are stocked or produced from
tooling owned by Creative Pultrusions. It is good practice to check on availability before designing from
these lists.

The properties were calculated from nominal dimensions. Actual size will vary within the parameters
allowed by the ASTM D3917 specification.

Some of the section weights are calculated based on density and slight variances may occur.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
17
Elements of Sections



Pultex
®
Equal Leg Angles






Part Thick- X-X axis or Y-Y axis
Number Depth(h) Width(b) ness(t) Area Weight I S r r
z
in in in in
2
lb/ft in
4
in
3
in in
AE120 1.00 1.00 0.125 0.22 0.17 0.021 0.030 0.304 0.182
AE140 1.00 1.00 0.250 0.42 0.31 0.035 0.053 0.286 0.183
AE122 1.50 1.50 0.125 0.35 0.25 0.075 0.071 0.465 0.284
AE130 1.50 1.50 0.1875 0.51 0.38 0.106 0.101 0.455 0.282
AE142 1.50 1.50 0.250 0.67 0.51 0.133 0.129 0.445 0.281
AE220 2.00 2.00 0.125 0.47 0.35 0.186 0.129 0.626 0.386
AE230 2.00 2.00 0.1875 0.70 0.53 0.266 0.187 0.616 0.383
AE240 2.00 2.00 0.250 0.92 0.68 0.338 0.241 0.606 0.381
AE320 3.00 3.00 0.125 0.72 0.56 0.651 0.297 0.949 0.590
AE330 3.00 3.00 0.1875 1.08 0.78 0.947 0.435 0.938 0.587
AE340 3.00 3.00 0.250 1.42 1.06 1.223 0.568 0.927 0.584
AE360 3.00 3.00 0.375 2.09 1.74 1.721 0.815 0.908 0.578
AE440 4.00 4.00 0.250 1.92 1.59 3.002 1.034 1.250 0.787
AE460 4.00 4.00 0.375 2.84 2.28 4.290 1.499 1.230 0.780
AE480 4.00 4.00 0.500 3.72 3.01 5.451 1.934 1.211 0.774
AE640 6.00 6.00 0.250 2.92 2.29 10.491 2.382 1.895 1.194
AE660 6.00 6.00 0.375 4.34 3.57 15.230 3.492 1.874 1.185
AE680 6.00 6.00 0.500 5.72 4.66 19.654 4.552 1.854 1.177










The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
18

Pultex
®
Square Tubes


Part Width or Thick- X-X axis or Y-Y axis
Number Depth(h) ness(t) Area Weight I S r
in in in
2
lb/ft in
4
in
3
in
TQ120 1.00 0.125 0.42 0.33 0.05 0.11 0.36
TQ140 1.25 0.250 0.93 0.76 0.16 0.26 0.42
TQ124 1.50 0.125 0.67 0.48 0.21 0.28 0.56
TQ142 1.50 0.250 1.24 0.92 0.33 0.44 0.52
TQ126 1.75 0.125 0.80 0.54 0.35 0.40 0.66
TQ144 1.75 0.250 1.48 1.12 0.57 0.67 0.62
TQ220 2.00 0.125 0.92 0.69 0.53 0.53 0.76
TQ230 2.11 0.190 1.44 1.08 0.89 0.84 0.78
TQ240 2.00 0.250 1.73 1.40 0.89 0.89 0.72
TQ242 2.50 0.250 2.24 1.79 1.90 1.52 0.92
TQ340 3.00 0.250 2.74 2.16 3.47 2.31 1.13
TQ360 3.5 .375 4.68 3.70 7.71 4.40 1.28
TQ440 4.00 0.250 3.73 2.96 8.75 4.37 1.53
CT045 5.20 0.375 7.00 5.82 26.73 10.28 1.95
TQ660 6.00 0.375 8.48 7.47 44.93 14.98 2.30





Part Outside Inside Thick- X-X axis
Number Diameter (D) Diameter (d) ness(t) Area Weight I S r
in in in in
2
lb/ft in
4
in
3
in
TU005 .75 0.56 .0937 0.19 0.17 0.01 0.03 0.23
TU120 1.00 0.75 .125 0.34 0.28 0.03 0.07 0.31
TU122 1.25 1.00 .125 0.44 0.34 0.07 0.11 0.40
TU118 1.25 1.00 .0937 0.34 0.27 0.06 0.09 0.41
TU143 1.50 1.00 .25 0.98 0.77 0.20 0.27 0.45
TU124 1.50 1.25 .125 0.54 0.42 0.13 0.17 0.49
TU142 1.75 1.25 .25 0.91 0.64 0.34 0.39 0.54
TU126 1.75 1.50 .125 0.64 0.50 0.21 0.24 0.58
TU240 2.00 1.50 .25 1.37 1.08 0.54 0.54 0.63
TU220 2.00 1.75 .125 0.73 0.64 0.33 0.33 0.66
TU242 2.50 2.00 .25 1.77 1.32 1.13 0.91 0.80
TU222 2.50 2.25 .125 0.93 0.62 0.66 0.53 0.84
TU340 3.00 2.50 .25 2.16 1.66 2.06 1.37 0.98
TU342 3.50 2.94 0.28 2.84 2.04 3.71 2.12 1.14

Pultex
®
Round Tubes

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
19

Pultex
®
Wide Flange Sections


Part Thick- X-X axis Y-Y axis Design
Number Depth(h) Width(b) ness(t) Area Weight I S r I S r J C
w
in in in in
2
lb/ft in
4
in
3
in in
4
in
3
in in
4
in
6
IW340 3.00 3.00 .25 2.17 1.84 3.23 2.15 1.22 1.11 0.74 0.71 0.047 2.49
IW440 4.00 4.00 .25 2.92 2.44 8.05 4.03 1.66 2.63 1.32 0.95 0.063 10.52
IW640 6.00 6.00 .25 4.42 3.64 28.58 9.53 2.54 8.91 4.46 1.42 0.094 80.21
IW660 6.00 6.00 .375 6.57 5.53 40.76 13.59 2.49 13.32 4.44 1.42 0.316 119.84
IW860 8.00 8.00 .375 8.82 7.26 100.35 25.09 3.37 31.65 7.91 1.90 0.422 506.46
IW880 8.00 8.00 .50 11.67 9.99 128.81 32.20 3.32 42.09 10.52 1.90 1.000 673.41
IW960 10.00 10.00 .375 11.07 9.07 200.45 40.09 4.26 61.94 12.39 2.37 0.527 1548.59
IW980 10.00 10.00 .50 14.67 12.03 259.36 51.87 4.20 82.38 16.48 2.37 1.250 2059.52
IW982 12.00 12.00 .50 17.67 14.92 457.26 76.21 5.09 142.59 23.77 2.84 1.500 5133.35



Pultex
®
I-Sections


Part Thick- X-X axis Y-Y axis Design
Number Depth(h) Width(b) ness(t) Area Weight I S r I S r J C
w
in in in in
2
lb/ft in
4
in
3
in in
4
in
3
in in
4
in
6
IB340 3.00 1.50 .25 1.42 1.01 1.803 1.202 1.178 0.140 0.186 0.314 0.031 0.315
IB440 4.00 2.00 .25 1.92 1.63 4.530 2.265 1.537 0.329 0.329 0.414 0.042 1.316
IB640 6.00 3.00 .25 2.92 2.39 16.17 5.39 2.35 1.11 0.74 0.62 0.063 9.99
IB660 6.00 3.00 .375 4.32 3.78 22.93 7.64 2.31 1.67 1.11 0.62 0.211 15.00
IB860 8.00 4.00 .375 5.82 4.74 56.71 14.18 3.12 3.95 1.97 0.82 0.281 63.12
IB880 8.00 4.00 .50 7.67 6.45 72.48 18.12 3.07 5.27 2.63 0.82 0.667 84.26
IB960 10.00 5.00 .375 7.32 6.06 113.55 22.71 3.94 7.71 3.08 1.03 0.352 192.80
IB980 10.00 5.00 .50 9.67 7.93 146.45 29.29 3.89 10.27 4.11 1.03 0.833 256.84
IB982 12.00 6.00 .50 11.67 9.83 258.76 43.13 4.71 17.76 5.92 1.23 1.000 639.33



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
20


Pultex
®
Rectangular Tubes




Part Thick- X-X axis Y-Y axis
Number Depth(h) Width(b) ness(t) Area Weight I S r I S r
in in in in
2
lb/ft in
4
in
3
in in
4
in
3
in
TR120 0.80 1.165 0.110 0.366 0.264 0.033 0.083 0.300 0.059 0.101 0.402
TR420 4.40 1.43 0.130 1.38 1.03 2.89 1.31 1.45 0.49 0.68 0.59
TR422 4.74 1.72 0.125 1.57 1.17 4.20 1.77 1.64 0.79 0.91 0.71
TR440 4.00 1.74 0.250 1.74 1.37 3.92 1.96 1.50 0.78 0.90 0.67
TR522 5.08 2.00 0.125 1.77 1.44 5.75 2.26 1.80 1.20 1.20 0.82
TR620 *6.00 2.00 0.125 2.39 2.00 9.34 3.11 1.98 1.61 1.61 0.82
TR640 6.00 4.00 0.250 4.62 3.85 22.31 7.44 2.20 11.84 5.92 1.61
TR740 7.00 4.00 0.250 5.20 4.08 33.61 9.61 2.54 13.91 6.95 1.64
TR760 7.00 4.00 0.375 7.63 5.99 47.58 13.60 2.50 19.25 9.63 1.59
TR815 *8.00 1.00 0.125 2.45 1.84 14.14 3.54 2.40 0.40 0.81 0.41
TR842 8.00 4.00 0.250 5.70 4.48 46.80 11.70 2.87 15.67 7.83 1.66
TR860 8.00 4.00 0.375 8.38 6.52 66.63 16.66 2.82 21.73 10.86 1.61
*Contains internal webs
















The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
21








Part Thick- X-X axis Y-Y axis
Number Depth(h) Width(b) ness(t) Area Weight I S r I S r
in in in in
2
lb/ft in
4
in
3
in in
4
in
3
in
AU120
1.25 .750 .125 0.22 0.17 0.035 0.044 0.394 0.010 0.017 0.207
AU122
1.50 1.00 0.125 0.29 0.23 0.065 0.066 0.477 0.024 0.032 0.288
AU220
2.00 1.00 .125 0.35 0.26 0.144 0.114 0.643 0.026 0.033 0.271
AU230
2.00 1.00 .1875 0.51 0.39 0.206 0.165 0.633 0.035 0.046 0.262
AU240
2.00 1.00 .25 0.67 0.50 0.261 0.212 0.623 0.043 0.059 0.254
AU242
2.00 1.25 .25 0.73 0.55 0.285 0.222 0.623 0.085 0.093 0.340
AU222
2.00 1.50 .125 0.41 0.31 0.168 0.123 0.640 0.083 0.073 0.449
AU244
2.00 1.50 .25 0.80 0.60 0.305 0.230 0.619 0.146 0.135 0.429
AU224
2.25 1.50 .1875 0.65 0.49 0.334 0.224 0.715 0.121 0.107 0.429
AU320
2.63 1.63 .125 0.50 0.38 0.365 0.209 0.851 0.112 0.089 0.472
AU322
3.00 1.00 .125 0.47 0.35 0.440 0.244 0.964 0.028 0.034 0.243
AU330
3.00 1.50 .125 0.54 0.40 0.511 0.264 0.977 0.092 0.077 0.415
AU340
3.00 1.50 .1875 0.80 0.60 0.743 0.388 0.966 0.130 0.111 0.405
AU332
3.00 1.50 .25 1.05 0.79 0.957 0.505 0.956 0.164 0.142 0.396
AU342
3.00 2.00 .1875 0.89 0.67 0.825 0.408 0.963 0.301 0.197 0.582
AU360
3.00 2.00 0.250 1.17 0.91 1.064 0.532 0.953 0.383 0.255 0.572
AU440
3.00 2.00 .375 1.71 1.28 1.493 0.762 0.934 0.526 0.360 0.554
AU460
4.00 2.00 .25 1.42 1.07 2.362 0.922 1.289 0.413 0.263 0.539
AU442
4.00 2.00 .375 2.09 1.57 3.359 1.333 1.269 0.568 0.373 0.522
AU462
4.00 3.00 .25 1.67 1.25 2.730 0.989 1.278 1.335 0.590 0.894
AU580
4.00 3.00 .375 2.46 1.85 3.894 1.434 1.258 1.882 0.848 0.874
AU640
5.00 3.50 .50 3.97 2.98 9.814 2.934 1.573 3.962 1.526 0.999
AU660
6.00 4.00 .25 2.42 1.82 9.183 2.240 1.947 3.378 1.088 1.181
AU680
6.00 4.00 .375 3.59 2.69 13.311 3.280 1.926 4.835 1.580 1.161
AU911
6.00 4.00 .50 4.72 3.54 17.146 4.272 1.906 6.156 2.041 1.142


Pultex
®
Unequal Leg Angles
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
22

Pultex
®
Channels


Part Thick- X-X axis Y-Y axis
Number Depth(h) Width(b) ness(t) Area Weight I S r I S r
in in in in
2
lb/ft in
4
in
3
in in
4
in
3
in
CH130 1.50 1.00 .1875 0.55 0.49 0.167 0.222 0.551 0.048 0.076 0.297
CH222 2.00 0.56 .125 0.34 0.30 0.164 0.164 0.692 0.007 0.018 0.147
CH230 2.31 1.00 0.16 0.60 0.42 0.433 0.375 0.852 0.051 0.071 0.291
CH224 2.75 1.00 .125 0.56 0.45 0.586 0.426 1.024 0.046 0.061 0.286
CH340 3.00 .875 .25 1.00 0.78 1.018 0.678 1.011 0.050 0.080 0.223
CH330 3.00 1.00 .1875 0.83 0.63 0.945 0.630 1.068 0.062 0.086 0.275
CH342 3.00 1.50 .25 1.31 1.02 1.611 1.074 1.110 0.255 0.248 0.441
CH420 4.00 1.06 .125 0.71 0.58 1.456 0.728 1.431 0.060 0.072 0.290
CH434 4.00 1.75 .1875 1.10 0.87 2.850 1.425 1.607 0.333 0.275 0.550
CH440 4.00 1.13 .25 1.37 1.07 2.628 1.314 1.384 0.118 0.142 0.293
CH540 5.00 1.38 .25 1.75 1.36 5.385 2.154 1.756 0.231 0.223 0.364
CH640 6.00 1.63 .25 2.12 1.65 9.611 3.204 2.129 0.402 0.323 0.435
CH662 6.00 1.69 .375 3.10 2.64 13.427 4.476 2.081 0.621 0.503 0.447
CH740 7.00 2.00 .25 2.57 2.10 16.420 4.692 2.530 0.794 0.517 0.556
CH840 8.00 2.19 .25 2.91 2.30 24.300 6.075 2.890 1.068 0.628 0.606
CH860 8.00 2.19 .375 4.23 3.30 33.751 8.437 2.826 1.470 0.890 0.590
CH922 10.00 2.75 .125 1.88 1.47 25.885 5.177 3.706 1.180 0.534 0.791
CH980 10.00 2.75 0.50 7.01 5.95 86.876 17.375 3.519 3.828 1.855 0.739
CH995 11.50 2.75 0.50 7.78 6.35 124.581 21.666 4.001 4.054 1.930 0.722
CH800 14.00 6.00 0.50 12.17 10.44 349.085 49.869 5.357 40.762 9.273 1.831
CH990 24.00 3.00 .25 7.33 5.66 475.404 39.617 8.054 3.374 1.300 0.679
CH994 24.00 4.00 0.47 14.52 11.21 985.090 82.090 8.237 13.710 4.143 0.972


Pultex
®
Solid Round Rods

Part X-X axis or Y-Y axis
Number Diameter(d) Area Weight I S r
in in
2
lb/ft in
4
in
3
in
SO004 .25 0.049 0.043 <0.001 0.002 0.063
SO006 .375 0.110 0.096 0.001 0.005 0.094
SO008 .50 0.196 0.173 0.003 0.012 0.125
SO010 .625 0.307 0.275 0.008 0.024 0.156
SO012 .75 0.442 0.397 0.016 0.041 0.188
SO016 1.00 0.785 0.685 0.049 0.098 0.250
SO020 1.25 1.227 1.100 0.120 0.192 0.313
SO024 1.50 1.767 1.535 0.249 0.331 0.375
SO032 2.00 3.142 2.560 0.785 0.785 0.500


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 3
23



Pultex
®
Solid Bars



Part X-X axis Y-Y axis
Number Depth(h) Width(b) Area Weight I S r I S r
in in in
2
lb/ft in
4
in
3
in in
4
in
3
in
SQ040 0.25 0.25 0.06 0.052 < .001 0.002 0.07 < .001 0.002 0.07
SQ011 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.809 0.080 0.161 0.285 0.080 0.161 0.285
SQ020 1.23 1.23 1.51 1.27 0.189 0.306 0.354 0.189 0.306 0.354
SQ024 1.46 1.46 2.12 1.84 0.373 0.510 0.419 0.373 0.510 0.419




Pultex
®
Sludge Flights





Part X-X axis Y-Y axis
Number Depth(h) Width(b) Area Weight I S r I S r
in in in
2
lb/ft in
4
in
3
in in
4
in
3
in
SF011 6.00 2.50 1.64 1.52 7.81 2.77 2.18 1.02 0.58 0.79
SF021 8.00 2.50 1.87 1.67 15.59 4.11 2.88 1.11 0.60 0.77


















The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
1

Chapter 4 Load Tables for Flexural Members and Connections

Beam Deflections - A pultruded beam will be designed for deflection, strength and buckling.

Fiber reinforced composite beams exhibit both flexural and shear deflections. Shear deflections are most
apparent when the spans to depth ratios are less than 20. At short spans, the shear deflections comprise a
significant portion of the actual deflections; therefore, the designer should always account for shear
deflections when designing with composites. Reference Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural
Profiles Material Properties Sheets for the appropriate properties of the profiles for which you are
utilizing in your design.

Although coupon testing is a good quality control method, composite materials are not homogeneous and
will exhibit different properties in the web and flange areas. Deflection predictions should be made with
values based on full section testing. Please reference Appendix B per ASTM D198 for full section testing
procedure.

The Allowable Uniform Load Tables were calculated using physical properties that were derived from
full section testing. The Load Tables are based on simply supported end conditions with uniformly
distributed loads. For beam loadings and end conditions not represented in the Allowable Uniform Load
Tables, reference the Beam Deflection Formula and relative design tables.

The following formula was used to predict the deflections in The Allowable Uniform Load Tables:

∆ = 5wL
4
+ w L
2
Where:
384 EI 8A′G A′ = kA
w
(in
2
)


A
w
= Shear area of profile (in
2
) (Ref. Table 2)
k = Shear coefficients (Ref. Table 2)
E
x
= Modulus of elasticity (psi)
G = Modulus of rigidity (Shear Modulus) (psi)
I = Moment of inertia (in
4
)
L = Length of span (in)
∆ = Deflection (in)
w = Load on the beam (lbs./in)

Allowable Stresses

Fiber reinforced composite beams exhibit compressive, flexural, and shear stresses under various load
conditions. The dominating failure mode for long span flexural members is typically local buckling of
the compressive flange, while short spans are dominated by in-plane shear failures.

Safety Factors

The allowable stresses used in The Allowable Uniform Load Tables are based on the ultimate
compressive buckling, flexural and shear strengths with applied safety factors. Specifically, a “2.5”
safety factor is used for local buckling and flexural stresses while a “3” safety factor is used for shear. The
following shear and flexure formula were used to predict the Allowable Loads.


V=f
v
(A
w
); where f
v
= allowable shear stress = 7,000/3 = 2,333psi (Equation P-4)


M= f
b
(S
x
); where f
b
= allowable flexural stress = 33,000/2.5 = 13,200 psi (Equation P-5)


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
2



Local Buckling of the Compression Flange for Wide Flange, I-Sections, Square Tube and
Rectangular Tube Sections

The local compression buckling strength of pultruded wide flange, I-Sections, square tubes and
rectangular tubes can be determined by utilizing the following equations. The local bucking equations
were derived from University research. (Reference Step by Step Design Equations for Fiber-reinforced
Plastic Beams for Transportation Structures)Davalos,Barbero and Qiao


Where, σ
x
is the critical stress, and p and q are constants that are defined by the coefficient of
restraint (ζ) at the junction of the plates:


I/W sections:


Box sections:

Where:

σ
x
cr
= Critical buckling stress in (psi)
b = Half the width of the compression flange for I/W sections (in)
b = The width of the compression flange for box sections, b=b
f
(in)
b
f
= Width of the compression flange (in)
b
w
= Height of the section (in)
E
x
= Longitudinal modulus of elasticity (psi)
E
y
= Transverse modulus of elasticity (psi)
f = Flange
G
xy
= Modulus of rigidity (Shear Modulus) (psi)
p

= Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ)
q

= Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ)
t = Thickness of the compression flange (in)
ζ = Coefficient of restraint of the compression plates
w = Web


( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
f
xy
f
xy
f
y
f
y f x
2
f
2
cr
x
G 2 E p E E 2 q
b
t
12
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ν
π
σ
( )
( ) 2
;
2
;
4 . 0
065 . 0
025 . 0 ;
5 . 0
004 . 0
3 . 0
f
w
y f
f
y w b
b
E b
E b
q p = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ = ζ
ζ ζ
( )
( )
f
w
y f
f
y w
b b
E b
E b
q p = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ = ; ;
2 . 0
08 . 0
0 . 1 ;
3 . 1
002 . 0
0 . 2 ζ
ζ ζ
(Equation P-3)


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
3
Lateral-Torsional Buckling

The Allowable Uniform Loads in the Allowable Uniform Load Tables are derived assuming that adequate
lateral support is provided for the flexural members. The degree of lateral support for structures is
difficult to predict. Figures a.– d. represent common bracing scenarios that are considered to provide
adequate lateral support. Note that the bracing intervals must be adequate. In the event that lateral
support is not used, the designer must investigate lateral torsional buckling criteria. The Allowable
Uniform Load Tables contain a column titled Allowable load, laterally unsupported beam global buckling
capacity. Please note that the global buckling load tables include a 2.5x safety factor.

For I-Sections or Wide Flange Sections, the lateral torsional buckling load for various loading conditions
can be determined by using the following equation:

Design Equation for Lateral-Torsional Buckling



Where, for Wide Flange Sections and I-Sections






(Equation P-1)
J G I E I C
KL
E
KL
C M
y y y w
b
y
b
b cr
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
π
π
( )
3 3
2
3
1
w f
ht bt J + =
4
2
y
w
I h
C =


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
4
C
w
= Warping constant (in
6
)
J = Torsion constant (in
4
)
C
b
= Moment variation constant (Ref. Table 4-1)
M
cr
= Critical moment (in-lbs.)
L
b
= Unsupported length between points that have lateral restraint (in)
E
y
= Modulus of elasticity for bending about minor axis y-y (psi)
(Use same value as Ex, for simplicity. Values are very similar) E
y
≈E
x

G = Shear modulus (psi)
K = Effective length coefficient (Ref. Table 4-1)
I
y
= Moment of Intertia about the minor axis

C
b
is a moment gradient adjuster, that depends on the type of load and end restraint conditions. Values
for C
b
can be located in Table 4-1.

Table 4-1
Lateral Buckling Coefficient for Various End Conditions
1


Lateral Support
about y-axis
Moment gradient
adjuster (C
b
)
Effective length
coefficient (K)
None 1.0 1.0
None
Full
1.13
0.97
1.0
0.5
None
Full
1.30
0.86
1.0
0.5
None
Full
1.35
1.07
1.0
0.5
None
Full
1.70
1.04
1.0
0.5


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
5
Stress Calculations for Channels

INTRODUCTION
Channel sections are used extensively in composite structures. Due to the fact that channel sections are
rarely, if ever loaded through the shear center (see Figure 1), a firm understanding of the behavior of
loaded channels must be understood. The following design equations were developed based on combined
experimental, analytical and numerical study of five FRP channel sections, which are representative of the
shapes currently used in practice. The information gained from the five channel sections was used to
derive the local and lateral buckling loads for all of the channel sections produced by CPI.

The five beams studied include the following channels 4”x1-1/8”x1/4”, 6”x1-5/8”x1/4”, 6”x1-
11/16”x3/8”, 8”x2-3/16”/3/8”, 10”x2-3/4”x1/2”. All the five channel sections were analyzed, and the
developed analytical solutions and design formulas were compared with the commercial finite element
modeling using ANSYS (Qiao 2003).

Figure 1 FRP channel shapes

Local Buckling of FRP Channels
A variational formulation of Ritz method (Qiao and Zou 2002; Qiao and Zou 2003) was used to establish
an eigenvalue problem, and the flange and web critical local buckling coefficients were determined. In
the local buckling analysis, the panels of FRP channel shapes were simulated as discrete laminated plates
or panels (Figure 2) (Qiao et al. 2001), and the effects of restraint at the flange-web connection are
considered. The flange of pultruded FRP channel sections were modeled as a discrete panel with elastic
restraint at one unloaded edge and free at the other unloaded edge (restrained-free (RF) condition) and
subjected to uniform distributed axial in-plane force along simply supported loaded edges; whereas for
the web, the panel is modeled as a discrete plate with equal elastic restraints at two unloaded edges
(restrained-restrained (RR) condition) (Figure 2b).
w
h
t
t
e
x x
Centroid
y
y
Shear
center


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
6



Figure 2 Modeling of Local Buckling of FRP Channel Shapes

For the flange panels under compression, the formula of plate local buckling strength, (N
x
)
cr
, with
elastically restrained at one unloaded edge and free at the other (Figure 2a) is given as (Qiao and Zou
2003)
( ) |
|
xy
y x xy y
f
cr x
G
E E v E
b
t
N
) 3 6 4 ( 40
) 10 15 6 ( ) 2 ( 49 . 15 ) 3 2 ( 20
) 10 15 6 ( 12
2
2
2 2
3
ξ ξ
ξ ξ ξ ξ
ξ ξ
+ + +
+ + + + + −
+ +
=

(1)
where, E
x
, E
y
, G
xy
and v
xy
are the material properties of the channel sections. t and b
f
are the thickness and
width of the flange; ξ is the coefficient of restraint for flange-web connection and is given as
) 2 ( ) (
) ( 6
1
1
2
2
2
xy xy y y x
xy
f
w
f
w
G v E E E
G
b
b b
b
+ +

=
π
ξ (2)
where b
w
is the width of the web panel (Figure 2). The critical aspect ratio (γ = a/b, where a is the length
of the panel) of the flange panel is defined as
x
x
y
y
Flange
Web
Free edge
Restraint from web
(a) discrete plate of flange
(b) discrete plate of web
a
h
w
N
cr
N
cr
N
cr
N
cr
a
b
b
Restraint from flange
Restraint from flange


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
7
4
1
2
2
) 2 (
) 9 18 10 (
1287 . 1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+
+ +
=
y
x
cr
E
E
m
ξ
ξ ξ ξ
γ (3)
where m is the number of buckling half waves.

Thus, the critical stress due to the local buckling of the channel can be computed as
( )
t
N
cr x
cr
= σ (4)

The explicit formulas for the critical aspect ratio (γ = a/b, where a = length and b = width) are also given
in Equation (3). From Equation (3), the desirable locations of restraint supports or bracings can be
obtained. Based on the critical aspect ratios for local buckling, the number and locations of restraint (or
lateral) supports can be recommended and properly designed.

Lateral Buckling of FRP Channels

Figure 3 Experimental testing for lateral buckling of FRP channel shapes

Since two back-to-back channels have similar behavior of I-section, the lateral buckling behavior of a
single channel may be similar to the one of I-section; however, the applied load in the channel section
must be acted at the shear center of the channel section (see Figure 1). For uniform FRP channel section
(i.e., both the web and flanges have the same material properties and thickness), the shear center (e in
Figure 1) can be simply defined as (Boresi and Schmidt 2003):
w h
w
or
b b
b
e
f w
f
6
3
6
3
2
2
+
=
+
= (5)
where b
f
(= w) and b
w
(= h) are the widths of flange and web, respectively (Figure 1).


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
8

For long-span FRP channel beams without lateral supports and with relatively large slenderness ratios,
lateral buckling is prone to happen. Based on Vlasov’s theory (Pandey et al. 1995), a simplified
engineering equation for lateral buckling of an “I” section is adapted for prediction of lateral buckling of
channel section. The lateral buckling of channel sections under a tip load (cantilever beam) through the
shear center is approximated as:

2
L
JG I E
P
yy x
cr
γ = (6)
where

+
+ +
+ =
2
) 10 (
) 3 )( 13 ( 3 . 19
1 08 . 5
κ
κ κ
κ
γ
ww
I
JGL
2
= κ
JG
G t b G t b
xy f f f xy w w w
= +
2
3 3
3 3
( ) ( )

I
E t b b E t b
E t b
ww
x f f w f x f f f
x w w w
= + +
( ) ( )
( )
2 3 3 3
3 3
24 36 144

and I
yy
is the moment of inertial of the channel section along the weak axis.

The P
cr
or tip load applied through the shear center that causes the channel to lateral buckle can be related
back to a moment applied to the beam. The moment relation can be used to predict the lateral buckling
capacity of channel sections for any given load scenario. The buckling loads derived from Equation (5)
were characterized for all the channel sections offered by CPI.

Master Design Curves

Based on the design formulas and critical loads for local buckling and global (lateral) buckling, a master
design chart for stability of FRP channel beams was developed. The master design curve provides the
relationship between moment capacity and unbraced length.



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
9
The moment capacity can be utilized for channel beams with various end conditions and load scenarios.
The moment charts are based on equation (6):

L P M
cr cr
= (7)

where the maximum load P
cr
was determined from the cantilever beam loadings. The ultimate local
buckling moment is also applied to the charts. The ultimate local buckling moment should always be
evaluated against the ultimate lateral or global buckling capacity. Corresponding to the lateral or global
buckling, the critical stress can be defined as

2
h
I
M
xx
cr
cr
= σ (8)
where I
xx
is the moment of inertial of the channel section along the strong axis (Figure 1), and h is the
height of the channel.

To facilitate the design of stability of FRP channel sections, a step-by-step design guideline is
recommended as follows:
1. Obtain the channel material properties from the Channel Material Property Sheets.
2. Use Eq. (1) to predict the local buckling strength of flange.
3. Predict the global (lateral) buckling of channel sections using Eq. (6).
Obtain the critical stress of the channel using Eq. (4) or (8) based on the mode of buckling (either local or
lateral buckling).
4. Determine the shear capacity based on Equation P-4.
5. Determine the flexural capacity based on Equation P-5.

To simplify the complex equations, reference Local and Global Buckling of FRP Channels Equation
Solutions spreadsheet on the following page. For information on Ultimate Moment Capacity versus
Lateral Restraint, reference graphs in Uniform Load
Table Section.


Please reference Example 4 and 5 of the Examples Section for details on how to use the channel load
tables.


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
10
Local and Global Buckling of FRP
Channels


Part# CH340
3” x 7/8” x 1/4”
t 0.25 ξ 21.5180 I
yy
0.0495
bw 3 n1 -465878835 γ 6.1895
bf 0.875 n2 9162437283 κ 35.9709
H 3 n3 3.0444E+10 JG 12369.7917
L 24 Ncr 13,423 I
ww
198,077
γ
cr
5.8011 I
xx
1.0181

Part# CH342
3” x 1-1/2” x 1/4”
t 0.25 ξ 3.3030 I
yy
0.2545
bw 3 n1 -83363686.6 γ 8.0666
bf 1.5 n2 792774089 κ 9.3516
H 3 n3 1130965423 JG 15625
L 24 Ncr 6,469 I
ww
962,402
γ
cr
3.8565 I
xx
1.6106

Part# CH440
4” x 1-1/8” x 1/4”
t 0.25 ξ 13.8450 I
yy
0.1163
bw 4 n1 -304744205 γ 7.4907
bf 1.12 n2 4929454298 κ 12.9081
H 4 n3 1.3242E+10 JG 16250
L 24 Ncr 8,705 I
ww
725,127

γ
cr

5.2454
I
xx

2.6197

Part# CH540
5” x 1-3/8” x 1/4”
t 0.25 ξ 11.9570609
I
yy

0.2392
bw 5 n1
-265098279 γ 10.7978971
bf 1.375 n2
4028140115 κ 3.1513253
H 5 n3
1.0093E+10
JG
20182.2917
L 18 Ncr
5,909
I
ww

2,075,020
γ
cr
5.07661682 I
xx
5.4233

Part# CH640
6” x 1-5/8” x 1/4”
t 0.25 ξ 10.7162 I
yy
0.4021
bw 6 n1 -239040145 γ 11.1573204
bf 1.625 n2 3469540947 κ 2.82973134
H 6 n3 8256156885 JG 24088.5417
L 24 Ncr 4,307 I
ww
4,903,292
γ
cr
4.9554 I
xx
9.6207

Part# CH662
6” x 1-11/16” x 3/8”
t 0.375 ξ 14.4455 I
yy
0.6213
bw 6 n1 -317355211 γ 9.1504
bf 1.688 n2 5228598198 κ 5.6677
H 6 n3 1.4334E+10 JG 82406.25
L 24 Ncr 12,852 I
ww
8,374,797
γ
cr
5.2957 I
xx
13.4285






Part# CH740
7” x 2” x 1/4”
t 0.25 ξ 16.8153185 I
yy
0.7944
bw 7 n1 -367121688 γ 14.3667987
bf 2 n2 6464727906 κ 1.33364906
H 7 n3 1.9063E+10 JG 28645.8333
L 24 Ncr 2,654 I
ww
12,372,070
γcr 5.48116546 I
xx
16.4203

Part# CH840
8” x 2-3/16” x 1/4”
t 0.25 ξ 11.4811 I
yy
1.069
bw 8 n1 -255103569 γ 16.8423
bf 2.188 n2 3810621431 κ 0.8786
H 8 n3 9366704901 JG 32229.1667
L 24 Ncr 2,349 I
ww
21,129,723
γ
cr
5.0312 I
xx
24.3035

Part# CH860
8” x 2-3/16” x 3/8”
t 0.375 ξ 11.4811 I
yy
1.4698
bw 8 n1 -255103569 γ 9.8023
bf 2.188 n2 3810621431 κ 4.4008
H 8 n3 9366704901 JG 108773.438
L 36 Ncr 7,927 I
ww
32,032,657
γ
cr
5.0312 I
xx
33.7508


Part# CH955
11-1/2” x 2-3/4” x 1/2”
t 0.5 ξ 5.7704 I
yy
4.0538
bw 11.5 n1 -135179215 γ 11.4456
bf 2.75 n2 1542776744 κ 2.60682271
H 11.5 n3 2770330492 JG 354166.667
L 36 Ncr 13,523 I
ww
176,076,416
γ
cr
4.3403 I
xx
124.5807

Part# CH980
10” x 2-3/4” x 1/2”
t 0.5 ξ 68.3375 I
yy
3.8279
bw 10 n1 -2173631139 γ 10.0450
bf 2.75 n2 6.5032E+10 κ 4.0350
H 10 n3 2.8848E+11 JG 322916.667
L 44 Ncr 10,139 I
ww
154,934,814
γ
cr
7.1785 I
xx
86.876

Part# CH994
24” x 4” x 1/2”
t 0.472 ξ 2.3525 I
yy
13.7
bw 24 n1 -63402801.2 γ 23.2843
bf 4 n2 550224952 κ 0.4068
H 24 n3 694361146 JG 560821.589
L 40 Ncr 6,695 I
ww
2,205,821,187
γ
cr
3.5687 I
xx
985


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
11
Beam Deflection Formula
Note: Reference Table 4-2. Shear Areas and Shear Coefficients for Various Cross Sections A', A'=kA
w
.
Uniform load on beam fixed at both ends
Point load on simply supported beam
Uniform load on simple beam
( )
( ) x l
w
wl
w V
wl
V is R
x lx l
w
A G
wl wl
wl
x
− =
=
|
.
|

\
|
− =
=
+ − = ∆

+ = ∆
=
2
x
M
8
midpoint) (at max. M
x
2
1
2
2
24
x
8 384
5
midpoint) (at max.
Load Uniform Equiv. Total
x
2
x
3 2 3
2 4
EI
EI
( )
2
Px
2
1
x when M
4
l P
load) of point (at max. M
2
P
V
x 4 l 3
48
Px
2
1
x when
A G 4
Pl
48
l P
load) of point (at max.
2P Load Uniform Equiv. Total
x
2 2
x
3
= |
.
|

\
|
<
=
=
− = |
.
|

\
|
< ∆

+ = ∆
=
EI
EI
( )
( )
2 2
x
1
x
2
2
x
4
x l x l
12
w
M
24
l w
midpoint) (at M
12
l w
ends) (at max. M
x w V
2
wl
V is R
x l
l 24
x w
A G
wl
384
l w
midpoint) (at max.
3
wl
Load Uniform Equiv. Total
6 6
2
1
8
2
2
2
2
2
− − =
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
− =
=
− = ∆

+ = ∆
=
EI
EI


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
12
Point load on beam with fixed ends
Point load on cantilever beam
Uniform load on cantilever beam
( )
( ) l x 4
8
P
2
1
x when M
8
l P
ends) and center (at max. M
2
P
V
x 4 l 3
l 48
Px
2
1
x when
A G 4
l P
192
l P
midpoint) (at max.
P Load Uniform Equiv. Total
x
2
2
x
3
− = |
.
|

\
|
<
=
=
− = |
.
|

\
|
<

+ =
=
EI
EI


( )
2
x
M
2
end) fixed (at max. M
V
V is R
3 x 4 x
24
2 8
w
end) free (at max.
4 Load Uniform Equiv. Total
2
x
2
x
4 3 4
2 4
w
wl
wx
wl
l l
w
A G
wl l
wl
x
=
=
=
=
+ − = ∆

+ = ∆
=
EI
EI
( )
( )
( )
Px M
l P end fixed at max. M
P V is R
x x l 3 l 2
6
P
A G
l P
3
l P
end free at max.
8P Load Uniform Equiv. Total
x
3 2 3
x
3
=
=
=
+ − =

+ =
=
EI
EI




The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
13



Table 4-2



Two Concentrated Loads Equally Spaced on
a Simply Supported Beam
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) x P a x when M
Pa loads) (between max. M
P V is R
a x 3 x l 3
6
Pa
a) - l ( and a x when
x a 3 a l 3
6
Px
a x when
A G
Pa
6
a
8
l
EI
Pa
center at max.
l
Pa 8
Load Uniform Equiv. Total
x
2 2
x
2 2
x
2 2
= <
=
=
− − = < >
− − = <

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
=
EI
EI



for calculating A', A' = kAw
Type Shear Area k Type Shear Area k
Rectangular
Section Aw= bd 5/6
Channel
Section Aw= 2bt 5/6
I or W-Section Aw= 2bt 5/6
Channel
Section Aw= ht 1
I or W-Section Aw= th 1 Solid Round Aw=
π
2
8/9
Square Tube
Aw= 2th 1 Angle Section
Aw= th 1
Rectangular
Tube Aw= 2tb 5/6 Circular Tube Aw= 2
π
Rt 1/4
Note: Arrows indicate direction of shear forces k = Shear coefficient Aw = Shear area
Note: Values are approximated for simplicity. For exact shear coefficients reference Timoshenko's Beam Theory.
Cross Section Cross Section
Shear Areas and Shear Coefficients for Various Cross Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
14
Examples of Beam Selection of Pultex
®
Profiles used as Flexural Members

Example 1.

Design Parameters
Select a Pultex
®
Wide Flange Section capable of withstanding a uniform load of 90 lbs./ft., over a simply
supported span of 17', with a deflection limit of L/180. The beam is laterally supported and has an
assumed weight of 4.92 lbs./ft.
Solution
Refer to the Allowable Uniform Load Tables. The load tables do not take into account the weight of the
beam; therefore, add the weight of the section to the design load. From the Allowable Uniform Load
Tables, reference the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section. Locate the span column and find the 17' span
and look across the columns to the L/180 column. The number in the space represents a uniform load of
95 lbs./ft. This load is more than the design load of 90 lbs./ft + 4.92 lbs./ft (assumed weight of selected
beam) = 94.92 lbs./ft. Therefore, the section is adequate. Select a 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section.

Example 2.

Design Parameters
Select a Pultex
®
Wide Flange Section that is simply supported and is capable of withstanding a laterally
unsupported load of 200 lbs/ft at a span of 21' with a deflection less than L/240.
Solution
Reference the Allowable Uniform Load Tables. Select a member size to begin the process. Locate the
8" x 8" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section and the span of 21'. Locate the Allowable load, laterally unsupported
beam, global buckling capacity and locate the 21ft. span and load interface. The maximum load is 87
lbs./ft and is not adequate; therefore, select a larger Wide Flange Section. Select a 10" x 10" x 1/2" Wide
Flange Section. Locate the 21' span and Maximum Load Laterally Unsupported column. The maximum
load is 261 lbs./ft with a 2x safety factor. The 261 lbs./ft. load is greater than the design load plus the
weight of the Wide Flange Section; therefore, the 10" x 10" x 1/2" beam is adequate. Scanning across the
columns, notice that the 211 lbs./ft. design load is less than the 229 lbs./ft. load in the L/240 column;
therefore, the deflection will be less than L/240.
Select a 10" x 10" x 1/2" Wide Flange Section.

Example 3.

Design Parameters
Determine the maximum allowable point load and deflection of a laterally unsupported 6" x 6" x 3/8"
Wide Flange Section that is simply supported at a span of 12'. The beam is to be used in a 10%
concentration of Potassium Hydroxide.
Solution
Step 1. Reference equation (P-1) for lateral-torsional buckling.

C
w
= Warping constant (in
6
)
J = Torsion constant (in
4
)
C
b
= Moment gradient adjuster
M
cr
= Critical moment (in-lbs.)
L = Unsupported length (in)
E
y
= Modulus of elasticity for bending about minor axis (psi) E
y
≈E



GJ I E I C
KL
E
KL
C M
y y y w
b
y
b
b cr
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
π
π


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
15
Example 3. (cont’d)

G = Shear modulus (psi)
K = Effective length coefficient (ref. Table 1)

Step 2. Use equation (P-2) to predict the critical moment M
cr
.

Obtain the moment variation constant C
b

from Table 1. C
b
is 1.35 for the simply supported beam with no end constraints and a point load (Table 4-
1.)
L is the laterally unsupported length of 12' or 144".
E

is the modulus of elasticity (reference the Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles Material
Properties Sheet) E

= 4.0e6 psi.
G is the modulus of rigidity (Shear Modulus) (reference the Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural
Profiles Material Properties Sheet) G = 500,000 psi
C
w
is the warping constant; a value can be located in the Elements of Section in the Design Manual. For
the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section, C
w
= 119.84 in
6
.
J is torsion constant, a value can be found in the Elements of Section in the Design Manual. For the
6" x 6" x 3/8"Wide Flange Section, J = 0.316 in
4
.
I
y
is the moment if inertia about the weak axis, I
y
= 13.32 in
4
. (from Elements of Section)
K is the effective length coefficient from Table 1., K = 1.

Step 3. Equate M
cr

M
cr
= 133,593.72 lbs-in

For a simply supported span with a point load at mid span, the maximum moment is given by
M= PL/4.
Where:
P = point load in (lbs.)
L = length of span (in), equals L
b
in the present case.

Therefore, calculate P.

133593.72 lbs-in = P(144")/4
P= 3,710 lbs.

Apply the desired safety factor. In this case, use a 2.5 safety factor.
Therefore, P
allowable
= 1,484 lbs.

Step 4. Calculate the allowable deflection with the 1,484 lb. load.

From the beam deflection equations, determine the equation for the simply supported, mid-span, point
load condition.
Where: A' = kA
w

∆ = Deflection (in)
P = Concentrated load (lbs.);i.e., P
allowable
= 1,484 lbs.
L = length of span (in) 144"
G

= Modulus of rigidity (Shear modulus) (psi) i.e., 500,000 psi
E = Full section modulus of elasticity (psi), i.e., 4.0e6 psi
I
x
= Moment of inertia (in
4
), i.e., 40.76in
4

) 316 )(. 5 5 )( 32 . 13 )( 6 0 . 4 ( ) 32 . 13 )( 84 . 119 (
" 144 ) 1 (
6 4
" 144 ) 1 (
35 . 1
4 4 4 6
2
in psi e in psi e in in
psi e
M
cr
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
π π
' 4
1
48
1
3
GA
PL
EI
PL
+ = ∆


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
16

Example 3. (cont’d)

A′ = kA
w
, i.e. 1(2.25in
2
)=2.25in
2
A
w
= Cross sectional area of web (in
2
)(t)(h)
k = Shear Coefficient Reference Table 4-2. (Shear area of common cross sections), i.e.,(Table
4-2)

Step 5. Solve for deflection ∆.
∆ = 0.614" or L/235

Step 6. Determine if the flexural strength is adequate.

σ
f
= M/S
x

Where:
σ
f
= flexural stress (psi)
M = maximum moment (lbs.-in)
S
x
= Section modulus (in
3
)

From the Elements of Section of The New and Improved Design Manual for Pultrusion of
Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles, determine S
x
for the
6"x6"x3/8" Wide Flange Section. S
x
= 13.59 in
3
.
From the Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles for Wide Flange Sections and I-Sections Material
Properties Sheets, determine the ultimate flexural strength and apply the proper safety factor,
which in the present case is 2.5.

σ
f
= 33,000 psi ultimate flexural strength.

(33,000 psi/2.5) = (P144"/4)/13.59in
3
P
flexural
= 4,983 lbs.

P
flexural
> P
allowable
therefore, the strength is adequate.

Step 7. Calculate the Critical Buckling load and determine if it is adequate. From equation (P-3):

Where:

σ
x
cr
= Critical buckling stress in (psi)
b = Half the width of the compression flange for I/W sections (in)
b = The width of the compression flange for box sections, b=b
f
(in)
b
f
= width of the compression flange (in)
b
w
= Height of the section (in)
E
x
= Longitudinal modulus of elasticity (psi)
E
y
= Transverse modulus of elasticity (psi)
) 25 . 2 )( 5 5 (
) " 144 .)( 1484 (
4
1
) 76 . 40 )( 6 4 (
) " 144 .)( 1484 (
48
1
2 4
3
in psi e
lbs
in psi e
lbs
+ = ∆
( )
( ) 2
;
2
;
4 . 0
065 . 0
025 . 0 ;
5 . 0
004 . 0
3 . 0
f
w
y f
f
y w b
b
E b
E b
q p = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ = ζ
ζ ζ
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
f
xy
f
xy
f
y
f
y f x
2
f
2
cr
x
G 2 E p E E 2 q
b
t
12
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ν
π
σ


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
17

f = Flange
G
xy
= Modulus of rigidity (Shear Modulus) (psi)
p

= Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ)
q

= Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ)
t = Thickness of the compression flange (in)
ζ

= Coefficient of restraint of the compression plates
σ
x
cr
= 22,647 psi

Step 7. The allowable local buckling load is determined by evaluating the critical buckling stress to
bending stress and applying the appropriate safety factor. In this case use 2.5.

Use σ =M/S
x
where, M=PL/4

Therefore, P =(σ
x
cr
S
x
4)/L

P
buckling
=(22,647psi*13.58*4)/144" = 8,542 lbs./2.5

P
allowable
=3,417 lbs.> P
global buckling
1,484 lbs; therefore, global buckling governs the design.

The design is governed by M
cr
Lateral Torsional Buckling (Global buckling) and is limited to
1,484 lbs.

Reference the Chemical Compatibility Guide to determine the proper Pultex
®
Series.

Choose Pultex
®
1625 Series.

Channel Selection Example

Example 4.

Determine the Channel section that is required to support a uniform load of 70 lbs./ft at a span of 24’with
a maximum deflection criteria of L/D= 180.

Step 1. Locate the channel uniform load tables in chapter 4. Next, locate the Simply Supported Beam
with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratio section of the allowable uniform load tables.

Step 2. Locate the column with the 180 heading. This stands for the L/D ratio of 180. Next, refer to the
left hand side of the page until you see the Span section. Locate the 24’ span section. Find the
intersection of the 24’ span and the L/D ratio of 180.

Step 3. Page through the channel sections until a number greater than or equal to 70 lbs/ft is obtained.
You will conclude that an 11-1/2”x2-3/4”x1/2” channel is required. The actual value is 72 lbs/ft.

Step 4. Scan across the columns and review the allowable uniform loads. The allowable uniform loads
will be based on the shear, flexural, local buckling and lateral support spacing. The lowest number
between the values at the 24’ span will dictate the allowable uniform load according to the strength of the
beam. The L/D=180 column is based strictly on deflection.

Step 5. Referencing the 24’ span tab, once concludes that the lowest value is 271 lbs./ft with lateral
restraint and 12 lbs./ft with lateral restraints. As one can conclude, lateral restraint is very important.





The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
18
Example 4. (cont’d)

Step 6. Determine the number of lateral restraints and the maximum spacing by referencing the
Maximum Lateral Support Spacing column. One can conclude that the maximum spacing distance is
36”. Therefore, in order for the charts to hold true, a minimum of nine restraints with a maximum spacing
of 36” is required.

Note: The lateral restraint spacing can be modified, however the loads must be reevaluated based on the
lateral restraint spacing. The graphs that depict the ultimate moment capacity versus lateral restraint can
be utilized to make the necessary adjustments to the allowable uniform loads.


Example 5.

Determine the lateral spacing of the diaphragms that are necessary for a structure of two 8”x2-3/16”x3/8”
channels that are positioned 36” apart and span 20’. The structure is required to hold an ultimate point
load of 4,000 lbs. located over the center of the 20’ span. The 4,000 lbs. had been factored to include a
2.5 times safety factor.


Step 1. Locate the Ultimate Moment Capacity versus Lateral Restraint graph in the channel uniform load
tables. Reference the 8”x2-3/16”x3/8” graph.

Step 2. Determine the moment acting on the two channels. The moment is calculated by PL/4 for the
simply supported structure with a point load in the middle. The corresponding moment is 20,000 lb.*ft.

Step 3. In referencing the graph and concluding that the two channels will be required to resist a total
moment of 20,000 lb*ft. One concludes that one of the channels must support a moment of 10,000
lb.*ft. Scan across the graph at the 10,000 lb.*ft mark. The lateral buckling curve is intersected at
approximately the 48” bracing spacing. Therefore, the channels must be braced at a maximum support
spacing of 48”. One must note that the values are not factored and that appropriate safety factors must be
applied. In this case the factors were applied to the 4,000 lb. point load prior to determining the lateral
spacing required.

Step 4. Design the structure with diaphragms spaced at 48” on center. The deflection and shearing,
flexural and local compression stresses should always be checked.






















The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
19
Nomenclature

∆ = Deflection (in)
∆ = 1-(ν
xy
ν
yx
)
ζ

= Coefficient of restraint of the compression plates
σ
c
= Compressive stress (psi)
σ
x
cr
= Critical buckling stress in (psi)
ν
xy
= Poisson’s ratio (longitudinal)
ν
yx
= Poisson’s ratio (transverse)
a = Unsupported length or region over which N
x
acts (length of beam) inches
A
w
= Shear area of profile (Table 2) (in
2
)
A′ = kA
w
, Shear coefficient x shear area of profile (in
2
)
b = Half the width of the compression flange for I/W sections (in)
b = The width of the compression flange for box sections, b=b
f
(in)
b
f
= Width of the compression flange (in)
b
w
= Height of the section (in)
C
b
= Moment Variation Constant
C
w
= Warping Constant (in
6
)
D = Deflection (in)
D
11
, D
22
= Flexural rigidity in 1, 2 and radial directions
E
x
orE
y
= Modulus of elasticity of the major or minor axis(psi)
E
y local
= Local transverse modulus of Elasticity (psi)
f = Flange
f
b
= Flexural stress (psi)
f
v
= Shear stress (psi)
G = Shear modulus (modulus of rigidity) (psi)
G
xy
= Shear modulus (psi)
h = Depth of section (in)
I
x

or y
= Moment of Inertia about desired axis (in
4
)
J = Torsion Constant (in
4
)
K = Effective length coefficient
k = Shear coefficient (Table 2.)
L = Length (inches)
L
b
= Unsupported length between points that have lateral restraint (in)
M = Maximum moment (in-lbs)
M
cr
= Critical Moment that causes lateral buckling (in-lbs)
P = Point load (lbs.)
p

= Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ)
q

= Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ)
r = Radius of gyration (in)
S
x
= Section modulus (in
3
)
t = Thickness of compression flange (in)
V = Shear Force (lbs.)
Wt. = Weight of profile in lbs./ft
W
lb
= Maximum load governed by critical local buckling (lbs./ft)
W
f
= Maximum load governed by flexural stress (lbs./ft)
W
v
= Maximum load governed by shear strength (lbs./ft)
W
lu
= Maximum laterally unsupported load (lbs./ft)
L/D = Ratio of length of the span to the deflection


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
20
Channel Section Nomenclature

a = the length of the plate (panel)
b = the width of the plate (panel)
b
f
(= w) = the widths of flange (Figure 1)
b
w
(= h) = the widths of web (Figure 1)
E
x
= the panel stiffness in x-direction
E
y
= the panel stiffness in y-direction
G
xy
= the panel in-plane shear stiffness
h = the height of the channel (Figure 1)
I
xx
= the moment of inertial of the channel section along the strong axis
I
yy
= the moment of inertial of the channel section along the weak axis
I
ww
= the warping stiffness of the channel section
JG = the torsional stiffness of the channel section
L = the span length
m = the number of buckling half waves
M
cr
= the critical moment of the channel section subject to buckling
(N
x
)
cr
= the plate local buckling strength
P
cr
= the lateral buckling load through the shear center of channel section
t = the thickness the flange
v
xy
= the panel Poisson’s ratio
w = the widths of the channel (Figure 1)
ξ = the coefficient of restraint for flange-web connection
γ
cr
= the critical aspect ratio
σ
cr
= the critical stress


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
21
Introduction to Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles

Product Advantage Summary

When comparing pultruded fiber reinforced polymer composites to traditional building materials such as
steel, one will notice that the strengths of the materials are generally comparable while the stiffness
characteristics are dissimilar. For example, the modulus of elasticity of steel is approximately 29E6 psi.,
while the modulus of elasticity of a typical pultruded Wide Flange Section is 2.5-2.8E6 psi. The stiffness
difference is 11.5 times between the two materials. In an effort to improve stiffness, Creative Pultrusions,
has modified the fiber architecture of selected structural profiles. The result improved the modulus of
elasticity from 2.5-2.8E6 psi to 3.9-4.0E6 psi., an average improvement in E-Modulus of 49%. Pultex
®

SuperStructural profiles offer the designer the ability to design longer spans with heavier loads. The
most important advantage is a more economical design, as material and labor costs are greatly reduced.

The following example is a comparison of a standard pultruded section to a Pultex
®
SuperStructural
profile.

Example 1.0
Reference Creative Pultrusions former Design Guide, Volume 2, Revision 1, Allowable Uniform Load
Tables, page 3-17. The allowable uniform load of a standard 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section at a
span of 10′ and L/D ratio of 360 is 149 lbs./ft. Referencing The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion
Design Manual, the allowable uniform load for the same loading, span and deflection criteria is 220
lbs./ft. The difference is a 48% increase in E-Modulus. The graph below demonstrates the difference
between the Pultex
®
SuperStructural 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section and a standard pultruded 6" x
6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section. The graph demonstrates the allowable uniform loads for each beam at
various spans with the deflection limit of L/D = 360.





















Comparison of Standard Structural Profiles and Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles

Pultex
®
SuperSt ructural vs Pultex
®
Standard Structural
Allowable Uniform Load Comparison
0
100
200
300
400
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Span (ft)
(
U
n
i
f
o
r
m

L
o
a
d

(
l
b
s
.
/
f
t
48% increase in E-Modulus
Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section
Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
22
Project example: Plating Tank Cover Design

1. Standard Structural Project Design Factors
Description: Plating tank cover 10' x 60'
Design load: 80 psf
Maximum deflection: L/180 or .67"
Service temperature: 80°F
5% concentration of Chromic Acid
Step 1. Based on the 80 psf + the 3.46 psf DL of Flowgrip
®
, determine the allowable beam
spacing.

Step 2. Reference Creative Pultrusions former Design Guide, Volume 2, Revision 1.
For a 6"x6"x3/8" Wide Flange Beam, the allowable uniform load at L/180 is 298 lbs/ft.

Step 3. Determine the allowable spacing by dividing the allowable load by the design load, i.e.,
(298 lbs/ft)/83.46lbs/ft
2
= 3.57' O.C.

Step 4. Space the beams @ 3.5' O.C. (Note: beam weight excluded)

Bill of Materials for Standard Structural Project Design
Item Quantity Price $ Total
6"x6"x3/8" W-Section; 1625; Spaced 3.5' O.C. 19 pcs. @11' $24.28/ft $5,074.52
Flowgrip
®
Solid Panel 21 pcs. @20' $33.14/ft $13,918.80
Misc., i.e., fasteners, adhesive
Total Material Price $18,993.32
2. Pultex
®
SuperStructural Project Design Factors
Description: Plating tank cover 10' x 60'
Design load: 80 psf
Maximum deflection: L/180 or .67"
Service temperature: 80°F
5% concentration of Chromic Acid

Step 1. Determine the maximum span of Flowgrip
®
Solid Floor Panel.
a. Reference page 7 of the Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and
Access Structure Products in the Industry
Note: The Flowgrip
®
Solid Floor Panel will span 60" and satisfy the above design criteria.
(The beam spacing is based on 5' O.C.)

Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
23
Step 2. Determine which Wide Flange Section profile will satisfy the loading condition above.
a. 80 psf x 5' panel width = 400 lbs/ft live load on the beams.
b. Calculate the dead load. Assume that a 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section profile is
sufficient.
c. The weight of the 6" x 6" x 3/8" section is 4.92 lbs/ft.
d. Calculate the weight of the Flowgrip
®
3.46 psf x 5' = 17.3 lbs/ft.

Step 3. Determine the total live load (LL) and dead load (DL) combination.
a. 400 lbs/ft LL + 4.92 lbs/ft DL + 17.3 lbs/ft DL = 422.2 lbs./ft.

Step 4. Determine if the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section profile is adequate.
a. Reference the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section in the Allowable Uniform Load Tables.
b. Locate the 10' span row and look across to the l/180 deflection column.
c. The Pultex
®
SuperStructural 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section will hold 441 lbs/ft and
deflect less than L/180; therefore, the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section profile is adequate.

Step 5. Space all beams at 5' O.C. across the 10' section of the span.

Bill of Materials for Pultex
®
SuperStructural Project Design
Item Quantity Price $ Total
6"x6"x3/8" W-Section; 1625; Spaced 5' O.C. 13 pcs. @11' $24.28/ft $3,472.04
Flowgrip¹ Solid Floor Panel 21 pcs. @ 20' $33.14/ft $13,918.80
Misc., i.e., fasteners, adhesives
Total Material Price $17,390.84





$17,391
$18,993
$16,500
$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
Pultex® SuperStructural
Profiles
Pultex® Standard
Structural Profiles
Total Material Cost
Pultex
®
SuperStructural vs Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Price Advantage Comparison
Pultex
®
SuperStructural
Profiles
Pultex
®
Standard
Strucural Profiles


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
24
Span/Deflection Ratio Conversion Tables
Span Span L/D=80 L/D=100 L/D=150 L/D=180 L/D=240 L/D=360 L/D=500
feet Inches Deflection (in)
1.0 12 0.15 0.12 0.08 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.02
1.5 18 0.23 0.18 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.05 0.04
2.0 24 0.30 0.24 0.16 0.13 0.10 0.07 0.05
2.5 30 0.38 0.30 0.20 0.17 0.13 0.08 0.06
3.0 36 0.45 0.36 0.24 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.07
3.5 42 0.53 0.42 0.28 0.23 0.18 0.12 0.08
4.0 48 0.60 0.48 0.32 0.27 0.20 0.13 0.10
4.5 54 0.68 0.54 0.36 0.30 0.23 0.15 0.11
5.0 60 0.75 0.60 0.40 0.33 0.25 0.17 0.12
5.5 66 0.83 0.66 0.44 0.37 0.28 0.18 0.13
6.0 72 0.90 0.72 0.48 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.14
6.5 78 0.98 0.78 0.52 0.43 0.33 0.22 0.16
7.0 84 1.05 0.84 0.56 0.47 0.35 0.23 0.17
7.5 90 1.13 0.90 0.60 0.50 0.38 0.25 0.18
8.0 96 1.20 0.96 0.64 0.53 0.40 0.27 0.19
8.5 102 1.28 1.02 0.68 0.57 0.43 0.28 0.20
9.0 108 1.35 1.08 0.72 0.60 0.45 0.30 0.22
9.5 114 1.43 1.14 0.76 0.63 0.48 0.32 0.23
10.0 120 1.50 1.20 0.80 0.67 0.50 0.33 0.24
10.5 126 1.58 1.26 0.84 0.70 0.53 0.35 0.25
11.0 132 1.65 1.32 0.88 0.73 0.55 0.37 0.26
11.5 138 1.73 1.38 0.92 0.77 0.58 0.38 0.28
12.0 144 1.80 1.44 0.96 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.29
12.5 150 1.88 1.50 1.00 0.83 0.63 0.42 0.30
13.0 156 1.95 1.56 1.04 0.87 0.65 0.43 0.31
13.5 162 2.03 1.62 1.08 0.90 0.68 0.45 0.32
14.0 168 2.10 1.68 1.12 0.93 0.70 0.47 0.34
14.5 174 2.18 1.74 1.16 0.97 0.73 0.48 0.35
15.0 180 2.25 1.80 1.20 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.36
15.5 186 2.33 1.86 1.24 1.03 0.78 0.52 0.37
16.0 192 2.40 1.92 1.28 1.07 0.80 0.53 0.38
16.5 198 2.48 1.98 1.32 1.10 0.83 0.55 0.40
17.0 204 2.55 2.04 1.36 1.13 0.85 0.57 0.41
17.5 210 2.63 2.10 1.40 1.17 0.88 0.58 0.42
18.0 216 2.70 2.16 1.44 1.20 0.90 0.60 0.43
18.5 222 2.78 2.22 1.48 1.23 0.93 0.62 0.44
19.0 228 2.85 2.28 1.52 1.27 0.95 0.63 0.46
19.5 234 2.93 2.34 1.56 1.30 0.98 0.65 0.47


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
25
Span/Deflection Ratio Conversion Tables - Cont’d
Span Span L/D=80 L/D=100 L/D=150 L/D=180 L/D=240 L/D=360 L/D=500
feet Inches Deflection (in)
20.0 240 3.00 2.40 1.60 1.33 1.00 0.67 0.48
20.5 246 3.08 2.46 1.64 1.37 1.03 0.68 0.49
21.0 252 3.15 2.52 1.68 1.40 1.05 0.70 0.50
21.5 258 3.23 2.58 1.72 1.43 1.08 0.72 0.52
22.0 264 3.30 2.64 1.76 1.47 1.10 0.73 0.53
22.5 270 3.38 2.70 1.80 1.50 1.13 0.75 0.54
23.0 276 3.45 2.76 1.84 1.53 1.15 0.77 0.55
23.5 282 3.53 2.82 1.88 1.57 1.18 0.78 0.56
24.0 288 3.60 2.88 1.92 1.60 1.20 0.80 0.58
24.5 294 3.68 2.94 1.96 1.63 1.23 0.82 0.59
25.0 300 3.75 3.00 2.00 1.67 1.25 0.83 0.60
25.5 306 3.83 3.06 2.04 1.70 1.28 0.85 0.61
26.0 312 3.90 3.12 2.08 1.73 1.30 0.87 0.62
26.5 318 3.98 3.18 2.12 1.77 1.33 0.88 0.64
27.0 324 4.05 3.24 2.16 1.80 1.35 0.90 0.65
27.5 330 4.13 3.30 2.20 1.83 1.38 0.92 0.66
28.0 336 4.20 3.36 2.24 1.87 1.40 0.93 0.67
28.5 342 4.28 3.42 2.28 1.90 1.43 0.95 0.68
29.0 348 4.35 3.48 2.32 1.93 1.45 0.97 0.70
29.5 354 4.43 3.54 2.36 1.97 1.48 0.98 0.71
30.0 360 4.50 3.60 2.40 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.72
30.5 366 4.58 3.66 2.44 2.03 1.53 1.02 0.73
31.0 372 4.65 3.72 2.48 2.07 1.55 1.03 0.74
31.5 378 4.73 3.78 2.52 2.10 1.58 1.05 0.76
32.0 384 4.80 3.84 2.56 2.13 1.60 1.07 0.77
32.5 390 4.88 3.90 2.60 2.17 1.63 1.08 0.78
33.0 396 4.95 3.96 2.64 2.20 1.65 1.10 0.79
33.5 402 5.03 4.02 2.68 2.23 1.68 1.12 0.80
34.0 408 5.10 4.08 2.72 2.27 1.70 1.13 0.82
34.5 414 5.18 4.14 2.76 2.30 1.73 1.15 0.83
35.0 420 5.25 4.20 2.80 2.33 1.75 1.17 0.84
35.5 426 5.33 4.26 2.84 2.37 1.78 1.18 0.85
36.0 432 5.40 4.32 2.88 2.40 1.80 1.20 0.86
36.5 438 5.48 4.38 2.92 2.43 1.83 1.22 0.88
37.0 444 5.55 4.44 2.96 2.47 1.85 1.23 0.89
37.5 450 5.63 4.50 3.00 2.50 1.88 1.25 0.90
38.0 456 5.70 4.56 3.04 2.53 1.90 1.27 0.91
38.5 462 5.78 4.62 3.08 2.57 1.93 1.28 0.92
39.0 468 5.85 4.68 3.12 2.60 1.95 1.30 0.94
39.5 474 5.93 4.74 3.16 2.63 1.98 1.32 0.95
40.0 480 6.00 4.80 3.20 2.67 2.00 1.33 0.96






The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
26
Allowable Uniform Load Tables





Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections
3" x 3" x 1/4" (Part# IW 340) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 40,261 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=3.23 in
4
S
x
=2.15 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 2 ft.
A
w
=.75 in
2
Wt.=1.63 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
2 9156 5771 4730 1750 1520
3 1941 2565 2102 1167 1130 847 565
4 668 1443 1183 875 628 523 392 262
5 300 923 757 700 505 337 280 210 140
6 159 641 526 583 300 200 167 125 83
7 94 471 386 500 192 128 107 80 53
8 60 361 296 438 130 87 72 54 36
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load

4" x 4" x 1/4" (Part # IW 440) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 22,647 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=8.05 in
4
S
x
=4.03 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 2.5 ft.
A
w
=1.00 in
2
Wt.=2.19 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
3 5622 2704 3940 1556 1196
4 1840 1521 2217 1167 882 588
5 784 974 1419 933 782 651 489 326
6 396 676 985 778 474 395 296 197
7 224 497 724 667 460 307 256 192 128
8 138 380 554 583 314 210 175 131 87
9 91 300 438 519 224 149 124 93 62
10 63 243 355 467 165 110 91 69 46
11 45 201 293 424 125 83 69 52 35
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load




The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
27



Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections

6" x 6" x 1/4" (Part # IW 640) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000
Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 10,065 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=28.58 in
4
S
x
=9.53 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 3.5 ft.
A
w
=1.50 in
2
Wt.=3.31 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
5 3627 1023 3355 1400 963
6 1768 711 2330 1167 611
7 967 522 1712 1000 409
8 575 400 1310 875 285
9 365 316 1035 778 206
10 243 256 839 700 231 154
11 169 211 693 636 176 117
12 122 178 582 583 137 92
13 90 151 496 538 145 109 73
14 68 131 428 500 117 88 59
15 53 114 373 467 96 72 48
16 42 100 328 438 95 80 60 40
17 34 89 290 412 80 67 50 33
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load


























The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
28



Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections

6" x 6" x 3/8" (Part # IW 660) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000
Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 22,647 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=40.76 in
4
S
x
=13.59 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 3.5 ft.
A
w
=2.25 in
2
Wt.=4.92 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
6 2758 2280 3322 1750 1322 882
7 1528 1675 2441 1500 1412 1176 882 588
8 922 1282 1869 1313 984 820 615 410
9 593 1013 1476 1167 710 592 444 296
10 402 821 1196 1050 793 529 441 330 220
11 284 678 988 955 605 403 336 252 168
12 207 570 831 875 472 314 262 196 131
13 156 486 708 808 374 250 208 156 104
14 120 419 610 750 302 201 168 126 84
15 94 365 532 700 247 165 137 103 69
16 75 321 467 656 205 136 114 85 57
17 61 284 414 618 171 114 95 71 48
18 50 253 369 583 145 97 80 60 40
19 42 227 331 553 123 82 69 51 34
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load





The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
29







8" x 8" x 3/8" (Part # IW 860) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000
Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 12,739 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=100.35 in
4
S
x
=25.09 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 5 ft.
A
w
=3.00 in
2
Wt.=6.61 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
6 8288 2368 6133 2333 1841
7 4516 1739 4506 2000 1271
8 2675 1332 3450 1750 908
9 1689 1052 2726 1556 1003 668
10 1123 852 2208 1400 757 505
11 777 704 1825 1273 584 389
12 557 592 1533 1167 459 306
13 411 504 1306 1077 490 367 245
14 310 435 1126 1000 397 298 199
15 239 379 981 933 327 245 163
16 188 333 862 875 326 271 204 136
17 150 295 764 824 274 228 171 114
18 122 263 681 778 232 193 145 97
19 100 236 612 737 198 165 124 83
20 83 213 552 700 171 142 107 71
21 70 193 501 667 148 123 93 62
22 59 176 456 636 129 108 81 54
23 50 161 417 609 113 95 71 47
24 43 148 383 583 100 83 63 42
25 37 136 353 560 89 74 56 37
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load

Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
30






8" x 8" x 1/2" (Part # IW 880) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =3.9x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 22,443 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=128.81 in
4
S
x
=32.20 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 5 ft.
A
w
=4.00 in
2
Wt.=8.75 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
6 10974 5353 7871 3111
7 6020 3933 5783 2667 2426 1617
8 3593 3011 4428 2333 1728 1152
9 2288 2379 3498 2074 2030 1692 1269 846
10 1533 1927 2834 1867 1530 1275 956 637
11 1071 1593 2342 1697 1179 982 737 491
12 774 1338 1968 1556 926 772 579 386
13 576 1140 1677 1436 1110 740 616 462 308
14 439 983 1446 1333 900 600 500 375 250
15 341 857 1259 1244 739 493 410 308 205
16 271 753 1107 1167 614 409 341 256 171
17 218 667 980 1098 515 344 286 215 143
18 178 595 875 1037 437 291 243 182 121
19 147 534 785 982 373 249 207 156 104
20 123 482 708 933 321 214 179 134 89
21 104 437 643 889 279 186 155 116 77
22 89 398 585 848 243 162 135 101 68
23 76 364 536 812 213 142 119 89 59
24 66 335 492 778 188 126 105 78 52
25 57 308 453 747 167 111 93 70 46
26 50 285 419 718 149 99 83 62 41
27 44 264 389 691 133 89 74 55 37
28 39 246 361 667 119 80 66 50 33
29 35 229 337 644 108 72 60 45 30
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load


Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
31







10" x 10" x 3/8" (Part # IW 960) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 8,153 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=200.45 in
4
S
x
=40.09 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 6 ft.
A
w
=3.75 in
2
Wt.=8.30 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
12 1288 605 2450 1458 574
13 942 516 2088 1346 463
14 705 445 1800 1250 378
15 540 387 1568 1167 312
16 420 340 1378 1094 261
17 333 302 1221 1029 220
18 267 269 1089 972 187
19 217 241 977 921 241 161
20 179 218 882 875 208 139
21 148 198 800 833 181 120
22 125 180 729 795 158 105
23 105 165 667 761 139 93
24 90 151 612 729 123 82
25 77 139 564 700 109 73
26 67 129 522 673 97 65
27 58 120 484 648 116 87 58
28 51 111 450 625 104 78 52
29 45 104 419 603 94 71 47
30 39 97 392 583 85 64 43
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load



Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
32






10" x 10" x 1/2" (Part # IW 980) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =3.9x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 14,364 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=259.36 in
4
S
x
=51.87 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 6 ft.
A
w
=5.0 in
2
Wt.=11.0 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
10 3501 1987 4565 2333 1770 1180
11 2417 1642 3772 2121 1381 921
12 1726 1380 3170 1944 1096 730
13 1268 1176 2701 1795 882 588
14 955 1014 2329 1667 960 720 480
15 734 883 2029 1556 793 595 396
16 575 776 1783 1458 662 496 331
17 458 687 1579 1373 670 558 418 279
18 370 613 1409 1296 569 474 356 237
19 302 550 1264 1228 488 407 305 203
20 250 497 1141 1167 421 351 263 175
21 209 451 1035 1111 366 305 229 152
22 176 410 943 1061 320 267 200 133
23 150 376 863 1014 281 234 176 117
24 129 345 792 972 249 207 155 104
25 111 318 730 933 221 184 138 92
26 97 294 675 897 197 164 123 82
27 84 273 626 864 176 147 110 73
28 74 253 582 833 238 158 132 99 66
29 66 236 543 805 214 143 119 89 60
30 58 221 507 778 194 129 108 81 54
31 52 207 475 753 176 117 98 73 49
32 47 194 446 729 160 107 89 67 45
33 42 182 419 707 146 98 81 61 41
34 38 172 395 686 134 89 75 56 37
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load









Pultex
®
SuperStrucural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
33






12" x 12" x 1/2" (Part # IW 982) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =3.9x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 9,975 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=457.26 in
4
S
x
=76.21 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 7 ft.
A
w
=6.0 in
2
Wt.=13.25 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
10 7077 2027 6706 2800 1892
11 4860 1675 5543 2545 1495
12 3452 1408 4657 2333 1199
13 2522 1199 3968 2154 974
14 1887 1034 3422 2000 801
15 1442 901 2981 1867 666
16 1123 792 2620 1750 559
17 888 701 2321 1647 473
18 712 626 2070 1556 605 404
19 579 562 1858 1474 521 347
20 475 507 1677 1400 451 300
21 395 460 1521 1333 393 262
22 331 419 1386 1273 344 229
23 280 383 1268 1217 303 202
24 238 352 1164 1167 268 179
25 204 324 1073 1120 318 239 159
26 176 300 992 1077 284 213 142
27 153 278 920 1037 255 191 127
28 134 259 855 1000 229 172 115
29 118 241 797 966 207 155 103
30 104 225 745 933 187 141 94
31 92 211 698 903 204 170 128 85
32 82 198 655 875 186 155 116 78
33 73 186 616 848 170 142 106 71
34 66 175 580 824 156 130 97 65
35 59 165 547 800 143 119 90 60
36 54 156 517 778 132 110 82 55
37 49 148 490 757 122 101 76 51
38 44 140 464 737 112 94 70 47
39 40 133 441 718 104 87 65 43
40 37 127 419 700 97 81 60 40
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load


Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
34







3" x 1-1/2" x 1/4" (Part # IB 340) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 146,307 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=1.8 in
4
S
x
=1.2 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 1 ft.
A
w
=.75 in
2
Wt.=1.06 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
2 1415 11705 2640 1750 1515 1010
3 345 5202 1173 1167 830 692 519 346
4 133 2926 660 875 556 370 309 231 154
5 65 1873 422 700 292 195 162 122 81
6 37 1301 293 583 172 114 95 72 48
7 23 955 216 500 109 73 61 45 30
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load

4" x 2" x 1/4" (Part # IB 440) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 82,298 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=4.53 in
4
S
x
=2.27 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 1.25 ft.
A
w
=1.0 in
2
Wt.=1.44 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
3 831 5535 2220 1556 1176 784
4 296 3114 1249 1167 875 729 547 364
5 137 1993 799 933 705 470 392 294 196
6 74 1384 555 778 419 280 233 175 116
7 45 1017 408 667 269 179 149 112 75
8 29 778 312 583 182 121 101 76 51
9 20 615 247 519 129 86 72 54 36
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load







Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
I-Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
35







6" x 3" x 1/4" (Part # IB 640) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 36,577 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=16.17 in
4
S
x
=5.39 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 1.75 ft.
A
w
= 2.25 in
2
Wt.=2.19 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
4 1169 7393 2965 1750 2416 1812 1208
5 499 4732 1897 2100 1595 1329 997 665
6 252 3286 1318 1750 962 802 601 401
7 143 2414 968 1500 933 622 518 389 259
8 88 1848 741 1313 636 424 353 265 177
9 58 1460 586 1167 452 301 251 188 126
10 40 1183 474 1050 332 221 185 138 92
11 29 978 392 955 251 167 140 105 70
12 22 821 329 875 194 130 108 81 54
13 17 700 281 808 154 102 85 64 43
14 13 604 242 750 123 82 69 51 34
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
























Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
I-Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
36








6" x 3" x 3/8" (Part # IB 660) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 82,298 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=22.93 in
4
S
x
=7.64 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 1.75 ft.
A
w
= 2.25 in
2
Wt.=3.24 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
4 1918 10479 4202 2625 2377 1585
5 848 6707 2689 2100 1786 1339 893
6 442 4657 1868 1750 1312 1093 820 547
7 259 3422 1372 1500 1284 856 713 535 357
8 164 2620 1051 1313 881 587 489 367 245
9 111 2070 830 1167 629 419 349 262 175
10 78 1677 672 1050 464 309 258 193 129
11 57 1386 556 955 352 234 195 147 98
12 43 1164 467 875 273 182 152 114 76
13 33 992 398 808 216 144 120 90 60
14 26 855 343 750 173 116 96 72 48
15 21 745 299 700 142 94 79 59 39
16 17 655 263 656 117 78 65 49 32
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load





















Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
I-Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
37








8" x 4" x 3/8" (Part # IB 860) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 46,292 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=56.71 in
4
S
x
=14.18 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 2.5 ft.
A
w
= 3.0 in
2
Wt.=4.36 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
6 1144 4862 3466 2333 1823 1215
7 642 3572 2547 2000 1950 1625 1219 813
8 393 2735 1950 1750 1361 1134 851 567
9 256 2161 1541 1556 1476 984 820 615 410
10 176 1750 1248 1400 1099 733 611 458 305
11 125 1447 1031 1273 839 559 466 350 233
12 93 1216 867 1167 654 436 364 273 182
13 70 1036 738 1077 520 346 289 217 144
14 55 893 637 1000 419 280 233 175 116
15 43 778 555 933 343 229 191 143 95
16 35 684 487 875 284 189 158 118 79
17 29 606 432 824 238 159 132 99 66
18 24 540 385 778 201 134 112 84 56
19 20 485 346 737 172 114 95 71 48
20 17 438 312 700 148 98 82 61 41
21 14 397 283 667 128 85 71 53 35
22 12 362 258 636 111 74 62 46 31
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load



Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
I-Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
38








8" x 4" x 1/2" (Part # IB 880) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =3.9x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 81,587 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=72.48 in
4
S
x
=18.12 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 2.5 ft.
A
w
= 4.0 in
2
Wt.=5.75 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
6 1622 10951 4429 3111 3073 2305 1537
7 929 8045 3254 2667 2458 2048 1536 1024
8 578 6160 2492 2333 1711 1426 1069 713
9 384 4867 1969 2074 1853 1235 1029 772 515
10 267 3942 1595 1867 1378 919 765 574 383
11 164 3258 1318 1697 1051 701 584 438 292
12 145 2738 1107 1556 819 546 455 341 227
13 111 2333 944 1436 650 433 361 271 181
14 87 2011 814 1333 524 349 291 218 146
15 70 1752 709 1244 429 286 238 179 119
16 57 1540 623 1167 355 237 197 148 99
17 47 1364 552 1098 297 198 165 124 83
18 39 1217 492 1037 251 167 140 105 70
19 33 1092 442 982 214 143 119 89 60
20 28 986 399 933 184 123 102 77 51
21 24 894 362 889 159 106 89 66 44
22 21 815 329 848 139 93 77 58 39
23 18 745 301 812 122 81 68 51 34
24 16 684 277 778 107 72 60 45 30
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load








Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
I-Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
39








10" x 5" x 3/8" (Part # IB 960) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =4.0x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 29,627 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=113.55 in
4
S
x
=22.71 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 3 ft.
A
w
= 3.75 in
2
Wt.=5.49 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
8 856 2803 3123 2188 2099 1574 1049
9 547 2215 2467 1944 1847 1539 1154 770
10 368 1794 1998 1750 1390 1159 869 579
11 258 1483 1652 1591 1070 892 669 446
12 187 1246 1388 1458 840 700 525 350
13 139 1062 1183 1346 1006 671 559 419 280
14 107 915 1020 1250 816 544 453 340 227
15 83 797 888 1167 670 446 372 279 186
16 66 701 781 1094 556 371 309 232 155
17 53 621 692 1029 467 311 259 195 130
18 44 554 617 972 396 264 220 165 110
19 36 497 554 921 338 225 188 141 94
20 30 449 500 875 291 194 162 121 81
21 26 407 453 833 252 168 140 105 70
22 22 371 413 795 220 147 122 92 61
23 19 339 378 761 193 129 107 80 54
24 16 311 347 729 170 114 95 71 47
25 14 287 320 700 151 101 84 63 42
26 13 265 296 673 135 90 75 56 37
27 11 246 274 648 120 80 67 50 33
28 10 229 255 625 108 72 60 45 30
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load





Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
I-Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
40








10" x 5" x 1/2" (Part # IB 980) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Loads at various L/D ratios
E =3.9x10
6
psi G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 52,215 (lbs/ft)
I
x
=146.45 in
4
S
x
=29.29 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 3.5 ft.
A
w
= 5.0 in
2
Wt.=7.25 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
8 1190 6372 4027 2917 2670 2002 1335
9 770 5035 3182 2593 2345 1954 1465 977
10 524 4078 2578 2333 1762 1469 1101 734
11 372 3371 2130 2121 2033 1355 1129 847 565
12 273 2832 1790 1944 1594 1063 886 664 443
13 206 2413 1525 1795 1272 848 707 530 353
14 159 2081 1315 1667 1030 687 572 429 286
15 126 1813 1146 1556 845 564 470 352 235
16 101 1593 1007 1458 702 468 390 292 195
17 82 1411 892 1373 589 393 327 245 164
18 68 1259 796 1296 499 333 277 208 139
19 57 1130 714 1228 426 284 237 178 118
20 48 1020 644 1167 367 245 204 153 102
21 41 925 584 1111 318 212 177 132 88
22 35 843 533 1061 277 185 154 116 77
23 30 771 487 1014 243 162 135 101 68
24 26 708 447 972 215 143 119 89 60
25 23 653 412 933 190 127 106 79 53
26 20 603 381 897 169 113 94 71 47
27 18 559 354 864 152 101 84 63 42
28 16 520 329 833 136 91 76 57 38
29 14 485 306 805 123 82 68 51 34
30 13 453 286 778 111 74 62 46 31
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load



Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
I-Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
41








12” x 6” x1/2” (Part # IB 982) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 48.3 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 227.6 Loads at various L/D ratios
E= 3.9 x 10
6
psi G = 5.0 x 10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 250.1 (lbs/ft)
I
x
= 258.76in
4
S
x
=43.13 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum L
b
= 3.5 ft.
A
w
= 6.0 in
2
Wt.= 8.75 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)


Allowable load, laterally
unsupported beam
global buckling capacity,
2.5x Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity,
2.5x S.F.
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
10 976 4170 3795 2800 2442 1832 1221
11 682 3447 3137 2545 2274 1895 1421 948
12 493 2896 2636 2333 1797 1497 1123 749
13 367 2468 2246 2154 1442 1202 901 601
14 280 2128 1936 2000 1760 1173 978 733 489
15 218 1854 1687 1867 1450 967 806 604 403
16 173 1629 1483 1750 1208 805 671 503 336
17 140 1443 1313 1647 1017 678 565 424 282
18 114 1287 1171 1556 863 575 480 360 240
19 94 1155 1051 1474 739 493 410 308 205
20 79 1043 949 1400 637 425 354 265 177
21 67 946 861 1333 553 369 307 230 154
22 57 862 784 1273 483 322 268 201 134
23 49 788 717 1217 424 283 236 177 118
24 42 724 659 1167 375 250 208 156 104
25 37 667 607 1120 333 222 185 139 92
26 32 617 561 1077 296 198 165 123 82
27 29 572 521 1037 265 177 147 111 74
28 25 532 484 1000 238 159 132 99 66
29 23 496 451 966 215 143 119 90 60
30 20 463 422 933 194 130 108 81 54
31 18 434 395 903 177 118 98 74 49
32 16 407 371 875 161 107 89 67 45
33 15 383 349 848 147 98 82 61 41
34 13 361 328 824 134 90 75 56 37
35 12 340 310 800 123 82 68 51 34
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles
I-Sections


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
42



3" x 7/8" x 1/4" (Part # CH 340)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=2.8x10
6
psi E
y
=1.0x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 53,692 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=1.02 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=.56 in
2
S
x
=.68 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 56,328 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=0.77 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
2 4 10 428 2429 1493 1307 1083 903 677 451
2.5 4 10 218 1555 956 1045 878 585 488 366 244
3 5 10 126 1080 664 871 524 349 291 218 145
3.5 6 10 79 793 488 747 336 224 187 140 93
4 6 10 53 607 373 653 228 152 127 95 63
4.5 7 10 37 480 295 581 161 108 90 67 45
5 7 10 27 389 239 523 118 79 66 49 33
5.5 8 10 20 321 197 475 89 60 50 37 25
6 9 10 16 270 166 436 69 46 38 29 19
6.5 9 10 12 230 141 402 54 36 30 23 15
7 10 10 10 198 122 373 44 29 24 18 12
7.5 10 10 8 173 106 348 36 24 20 15 10
8 11 10 7 152 93 327 29 20 16 12 8
8.5 12 10 6 134 83 307 25 16 14 10 7
9 12 10 5 120 74 290 21 14 11 9 6
9.5 13 10 4 108 66 275 18 12 10 7 5
10 13 10 3 97 60 261 15 10 8 6 4
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels

T
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n

M
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C
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4
2



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
43
Ultimate moment capacity V.S. Laterial restraint
Pultex
®
CH340 3"x 7/8"x 1/4"
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
)
lateral buckling
local buckling


T
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e

N
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a
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I
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p
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®

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4
3



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
44



3" x 1-1/2" x 1/4" (Part # CH 342)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=2.8x10
6
psi E
y
=1.0x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 25,876 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=1.61 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=.75 in
2

S
x
=1.07 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 27,372 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=1.03 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
2 2 28 1091 1846 2354 1750 **** 1669 1391 1043 695
2.5 3 28 556 1181 1507 1400 1364 909 758 568 379
3 3 28 321 820 1046 1167 818 545 454 341 227
3.5 3 28 202 603 769 1000 526 351 292 219 146
4 3 28 135 461 589 875 358 238 199 149 99
4.5 3 28 95 365 465 778 254 169 141 106 70
5 4 28 69 295 377 700 186 124 104 78 52
5.5 4 28 52 244 311 636 141 94 78 59 39
6 4 28 40 205 262 583 109 73 60 45 30
6.5 4 28 31 175 223 538 86 57 48 36 24
7 4 28 25 151 192 500 69 46 38 29 19
7.5 5 28 20 131 167 467 56 37 31 23 16
8 5 28 17 115 147 438 46 31 26 19 13
8.5 5 28 14 102 130 412 39 26 22 16 11
9 5 28 12 91 116 389 33 22 18 14 9
9.5 6 28 10 82 104 368 28 19 15 12 8
10 6 28 9 74 94 350 24 16 13 10 7
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels
T
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e

N
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a
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I
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p
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®

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C
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4
4




The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
45
Ultimate Moment Capacity v.s. Lateral Restraint
Pultex
®
CH342 3"x 1 1/2"x 1/4" Channel
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
)
lateral buckling
local buckling



3
9


T
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a
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I
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p
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®

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4
5



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
46



4" x 1-1/8" x 1/4" (Part # CH 440)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=2.8x10
6
psi E
y
=1.0x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 34,820 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=2.62 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=1.0 in
2

S
x
=1.31 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 36,181 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=1.11 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
2 3 15 758 3041 2882 2333 **** 2620 2183 1637 1092
2.5 3 15 386 1946 1844 1867 2165 1443 1203 902 601
3 4 15 222 1352 1281 1556 1307 871 726 545 363
3.5 4 15 140 993 941 1333 845 563 469 352 235
4 5 15 94 760 721 1167 576 384 320 240 160
4.5 5 15 66 601 569 1037 410 273 228 171 114
5 5 15 48 487 461 933 301 201 167 126 84
5.5 6 15 36 402 381 848 228 152 127 95 63
6 6 15 28 338 320 778 176 118 98 73 49
6.5 7 15 22 288 273 718 139 93 77 58 39
7 7 15 17 248 235 667 112 75 62 47 31
7.5 7 15 14 216 205 622 91 61 51 38 25
8 8 15 12 190 180 583 75 50 42 31 21
8.5 8 15 10 168 160 549 63 42 35 26 17
9 9 15 8 150 142 519 53 35 29 22 15
9.5 9 15 7 135 128 491 45 30 25 19 13
10 9 15 6 122 115 467 39 26 22 16 11
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels

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4
6



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
47
Ultimate Moment Capacity V.S. Lateral Restraint
Pultex
®
CH440 4" x 1-1/8" x 1/4"
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
)
lateral buckling
local buckling

T
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e

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a
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7




The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
48



5" x 1-3/8" x 1/4" (Part # CH 540)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=2.8x10
6
psi E
y
=1.0x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 23,636 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=5.42 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=1.25 in
2

S
x
=2.17 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 24,262 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=1.40 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
2 3 22 1218 3418 4772 2917 **** **** **** **** 2002
3 3 22 356 1519 2121 1944 **** **** 1412 1059 706
4 4 22 150 854 1193 1458 **** 766 638 479 319
5 4 22 76 547 763 1167 **** 406 338 254 169
6 5 22 44 380 530 972 359 239 199 150 100
7 5 22 28 279 390 833 229 152 127 95 63
8 6 22 19 214 298 729 154 103 86 64 43
9 6 22 13 169 236 648 109 73 61 45 30
10 7 22 10 137 191 583 80 53 44 33 22
11 7 22 8 113 158 530 60 40 33 25 17
12 8 22 6 95 133 486 46 31 26 19 13
13 9 22 4 81 113 449 37 24 20 15 10
14 9 22 3 70 97 417 29 20 16 12 8
15 10 22 3 61 85 389 24 16 13 10 7
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts



Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels
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4
8



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
49
Ultimate Moment Capacity V.S. Lateral Restraint
Pultex
®
CH540 5" x 1-3/8" x 1/4"
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
5,000
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
)
lateral buckling
local buckling

T
h
e

N
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w

a
n
d

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4
9



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
50



6" x 1-5/8" x 1/4" (Part # CH 640)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=2.8x10
6
psi E
y
=1.0x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 17,228 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=9.62 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=1.50 in
2

S
x
=3.20 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 17,344 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=1.70 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
2 2 30 1738 3683 7055 3500 **** **** **** **** 3121
3 3 30 505 1637 3136 2333 **** **** **** **** 1167
4 3 30 212 921 1764 1750 **** **** **** 814 542
5 3 30 108 589 1129 1400 **** **** 583 437 291
6 4 30 62 409 784 1167 **** **** 346 260 173
7 4 30 39 301 576 1000 **** 266 222 166 111
8 5 30 26 230 441 875 **** 180 150 113 75
9 5 30 18 182 348 778 **** 128 106 80 53
10 5 30 13 147 282 700 140 94 78 58 39
11 6 30 10 122 233 636 106 71 59 44 29
12 6 30 8 102 196 583 82 55 45 34 23
13 7 30 6 87 167 538 64 43 36 27 18
14 7 30 5 75 144 500 52 34 29 22 14
15 7 30 4 65 125 467 42 28 23 18 12
16 8 30 3 58 110 438 35 23 19 14 10
17 8 30 3 51 98 412 29 19 16 12 8
18 9 30 2 45 87 389 24 16 14 10 7
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels
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5
0



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
51
Ultimate Moment Capacity V.S. Lateral Restraint
Pultex
®
CH640 6"x 1-5/8"x 1/4"
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 105 115
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
)
lateral buckling
local buckling

T
h
e

N
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w

a
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d

I
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p
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5
1



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
52



6" x 1-11/16" x 3/8" (Part # CH 662)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=2.8x10
6
psi E
y
=1.0x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 34,272 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=13.42 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=2.25 in
2

S
x
=4.47 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 38,167 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=2.46 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
2 3 22 4019 10227 9848 5250 **** **** **** **** 4472
3 3 22 1167 4545 4377 3500 **** **** 3307 2480 1654
4 4 22 489 2557 2462 2625 **** 1833 1528 1146 764
5 4 22 249 1636 1576 2100 1473 982 818 614 409
6 5 22 144 1136 1094 1750 874 583 486 364 243
7 5 22 91 835 804 1500 559 373 311 233 155
8 6 22 61 639 615 1313 378 252 210 158 105
9 6 22 43 505 486 1167 268 178 149 112 74
10 7 22 31 409 394 1050 196 131 109 82 54
11 7 22 23 338 326 955 148 99 82 62 41
12 8 22 18 284 274 875 114 76 63 48 32
13 9 22 14 242 233 808 90 60 50 38 25
14 9 22 11 209 201 750 72 48 40 30 20
15 10 22 9 182 175 700 59 39 33 25 16
16 10 22 8 160 154 656 49 32 27 20 13
17 11 22 6 142 136 618 41 27 23 17 11
18 11 22 5 126 122 583 34 23 19 14 9
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels
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5
2



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
53
Ultimate Moment Capacity V.S. Lateral Restraint
Pultex
®
CH662 6"x 1-11/16" x 3/8"
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
)
lateral buckling
local buckling

T
h
e

N
e
w

a
n
d

I
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p
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5
3



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
54



7" x 2" x 1/4" (Part # CH 740)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=2.8x10
6
psi E
y
=1.0x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 10,616 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=16.42 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=1.75 in
2

S
x
=4.69 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 11,525 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=2.00 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
5 3 46 166 531 1651 1633 **** **** **** **** 478
6 3 46 96 369 1146 1361 **** **** **** **** 287
7 3 46 60 271 842 1167 **** **** **** **** 185
8 4 46 40 207 645 1021 **** **** **** 189 126
9 4 46 28 164 510 907 **** **** **** 134 90
10 4 46 21 133 413 817 **** **** 132 99 66
11 4 46 16 110 341 742 **** **** 99 75 50
12 5 46 12 92 287 681 **** 92 77 58 38
13 5 46 9 79 244 628 **** 73 61 46 30
14 5 46 8 68 211 583 **** 59 49 37 24
15 5 46 6 59 183 544 **** 48 40 30 20
16 6 46 5 52 161 510 **** 39 33 25 16
17 6 46 4 46 143 480 **** 33 27 21 14
18 6 46 4 41 127 454 **** 28 23 17 12
19 6 46 3 37 114 430 35 24 20 15 10
20 7 46 3 33 103 408 30 20 17 13 8
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels
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5
4



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
55
Ultimate Moment Capacity V.S. Lateral Restraint
Pultex
®
CH740 7" x 2" x 1/4"
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
5,000
40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
)
lateral buckling
local buckling

T
h
e

N
e
w

a
n
d

I
m
p
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v
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5
5



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
56



14"x6"x1/2" (Part # CH 800)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=3.0x10
6
psi E
y
=1.5x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 6,506 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=349.085 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=7.0 in
2

S
x
=49.87 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 6,643 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=10.4 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
8 2 207 1271 1352 6857 4083 **** **** **** **** ****
9 2 207 891 1068 5418 3630 **** **** **** **** ****
10 2 207 648 865 4388 3267 **** **** **** **** ****
11 2 207 486 715 3627 2970 **** **** **** **** ****
12 2 207 374 601 3048 2722 **** **** **** **** ****
13 2 207 294 512 2597 2513 **** **** **** **** ****
14 2 207 235 441 2239 2333 **** **** **** **** ****
15 2 207 191 385 1950 2178 **** **** **** **** ****
16 2 207 158 338 1714 2042 **** **** **** **** 330
17 2 207 131 299 1519 1922 **** **** **** **** 277
18 3 207 111 267 1354 1815 **** **** **** **** 235
19 3 207 94 240 1216 1719 **** **** **** **** 201
20 3 207 81 216 1097 1633 **** **** **** **** 173
21 3 207 70 196 995 1556 **** **** **** **** 150
22 3 207 61 179 907 1485 **** **** **** **** 131



Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels
T
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®

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6




The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
57
(Continued)
14"x6"x1/2" (Part # CH 800)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=3.0x10
6
psi E
y
=1.5x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 6,506 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=349.085 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=7.0 in
2

S
x
=49.87 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 6,643 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=10.4 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
23 3 207 53 164 830 1420 **** **** **** **** 115
24 3 207 47 150 762 1361 **** **** **** **** 101
25 3 207 41 138 702 1307 **** **** **** 135 90
26 3 207 37 128 649 1256 **** **** **** 120 80
27 3 207 33 119 602 1210 **** **** **** 108 72
28 3 207 29 110 560 1167 **** **** **** 97 64
29 3 207 26 103 522 1126 **** **** **** 87 58
30 3 207 24 96 488 1089 **** **** **** 79 53
31 3 207 22 90 457 1054 **** **** **** 72 48
32 3 207 20 84 429 1021 **** **** **** 65 43
33 3 207 18 79 403 990 **** **** 79 59 40
34 3 207 16 75 380 961 **** **** 73 54 36
35 4 207 15 71 358 933 **** **** 67 50 33
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts
5
7



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
58
Ultimate Moment Capacity V.S. Lateral Restraint
Pultex CH800 14"x6"x1/2"
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
) lateral buckling
local buckling
T
h
e

N
e
w

a
n
d

I
m
p
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P
u
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x
®

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5
8



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
59



8" x 2-3/16" x 1/4" (Part # CH 840)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=2.8x10
6
psi E
y
=1.0x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 9,396 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=24.30 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=2.0 in
2

S
x
=6.07 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 10,158 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=2.32 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
6 3 52 118 423 1485 1556 **** **** **** **** 415
7 3 52 74 311 1091 1333 **** **** **** **** 269
8 3 52 50 238 835 1167 **** **** **** **** 184
9 4 52 35 188 660 1037 **** **** **** **** 131
10 4 52 25 152 535 933 **** **** **** 145 96
11 4 52 19 126 442 848 **** **** **** 110 73
12 4 52 15 106 371 778 **** **** **** 85 57
13 4 52 12 90 316 718 **** **** 89 67 45
14 5 52 9 78 273 667 **** **** 72 54 36
15 5 52 8 68 238 622 **** **** 59 44 29
16 5 52 6 59 209 583 **** 58 48 36 24
17 5 52 5 53 185 549 **** 48 40 30 20
18 6 52 4 47 165 519 **** 41 34 26 17
19 6 52 4 42 148 491 **** 35 29 22 15
20 6 52 3 38 134 467 **** 30 25 19 12
21 6 52 3 35 121 444 **** 26 22 16 11
22 7 52 2 31 110 424 **** 23 19 14 9
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels
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5
9



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
60
Ultimate Moment Capacity V.S. Lateral Restraint
Pultex
®
CH840 8" x 2-3/16" x 1/4"
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
)
lateral buckling
local buckling

T
h
e

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a
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d

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6
0



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
61



8" x 2-3/16" x 3/8" (Part # CH 860)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=3.0x10
6
psi E
y
=1.0x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 21,139 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=33.75 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=3.0 in
2

S
x
=8.43 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 21,416 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=3.41 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
4 3 37 869 2973 4641 3500 **** **** **** **** 1733
5 3 37 442 1903 2970 2800 **** **** **** 1438 959
6 3 37 255 1321 2063 2333 **** **** 1161 871 580
7 4 37 160 971 1515 2000 **** 902 752 564 376
8 4 37 107 743 1160 1750 **** 616 513 385 257
9 4 37 75 587 917 1556 **** 438 365 274 183
10 5 37 55 476 743 1400 **** 322 269 202 134
11 5 37 41 393 614 1273 366 244 203 152 102
12 5 37 32 330 516 1167 283 189 157 118 79
13 6 37 25 281 439 1077 224 149 124 93 62
14 6 37 20 243 379 1000 180 120 100 75 50
15 6 37 16 211 330 933 147 98 81 61 41
16 7 37 13 186 290 875 121 81 67 50 34
17 7 37 11 165 257 824 101 67 56 42 28
18 7 37 9 147 229 778 85 57 47 36 24
18 7 37 9 147 229 778 85 57 47 36 24
19 8 37 8 132 206 737 73 48 40 30 20
20 8 37 7 119 186 700 62 42 35 26 17



Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels
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6
1

Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
62


Ultimate Moment Capacity V.S. Lateral Restraint
Pultex CH860 8"x2 3/16"x3/8"
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
lateral buckling
local buckling
a
n
u
a
l

5
9

T
h
e

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w

a
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d

I
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6
2



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
63



11-1/2" x 2-3/4" x 1/2" (Part # CH 955)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=2.8x10
6
psi E
y
=1.0x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 27,046 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=124.58 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=5.75 in
2

S
x
=21.67 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 30,452 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=6.08 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
4 3 36 2641 9767 11917 6708 **** **** **** **** 5363
6 3 36 770 4341 5296 4472 **** **** 3907 2930 1954
8 4 36 323 2442 2979 3354 **** 2151 1792 1344 896
10 5 36 165 1563 1907 2683 **** 1147 956 717 478
12 5 36 95 1085 1324 2236 **** 680 566 425 283
14 6 36 60 797 973 1917 651 434 362 271 181
16 7 36 40 610 745 1677 440 294 245 183 122
18 7 36 28 482 588 1491 311 207 173 130 86
20 8 36 21 391 477 1342 228 152 127 95 63
22 9 36 15 323 394 1220 172 115 95 72 48
24 9 36 12 271 331 1118 133 88 74 55 37
26 10 36 9 231 282 1032 105 70 58 44 29
28 11 36 7 199 243 958 84 56 47 35 23
30 11 366 6 174 212 894 68 46 38 28 19
32 12 36 5 153 186 839 56 38 31 23 16
34 13 36 4 135 165 789 47 31 26 20 13
36 13 36 4 121 147 745 40 26 22 17 11
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels
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3



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
64
Ultimate Moment Capacity V.S. Lateral Restraint
Pultex
®
CH955 11-1/2"x 2 3/4"x 1/2"
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
)
lateral buckling
local buckling

T
h
e

N
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w

a
n
d

I
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4



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
65



10" x 2-3/4" x 1/2" SuperStructural (Part # CH 980)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=3.5x10
6
psi E
y
=1.5x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 20,278 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=86.87 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=5.0 in
2

S
x
=17.37 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 21,102 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=5.5 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
4 2 52 2632 5870 9554 5833 **** **** **** **** 4671
6 3 52 770 2609 4246 3889 **** **** **** 2553 1702
8 3 52 323 1468 2388 2917 **** **** **** 1171 781
10 4 52 165 939 1529 2333 **** 1000 833 625 417
12 4 52 95 652 1062 1944 **** 592 494 370 247
14 5 52 60 479 780 1667 **** 378 315 236 158
16 5 52 40 367 597 1458 384 256 213 160 107
18 6 52 28 290 472 1296 271 181 151 113 75
20 6 52 21 235 382 1167 199 132 110 83 55
22 7 52 15 194 316 1061 150 100 83 62 42
24 7 52 12 163 265 972 116 77 64 48 32
26 7 52 9 139 226 897 91 61 51 38 25
28 8 52 7 120 195 833 73 49 41 30 20
30 8 52 6 104 170 778 60 40 33 25 17
32 9 52 5 92 149 729 49 33 27 20 14
34 9 52 4 81 132 686 41 27 23 17 11
36 10 52 4 72 118 648 35 23 19 14 10
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels
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5



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
66
Ultimate Moment Capacity V.S. Lateral Restraint
Pultex
®
SuperStructural CH980 10"x2 3/4"x1/2"
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
)
lateral buckling
local buckling

T
h
e

N
e
w

a
n
d

I
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6
6



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
67



24" x 4" x 15/32" (Part # CH 994)
1500/1525/1625 Series



Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) 7,000

Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33,000
E
x
=2.8x10
6
psi E
y
=1.0x10
6
psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 14,184 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
I
x
=985.10 in
4
G =5.0x10
5
psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Loads at various L/D ratios
A
w
=11.32 in
2

S
x
=82.0 in
3
with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 14,419 (lbs/ft)
Wt.=10.89 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support
Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted L/D ratio
Span
(feet)
Number of
lateral
restraints
per total
span
(Including
Ends)
Maximum
lateral
support
spacing
(inches)
Allowable
load without
lateral
support 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity of
flange, 2.5x
safety factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load based
on the beam
flexural
capacity,
2.5x safety
factor (lbs/ft)
Allowable
load, In-plane
shear parallel
to the web,
capacity, 3x
safety factor
(lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360
10 3 64 387 3102 7216 5286 **** **** **** **** ****
12 4 64 223 2154 5011 4405 **** **** **** **** 1930
14 4 64 140 1582 3682 3776 **** **** **** **** 1277
16 4 64 93 1212 2819 3304 **** **** **** **** 885
18 5 64 65 957 2227 2937 **** **** **** **** 637
20 5 64 48 775 1804 2643 **** **** **** 709 472
22 6 64 36 641 1491 2403 **** **** **** 539 360
24 6 64 28 538 1253 2203 **** **** **** 420 280
26 6 64 22 459 1067 2033 **** **** **** 333 222
28 7 64 17 396 920 1888 **** **** 357 268 179
30 7 64 14 345 802 1762 **** **** 292 219 146
32 7 64 12 303 705 1652 **** **** 242 181 121
34 8 64 10 268 624 1555 **** 243 202 152 101
36 8 64 8 239 557 1468 **** 205 171 128 85
38 9 64 7 215 500 1391 **** 175 146 109 73
40 9 64 6 194 451 1322 **** 150 125 94 63
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Channels
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6
7



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
68
Moment Capaci ty V.S. Lateral Restrai nt
Pul tex
®
CH994 24" x 4" x 15/32"
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
Bracing Distance (in)
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
.
*
f
t
)
lateral buckling
local buckling
T
h
e

N
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w

a
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d

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6
8



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
69






1-1/2" x 1-1/2" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 142) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with
E = 3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength 126,511 Uniform Loads at various
I
x
= .33 in
4
S
x
= 44 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
= .75 in
2
Wt.= .92 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
1 14844 3872 3500 3069 2557 1918 1279
2 3711 968 1750 667 444 370 278 185
3 1649 430 1167 204 136 113 85 57
4 928 242 875 87 58 48 36 24
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load

1-3/4" x 1-3/4" x 1/8" (Part # TQ 126) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 23,237 Uniform Loads at various
I
x
=.35 in
4
S
x
=.40 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=.438 in
2
Wt.=.54 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
1 2479 3520 2042 1770 1180
2 620 880 1021 452 377 282 188
3 275 391 681 212 141 118 88 59
4 155 220 510 91 61 51 38 25
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load














Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
70








1-3/4" x 1-3/4" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 144) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 92,947 Uniform Loads at various
I
x
=.57 in
4
S
x
=.67 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=.875 in
2
Wt.=1.12 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
1 16606 5896 4083 4061 3046 2030
2 4152 1474 2042 1123 749 624 468 312
3 1845 655 1361 348 232 193 145 97
4 1038 369 1021 149 99 83 62 41
5 664 236 817 77 51 43 32 21
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load

2" x 2" x 1/8" (Part # TQ 220) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 17,791 with Uniform Loads at various
I
x
=.53 in
4
S
x
=.53 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=.5 in
2
Wt.=.69 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
1 2514 4664 2333 1633
2 629 1166 1167 554 415 277
3 279 518 778 211 176 132 88
4 157 292 583 137 91 76 57 38
5 101 187 467 71 47 39 30 20
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Pultex
®
Standard Structurals
Square Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
71







2" x 2" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 240) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 71,162 with Uniform Loads at various
I
x
= .89 in
4
S
x
= .89 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=1.0 in
2
Wt.=1.40 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
2 4222 1958 2333 1706 1137 948 711 474
3 1877 870 1556 536 357 298 223 149
4 1056 490 1167 231 154 128 96 64
5 676 313 933 119 80 66 50 33
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load

2.11" x 2.11" x .20" (Part # TQ 230) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 40,919 Uniform Loads at various
I
x
=.91 in
4
S
x
= .86 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=.84 in
2
Wt.=1.07 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
2 2346 1892 1969 1708 1138 949 711 474
3 1043 841 1313 542 361 301 226 151
4 587 473 985 235 156 130 98 65
5 375 303 788 122 81 68 51 34
6 261 210 656 71 47 39 30 20
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load










Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
72







2-1/2" x 2-1/2" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 242) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 45,544 Uniform Loads at various
I
x
= 1.90 in
4
S
x
= 1.52 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=1.25 in
2
Wt.=1.79 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
2 4615 3344 2917 3398 2265 1888 1416 944
3 2051 1486 1944 1106 737 615 461 307
4 1154 836 1458 483 322 269 201 134
5 738 535 1167 252 168 140 105 70
6 513 372 972 147 98 82 61 41
7 377 273 833 93 62 52 39 26
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load

3" x 3" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 340) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength 31,628 with Uniform Loads at various
I
x
= 3.47 in
4
S
x
= 2.31 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=1.5 in
2
Wt.=2.16 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
2 4871 5082 3500 3179 2384 1589
3 2165 2259 2333 1940 1293 1078 808 539
4 1218 1271 1750 862 575 479 359 239
5 779 813 1400 453 302 251 189 126
6 541 565 1167 266 177 148 111 74
7 398 415 1000 169 112 94 70 47
8 304 318 875 114 76 63 47 32
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load





Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
73








3-1/2" x 3-1/2" x 3/8" (Part # TQ 360) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 52,283 Uniform Loads at various
I
x
= 7.71 in
4
S
x
= 4.40 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=2.62 in
2
Wt.=3.70 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
2
15347 9687 6125 4990 3326
3
6821 4305 4083 4179 2786 2321 1741 1161
4
3837 2422 3063 1880 1253 1044 783 522
5
2455 1550 2450 993 662 552 414 276
6
1705 1076 2042 585 390 325 244 162
7
1253 791 1750 372 248 207 155 103
8
959 605 1531 251 167 139 105 70
9
758 478 1361 177 118 98 74 49
10
614 387 1225 130 86 72 54 36
11
507 320 1114 98 65 54 41 27
12
426 269 1021 75 50 42 31 21
13
363 229 942 59 40 33 25 16
14
313 198 875 48 32 26 20 13
15
273 172 817 39 26 22 16 11
16
240 151 766 32 21 18 13 9
17
212 134 721 27 18 15 11 7
18
189 120 681 22 15 12 9 6
19
170 107 645 19 13 11 8 5
20
153 97 613 16 11 9 7 5
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
74






4" x 4" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 440) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 17,791 Uniform Loads at various
I
x
= 8.75 in
4
S
x
= 4.37 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=2.0 in
2
Wt.=2.96 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
3 2304 4273 3111 1848 1232
4 1296 2404 2333 1138 854 569
5 829 1538 1867 610 457 305
6 576 1068 1556 434 362 271 181
7 423 785 1333 416 278 231 174 116
8 324 601 1167 282 188 157 117 78
9 256 475 1037 199 133 111 83 55
10 207 385 933 146 97 81 61 41
11 171 318 848 110 73 61 46 31
12 144 267 778 85 57 47 35 24
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
75







6" x 6" x 3/8" (Part # TQ 660) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength 17,791 with Uniform Loads at various
I
x
= 44.93 in
4
S
x
= 14.98 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=4.5 in
2
Wt.=7.0 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
3 7896 14647 7000 5046
4 4442 8239 5250 3791 2527
5 2843 5273 4200 2833 2125 1417
6 1974 3662 3500 1729 1297 864
7 1450 2690 3000 1351 1126 844 563
8 1110 2060 2625 925 771 578 385
9 877 1627 2333 660 550 412 275
10 711 1318 2100 487 405 304 203
11 587 1089 1909 553 369 307 230 154
12 494 915 1750 429 286 238 179 119
13 421 780 1615 339 226 188 141 94
14 363 673 1500 272 182 151 114 76
15 316 586 1400 222 148 123 93 62
16 278 515 1313 184 122 102 76 51
17 246 456 1235 153 102 85 64 43
18 219 407 1167 129 86 72 54 36
19 197 365 1105 110 73 61 46 31
20 178 330 1050 95 63 53 39 26
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load
Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
76








4.40" x 1.43" x 0.13" (Part # TR 420) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) with Uniform Loads at various
I
x
=2.89 in
4
S
x
=1.31 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=1.14 in
2
Wt.=1.08 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
2 3253 2882 2669 2593 1945 1297
3 1446 1281 1780 1066 888 666 444
4 813 721 1335 713 476 396 297 198
5 520 461 1068 375 250 209 156 104
6 361 320 890 220 147 122 92 61
7 266 235 763 140 93 78 58 39
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load

4.74" x 1.72" x 0.125" (Part # TR 422) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 23,824 Uniform Loads at various
I
x
=4.20 in
4
S
x
=1.77 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=1.18 in
2
Wt.=1.17 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
3 1249 1731 1843 1229 922 615
4 703 974 1383 671 559 419 280
5 450 623 1106 357 297 223 149
6 312 433 922 211 176 132 88
7 229 318 790 202 134 112 84 56
8 176 243 691 136 91 76 57 38
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load








Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Rectangular Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
77









5.07" x 2" x 0.132" (Part # TR 522) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 19,663 Uniform Loads at various
I
x
=5.65 in
4
S
x
=2.23 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=1.34 in
2
Wt.=1.45 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
3 1299 2180 2082 1202 801
4 731 1227 1562 554 369
5 468 785 1249 395 296 197
6 325 545 1041 281 234 176 117
7 239 400 892 180 150 112 75
8 183 307 781 182 121 101 76 51
9 144 242 694 129 86 72 54 36
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load




























Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Rectangular Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
78












6" x 2" x 0.135" Multicell (Part # TR 620) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 20,540 Uniform Loads at various
I
x
=9.34 in
4
S
x
=3.11 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=1.62 in
2
Wt.=2.00 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
4 1065 1711 1890 877 585
5 681 1095 1512 634 476 317
6 473 760 1260 455 379 284 190
7 348 559 1080 292 244 183 122
8 266 428 945 198 165 124 83
9 210 338 840 141 117 88 59
10 170 274 756 155 103 86 65 43
11 141 226 687 117 78 65 49 32
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load























Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Rectangular Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
79






2" x 6" x 0.135" Multicell (Part # TR 620) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 20,751 Uniform Loads at various
I
x
=1.61 in
4
S
x
=1.61 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft)
A
w
=.88 in
2
Wt.=2.00 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)





100






150






180






240






360
4 557 886 1027 406 271 225 169 113
5 356 567 821 212 141 118 88 59
6 247 394 684 124 83 69 52 34
7 182 289 587 79 52 44 33 22
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load


































Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Rectangular Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
80









6" x 4" x 1/4" (Part # TR 640) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 17,753 Loads at various L/D ratios
I
x
=22.31 in
4
S
x
=7.44 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load (lbs/ft)
A
w
=3.0 in
2
Wt.=3.85 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
4 2201 4092 3500 2005 1337
5 1409 2619 2800 1103 735
6 978 1819 2333 886 665 443
7 719 1336 2000 687 573 429 286
8 550 1023 1750 468 390 293 195
9 435 808 1556 333 277 208 139
10 352 655 1400 245 204 153 102
11 291 541 1273 277 185 154 116 77
12 245 455 1167 215 143 119 89 60
13 208 387 1077 170 113 94 71 47
14 180 334 1000 136 91 76 57 38
15 157 291 933 111 74 62 46 31
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Rectangular Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
81









7" x 4" x 1/4 " (Part # TR 740) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 17,702 Loads at various L/D ratios
I
x
=33.61 in
4
S
x
=9.61 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load (lbs/ft)
A
w
=3.5 in
2
Wt.=4.08 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
4 2835 5286 4083 1908
5 1815 3383 3267 1600 1067
6 1260 2349 2722 974 650
7 926 1726 2333 845 634 422
8 709 1321 2042 694 578 434 289
9 560 1044 1815 495 412 309 206
10 454 846 1633 365 304 228 152
11 375 699 1485 276 230 173 115
12 315 587 1361 214 178 134 89
13 268 500 1256 254 169 141 106 70
14 231 431 1167 204 136 113 85 57
15 202 376 1089 166 111 92 69 46
16 177 330 1021 137 92 76 57 38
17 157 293 961 115 77 64 48 32
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load









Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Rectangular Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
82










7" x 4" x 3/8" (Part # TR 760) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 39,830 Loads at various L/D ratios
I
x
=47.58 in
4
S
x
=13.60 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load (lbs/ft)
A
w
=5.25 in
2
Wt.=5.99 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
4 9028 7480 6125 5474 4105 2737
5 5778 4787 4900 3657 3048 2286 1524
6 4012 3324 4083 2222 1852 1389 926
7 2948 2442 3500 2164 1443 1202 902 601
8 2257 1870 3063 1480 986 822 616 411
9 1783 1478 2722 1054 703 586 439 293
10 1444 1197 2450 776 518 431 323 216
11 1194 989 2227 588 392 327 245 163
12 1003 831 2042 455 304 253 190 126
13 855 708 1885 360 240 200 150 100
14 737 611 1750 289 193 161 120 80
15 642 532 1633 236 157 131 98 65
16 564 468 1531 195 130 108 81 54
17 500 414 1441 163 108 90 68 45
18 446 369 1361 137 92 76 57 38
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Rectangular Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
83











8" x 4" x 1/4" (Part # TR 842) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 17,673 Loads at various L/D ratios
I
x
=46.80 in
4
S
x
=11.70 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load (lbs/ft)
A
w
=4.0 in
2
Wt.=4.48 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
5 2206 4118 3733 2151 1434
6 1532 2860 3111 1322 882
7 1125 2101 2667 865 577
8 862 1609 2333 793 595 397
9 681 1271 2074 680 567 425 284
10 551 1030 1867 503 419 314 209
11 456 851 1697 381 318 238 159
12 383 715 1556 296 247 185 123
13 326 609 1436 234 195 146 98
14 281 525 1333 188 157 118 78
15 245 458 1244 231 154 128 96 64
16 215 402 1167 191 127 106 79 53
17 191 356 1098 159 106 88 66 44
18 170 318 1037 134 90 75 56 37
19 153 285 982 115 76 64 48 32
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load




Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Rectangular Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
84










8" x 4" x 3/8" (Part # TR 860) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7,000
1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33,000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform
E =3.2x10
6
psi G =4.2x10
5
psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 39,764 Loads at various L/D ratios
I
x
=66.63 in
4
S
x
=16.66 in
3
Simply Supported with a Uniform Load (lbs/ft)
A
w
=6.0 in
2
Wt.=6.52 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio





Span
(feet)
Allowable
load, local
compression
buckling
capacity, 2.5x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)
Allowable
load,
flexural
capacity,
2.5x Safety
Factor
(lbs/ft)

Allowable load,
In-plane shear
of the web
capacity, 3x
Safety Factor
(lbs/ft)






100






150






180






240






360
5 7066 5864 5600 4948 4124 3093 2062
6 4907 4072 4667 3034 2529 1896 1264
7 3605 2992 4000 2973 1982 1652 1239 826
8 2760 2291 3500 2041 1361 1134 850 567
9 2181 1810 3111 1458 972 810 608 405
10 1767 1466 2800 1076 718 598 449 299
11 1460 1212 2545 816 544 454 340 227
12 1227 1018 2333 633 422 352 264 176
13 1045 868 2154 501 334 278 209 139
14 901 748 2000 403 269 224 168 112
15 785 652 1867 329 219 183 137 91
16 690 573 1750 272 181 151 113 75
17 611 507 1647 227 151 126 95 63
18 545 452 1556 192 128 106 80 53
19 489 406 1474 163 109 91 68 45
20 442 367 1400 140 93 78 58 39
Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load



Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Rectangular Tubes


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
85





E = 2.0x 10
6
psi Weight = 1.09 lb/ft
2
1/8" (Part # FS 020) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 21 14 12 9 6
18 6 4 3 3 2
24 3 2 1.4 1.1 0.7
E = .8x 10
6
psi Weight = 1.09 lb/ft
2
1/8" (Part # FS020) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 8 6 5 3 2
18 2 2 1.37 1.03 0.69
24 1.0 0.7 0.58 0.43 0.29







E = 2.0x 10
6
psi Weight = 2.27 lb/ft
2
1/4" (Part # FS 040) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 167 111 93 69 46
18 49 33 27 21 14
24 21 14 12 9 6
E = .8x 10
6
psi Weight = 2.27 lb/ft
2
1/4" (Part # FS 040) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 67 44 37 28 19
18 20 13 11 8 5
24 8 6 5 3 2
Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Flat Sheets
Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Flat Sheets


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
86



E = 2.0x 10
6
psi Weight = 3.43 lb/ft
2
3/8" (Part # FS 060) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 563 375 313 234 156
18 167 111 93 69 46
24 70 47 39 29 20
30 36 24 20 15 10
36 21 14 12 9 6
E = .8x 10
6
psi Weight = 3.43 lb/ft
2
3/8" (Part # FS 060) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 225 150 125 94 63
18 67 44 37 28 19
24 28 19 16 12 8
30 14 10 8 6 4
36 8 6 5 3 2



Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Flat Sheets


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
87



E = 2.0x 10
6
psi Weight = 4.64 lb/ft
2
1/2" (Part # FS 080) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 1333 889 741 556 370
18 395 263 219 165 110
24 167 111 93 69 46
30 85 57 47 36 24
36 49 33 27 21 14
42 31 21 17 13 9
48 21 14 12 9 6
E = .8x 10
6
psi Weight = 4.64 lb/ft
2
1/2" (Part # FS 080) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 533 356 296 222 148
18 158 105 88 66 44
24 67 44 37 28 19
30 34 23 19 14 9
36 20 13 11 8 5
42 12 8 7 5 3
48 8 6 5 3 2



Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Flat Sheets


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
88


E = 2.0x 10
6
psi Weight = 5.77 lb/ft
2
5/8" (Part # FS 090) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 2604 1736 1447 1085 723
18 772 514 429 322 214
24 326 217 181 136 90
30 167 111 93 69 46
36 96 64 54 40 27
42 61 40 34 25 17
48 41 27 23 17 11
54 29 19 16 12 8
60 21 14 12 9 6
E = .8x 10
6
psi Weight = 5.77 lb/ft
2
5/8" (Part # FS 090) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 1042 694 579 434 289
18 309 206 171 129 86
24 130 87 72 54 36
30 67 44 37 28 19
36 39 26 21 16 11
42 24 16 13 10 7
48 16 11 9 7 5
54 11 8 6 5 3
60 8 6 5 3 2


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Flat Sheets


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
89




E = 2.0x 10
6
psi Weight = 6.57 lb/ft
2
3/4"(Part # FS 100) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 4500 3000 2500 1875 1250
18 1333 889 741 556 370
24 563 375 313 234 156
30 288 192 160 120 80
36 167 111 93 69 46
42 105 70 58 44 29
48 70 47 39 29 20
54 49 33 27 21 14
60 36 24 20 15 10
E = .8x 10
6
psi Weight = 6.57 lb/ft
2
3/4" (Part # FS 100) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 1800 1200 1000 750 500
18 533 356 296 222 148
24 225 150 125 94 63
30 115 77 64 48 32
36 67 44 37 28 19
42 42 28 23 17 12
48 28 19 16 12 8
54 20 13 11 8 5
60 14 10 8 6 4

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Flat Sheets


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
90


E = 2.0x 10
6
psi Weight = 9.45 lb/ft
2
1" (Part # FS 110) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 10667 7111 5926 4444 2963
18 3160 2107 1756 1317 878
24 1333 889 741 556 370
30 683 455 379 284 190
36 395 263 219 165 110
42 249 166 138 104 69
48 167 111 93 69 46
54 117 78 65 49 33
60 85 57 47 36 24
E = .8x 10
6
psi Weight = 9.45 lb/ft
2
1" (Part # FS 110) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft
2
.
Pultex
®
1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction
span L/D
(inches) 100 150 180 240 360
12 4267 2844 2370 1778 1185
18 1264 843 702 527 351
24 533 356 296 222 148
30 273 182 152 114 76
36 158 105 88 66 44
42 100 66 55 41 28
48 67 44 37 28 19
54 47 31 26 20 13
60 34 23 19 14 9

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Flat Sheets


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
91
Clip Connection Load Tables with Pultex
®
SuperStructural Angles

The following Clip Connection Load Tables were developed based on full section testing of the Pultex
®

SuperStructural angles. The experimental procedure can be located in Appendix A. The load tables
were developed based on the following:

1. Experimental test results
2. Room temperature (73°)
3. A safety factor has not been applied. All loads are ultimate unless noted.
4. An ultimate bearing strength of 33,000 psi
5. A 4% hole deformation bearing stress of 12,000 psi
6. No damage to the composite materials
7. No chemical exposure
8. Bolted connection only; no adhesive.
9. Full section shear strength through angle heel = 3,400 psi (1500/1525 Series); 3,900 psi (1625 Series)

Note: Clip angle connection dimensions are governed by internal dimensions of beams and external
dimensions of the flanges on the columns.

1500/1525 Series Pultex
®
SuperStructural Angles


Clip
Angle
Thickness
(in)


Angle
Connection
Length (in)

Bolt
Hole
Dia.
(in)


Bolt
Dia.
(in)


# of Angles
in
Connection

# of
Bolts
in
Shear
# of
Bolts
through
Beam
Web


# of Bolts
Connected
to Column
Ultimate
Shear Load
through
Angle Heels
(lbs.)
Ultimate
Bearing
Load of
Connection
(lbs.)
Allowable
Bearing Load
for 4% Hole
Deformation
(lbs.)

Clip Angle
Ultimate
Load before
Failure (lbs.)
3/8 4 1/2 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 11,475 24,750 9,000 11,475
3/8 4 1/2 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 11,475 30,938 11,250 11,475
1/2 4 1/2 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 15,300 33,000 12,000 15,300
1/2 4 1/2 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 15,300 41,250 15,000 15,300


1500/1525 Series Pultex
®
SuperStructural Angles


Clip
Angle
Thickness
(in)


Angle
Connection
Length (in)

Bolt
Hole
Dia.
(in)


Bolt
Dia.
(in)


# of Angles
in
Connection

# of
Bolts
in
Shear
# of
Bolts
through
Beam
Web


# of Bolts
Connected
to Column
Ultimate
Shear Load
through
Angle Heels
(lbs.)
Ultimate
Bearing
Load of
Connection
(lbs.)
Allowable
Bearing Load
for 4% Hole
Deformation
(lbs.)

Clip Angle
Ultimate
Load before
Failure (lbs.)
3/8 6 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 15,300 24,750 9,000 15,300
3/8 6 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 15,300 30,938 11,250 15,300
1/2 6 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 20,400 33,000 12,000 20,400
1/2 6 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 20,400 41,250 15,000 20,400


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
92

1500/1525 Series Pultex
®
SuperStructural Angles


Clip
Angle
Thickness
(in)


Angle
Connection
Length (in)

Bolt
Hole
Dia.
(in)


Bolt
Dia.
(in)


# of Angles
in
Connection

# of
Bolts
in
Shear
# of
Bolts
through
Beam
Web


# of Bolts
Connected
to Column
Ultimate
Shear Load
through
Angle Heels
(lbs.)
Ultimate
Bearing
Load of
Connection
(lbs.)
Allowable
Bearing Load
for 4% Hole
Deformation
(lbs.)

Clip Angle
Ultimate
Load before
Failure (lbs.)
3/8 8 1/4 9/16 1/2 2 6 3 6 21,038 37,125 13,500 21,038
3/8 8 1/4 11/16 5/8 2 6 3 6 21,038 46,406 16,875 21,038
1/2 8 1/4 9/16 1/2 2 6 3 6 28,050 49,500 18,000 28,050
1/2 8 1/4 11/16 5/8 2 6 3 6 28,050 61,875 22,500 28,050


1625 Series Pultex
®
SuperStructural Angles


Clip
Angle
Thickness
(in)


Angle
Connection
Length (in)

Bolt
Hole
Dia.
(in)


Bolt
Dia.
(in)


# of Angles
in
Connection

# of
Bolts
in
Shear
# of
Bolts
through
Beam
Web


# of Bolts
Connected
to Column
Ultimate
Shear Load
through
Angle Heels
(lbs.)
Ultimate
Bearing
Load of
Connection
(lbs.)
Allowable
Bearing Load
for 4%Hole
Deformation
(lbs.)

Clip Angle
Ultimate Load
before Failure
(lbs.)
3/8 4 1/2 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 13,163 24,750 9,000 13,163
3/8 4 1/2 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 13,163 30,938 11,250 13,163
1/2 4 1/2 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 17,550 33,000 12,000 17,550
1/2 4 1/2 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 17,550 41,250 15,000 17,550



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
93

1625 Series Pultex
®
SuperStructural Angles




Clip
Angle
Thickness
(in)




Angle
Connection
Length (in)



Bolt
Hole
Dia.
(in)




Bolt
Dia.
(in)




# of Angles
in
Connection



# of
Bolts
in
Shear


# of
Bolts
through
Beam
Web




# of Bolts
Connected
to Column
Ultimate
Shear
Load
through
Angle
Heels
(lbs.)


Ultimate
Bearing
Load of
Connection
(lbs.)


Allowable
Bearing Load
for 4% Hole
Deformation
(lbs.)



Clip Angle
Ultimate Load
before Failure
(lbs.)
3/8 6 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 17,550 24,750 9,000 17,550
3/8 6 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 17,550 30,938 11,250 17,550
1/2 6 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 23,400 33,000 12,000 23,400
1/2 6 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 23,400 41,250 15,000 23,400

1625 Series Pultex
®
SuperStructural Angles





Clip Angle
Thickness
(in)




Angle
Connection
Length (in)



Bolt
Hole
Dia.
(in)




Bolt
Dia.
(in)




# of Angles
in
Connection



# of
Bolts
in
Shear


# of
Bolts
through
Beam
Web




# of Bolts
Connected
to Column


Ultimate
Shear Load
through
Angle Heels
(lbs.)


Ultimate
Bearing
Load of
Connection
(lbs.)


Allowable
Bearing Load
for 4% Hole
Deformation
(lbs.)
Clip
Angle
Ultimate
Load
before
Failure
(lbs.)
3/8 8 1/4 9/16 1/2 2 6 3 6 24,131 37,125 13,500 24,131
3/8 8 1/4 11/16 5/8 2 6 3 6 24,131 46,406 16,875 24,131
1/2 8 1/4 9/16 1/2 2 6 3 6 32,175 49,500 18,000 32,175
1/2 8 1/4 11/16 5/8 2 6 3 6 32,175 61,875 22,500 32,175

Note: The maximum slip of the connection at failure is approximately 0.35"without adhesive.
The maximum slip of the connection at failure is approximately 0.101" with adhesive. The
adhesive does not affect the ultimate load capacity of the connection, but does affect the amount
of slip of the connection.



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
94
Bolt Hole Bearing Capacity of Pultex
®
SuperStructural Beams and Columns

Tables 4-3 and 4-4 represent the bearing capacity of the flange and web sections of various beams and
columns. The load table is based on the following:

1. The ultimate lengthwise bearing strength of the flange sections is 33,000 psi.
2. The ultimate crosswise bearing strength of the web section is 30,000 psi.
3. The 4% hole deformation longitudinal bearing strength of the flange is 12,000 psi.
4. The 4% hole deformation transverse bearing strength of the web is 11,000 psi.
5. No safety factors are applied.
6. Testing performed at room temperature (73°F)
7. No adhesive is used.
8. Bolt torque is not considered.

Table 4-3
Bolt Hole Bearing Capacity of Pultex
®
SuperStructural Columns and Beams for 1500/1525 Series
Design Chart



Member
Thickness
(inches)


Bolt
Diameter
(inches)



# of Bolts
in Column



# of Bolts
in Beam
4% Hole
Deformation Beam
Web Bearing Load
in Transverse
Direction (lbs.)
Ultimate Beam
Web Bearing
Load in
Transverse
Direction (lbs.)
4% Hole
Deformation Column
Flange Bearing Load
in Longitudinal
Direction (lbs.)

Ultimate Column
Flange Bearing Load
in Longitudinal
Direction (lbs.)
1/4 1/2 2 1 938 2,563 3,000 8,250
1/4 1/2 4 2 1,875 5,125 6,000 16,500
1/4 1/2 6 3 2,813 7,688 9,000 24,750
3/8 1/2 2 1 2,063 5,625 4,500 12,375
3/8 1/2 4 2 4,125 11,250 9,000 24,750
3/8 1/2 6 3 6,188 16,875 13,500 37,125
1/2 1/2 2 1 2,750 7,500 6,000 16,500
1/2 1/2 4 2 5,500 15,000 12,000 33,000
1/2 1/2 6 3 8,250 22,500 18,000 49,500
1/4 5/8 2 1 1,172 3,203 3,750 10,313
1/4 5/8 4 2 2,344 6,406 7,500 20,625
1/4 5/8 6 3 3,516 9,609 11,250 30,938
3/8 5/8 2 1 2,578 7,031 5,625 15,469
3/8 5/8 4 2 5,156 14,063 11,250 30,938
3/8 5/8 6 3 7,734 21,094 16,875 46,406
1/2 5/8 2 1 3,438 9,375 7,500 20,625
1/2 5/8 4 2 6,875 18,750 15,000 41,250
1/2 5/8 6 3 10,313 28,125 22,500 61,875
Note: Values are representative for bolted connections without adhesives.
Transverse bearing stress of 1/4" Pultex
®
SuperStructural profiles, Web sections = 20,500 psi., 4% Elongation = 7,500 psi






The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
95
Table 4-4
Hole Bearing Capacity of Pultex
®
SuperStructural Columns and Beams for 1625 Series
Design Chart



Member
Thickness
(inches)


Bolt
Diameter
(inches)


# of Bolts
in
Column



# of Bolts
in Beam
4% Hole Deformation
Beam Web
Bearing Load in
Transverse Direction
(lbs.)

Ultimate Beam Web
Bearing Load in
Transverse Direction
(lbs.)
4% Hole Deformation
Column Flange
Bearing Load in
Longitudinal Direction
(lbs.)
Ultimate Column
Flange Bearing
Load in
Longitudinal
Direction (lbs.)
1/4 1/2 2 1 1,175 2,938 3,500 9,500
1/4 1/2 4 2 2,350 5,875 7,000 19,000
1/4 1/2 6 3 3,525 8,813 10,500 28,500
3/8 1/2 2 1 2,372 6,469 5,250 14,250
3/8 1/2 4 2 4,744 12,938 10,500 28,500
3/8 1/2 6 3 7,116 19,406 15,750 42,750
1/2 1/2 2 1 3,163 8,625 7,000 19,000
1/2 1/2 4 2 6,325 17,250 14,000 38,000
1/2 1/2 6 3 9,488 25,875 21,000 57,000
1/4 5/8 2 1 1,469 3,672 4,375 11,875
1/4 5/8 4 2 2,938 7,344 8,750 23,750
1/4 5/8 6 3 4,406 11,016 13,125 35,625
3/8 5/8 2 1 2,965 8,086 6,563 17,813
3/8 5/8 4 2 5,930 16,172 13,125 35,625
3/8 5/8 6 3 8,895 24,258 19,688 53,438
1/2 5/8 2 1 3,953 10,781 8,750 23,750
1/2 5/8 4 2 7,906 21,563 17,500 47,500
1/2 5/8 6 3 11,859 32,344 26,250 71,250
Note: Values are representative for bolted connections without adhesives.
Transverse bearing stress of 1/4" Pultex
®
SuperStructural profiles 1625 Series, Web sections = 23,500 psi., 4% elongation = 9,400 psi

Connection Fastener Edge Distance and Torque Level Recommendations
2

Ratio of distance to fastener diameter
Range Recommended
Edge Distance- End 2.0-4.5 3.0
Edge Distance- Side 1.5-3.5 2.0
Pitch (Distance between holes) 4.0-5.0 5.0
Reference: Structural Plastics Design Manual

Low Torque High Torque
ASTM A325 37.5% of Bolt Proof Load 75% of Bolt Proof Load
Bolt Torque Torque
Size ft-lbs. (N m) ft-lbs. (N m)
1/2" -13 29 (39) 57 (77)
5/8" - 11 57 (77) 113 (153)
Bolt recommendations based on ASTM A325 grade five coarse threaded bolts
Connection testing performed with grade 8 oversized washers (2.5 times hole dia.)
Proof strength for ASTM A325 bolt equals 75,000 psi (0.5 GPa)



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
96
Design Example Using the Clip Connection Charts

Task
Design a connection for a 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section beam that is clipped into a 8" x 8" x 3/8"
Wide Flange Section column. (Reference drawing below.)

Given
Design load on connection is a static load of 6,000 lbs.
The corrosive environment requires 1625 Series.
Operating temperature = 73°F.
Minimum Safety Factor = 2.5



Solution:
1. Reference the 1625 Series of Pultex
®
SuperStructural angle clip connection charts for the 4.5" clip
angle length (depth of the 6" x 6" x 3/8" section dictates the 4.5" angle length).
2. First, investigate the 3/8" thick angles. Looking across to the Ultimate Load Before Failure
Column, the ultimate load of the 3/8" thick clip angle connection is 13,163 lbs.
3. The design load is 6,000 lbs.(2.5 S.F.) = 15,000 lbs.; therefore, the 3/8" section is not adequate.
4. Investigate the 1/2" thick angles. The Ultimate load is 17,550 lbs.; therefore, the 1/2" angle is
adequate.
5. Specify the 4" x 4" x 1/2" angle 4.5" long 1625 Series of Pultex
®
SuperStructural angle.
6. Determine the bearing capacity of the two holes in the web of the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section
and the bearing capacity of the four holes in the column.
7. Reference the Hole Bearing Capacity of Pultex
®
Columns and Beams Design Chart. Determine
the row that satisfies the desired bolting condition and member sizes.
8. Enter the row for the 3/8" member thickness and two bolts in the beam. The ultimate beam web
bearing load in the transverse direction is 16,172 lbs. for the 5/8" diameter bolts. The design load
with the 2.5 S.F. is 15,000 lbs.; the connection is adequate.
10. From Table 1a, the column bearing load is adequate at 35,625 lbs.





The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
97


Moment Capacity of Pultex
®
SuperStructural Angles

Table 4-5




Moment Capacity of 3/8" thick Pultex
®

SuperStructural
Angles
1500/1525/1625 Series
0
1
2
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Moment (in-lbs./in)
Ultimate Moment at Failure = 150 in-lbs./in
Moment Capacity of 3/8" thick Pultex
®

Super St ruct ural
Angles
1500/1525/1625 Series
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Moment (in-lbs./in)
Ultimate Moment at Failure = 506 in-lbs./in
Moment capacity is in (in-lbs.) per longitudinal inch of angle
Moment capacity is in (in-lbs.) per longitudinal inch of angle
Table 4-6


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
98


Table 4-7




Table 4-8



Moment Capacity of 1/2" thick Pultex
®

SuperStructur al
Angles
1500/1525/1625 Series
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Moment (in-l bs. /i n)
Ultimate Moment at Failure = 954 in-lbs./in
Moment capacity is in (in-lbs.) per longitudinal inch of angle
Moment Capacity of 1/2" thick Pultex
®
SuperStructural Angles
1500/1525/1625 Series
0
1
2
3
0 2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
1
6
0
Moment (in-lbs./in)
D
e
g
r
e
e
s

o
f

R
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
Ultimate Moment at Failure = 235 in-
Moment capacity is in (in-lbs.) per longitudinal inch of angle


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
99

Designing a Connection With a Coped Flange

When designing a connection with a coped flange, block shear must be checked to insure that the
connection is adequate. The two factors affecting block shear are the transverse tensile and shear
strengths of the web section of the beam. Values for transverse tensile strength and in-plane shear
strengths can be located in the Material Properties Sheets of Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural
Profiles and Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles for Wide Flange Sections and I-Sections.

The procedure for determining the block shear (V
block
) allowable load is as follows:

1. Determine the in-plane shear and tensile strengths of the beam profile
with which you are designing. (Material Properties Sheets of Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced
Polymer Structural Profiles and Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles for Wide Flange
Sections and I-Sections).
2. Determine the shear length (Lv) of the bolted connection. (Reference Figure 4-2)
3. Determine the net tensile length (Lt) of the bolted connection. (Reference Figure 4-2)
4. Apply the proper safety factors to the connection. (Use “2” for demonstration.)
Determine if V
block
allowable is greater than the design load.

Example

Design a framed connection using a Pultex
®
SuperStructural 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section coped
into an Pultex
®
SuperStructural 8" x 8" x 3/8" beam. The holes are 9/16" to accommodate 1/2" bolts.
(Reference Figure 4-1)

1. Referencing the Material Properties Sheets for Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles, the in-plane
shear and tensile strengths of the web section are 7,000 psi and 10,500 psi, respectively.

2. Calculate the shear length (Lv) of the Figure 1. connection,
i.e., (.130 + 2 + 1.25 -9/16 - 9/32) = 2.53"

3. Calculate the net tension length (Lt) of the above connection,
i.e., (1.5 –.5(9/16)) =1.219"

4. Apply the proper safety factors to the transverse shear and tensile strengths,
i.e., (Allowable shear = 7,000/2 = 3,500 psi)
(Allowable tension = 10,500/2 = 5,250 psi)

5. Calculate the allowable shear force for block shear V
block

i.e., (5000(1.219)(.375) + 3,500(2.53)(.375) = 5,720 lbs.

6. Compare V
block
allowable to the design load.
3

Coped Flange Connection
Figure 4-1 Figure 4-2


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Design Manual
Chapter 4
100
Endnotes

1
Task Committee on Design of the Structural Plastics Research Council of the Technical Council
on Research of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Structural Plastics Design Manual
Vol. 2. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, 1984, pg. 732.
2
Task Committee on Design of the Structural Plastics Research Council of the Technical Council
on Research of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Structural Plastics Design Manual
Vol. 1. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, 1984, pg. 439.

3
Bank, L.C. “Bolted Connections for Pultruded Frame Structures.” Diss. The Catholic
University of America, 1996, pg. 29.
4
Boresi, A.P. and Schmidt, R.J. 2003. Advanced Mechanics of Materials. 6
th
edition, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY.

5
Pandey, M.D., Kabir, M.Z., and Sherbourne, A.N. 1995. "Flexural-torsional stability of
thin-walled composite I-section beams," Composites Engineering, 5(3): 321-342.

6
Qiao, P.Z, Davalos, J.F., and Wang, J.L. 2001. "Local buckling of composite FRP shapes by
discrete plate analysis," Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 127 (3): 245-255.

7
Qiao, P.Z. and Zou, G.P. 2003. “Local Buckling of Composite Fiber-Reinforced Plastic
Wide-Flange Sections,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 129(1): 125-129.

8
Qiao, P.Z. and Zou, G.P. (2002). “Local Buckling of Elastically Restrained Fiber-
Reinforced Plastic Plates and its Applications to Box-Sections,” Journal of Engineering
Mechanics, ASCE, 128 (12): 1324-1330.

9
Qiao, P.Z. 2003. “Design equations and guidelines for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)
composite channel sections,” Final Report to Creative Pultrusions, Inc., July 2003. 36 pages.

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
1
Chapter 5 Load Tables for Compression Members


The objective of Chapter 5 is to provide engineers with a quantifiable baseline for designing with Pultex
®

FRP columns. Creative Pultrusions, through its comprehensive column load test program, provides the
most current, thorough manual for the practical design of Pultex
®
FRP columns. Full section column tests
were performed by Professor Robert L. Yuan, Ph.D., P.E., at The University of Texas at Arlington,
Arlington, Texas. The protocol of full section column tests included more than 300 structural Pultex
®

FRP product specimens: I, W, Round, Square and Angle Sections.

The test protocol required the analysis of short, intermediate and long columns, ranging from one to
twenty foot section lengths. The tests were conducted in a reaction frame in the vertical position, using
pinned-pinned end conditions, with the corresponding effective length coefficient (K) of one. Column
design equations, for practical column applications with various end conditions, are available and
completely supported by the extensive column load test results.

The columns were axially compressed, with measurements taken of the axial deflections and lateral center
displacements. Axial load versus lateral displacements were plotted and the ultimate loads determined.
The ultimate load is defined as the points on the plots, where the loads no longer increase due to local,
global or bearing failure.

Creative Pultrusions recognizes that some published results for column load information are inconsistent
within the pultrusion industry. The column load tests, conducted by Creative Pultrusions, used true
pinned-pinned end conditions with minimum friction effects. The results of this testing protocol
correspond to a strong baseline confidence to which engineers can design and provide conclusions.



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
2
Introduction

The research work presented in the Load Tables for Compression Members represents a thorough
investigation on the behavior of Pultex
®
FRP columns, produced by Creative Pultrusions, to be used as
supporting members for civil engineering structures.

Five section configurations of Pultex
®
FRP composite columns are studied in the research, as shown in
Figure 5-1. Two sections have closed configurations: square tube and round tube; the other three are thin-
walled open sections: wide-flange, I, and angle sections. More than 300 column members, with three
specimens each, were tested.
Figure 5-1

The thicknesses are 1/8" and 1/4" for square tube sections. The dimensions of the square tubes vary from
1.5" to 4". For round tube sections, the thicknesses are 1/8" and 1/4". The diameters of the round tube
are 1.5" and 2". For Wide Flange Sections, the thicknesses of flanges and webs are 1/4" and 3/8". The
dimension of the Wide Flange Section ranges from 4" to 10". For I-Sections, the thicknesses of flanges
and webs are 1/4" and 3/8". The dimensions of I-Sections are 4" x 2" and 8" x 4". For angle sections, the
thicknesses of the flanges are 1/4", 3/8" and 1/2". The dimensions of the angle section are 3" x 3",
4" x 4" and 6" x 6".

The objectives of the research are to provide:

1. the column load data for five section configurations, taking into consideration the length of the
column and the effective length factor, “K”;

2. the allowable compressive stresses;

3. the allowable axial compressive loads;

4. software and/or design equations for predicting load capacity of columns with various section
configurations; and

5. written explanations to relate experimental data with the design equations and procedures.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
3
Pultex
®
FRP Column Test Program

The length of the composite column varies from 1' to 20' to include short, intermediate, and long column
members. Full scale column tests are performed by an axial compressive load in a vertical position as
shown in Figure 5-2.
Figure 5-2


















Short vertical column members were tested on a MTS machine; long column members were tested on a
30-ft. reaction frame. During the test, a microprofiler was used to generate the displacement rate of
loading at a 0.1 in./min. The measurements included strains, ultimate loads, axial displacements and
lateral deflections.

The composite materials for the column members are constructed of polyester-based and vinyl ester-based
resin matrices, with and without fire retardancy, reinforced with E-glass fibers.

Analysis and Discussion

Columns with Box Sections (Imperial)

For the short columns with box sections, the ultimate load capacity is a function of the bearing
strength of the composite material and the column cross-sectional area. In general, the bearing
strength of a structural composite is approximately 30 ksi; therefore, the ultimate strength of short
columns with box sections depends upon the cross-sectional area; for a given area, the columns with
box sections appear to have the highest ultimate load capacities among the columns with other section
configurations. For a given wall thickness of a box section, the ultimate load capacity appears to
increase linearly with an increase in the section dimensions, e.g., for thickness t = 1/4", length L = 2
ft., the ultimate load strength was 40 kips for 1 3/4" x 1 3/4" box section; 58 kips for 2" x 2" section;
and 88 kips for a 3" x 3" section.

MTS Machine Reaction Frame
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
4
For the long columns, the ultimate column strength is a function of the slenderness ratio KL/r. The
column strength decreases with an increase in the slenderness ratio. For columns with box sections,
the dividing line at the slenderness ratio for short and long columns appears to be 35. For columns
with KL/r less than 35, the bearing strength of the composite controls the ultimate load. For columns
with KL/r greater than 35, global buckling strength controls the ultimate load.
Columns with Round Sections

Similar to the columns with box sections, the ultimate load capacity of the short round column is also
a function of the bearing strength of the composites and column cross-sectional area. For a given area
and length, the ultimate column strength of a short round column is approximately 20% less than that
of a short box column.
For the long round columns, the ultimate column strength is a function of the slenderness ratio KL/r.
The round column strength decreases with an increase in the slenderness ratio. For round columns,
the dividing line at the slenderness ratio appears to be between 30 to 40. For round columns with
KL/r greater than 40, the columns have the characterization of an Euler behavior. For round columns
with KL/r less than 30, bearing mode of failure dominates the ultimate column strength. At KL/r =
25, the ultimate stress of the round column from test results is less than the bearing strength of 30 ksi
of the composites; therefore, the prediction curve in the short round column region becomes an
inclined straight line.

Columns with Wide Flange Sections
From experimental results, the ultimate strength of columns with Wide Flange Sections is about 30
percent of the ultimate strength of columns with box sections for a given cross-sectional dimension
and member length.
For the long columns, the ultimate column strength is a function of the slenderness ratio KL/r. The
column strength decreases with an increase in the slenderness ratio. For columns with Wide Flange
Sections, the dividing line at the slenderness ratio for short and long columns appears to be in the
range of 40 to 60. For columns with KL/r less than 60, the column ultimate load depends on one-half
of the flange width to the flange thickness ratio of b
f
/2t
f
. The higher the b
f
/2t
f
ratio,

the less the
ultimate load capacity.

Columns with I-Sections
Similar to the columns with Wide Flange Sections, the ultimate load capacity of the columns with
I-sections is a function of the slenderness ratio KL/r. The column strength decreases with an increase
in the slenderness ratio. For columns with I-sections, the dividing line at the slenderness ratio for
short and long columns appears to be in the range of 30 to 40. For columns with KL/r greater than
40, the Euler characteristics of the column with I-sections are close to that of the column with Wide
Flange Sections; however, for I-section columns with KL/r less than 30, the ultimate stress is
significantly higher than the ultimate stress of the Wide Flange Section column due to a smaller b
f
/t
f

ratio. The crippling of the flange in the testing of I-section columns was not observed. At KL/r = 30,
the ultimate stress of the I-section column from test results is less than the bearing strength of 30 ksi
of the composites; therefore, the prediction curve in short I-section column regions becomes an
inclined straight line.

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
5
Columns with Angle Sections
Columns with angle sections were axially loaded at the centroid of the section. The ultimate load
capacity is a function of the slenderness ratio KL/r. The column strength decreases with an increase
in the slenderness ratio. For columns with angle sections, the dividing line at the slenderness ratio for
short and long columns appears to be in the range of 45 to 60. For columns with KL/r greater than
60, the Euler characteristics of the column with angle section is close to that of the column with Wide
Flange Sections; however, for the angle-section columns with KL/r less than 45, the ultimate stress is
significantly lower than that of the Wide Flange Section columns due to a larger b
f
/t
f
ratio and
localized instability. The crippling of the flange in the testing of angle-section columns was observed
for all specimens; the local buckling instigated a torsion and global buckling of the column. In the
short angle section column region, the ultimate column strength is sensitive to the b
f
/t
f
ratio. For a
b
f
/t
f
greater than 8, the ultimate strength of the column with angle section decreases significantly.

Column Load Design Equations

The Column Load Design Equations for E-glass reinforced polymer columns are based on a large group
of data points from full section tests of composite columns. The observed column failure can be
categorized into two modes: bearing failure and local/global instability. Figure 5-3 depicts a general
behavior for all fiber reinforced polymer columns. The curve can be divided into two groups: short
column and long column, as the plotted compressive stress versus slenderness ratio. The short columns
generally fail in bearing deformation or local buckling mode; the long columns generally fail in the global
buckling mode.

Compressive Stress vs. Slenderness Ratio
Figure 5-3
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Slenderness Ratio, KL/r
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

k
s
i
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
6
Design Equations for Box Sections

For short columns with box sections, a bearing failure due to axial compressive loading governs the
design equation as follows:

Where P
ult
= Ultimate axial load (lbs.)
A = Cross-sectional area (in
2
)
σ
ult
= Bearing strength of the composite (psi)
Columns with Round- and I-Sections

For short columns with round- and I-sections, the columns fail due to a combination of axial load and
bending moment. The design equations consider the interaction of bearing and flexural buckling
failure. A linear equation is developed from the test results for the transition behavior as follows:




Where σ
ult
= Ultimate compressive stress (ksi)
K = Effective length coefficient
L = Column length (in) when used in above equation
r = Radius of gyration of the section (in)
Columns with Wide Flange Sections
For short columns with Wide Flange Sections, local buckling or crippling occurs on the flanges.
According to the test results, the ultimate local buckling stress, σ
ult,l
of the Pultex
®
FRP composite
Wide Flange Section column can be predicted by the modified buckling equation of thin plate for
isotropic materials as follows:

Where: E = Modulus of elasticity in the loading direction (psi)
ν = Poisson’s ratio
t
f
= Thickness of the local flange element (in)
b
f
= Width of the local flange element (in)
Φ = 0.8, a coefficient to account for the orthotropic material of the composite
k = 0.5 is recommended for the non-stiffened outstanding flanges of the Wide Flange
Section
k = 4.0 is recommended for the stiffened outstanding webs of the Wide Flange
Section



A
P
ult
ult
= σ
(2) columns Section Round FRP Pultex short for (ksi)
7
1
30 − − =

r
KL
ult
σ
(3) columns Section I FRP Pultex short for (ksi)
38
5
25 − − =

r
KL
ult
σ
(4) columns Section Flange ide W FRP Pultex short for (psi)
) 1 ( 12
2
2
2










Φ =
f
f
ult
b
t
E
k
ν
π
σ
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
7
It should be noted that the ultimate local buckling strength needs to be checked against bearing
strength. The lower value will be used for the ultimate strength of the short composite column with
the Wide Flange Section. Then, the ultimate strength of the short column is compared with the
flexural buckling strength to determine the dividing point for short and long columns.

Columns with Angle Sections

For short columns with angle sections, the local buckling of the flange occurs, as in the column with
the Wide Flange Section. Thus, the design Equation (4) can also be applied to predict the ultimate
strength of the short columns with angle sections.
Design Equations for Long Columns
The flexural buckling, known as Euler buckling, is the general behavior of long, slender Pultex
®
FRP
columns under axial compression loads. According to the test results, the ultimate buckling strength of
the composite columns was in agreement with the Euler buckling equation:


The equation can be applied to the long Pultex
®
FRP composite columns with square-, round-, I-, W-, and
angle- sections; however, for columns with angle-sections, flexural-torsional buckling governs the
ultimate strength. In the test, the coupling of the flexural and torsional buckling was observed in a form
of lateral deflection and global twisting for the angle-section columns. The ultimate flexural-torsional
buckling stress can be approximated by the lower value from equation (5) for flexural buckling strength
about the weak axis, or from the torsional buckling equation as follows:


(psi) for short Pultex
®
FRP Angle columns (6)


According to the test results, the coefficient Φ = 0.8 is recommended for Equation (6) to account for the
orthotropic material of the composite, where b
f
is the width of the local flange element (in); one-half the
width for Wide Flange Sections; whole leg width for angle sections.

The effective length coefficient, “K-value”, in the equation, accounts for the different end conditions.
The “K-value” is recommended in Table 1. for Pultex
®
FRP composite columns with various end
supports.






2
,
) 1 ( 2








+
Φ =
f
f
ft ult
b
t
E
ν
σ
2
2
,
) (5 columns FRP Pultex long all for (psi)






=

r
KL
E
Euler ult
π
σ
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
8
Table 5-1 Effective Length Coefficient, K-Value
End Conditions Recommended K-Value
1. Pinned-Pinned 1.00
2. Fixed-Fixed 0.65
3. Pinned-Fixed 0.80
4. Fixed-Translation Fixed 1.20
5. Fixed-Translation Free 2.10
6. Pinned-Translation Fixed 2.00





Note: Buckled Shape of Column Displayed by Dashed Line


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
9
Nomenclature


A = Cross-sectional area (in
2
)
b
f
= Width of local flange element; width of angle leg or ½ width of a Wide Flange
Beam (in)
E = Modulus of elasticity in the loading direction (psi)
Fa = Allowable compressive stress (psi)
I
x
,I
y
= Moment of Inertia (in
4
)
k = Flange stiffness factor 0.5 for non-stiffened outstanding flanges of the Wide
Flange Section; 4.0 for stiffened
K = Effective length coefficient
L = Length of column (ft); (in) when used in KL/r equation
Pa = Allowable axial load (lbs.)
r = Radius of gyration of the section (in)
S = Section Modulus (in
3
)
t
f
= Thickness of local flange element (in)
ν = Poisson’s Ratio (.36 in/in)
Φ = 0.8, a coefficient to account for the orthotrophic material of the composite
σ
ult
= Ultimate compressive or bearing stress of the composite (psi)
σ
ult,l
= Ultimate local buckling stress (psi)
σ
ult,Euler
= Ultimate Euler buckling stress (psi)
σ
ult,ft
= Ultimate flexural-torsional buckling stress (psi)
































The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
10
Tables for Allowable Compressive Stresses and Loads

The following tables provide information for the allowable stresses (Fa) and the allowable loads (Pa) for
columns with square tube sections, round sections, Wide Flange Sections, I-sections and angle-sections.
The tables represent sections used as compressive members (columns). The tables were developed based
on the following criteria:

1. Experimental test results
2. Room temperature (73° F)
3. A safety factor of S.F. = 3.0
4. A value of K = 1.0
5. A value of E = 3x10
6
psi
6. ν = .36 in/in
7. No damages on the composite columns
8. Tables display KL/r values to 200 for reference. It is recommended that KL/r be limited to 120.


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
11
Tables for Allowable Compressive Stresses and Loads


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Equal Leg Angles


2" x 2" x 1/4" (Part# AE 240)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = .92 in
2
, r
z
= .38 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 31.5 4596 4237 Short Column
1.5 47.2 4427 4081 Short Column
2.0 63.0 2490 2296 Long Column
2.5 78.7 1594 1469 Long Column
3.0 94.4 1107 1020 Long Column
3.5 110.2 813 750 Long Column
4.0 125.9 622 574 Long Column
4.5 141.7 492 453 Long Column
5.0 157.4 398 367 Long Column
5.5 173.1 329 304 Long Column
6.0 188.9 277 255 Long Column
6.5 204.6 236 217 Long Column
7.0 220.4 203 187 Long Column
7.5 236.1 177 163 Long Column
8.0 251.8 156 143 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
12

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Equal Leg Angles



3" x 3" x 1/4" (Part# AE 340)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 1.42 in
2
, r
z
= .58 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 20.6 2042 2904 Short Column
1.5 30.8 2042 2904 Short Column
2.0 41.1 2042 2904 Short Column
2.5 51.4 2042 2904 Short Column
3.0 61.7 2042 2904 Short Column
3.5 72.0 1906 2710 Long Column
4.0 82.2 1459 2075 Long Column
4.5 92.5 1153 1639 Long Column
5.0 102.8 934 1328 Long Column
5.5 113.1 772 1097 Long Column
6.0 123.4 648 922 Long Column
6.5 133.7 553 786 Long Column
7.0 143.9 476 677 Long Column
7.5 154.2 415 590 Long Column
8.0 164.5 365 519 Long Column
8.5 174.8 323 459 Long Column
9.0 185.1 288 410 Long Column
9.5 195.3 259 368 Long Column
10.0 205.6 233 332 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
13


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Equal Leg Angles



3" x 3" x 3/8" (Part# AE 360)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 2.1 in
2
, r
z
= .58 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 20.8 4596 9591 Short Column
1.5 31.1 4596 9591 Short Column
2.0 41.5 4596 9591 Short Column
2.5 51.9 3662 7644 Long Column
3.0 62.3 2543 5308 Long Column
3.5 72.7 1869 3900 Long Column
4.0 83.1 1431 2986 Long Column
4.5 93.4 1130 2359 Long Column
5.0 103.8 916 1911 Long Column
5.5 114.2 757 1579 Long Column
6.0 124.6 636 1327 Long Column
6.5 135.0 542 1131 Long Column
7.0 145.4 467 975 Long Column
7.5 155.7 407 849 Long Column
8.0 166.1 358 746 Long Column
8.5 176.5 317 661 Long Column
9.0 186.9 283 590 Long Column
9.5 197.3 254 529 Long Column
10.0 207.6 229 478 Long Column
11.0 228.4 189 395 Long Column
12.0 249.2 159 332 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
14

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Equal Leg Angles



4" x 4" x 1/4" (Part# AE 440)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 1.92 in
2
, r
z
= .79 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 15.2 1149 2208 Short Column
1.5 22.9 1149 2208 Short Column
2.0 30.5 1149 2208 Short Column
2.5 38.1 1149 2208 Short Column
3.0 45.7 1149 2208 Short Column
3.5 53.4 1149 2208 Short Column
4.0 61.0 1149 2208 Short Column
4.5 68.6 1149 2208 Long Column
5.0 76.2 1149 2208 Long Column
5.5 83.9 1149 2208 Long Column
6.0 91.5 1149 2208 Long Column
6.5 99.1 1005 1931 Long Column
7.0 106.7 866 1665 Long Column
7.5 114.4 754 1450 Long Column
8.0 122.0 663 1275 Long Column
8.5 129.6 587 1129 Long Column
9.0 137.2 524 1007 Long Column
9.5 144.9 470 904 Long Column
10.0 152.5 424 816 Long Column
11.0 167.7 351 674 Long Column
12.0 183.0 295 566 Long Column
13.0 198.2 251 483 Long Column
14.0 213.5 217 416 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
15

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Equal Leg Angles



4" x 4" x 3/8" (Part# AE 460)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 2.84 in
2
, r
z
= .78 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 15.4 2585 7334 Short Column
1.5 23.1 2585 7334 Short Column
2.0 30.8 2585 7334 Short Column
2.5 38.5 2585 7334 Short Column
3.0 46.2 2585 7334 Short Column
3.5 53.9 2585 7334 Short Column
4.0 61.6 2585 7334 Long Column
4.5 69.3 2057 5835 Long Column
5.0 77.0 1666 4726 Long Column
5.5 84.7 1377 3906 Long Column
6.0 92.4 1157 3282 Long Column
6.5 100.1 986 2797 Long Column
7.0 107.8 850 2411 Long Column
7.5 115.5 740 2101 Long Column
8.0 123.2 651 1846 Long Column
8.5 130.9 576 1635 Long Column
9.0 138.6 514 1459 Long Column
9.5 146.2 461 1309 Long Column
10.0 153.9 416 1182 Long Column
11.0 169.3 344 976 Long Column
12.0 184.7 289 821 Long Column
13.0 200.1 246 699 Long Column
14.0 215.5 212 603 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
16

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Equal Leg Angles


4" x 4" x 1/2" (Part# AE 480)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 3.72 in
2
, r
z
= .78 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 15.5 4596 17087 Short Column
1.5 23.3 4596 17087 Short Column
2.0 31.0 4596 17087 Short Column
2.5 38.8 4596 17087 Short Column
3.0 46.5 4558 16946 Short Column
3.5 54.3 3348 12450 Long Column
4.0 62.0 2564 9532 Long Column
4.5 69.8 2026 7531 Long Column
5.0 77.6 1641 6100 Long Column
5.5 85.3 1356 5042 Long Column
6.0 93.1 1139 4236 Long Column
6.5 100.8 971 3610 Long Column
7.0 108.6 837 3112 Long Column
7.5 116.3 729 2711 Long Column
8.0 124.1 641 2383 Long Column
8.5 131.9 568 2111 Long Column
9.0 139.6 506 1883 Long Column
9.5 147.4 454 1690 Long Column
10.0 155.1 410 1525 Long Column
11.0 170.6 339 1260 Long Column
12.0 186.1 285 1059 Long Column
13.0 201.7 243 902 Long Column
14.0 217.2 209 778 Long Column
15.0 232.7 182 678 Long Column
16.0 248.2 160 596 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
17

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Equal Leg Angles

6" x 6" x 3/8" (Part# AE 660)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 4.34 in
2
, r
z
= 1.18 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 10.1 1149 4983 Short Column
1.5 15.2 1149 4983 Short Column
2.0 20.2 1149 4983 Short Column
2.5 25.3 1149 4983 Short Column
3.0 30.4 1149 4983 Short Column
3.5 35.4 1149 4983 Short Column
4.0 40.5 1149 4983 Short Column
4.5 45.6 1149 4983 Short Column
5.0 50.6 1149 4983 Short Column
5.5 55.7 1149 4983 Short Column
6.0 60.7 1149 4983 Short Column
6.5 65.8 1149 4983 Short Column
7.0 70.9 1149 4983 Short Column
7.5 75.9 1149 4983 Short Column
8.0 81.0 1149 4983 Short Column
8.5 86.1 1149 4983 Short Column
9.0 91.1 1149 4983 Short Column
9.5 96.2 1067 4627 Long Column
10.0 101.2 963 4176 Long Column
10.5 106.3 873 3787 Long Column
11.0 111.4 796 3451 Long Column
11.0 111.4 796 3451 Long Column
12.0 121.5 669 2900 Long Column
12.5 126.6 616 2672 Long Column
13.0 131.6 570 2471 Long Column
13.5 136.7 528 2291 Long Column
14.0 141.7 491 2130 Long Column
14.5 146.8 458 1986 Long Column
15.0 151.9 428 1856 Long Column
15.5 156.9 401 1738 Long Column
16.0 162.0 376 1631 Long Column
16.5 167.1 354 1534 Long Column
17.0 172.1 333 1445 Long Column
17.5 177.2 314 1363 Long Column
18.0 182.2 297 1289 Long Column
18.5 187.3 281 1220 Long Column
19.0 192.4 267 1157 Long Column
19.5 197.4 253 1098 Long Column
20.0 202.5 241 1044 Long Column
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
18

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Equal Leg Angles
6" x 6" x 1/2" (Part# AE 680)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 5.72 in
2
, r
z
= 1.18 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 10.2 2042 11679 Short Column
1.5 15.3 2042 11679 Short Column
2.0 20.4 2042 11679 Short Column
2.5 25.5 2042 11679 Short Column
3.0 30.6 2042 11679 Short Column
3.5 35.7 2042 11679 Short Column
4.0 40.8 2042 11679 Short Column
4.5 45.9 2042 11679 Short Column
5.0 51.0 2042 11679 Short Column
5.5 56.1 2042 11679 Short Column
6.0 61.2 2042 11679 Short Column
6.5 66.3 2042 11679 Short Column
7.0 71.4 1937 11077 Long Column
7.5 76.5 1687 9649 Long Column
8.0 81.6 1483 8481 Long Column
8.5 86.7 1314 7512 Long Column
9.0 91.8 1172 6701 Long Column
9.5 96.9 1052 6014 Long Column
10.0 102.0 949 5428 Long Column
10.5 107.1 861 4923 Long Column
11.0 112.2 784 4486 Long Column
11.5 117.3 718 4104 Long Column
12.0 122.4 659 3769 Long Column
12.5 127.5 607 3474 Long Column
13.0 132.6 562 3212 Long Column
13.5 137.7 521 2978 Long Column
14.0 142.8 484 2769 Long Column
14.5 147.9 451 2581 Long Column
15.0 153.0 422 2412 Long Column
15.5 158.1 395 2259 Long Column
16.0 163.2 371 2120 Long Column
16.5 168.3 349 1994 Long Column
17.0 173.4 328 1878 Long Column
17.5 178.5 310 1772 Long Column
18.0 183.5 293 1675 Long Column
18.5 188.6 277 1586 Long Column
19.0 193.7 263 1503 Long Column
19.5 198.8 250 1427 Long Column
20.0 203.9 237 1357 Long Column



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
19
Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes

2" x 2" x 1/4" (Part# TQ 240)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 1.73 in
2
, r = .72in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 16.7 10000 17290 Short Column
1.5 25.1 10000 17290 Short Column
2.0 33.4 8838 15281 Long Column
2.5 41.8 5657 9780 Long Column
3.0 50.1 3928 6792 Long Column
3.5 58.5 2886 4990 Long Column
4.0 66.8 2210 3820 Long Column
4.5 75.2 1746 3019 Long Column
5.0 83.5 1414 2445 Long Column
5.5 91.9 1169 2021 Long Column
6.0 100.3 982 1698 Long Column
6.5 108.6 837 1447 Long Column
7.0 117.0 721 1247 Long Column
7.5 125.3 629 1087 Long Column
8.0 133.7 552 955 Long Column
8.5 142.0 489 846 Long Column
9.0 150.4 436 755 Long Column
9.5 158.7 392 677 Long Column
10.0 167.1 354 611 Long Column
10.5 175.4 321 554 Long Column
11.0 183.8 292 505 Long Column
11.5 192.1 267 462 Long Column
12.0 200.5 246 424 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
20

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes


2-1/2" x 2-1/2" x 1/4" (Part# TQ 242)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 2.24 in
2
, r = .92 in
Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 13.0 10000 22400 Short Column
1.5 19.5 10000 22400 Short Column
2.0 26.0 10000 22400 Short Column
2.5 32.5 9322 20882 Long Column
3.0 39.0 6474 14501 Long Column
3.5 45.6 4756 10654 Long Column
4.0 52.1 3642 8157 Long Column
4.5 58.6 2877 6445 Long Column
5.0 65.1 2331 5220 Long Column
5.5 71.6 1926 4314 Long Column
6.0 78.1 1618 3625 Long Column
6.5 84.6 1379 3089 Long Column
7.0 91.1 1189 2664 Long Column
7.5 97.6 1036 2320 Long Column
8.0 104.1 910 2039 Long Column
8.5 110.6 806 1806 Long Column
9.0 117.1 719 1611 Long Column
9.5 123.6 646 1446 Long Column
10.0 130.2 583 1305 Long Column
10.5 136.7 528 1184 Long Column
11.0 143.2 482 1079 Long Column
11.5 149.7 441 987 Long Column
12.0 156.2 405 906 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
21

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes



3" x 3" x 1/4" (Part# TQ 340)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 2.74 in
2
, r = 1.12 in
Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 10.7 10000 27400 Short Column
1.5 16.0 10000 27400 Short Column
2.0 21.3 10000 27400 Short Column
2.5 26.7 10000 27400 Short Column
3.0 32.0 9638 26409 Long Column
3.5 37.3 7081 19403 Long Column
4.0 42.7 5422 14855 Long Column
4.5 48.0 4284 11737 Long Column
5.0 53.3 3470 9507 Long Column
5.5 58.7 2868 7857 Long Column
6.0 64.0 2410 6602 Long Column
6.5 69.3 2053 5626 Long Column
7.0 74.7 1770 4851 Long Column
7.5 80.0 1542 4225 Long Column
8.0 85.3 1355 3714 Long Column
8.5 90.7 1201 3290 Long Column
9.0 96.0 1071 2934 Long Column
9.5 101.3 961 2634 Long Column
10.0 106.7 867 2377 Long Column
10.5 112.0 787 2156 Long Column
11.0 117.3 717 1964 Long Column
11.5 122.7 656 1797 Long Column
12.0 128.0 602 1651 Long Column
13.0 138.7 513 1406 Long Column
14.0 149.3 443 1213 Long Column
15.0 160.0 386 1056 Long Column
16.0 170.7 339 928 Long Column
17.0 181.3 300 822 Long Column
18.0 192.0 268 734 Long Column
19.0 202.7 240 658 Long Column
20.0 213.3 217 594 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
22

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes



3-1/2" x 3-1/2" x 3/8" (Part# TQ 360)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 7.70 in
2
, r = 1.28 in
3

Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 9.3 10000 77060 Short Column
1.5 14.0 10000 77060 Short Column
2.0 18.7 10000 77060 Short Column
2.5 23.4 10000 77060 Short Column
3.0 28.0 10000 77060 Short Column
3.5 32.7 9224 71082 Short Column
4.0 37.4 7062 54422 Long Column
4.5 42.1 5580 43000 Long Column
5.0 46.7 4520 34830 Long Column
5.5 51.4 3735 28785 Long Column
6.0 56.1 3139 24188 Long Column
6.5 60.7 2675 20610 Long Column
7.0 65.4 2306 17771 Long Column
7.5 70.1 2009 15480 Long Column
8.0 74.8 1766 13606 Long Column
8.5 79.4 1564 12052 Long Column
9.0 84.1 1395 10750 Long Column
9.5 88.8 1252 9648 Long Column
10.0 93.5 1130 8708 Long Column
10.5 98.1 1025 7898 Long Column
11.0 102.8 934 7196 Long Column
11.5 107.5 854 6584 Long Column
12.0 112.1 785 6047 Long Column
13.0 121.5 669 5152 Long Column
14.0 130.8 577 4443 Long Column
15.0 140.2 502 3870 Long Column
16.0 149.5 441 3401 Long Column
17.0 158.9 391 3013 Long Column
18.0 168.2 349 2688 Long Column
19.0 177.6 313 2412 Long Column
20.0 186.9 282 2177 Long Column
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
23

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes


4" x 4" x 1/4" (Part# TQ 440)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 3.73 in
2
, r = 1.53 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 7.8 10000 37300 Short Column
1.5 11.8 10000 37300 Short Column
2.0 15.7 10000 37300 Short Column
2.5 19.6 10000 37300 Short Column
3.0 23.5 10000 37300 Short Column
3.5 27.5 10000 37300 Short Column
4.0 31.4 10000 37300 Short Column
4.5 35.3 7923 29553 Long Column
5.0 39.2 6418 23938 Long Column
5.5 43.1 5304 19784 Long Column
6.0 47.1 4457 16624 Long Column
6.5 51.0 3797 14165 Long Column
7.0 54.9 3274 12213 Long Column
7.5 58.8 2852 10639 Long Column
8.0 62.7 2507 9351 Long Column
8.5 66.7 2221 8283 Long Column
9.0 70.6 1981 7388 Long Column
9.5 74.5 1778 6631 Long Column
10.0 78.4 1604 5985 Long Column
10.5 82.4 1455 5428 Long Column
11.0 86.3 1326 4946 Long Column
11.5 90.2 1213 4525 Long Column
12.0 94.1 1114 4156 Long Column
13.0 102.0 949 3541 Long Column
14.0 109.8 819 3053 Long Column
15.0 117.6 713 2660 Long Column
16.0 125.5 627 2338 Long Column
17.0 133.3 555 2071 Long Column
18.0 141.2 495 1847 Long Column
19.0 149.0 444 1658 Long Column
20.0 156.9 401 1496 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
24

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Square Tubes


6" x 6" x 3/8" (Part# TQ 660)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 8.48 in
2
, r = 2.3 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 5.2 10000 84800
Short Column
2.0 10.4 10000 84800
Short Column
3.0 15.7 10000 84800
Short Column
4.0 20.9 10000 84800
Short Column
5.0 26.1 10000 84800
Short Column
6.0 31.3 10000 84800
Long Column
7.0 36.5 7399 62747
Long Column
8.0 41.7 5665 48041
Long Column
9.0 47.0 4476 37958
Long Column
10.0 52.2 3626 30746
Long Column
11.0 57.4 2996 25410
Long Column
12.0 62.6 2518 21351
Long Column
13.0 67.8 2145 18193
Long Column
14.0 73.0 1850 15687
Long Column
15.0 78.3 1611 13665
Long Column
16.0 83.5 1416 12010
Long Column
17.0 88.7 1255 10639
Long Column
18.0 93.9 1119 9490
Long Column
19.0 99.1 1004 8517
Long Column
20.0 104.3 906 7687
Long Column
22.0 114.8 749 6353
Long Column
24.0 125.2 629 5338
Long Column
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
25

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Round Tubes

1-3/4" x 1/4" (Part# TU 142)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 1.18 in
2
, r = .54 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 22.3 8937 10546 Short Column
1.5 33.5 8406 9919 Short Column
2.0 44.6 4952 5844 Long Column
2.5 55.8 3169 3740 Long Column
3.0 67.0 2201 2597 Long Column
3.5 78.1 1617 1908 Long Column
4.0 89.3 1238 1461 Long Column
4.5 100.4 978 1154 Long Column
5.0 111.6 792 935 Long Column
5.5 122.8 655 773 Long Column
6.0 133.9 550 649 Long Column
6.5 145.1 469 553 Long Column
7.0 156.3 404 477 Long Column
7.5 167.4 352 416 Long Column
8.0 178.6 310 365 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
26

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Round Tubes

2" x 1/4" (Part# TU 240)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 1.37 in
2
, r = .62 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 19.2 9086 12487 Short Column
1.5 28.8 8629 11859 Short Column
2.0 38.4 6693 9199 Long Column
2.5 48.0 4284 5888 Long Column
3.0 57.6 2975 4089 Long Column
3.5 67.2 2186 3004 Long Column
4.0 76.8 1673 2300 Long Column
4.5 86.4 1322 1817 Long Column
5.0 96.0 1071 1472 Long Column
5.5 105.6 885 1216 Long Column
6.0 115.2 744 1022 Long Column
6.5 124.8 634 871 Long Column
7.0 134.4 546 751 Long Column
7.5 144.0 476 654 Long Column
8.0 153.6 418 575 Long Column
8.5 163.2 371 509 Long Column
9.0 172.8 331 454 Long Column
9.5 182.4 297 408 Long Column
10.0 192.0 268 368 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
27

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Round Tubes

2-1/2" x 1/4" (Part# TU 242)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 1.77 in
2
, r = .80 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 15.0 9286 16408 Short Column
1.5 22.5 8929 15777 Short Column
2.0 30.0 8571 15146 Short Column
2.5 37.5 7018 12402 Long Column
3.0 45.0 4874 8612 Long Column
3.5 52.5 3581 6327 Long Column
4.0 60.0 2742 4844 Long Column
4.5 67.5 2166 3828 Long Column
5.0 75.0 1755 3100 Long Column
5.5 82.5 1450 2562 Long Column
6.0 90.0 1218 2153 Long Column
6.5 97.5 1038 1835 Long Column
7.0 105.0 895 1582 Long Column
7.5 112.5 780 1378 Long Column
8.0 120.0 685 1211 Long Column
8.5 127.5 607 1073 Long Column
9.0 135.0 542 957 Long Column
9.5 142.5 486 859 Long Column
10.0 150.0 439 775 Long Column
10.5 157.5 398 703 Long Column
11.0 165.0 363 641 Long Column
11.5 172.5 332 586 Long Column
12.0 180.0 305 538 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
28


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Round Tubes

3" x 1/4" (Part# TU 340)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 2.16 in
2
, r = .98 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 12.3 9415 20334 Short Column
1.5 18.4 9122 19702 Short Column
2.0 24.6 8829 19070 Short Column
2.5 30.7 8537 18438 Short Column
3.0 36.9 7259 15678 Long Column
3.5 43.0 5333 11518 Long Column
4.0 49.2 4083 8819 Long Column
4.5 55.3 3226 6968 Long Column
5.0 61.5 2613 5644 Long Column
5.5 67.6 2160 4664 Long Column
6.0 73.7 1815 3919 Long Column
6.5 79.9 1546 3340 Long Column
7.0 86.0 1333 2880 Long Column
7.5 92.2 1161 2508 Long Column
8.0 98.3 1021 2205 Long Column
8.5 104.5 904 1953 Long Column
9.0 110.6 807 1742 Long Column
9.5 116.8 724 1563 Long Column
10.0 122.9 653 1411 Long Column
10.5 129.1 593 1280 Long Column
11.0 135.2 540 1166 Long Column
11.5 141.3 494 1067 Long Column
12.0 147.5 454 980 Long Column
13.0 159.8 387 835 Long Column
14.0 172.1 333 720 Long Column
15.0 184.4 290 627 Long Column
16.0 196.7 255 551 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
29

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Round Tubes

3-1/2" x 1/4" (Part# TU 342)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 2.84 in
2
, r = 1.14 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 10.5 9500 26996 Short Column
1.5 15.8 9250 26285 Short Column
2.0 21.0 9000 25574 Short Column
2.5 26.3 8749 24863 Short Column
3.0 31.5 8499 24153 Short Column
3.5 36.8 7302 20750 Long Column
4.0 42.0 5591 15887 Long Column
4.5 47.3 4417 12552 Long Column
5.0 52.5 3578 10167 Long Column
5.5 57.8 2957 8403 Long Column
6.0 63.0 2485 7061 Long Column
6.5 68.3 2117 6016 Long Column
7.0 73.5 1825 5187 Long Column
7.5 78.8 1590 4519 Long Column
8.0 84.0 1398 3972 Long Column
8.5 89.3 1238 3518 Long Column
9.0 94.5 1104 3138 Long Column
9.5 99.8 991 2816 Long Column
10.0 105.0 894 2542 Long Column
10.5 110.3 811 2306 Long Column
11.0 115.5 739 2101 Long Column
11.5 120.8 676 1922 Long Column
12.0 126.1 621 1765 Long Column
13.0 136.6 529 1504 Long Column
14.0 147.1 456 1297 Long Column
15.0 157.6 398 1130 Long Column
16.0 168.1 349 993 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
30


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections



3" x 3" x 1/4" (Part# IW 340)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 2.17 in
2
, r = .71 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 16.9 10499 22783 Short Column
1.5 25.4 10499 22783 Short Column
2.0 33.8 8638 18744 Long Column
2.5 42.3 5528 11996 Long Column
3.0 50.7 3839 8331 Long Column
3.5 59.2 2820 6120 Long Column
4.0 67.6 2159 4686 Long Column
4.5 76.1 1706 3702 Long Column
5.0 84.5 1382 2999 Long Column
5.5 93.0 1142 2479 Long Column
6.0 101.4 960 2083 Long Column
6.5 109.9 818 1775 Long Column
7.0 118.3 705 1530 Long Column
7.5 126.8 614 1333 Long Column
8.0 135.2 540 1171 Long Column
8.5 143.7 478 1038 Long Column
9.0 152.1 427 926 Long Column
9.5 160.6 383 831 Long Column
10.0 169.0 346 750 Long Column
11.0 185.9 286 620 Long Column
12.0 202.8 240 521 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
31


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections



4" x 4" x 1/4" (Part# IW 440)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 2.92 in
2
, r = .95 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 12.6 5906 17245 Short Column
1.5 18.9 5906 17245 Short Column
2.0 25.3 5906 17245 Short Column
2.5 31.6 5906 17245 Short Column
3.0 37.9 5906 17245 Short Column
3.5 44.2 5050 14745 Long Column
4.0 50.5 3866 11289 Long Column
4.5 56.8 3055 8920 Long Column
5.0 63.2 2474 7225 Long Column
5.5 69.5 2045 5971 Long Column
6.0 75.8 1718 5017 Long Column
6.5 82.1 1464 4275 Long Column
7.0 88.4 1262 3686 Long Column
7.5 94.7 1100 3211 Long Column
8.0 101.1 967 2822 Long Column
8.5 107.4 856 2500 Long Column
9.0 113.7 764 2230 Long Column
9.5 120.0 685 2001 Long Column
10.0 126.3 619 1806 Long Column
11.0 138.9 511 1493 Long Column
12.0 151.6 430 1254 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
32

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections


6" x 6"x 1/4" (Part# IW 640)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 4.42 in
2
, r = 1.42 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 8.5 2625 11602 Short Column
1.5 12.7 2625 11602 Short Column
2.0 16.9 2625 11602 Short Column
2.5 21.1 2625 11602 Short Column
3.0 25.4 2625 11602 Short Column
3.5 29.6 2625 11602 Short Column
4.0 33.8 2625 11602 Short Column
4.5 38.0 2625 11602 Short Column
5.0 42.3 2625 11602 Short Column
5.5 46.5 2625 11602 Short Column
6.0 50.7 2625 11602 Short Column
6.5 54.9 2625 11602 Short Column
7.0 59.2 2625 11602 Short Column
7.5 63.4 2457 10860 Long Column
8.0 67.6 2159 9545 Long Column
8.5 71.8 1913 8455 Long Column
9.0 76.1 1706 7541 Long Column
9.5 80.3 1531 6768 Long Column
10.0 84.5 1382 6109 Long Column
11.0 93.0 1142 5048 Long Column
12.0 101.4 960 4242 Long Column
13.0 109.9 818 3615 Long Column
14.0 118.3 705 3117 Long Column
15.0 126.8 614 2715 Long Column
16.0 135.2 540 2386 Long Column
17.0 143.7 478 2114 Long Column
18.0 152.1 427 1885 Long Column
19.0 160.6 383 1692 Long Column
20.0 169.0 346 1527 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
33

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections


6" x 6" x 3/8" (Part# IW 660)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 6.56 in
2
, r = 1.42 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 8.5 5906 38801 Short Column
1.5 12.7 5906 38801 Short Column
2.0 16.9 5906 38801 Short Column
2.5 21.1 5906 38801 Short Column
3.0 25.4 5906 38801 Short Column
3.5 29.6 5906 38801 Short Column
4.0 33.8 5906 38801 Short Column
4.5 38.0 5906 38801 Short Column
5.0 42.3 5528 36320 Long Column
5.5 46.5 4569 30016 Long Column
6.0 50.7 3839 25222 Long Column
6.5 54.9 3271 21491 Long Column
7.0 59.2 2820 18530 Long Column
7.5 63.4 2457 16142 Long Column
8.0 67.6 2159 14187 Long Column
8.5 71.8 1913 12567 Long Column
9.0 76.1 1706 11210 Long Column
9.5 80.3 1531 10061 Long Column
10.0 84.5 1382 9080 Long Column
11.0 93.0 1142 7504 Long Column
12.0 101.4 960 6305 Long Column
13.0 109.9 818 5373 Long Column
14.0 118.3 705 4633 Long Column
15.0 126.8 614 4036 Long Column
16.0 135.2 540 3547 Long Column
17.0 143.7 478 3142 Long Column
18.0 152.1 427 2802 Long Column
19.0 160.6 383 2515 Long Column
20.0 169.0 346 2270 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
34

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections


8" x 8" x 3/8" (Part# IW 860)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 8.82 in
2
, r = 1.90 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 6.3 3322 29300 Short Column
1.5 9.5 3322 29300 Short Column
2.0 12.6 3322 29300 Short Column
2.5 15.8 3322 29300 Short Column
3.0 18.9 3322 29300 Short Column
3.5 22.1 3322 29300 Short Column
4.0 25.3 3322 29300 Short Column
4.5 28.4 3322 29300 Short Column
5.0 31.6 3322 29300 Short Column
5.5 34.7 3322 29300 Short Column
6.0 37.9 3322 29300 Short Column
6.5 41.1 3322 29300 Short Column
7.0 44.2 3322 29300 Short Column
7.5 47.4 3322 29300 Short Column
8.0 50.5 3322 29300 Short Column
8.5 53.7 3322 29300 Short Column
9.0 56.8 3055 26942 Long Column
9.5 60.0 2742 24181 Long Column
10.0 63.2 2474 21823 Long Column
11.0 69.5 2045 18036 Long Column
12.0 75.8 1718 15155 Long Column
13.0 82.1 1464 12913 Long Column
14.0 88.4 1262 11134 Long Column
15.0 94.7 1100 9699 Long Column
16.0 101.1 967 8525 Long Column
17.0 107.4 856 7551 Long Column
18.0 113.7 764 6736 Long Column
19.0 120.0 685 6045 Long Column
20.0 126.3 619 5456 Long Column
21.0 132.6 561 4949 Long Column
22.0 138.9 511 4509 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
35

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections


8" x 8" x 1/2" (Part# IW 880)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 11.67 in
2
, r = 1.90 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 6.3 5906 68921 Short Column
1.5 9.5 5906 68921 Short Column
2.0 12.6 5906 68921 Short Column
2.5 15.8 5906 68921 Short Column
3.0 18.9 5906 68921 Short Column
3.5 22.1 5906 68921 Short Column
4.0 25.3 5906 68921 Short Column
4.5 28.4 5906 68921 Short Column
5.0 31.6 5906 68921 Short Column
5.5 34.7 5906 68921 Short Column
6.0 37.9 5906 68921 Short Column
h l
6.5 41.1 5856 68342 Short Column
7.0 44.2 5050 58928 Long Column
7.5 47.4 4399 51333 Long Column
8.0 50.5 3866 45117 Long Column
8.5 53.7 3425 39965 Long Column
9.0 56.8 3055 35648 Long Column
9.5 60.0 2742 31994 Long Column
10.0 63.2 2474 28875 Long Column
11.0 69.5 2045 23863 Long Column
12.0 75.8 1718 20052 Long Column
13.0 82.1 1464 17086 Long Column
14.0 88.4 1262 14732 Long Column
15.0 94.7 1100 12833 Long Column
16.0 101.1 967 11279 Long Column
17.0 107.4 856 9991 Long Column
18.0 113.7 764 8912 Long Column
19.0 120.0 685 7999 Long Column
20.0 126.3 619 7219 Long Column
21.0 132.6 561 6548 Long Column
22.0 138.9 511 5966 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
36

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections


10" x 10" x 3/8" (Part# IW 960)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 11.07 in
2
, r = 2.37 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 5.1 2126 23536 Short Column
1.5 7.6 2126 23536 Short Column
2.0 10.1 2126 23536 Short Column
2.5 12.7 2126 23536 Short Column
3.0 15.2 2126 23536 Short Column
3.5 17.7 2126 23536 Short Column
4.0 20.3 2126 23536 Short Column
4.5 22.8 2126 23536 Short Column
5.0 25.3 2126 23536 Short Column
5.5 27.8 2126 23536 Short Column
6.0 30.4 2126 23536 Short Column
6.5 32.9 2126 23536 Short Column
7.0 35.4 2126 23536 Short Column
7.5 38.0 2126 23536 Short Column
8.0 40.5 2126 23536 Short Column
8.5 43.0 2126 23536 Short Column
9.0 45.6 2126 23536 Short Column
9.5 48.1 2126 23536 Short Column
10.0 50.6 2126 23536 Short Column
11.0 55.7 2126 23536 Short Column
12.0 60.8 2126 23536 Short Column
13.0 65.8 2126 23536 Short Column
14.0 70.9 1964 21743 Long Column
15.0 75.9 1711 18941 Long Column
16.0 81.0 1504 16647 Long Column
17.0 86.1 1332 14746 Long Column
18.0 91.1 1188 13153 Long Column
19.0 96.2 1066 11805 Long Column
20.0 101.3 962 10654 Long Column
21.0 106.3 873 9664 Long Column
22.0 111.4 795 8805 Long Column
23.0 116.5 728 8056 Long Column
24.0 121.5 668 7399 Long Column
25.0 126.6 616 6819 Long Column



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
37

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections


10" x 10" x 1/2" (Part# IW 980)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 14.67 in
2
, r = 2.37 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 5.1 3780 55448 Short Column
1.5 7.6 3780 55448 Short Column
2.0 10.1 3780 55448 Short Column
2.5 12.7 3780 55448 Short Column
3.0 15.2 3780 55448 Short Column
3.5 17.7 3780 55448 Short Column
4.0 20.3 3780 55448 Short Column
4.5 22.8 3780 55448 Short Column
5.0 25.3 3780 55448 Short Column
5.5 27.8 3780 55448 Short Column
6.0 30.4 3780 55448 Short Column
6.5 32.9 3780 55448 Short Column
7.0 35.4 3780 55448 Short Column
7.5 38.0 3780 55448 Short Column
8.0 40.5 3780 55448 Short Column
8.5 43.0 3780 55448 Short Column
9.0 45.6 3780 55448 Short Column
9.5 48.1 3780 55448 Short Column
10.0 50.6 3780 55448 Short Column
11.0 55.7 3182 46675 Long Column
12.0 60.8 2673 39220 Long Column
13.0 65.8 2278 33418 Long Column
14.0 70.9 1964 28814 Long Column
15.0 75.9 1711 25101 Long Column
16.0 81.0 1504 22061 Long Column
17.0 86.1 1332 19542 Long Column
18.0 91.1 1188 17431 Long Column
19.0 96.2 1066 15644 Long Column
20.0 101.3 962 14119 Long Column
21.0 106.3 873 12806 Long Column
22.0 111.4 795 11669 Long Column
23.0 116.5 728 10676 Long Column
24.0 121.5 668 9805 Long Column
25.0 126.6 616 9036 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
38


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
Wide Flange Sections

12" x 12" x 1/2" (Part# IW 982)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 17.67 in
2
, r = 2.84 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 4.2 2625 46380 Short Column
1.5 6.3 2625 46380 Short Column
2.0 8.5 2625 46380 Short Column
2.5 10.6 2625 46380 Short Column
3.0 12.7 2625 46380 Short Column
3.5 14.8 2625 46380 Short Column
4.0 16.9 2625 46380 Short Column
4.5 19.0 2625 46380 Short Column
5.0 21.1 2625 46380 Short Column
5.5 23.2 2625 46380 Short Column
6.0 25.4 2625 46380 Short Column
6.5 27.5 2625 46380 Short Column
7.0 29.6 2625 46380 Short Column
7.5 31.7 2625 46380 Short Column
8.0 33.8 2625 46380 Short Column
8.5 35.9 2625 46380 Short Column
9.0 38.0 2625 46380 Short Column
9.5 40.1 2625 46380 Short Column
10.0 42.3 2625 46380 Short Column
11.0 46.5 2625 46380 Short Column
12.0 50.7 2625 46380 Short Column
13.0 54.9 2625 46380 Short Column
14.0 59.2 2625 46380 Short Column
15.0 63.4 2457 43414 Long Column
16.0 67.6 2159 38157 Long Column
17.0 71.8 1913 33800 Long Column
18.0 76.1 1706 30149 Long Column
19.0 80.3 1531 27059 Long Column
20.0 84.5 1382 24420 Long Column
21.0 88.7 1254 22150 Long Column
22.0 93.0 1142 20182 Long Column
23.0 97.2 1045 18465 Long Column
24.0 101.4 960 16959 Long Column
25.0 105.6 884 15629 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
39


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
I-Sections

3" x 1-1/2" x 1/4" (Part# IB 340)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 1.42 in
2
, r = .31 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 38.2 6657 9439 Short Column
1.5 57.3 3003 4258 Long Column
2.0 76.4 1689 2395 Long Column
2.5 95.5 1081 1533 Long Column
3.0 114.6 751 1065 Long Column
3.5 133.8 552 782 Long Column
4.0 152.9 422 599 Long Column
4.5 172.0 334 473 Long Column


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
I-Sections

4" x 2" x 1/4" (Part# IB 440)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 1.92 in
2
, r = .41 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 29.0 7063 13561 Short Column
1.5 43.4 5229 10039 Short Column
2.0 57.9 2941 5647 Long Column
2.5 72.4 1882 3614 Long Column
3.0 86.9 1307 2510 Long Column
3.5 101.4 960 1844 Long Column
4.0 115.9 735 1412 Long Column
4.5 130.3 581 1115 Long Column
5.0 144.8 471 904 Long Column
5.5 159.3 389 747 Long Column
6.0 173.8 327 627 Long Column
6.5 188.3 76 146 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
40

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
I-Sections


6" x 3" x 1/4" (Part# IB 640)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 2.92 in
2
, r = .62 in
Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 19.5 7480 21825 Short Column
1.5 29.2 7053 20580 Short Column
2.0 38.9 6519 19021 Long Column
2.5 48.6 4172 12173 Long Column
3.0 58.4 2897 8454 Long Column
3.5 68.1 2129 6211 Long Column
4.0 77.8 1630 4755 Long Column
4.5 87.5 1288 3757 Long Column
5.0 97.3 1043 3043 Long Column
5.5 107.0 862 2515 Long Column
6.0 116.7 724 2113 Long Column
6.5 126.5 617 1801 Long Column
7.0 136.2 532 1553 Long Column
7.5 145.9 464 1353 Long Column
8.0 155.6 407 1189 Long Column
8.5 165.4 361 1053 Long Column
9.0 175.1 322 939 Long Column
9.5 184.8 227 662 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
41

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
I-Sections

6" x 3" x 3/8" (Part# IB 660)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 4.31 in
2
, r = .62 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 19.3 7486 32304 Short Column
1.5 29.0 7063 30477 Short Column
2.0 38.6 6616 28550 Long Column
2.5 48.3 4234 18272 Long Column
3.0 57.9 2941 12689 Long Column
3.5 67.6 2160 9323 Long Column
4.0 77.2 1654 7138 Long Column
4.5 86.9 1307 5640 Long Column
5.0 96.6 1059 4568 Long Column
5.5 106.2 875 3775 Long Column
6.0 115.9 735 3172 Long Column
6.5 125.5 626 2703 Long Column
7.0 135.2 540 2331 Long Column
7.5 144.8 470 2030 Long Column
8.0 154.5 414 1784 Long Column
8.5 164.1 366 1581 Long Column
9.5 183.5 287 1238 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
42


Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
I-Sections

8" x 4" x 3/8" (Part# IB 860)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 5.81 in
2
, r = .82 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 14.6 7694 44744 Short Column
1.5 21.9 7375 42886 Short Column
2.0 29.1 7055 41028 Short Column
2.5 36.4 6736 39170 Short Column
3.0 43.7 5167 30046 Long Column
3.5 51.0 3796 22075 Long Column
4.0 58.3 2906 16901 Long Column
4.5 65.6 2296 13354 Long Column
5.0 72.8 1860 10817 Long Column
5.5 80.1 1537 8939 Long Column
6.0 87.4 1292 7512 Long Column
6.5 94.7 1101 6400 Long Column
7.0 102.0 949 5519 Long Column
7.5 109.3 827 4807 Long Column
8.0 116.5 727 4225 Long Column
8.5 123.8 644 3743 Long Column
9.0 131.1 574 3338 Long Column
9.5 138.4 515 2996 Long Column
10.0 145.7 465 2704 Long Column
10.5 153.0 422 2453 Long Column
11.0 160.3 384 2235 Long Column
11.5 167.5 352 2045 Long Column
12.5 182.1 298 1731 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
43

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
I-Sections

8" x 4" x 1/2" (Part# IB 880)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 7.67 in
2
, r = .83 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 14.5 7698 59053 Short Column
1.5 21.7 7380 56617 Short Column
2.0 29.0 7063 54180 Short Column
2.5 36.2 6745 51744 Short Column
3.0 43.5 5227 40100 Long Column
3.5 50.7 3841 29461 Long Column
4.0 57.9 2940 22556 Long Column
4.5 65.2 2323 17822 Long Column
5.0 72.4 1882 14436 Long Column
5.5 79.7 1555 11931 Long Column
6.0 86.9 1307 10025 Long Column
6.5 94.1 1114 8542 Long Column
7.0 101.4 960 7365 Long Column
7.5 108.6 836 6416 Long Column
8.0 115.9 735 5639 Long Column
8.5 123.1 651 4995 Long Column
9.0 130.4 581 4456 Long Column
9.5 137.6 521 3999 Long Column
10.0 144.8 470 3609 Long Column
11.0 159.3 389 2983 Long Column
12.0 173.8 327 2506 Long Column
13.0 188.3 75 575 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
44

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
I-Sections


10" x 5" x 3/8" (Part# IB 960)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 7.31 in
2
, r = 1.03 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 11.7 7821 57210 Short Column
1.5 17.5 7564 55335 Short Column
2.0 23.4 7308 53460 Short Column
2.5 29.2 7052 51585 Short Column
3.0 35.1 6796 49710 Short Column
3.5 40.9 5899 43151 Long Column
4.0 46.7 4516 33038 Long Column
4.5 52.6 3569 26104 Long Column
5.0 58.4 2890 21144 Long Column
5.5 64.3 2389 17475 Long Column
6.0 70.1 2007 14683 Long Column
6.5 76.0 1710 12511 Long Column
7.0 81.8 1475 10788 Long Column
7.5 87.7 1285 9397 Long Column
8.0 93.5 1129 8259 Long Column
8.5 99.3 1000 7316 Long Column
9.0 105.2 892 6526 Long Column
9.5 111.0 801 5857 Long Column
10.0 116.9 723 5286 Long Column
11.0 128.6 597 4369 Long Column
12.0 140.2 502 3671 Long Column
13.0 151.9 428 3128 Long Column
14.0 163.6 369 2697 Long Column
15.0 175.3 321 2349 Long Column
16.0 187.0 132 966 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
45

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
I-Sections


10" x 5" x 1/2" (Part# IB 980)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 9.67 in
2
, r = 1.03 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 11.6 7823 75655 Short Column
1.5 17.5 7567 73186 Short Column
2.0 23.3 7312 70716 Short Column
2.5 29.1 7057 68247 Short Column
3.0 34.9 6801 65778 Short Column
3.5 40.7 5944 57484 Long Column
4.0 46.6 4551 44011 Long Column
4.5 52.4 3596 34774 Long Column
5.0 58.2 2912 28167 Long Column
5.5 64.0 2407 23279 Long Column
6.0 69.9 2023 19561 Long Column
6.5 75.7 1723 16667 Long Column
7.0 81.5 1486 14371 Long Column
7.5 87.3 1294 12519 Long Column
8.0 93.1 1138 11003 Long Column
8.5 99.0 1008 9746 Long Column
9.0 104.8 899 8694 Long Column
9.5 110.6 807 7803 Long Column
10.0 116.4 728 7042 Long Column
11.0 128.1 602 5820 Long Column
12.0 139.7 506 4890 Long Column
13.0 151.4 431 4167 Long Column
14.0 163.0 371 3593 Long Column
15.0 174.6 324 3130 Long Column
16.0 186.3 163 1577 Long Column

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
46

Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles
I-Sections

12" x 6" x 1/2" (Part# IB 982)
Pultex
®
1500/1525/1625 Series
A = 11.67 in
2
, r = 1.23 in


Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads
Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) KL/r Fa (psi) Pa (lbs.)
1.0 9.7 7907 92280 Short Column
1.5 14.6 7693 89790 Short Column
2.0 19.5 7480 87300 Short Column
2.5 24.3 7267 84810 Short Column
3.0 29.2 7053 82320 Short Column
3.5 34.0 6840 79830 Short Column
4.0 38.9 6518 76070 Long Column
4.5 43.8 5150 60105 Long Column
5.0 48.6 4171 48685 Long Column
5.5 53.5 3447 40235 Long Column
6.0 58.4 2897 33809 Long Column
6.5 63.2 2468 28808 Long Column
7.0 68.1 2128 24839 Long Column
7.5 73.0 1854 21638 Long Column
8.0 77.8 1629 19017 Long Column
8.5 82.7 1443 16846 Long Column
9.0 87.6 1287 15026 Long Column
9.5 92.4 1156 13486 Long Column
10.0 97.3 1043 12171 Long Column
11.0 107.0 862 10059 Long Column
12.0 116.7 724 8452 Long Column
13.0 126.5 617 7202 Long Column
14.0 136.2 532 6210 Long Column
15.0 145.9 463 5409 Long Column
16.0 155.7 407 4754 Long Column
17.0 165.4 361 4211 Long Column
18.0 175.1 322 3757 Long Column
19.0 184.8 226 2641 Long Column








The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
47
Biography

Dr. Robert Yuan

Dr. Robert Yuan has been a faculty member with the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA), Arlington,
Texas, since 1970. He is a professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and has
been teaching courses in the area of structural design and analysis, structural mechanics, and structural
materials. Dr. Robert L. Yuan received his Ph.D. degree in theoretical and applied mechanics from the
University of Illinois in 1968, and his M.S. and B.S. degrees in Structural Engineering in 1964 and 1960,
respectively. His research specialties include (1) properties and behavior of reinforced concrete and
prestressed concrete; (2) fiber-reinforced polymer composites for civil engineering structure applications;
and (3) experimental mechanics.

Dr. Yuan has published over 40 refereed papers and 60 technical reports. He has spoken at more than 50
national and international conferences. Dr. Yuan has supervised 19 master theses and 10 doctoral
dissertations. He is the faculty advisor of the Chi Epsilon student chapter, a national honor society for
civil engineers.

Dr. Yuan received the Outstanding Engineering Teacher Award in 1976, and the Haliburton Research in
Excellence Award in 1986 at UTA.
Publications – Technical Papers

“The Effect of Environmental Exposure on the Behavior of Pultruded Mechanical Connections,”
Proceedings of ICE '97, Vol. 1, pp. 14F1 – 14F6 (with Shane E. Weyant).

“Hydrothermal Effects on the Bearing Strength of FRP Composite Joints,” Proceedings of ASCE/MEC
'96, Vol. 1, pp. 243-250 (with Stephanie Hurd).

“Study of Mechanical Connections for GFRP Laminated Structures,” Proceedings of ACMBS '96, Vol. 1,
pp. 951-958 (with C.J. Lui and T. Daley).

“Vibration Analysis of GFRP Composite Box Beams,” Proceedings of ICCE '96, Vol. 1, pp. 965-966
(with S. Seangatith).

“Optimization of GFRP Composite Bridge Railing Systems,” Proceedings of Fourth National Bridge
Research Conference, pp. 345-348, 1996 (with S. Seangatith).

“The Effects of End Support Conditions on the Behavior of GFRP Composite Columns,” Proceedings of
ICCI '96, Vol. 1, pp. 621-627 (with Z. Hashcm).
Presentations at National & International Meetings

“The Effect of Environmental Exposure on the Behavior of Pultruded Mechanical Connections,” SPI/ICE
Conference, Nashville, Tennessee, January 27, 1997.

“Hydrothermal Effects on the Bearing Strength of FRP Composite Joint,” ASCE/MEC Conference,
Washington, D.C., November 11, 1996.

“Study of Mechanical Connection for GFRP Laminated Structures,” ACMBS Conference, Montreal,
Canada, August 14, 1996.

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 5
48
Presentations at National & International Meetings (cont’d)

“Vibration Analysis of GFRP Composite Box Beams,” ICCE/3 Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, July
23, 1996.

“Optimization of GFRP Composite Bridge Railing Systems,” Fourth National Bridge Research
Conference, June 19, 1996.

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 6
1
Chapter 6 Environmental Considerations


Pultrusions are used in many varied applications. Through experience and laboratory testing, Pultex
®

Profiles have been evaluated in a variety of environments. The resulting guidelines should be considered
if the pultrusion is to be exposed to environmental attack.

Temperature

Pultrusion experiences some property loss from continuous exposure to high temperatures. It is, therefore,
recommended that property loss be taken into consideration during design using the following guidelines
for Pultex
®
1500/1525 Series and 1625 Series.

Table 6-1 Property Retention at Varying Temperatures

Temperature Pultex
®
1500/1525 Series Pultex
®
1625 Series
Ultimate Stress
100° F 85% 90%
125° F 70% 80%
150° F 50% 80%
175° F Not Recommended 75%
200° F Not Recommended 50%

Modulus of Elasticity
100° F (37° C) 100% 100%
125° F (51° C) 90% 95%
150° F (65° C) 85% 90%
175° F (79° C) Not Recommended 88%
200° F (93° C) Not Recommended 85%


In applications requiring greater strength retention, it is possible to select a higher performance resin
system specifically designed for elevated temperatures. An example is Pultex
®
1625 Series Vinyl Ester,
which has better strength retention of properties at elevated temperatures. Creative Pultrusions can
design additional resin systems to achieve higher temperature ratings. Contact Creative Pultrusions early
in the design stages so that confirmation testing can be performed for various temperatures and
environments to verify suitability.

Weathering

Most plastic materials undergo some decay and change in appearance during prolonged exposure to
outdoor weathering. In order to minimize this effect with pultruded profiles, various options are
available.

UV Stabilizers

Pultex
®
1500/1525 Series and 1600/1625 Series contain a UV inhibitor for protection against sunlight.
It will retard the effect of outdoor weathering, but eventually the profile surface will degrade. A
condition, “fiber blooming”, will occur on the surface of the profile with subsequent slight deterioration
in physical properties.



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 6
2

Surfacing Veils

To enhance the weathering characteristics further, a synthetic veil is applied to the composite surface
during processing. The veil enhances weatherability and corrosion resistance by adding resin
thickness to the surface of the product. It provides a smooth glass-free surface, eliminating any
possibility of exposing glass fiber.

Coatings

The optimum method of maintaining surface appearance during outdoor exposure is to apply a
coating to the surface. Two-component, UV stabilized, urethane coatings work very well with this
application. A 0.38 mm dry coating will provide protection for many years with minimal change in
appearance. A coatings manufacturer should be contacted in order to determine the best coating for
the application.

Resistance To Chemicals And Reagents

Pultex
®
is resistant to a wide range of organic and inorganic substances. 1500/1525 Series is based on
isophthalic polyester. 1600/1625 Series is based on vinyl ester.

Concentration Of Solution

The percentage of the reagent in the solution or environment will affect the overall performance of
the pultruded profile.

Time Of Chemical Exposure

Time of chemical exposure must be identified whether the application involves intermittent
exposures, exposure to fumes, complete submersion or only an occasional splash.

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 6
3
Chemical Compatibility Guide

The Chemical Compatibility Guide describes various resin series and presents a detailed chemical
resistance guide to assist engineers in recommending the type of resin to be used in each application.

Pultex
®
Selection Guide

Pultex
®
1500 Series Polyester Resin
Pultex
®
1525 Series Flame Retardant Polyester Resin
Pultex
®
1625 Series Flame Retardant Vinyl Ester Resin


Thermosetting resins are used in a wide range of fiberglass reinforced profiles. Conventional fabrication
methods are used, coupled with sealing all cut holes and ends, to enhance the corrosion resistance.

The general guidelines in selection of resin types depend on the following:

• the corrosion environment

• normal operating concentration, including minimum and maximum concentration

• normal operating temperature, including minimum and maximum temperature

The Chemical Compatibility Guide provides up-to-date information regarding the chemical resistance for
Pultex
®
Profiles.

The data presented in the Chemical Compatibility Guide on the following pages covers the effect of
chemicals on pultruded fiber reinforced profiles. This chart is provided as a guide only. Evaluate these
recommendations in a laboratory or actual field trial prior to use.

Temperatures are not the minimum or maximum, but represent standard test conditions. Some products
may be suitable at higher temperatures. Individual testing would be required. Contact Creative
Pultrusions for chemicals, temperatures, or both, for any special application. Resin systems can be
designed for special needs.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 6
4
Chemical Compatibility Guide



Acetic Acid – Calcium Bisultite

Flowgrip®
Supergrate™
Pultruded Grating
Supergrate™
Molded Grating

Pultex
®
Structural Profiles
Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester 1500/1525 Srs. 1625 Srs.
Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp
Chemical Environment Concentratio
n
Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max.
Percentage F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C
ACETIC ACID 0-50 NR 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 150/65 NR 100/38
ACETIC ANYDRIDE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
ACETONE 100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
ACRYLONITRILE 100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
ALCOHOL, BUTYL -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
ALCOHOL, ETHYL 10 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65
ALCOHOL, ETHYL 100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
ALCOHOL, ISOPROPYL 10 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65
ALCOHOL, ISOPROPYL 100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
ALCOHOL, METHYL 10 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65
ALCOHOL, METHYL 100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
ALCOHOL, METHYL ISOBUTYL -- NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65
ALCOHOL, SECONDARY BUTYL -- NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65
ALUM 100 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 180/82 150/65 150/65
ALUM POTASSIUM -- 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 120/49 150/65 100/38 100/38
ALUMINUM CHLORIDE 10 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 100/38 180/82 NR 150/65
ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE 5 - 20 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 100/38 180/82 NR 150/65
ALUMINUM POTASSIUM SULFATE 100 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65
AMMONIA, AQUEOUS 0-10 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38
AMMONIA, GAS -- NR 100/38 NR 100/38 100/38 NR NR 100/38
AMMONIUM ACETATE 25 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 120/49 150/65 NR 100/38
AMMONIUM BICARBONATE 15 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 120/49
AMMONIUM BISULFITE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
AMMONIUM CARBONATE 25 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 120/49 150/65 NR 100/38
AMMONIUM CITRATE 10 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 180/82 NR 120/49
AMMONIUM FLUORIDE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE 5 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE 10 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE 20 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
AMMONIUM NITRATE 15 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 180/82 120/49 150/65
AMMONIUM PERSULFATE 5 - 20 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 180/82 NR 150/65
AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
AMMONIUM SULFATE 15 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 180/82 120/49 150/65
ARESENIOUS ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
BARIUM ACETATE 100 NR NR NR NR 100/38 150/65 NR NR
BARIUM CARBONATE 100 NR NR NR NR 100/38 150/65 NR NR
BARIUM CHLORIDE 100 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 100/38 150/65 NR 100/38
BARIUM HYDROXIDE 10 NR NR NR NR 100/38 150/65 NR NR
BARIUM SULFATE 100 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 120/49 150/65 NR 100/38
BARIUM SULFIDE 10 NR NR NR NR 100/38 150/65 NR NR
BEER -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
BENZENE 100 NR NR NR NR 100/38 150/65 NR NR
BENZENE IN KEROSENE 5 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
BENZENE SULFURIC ACID 5 - 20 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 150/65 180/82 100/38 150/65
BENZOIC ACID 5 - 20 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 120/49 150/65 NR 100/38
O-BENZOYL BENZOIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
BENZYL ALCOHOL 100 NR NR NR NR NR 100/38 NR NR
BENZYL CHLORIDE 100 NR NR NR NR NR 100/38 NR NR
BORAX 5 - 20 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65
BRASS PLATING SOLUTION -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
BUTYL ACETATE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
BUTYRIC ACID 5 - 30 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
BUTYLENE GLYCOL 100 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65
CADMIUM CHLORIDE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
CADMIUM CYANIDE PLATING -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
CALCIUM BISULTITE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 6
5

Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d)


Supergrate™ Supergrate™
Calcium Carbonate - Dichloroethylene
Flowgrip® Pultruded Grating Molded Grating Pultex
®
Structural Profiles
Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester 1500/1525 Srs. 1625 Srs.
Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp
Concentratio
n
Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max.
Chemical Environment Percentage F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C
CALCIUM CARBONATE 10 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 120/49 150/65 NR 100/38
CALCIUM CHLORIDE 10 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 120/49 150/65 NR 100/38
CALCIUM CHLORATE 10 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 120/49 150/65 NR 100/38
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE 5 - 20 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 100/38 150/65 NR 100/38
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE 10 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
CALCIUM NITRATE 5 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65
CALCIUM SULFATE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65
CALCIUM SULFITE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
CAPRYLIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
CARBON DIOXIDE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
CARBON DISULFIDE 100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
CARBON MONOXIDE GAS -- 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 150/65 150/65 100/38 150/65
CARBON TETRACHLORIDE 100 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 120/49 NR 100/38
CARBONIC ACID 10 100/38 120/49 100/38 120/49 120/49 150/65 100/38 120/49
CARBON METHYL CELLULOSE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
CASTOR OIL 100 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65
CHLORINATED WAX 10 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 120/49
CHLORINE DIOXIDE/AIR -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
CHLORINE DIOXIDE,WET GAS -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
CHLORINE DRY GAS -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
CHLORINE WET GAS -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
CHLORINE LIQUID -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
CHLORINE WATER 10 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
CHLOROACETIC ACID 0-50 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38
CHLOROBENZENE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
CHLOROFORM 100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
CHLOROSULFONIC ACID -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
CHROMIC ACID 5 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 100/38 150/65 NR 100/38
CHROMIC ACID 20 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
CHROMIC ACID 30 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
CHROMIUM SULFATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
CITRIC ACID 5 - 30 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65
COCONUT OIL -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
COPPER CHLORIDE 5 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82
COPPER CYANIDE 5 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82
COPPER FLUORIDE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
COPPER NITRATE -- 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR
COPPER BRITE PLATING -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
COPPER PLATING SOLUTION -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
COPPER MATTE DIPPING BATH -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
COPPER PICKLING BATH -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
COPPER SULFATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
CORN OIL 100 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 120/49 150/65 NR 100/38
CORN STARCH-SLURRY -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
CORN SUGAR 100 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 180/82 NR 150/65
COTTONSEED OIL -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
CRUDE OIL 100 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 180/82 NR 150/65
CYCLOHEXENE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
CYCLOHEXENE VAPOR -- NR NR NR NR 100/38 150/65 NR NR
DEIONIZED WATER -- 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65
DETERGENTS SULFONATED -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
DI-AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
DIBROMOPHENOL -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
DIBUTYL ETHER -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
DICHLORO BENZENE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
DICHLOROETHYLENE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR




The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 6
6
Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d)



Diethylene Glycol – Hydrogen Sulfide Aqueous


Supergrate™ Supergrate™
Flowgrip® Pultruded Grating Molded Grating Pultex
®
Structural Profiles
Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester 1500/1525 Srs. 1625 Srs.
Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp
Concentratio
n
Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max.
Chemical Environment Percentage F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C
DIETHYLENE GLYCOL -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
DIETHYL ETHER 100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
DIMENTHYL PHTHALATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
DIOCTYL PHTHALATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL 100 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
DODECYL ALCOHOL -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
ESTER, FATTY ACIDS -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
ETHYL ACETATE 100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
ETHYL BENZENE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
ETHYL ETHER -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
ETHYLENE GLYCOL 100 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 150/65 180/82 100/38 150/65
ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
FATTY ACIDS 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 180/82 120/49 150/65
FERRIC CHLORIDE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 180/82 120/49 150/65
FERRIC NITRATE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 180/82 120/49 150/65
FERRIC SULFATE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 180/82 120/49 150/65
FERROUS CHLORIDE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
FERROUS NITRATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
FERROUS SULFATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
8-8-8 FERTILIZER -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
FLUOBORIC ACID -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
FLUOSILICIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
FORMALDEHYDE 5 - 30 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 120/49 150/65 NR 100/38
FORMIC ACID 25 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 120/49 NR 100/38
FUEL GAS -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
FUEL OIL 100 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 100/38 120/49 NR 100/38
GAS NATURAL -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
GASOLINE AUTO -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
GASOLINE AVIATION -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
GASOLINE ETHYL -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
GASOLINE SOUR -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
GLUCONIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
GLUCOSE 100 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82
GLYCERIN 100 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82
GLYCOL ETHYLENE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
GLYCOL PROPYLENE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
GLYCOLIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
GOLD PLATING SOLUTION -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
HEPTANE 100 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 120/49 180/82 100/38 150/65
HEXANE 100 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 120/49 180/82 100/38 150/65
HEXALENE GLYCOL -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
HYDRAULIC FLUID 100 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 120/49
HYDROBROMIC ACID 5 - 50 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 120/49 180/82 100/38 150/65
HYDROCHLORIC ACID 10 - 30 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
HYDROCYANIC ACID -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
HYDROFLUORIC ACID -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
HYDROFLOUSILICIC ACID 10 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
HYDROZINE 100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
HYDROGEN BROMIDE ,DRY -- NR NR NR NR 100/38 150/65 NR NR
HYDROGEN BROMIDE , WET GAS -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE , DRY GAS -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE, WET GAS -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
HYDROGEN SULFIDE DRY -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
HYDROGEN SULFIDE AQUEOUS -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 6
7
Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d)



Hydrogen Fluoride Vapors – Nitric Acid

Supergrate™ Supergrate™
Flowgrip® Pultruded Grating Molded Grating Pultex
®
Structural Profiles
Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester 1500/1525 Srs. 1625 Srs.
Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp
Concentratio
n
Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max.
Chemical Environment Percentage F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C
HYDROGEN FLUORIDE VAPORS -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
HYDROSULFITE BLEACH -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
HYPOCHLORUS ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
IRON PLATING SOLUTION -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
IRON AND STEEL CLEANING BATH -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
ISOPROPYL AMINE -- NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38
ISOPROPYL PALMITATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
JET FUEL -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
KEROSENE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
LACTIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
LAUROYL CHLORIDE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
LAURIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
LEAD ACETATE 100 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
LEAD CHLORIDE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65
LEAD NITRATE 10 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 100/38 150/65 NR 100/38
LEAD PLATING SOLUTION -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
LEVULINIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
LINSEED OIL -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
LITHIUM BROMIDE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
LITHIUM CHLORIDE 25 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
LITHIUM SULFATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
LITHIUM HYDROXIDE 10 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
MAGNESIUM BISULFITE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
MAGNESIUM CARBONATE 10 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 100/38 180/82 100/38 150/65
MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE 10 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 120/49 180/82 100/38 150/65
MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE 10 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
MAGNESIUM NITRATE 10 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
MAGNESIUM SULFATE 10 100/38 120/49 100/38 120/49 100/38 150/65 100/38 120/49
MALEIC ACID 100 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65
MERCURIC CHLORIDE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 100/38 180/82 120/49 150/65
MERCUROUS CHLORIDE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 180/82 120/49 150/65
METHANOL -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
METHYLENE CHLORIDE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
METYL ETHYL KETONE @ 120F -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
METHYL ISOBUTYL CARBITOL -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
METHYL STYRENE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
MINERAL OIL 100 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65
MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
MONOCHLORIC ACETIC ACID -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
MONOETHANOLAMINE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
MOTOR OIL 100 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65
MYRISTIC ACID -- - 160/71 - 160/71 - 160/71 - 160/71
NAPTHA 100 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65
NICKEL CHLORIDE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 180/82 120/49 150/65
NICKEL NITRATE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 180/82 120/49 150/65
NICKEL PLATING: -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
.4% Boric Acid)
NICKEL PLATING: -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
(11% Nickel Sulfate, 2% Nickle
Chloride, 1% Boric Acid)
NICKEL PLATING: -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
(44% Nickel Sulfate, 4% Ammonium
Chloride, 4% Boric Acid)
NICKEL SULFATE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 180/82 120/49 150/65
NITRIC ACID 5 - 30 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 120/49 150/65 NR 100/38


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 6
8

Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d)


Nitric Acid Fumes – Silver Plating Solution

Supergrate™ Supergrate™
Flowgrip® Pultruded Grating Molded Grating Pultex
®
Structural Profiles
Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester 1500/1525 Srs. 1625 Srs.
Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp
Concentratio
n
Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max.
Chemical Environment Percentage F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C
NITRIC ACID FUMES -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
NIBROBEBZENE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
OCTONOIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
OIL, SOUR CRUDE 100 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 120/49
OIL, SWEET CRUDE 100 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 120/49
OLEIC ACID 100 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 180/82 120/49 150/65
OLEUM (FUMING SULFURIC) -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
OLIVE OIL -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
OXALIC ACID -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
PEROXIDE BLEACH: -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
(2% Sodium Peroxide-96%
.025% Epsom Salts,
5% Sodium Silicate 42°Be,
1.4% Sulfuric Acid 66°Be)
PHENOL 10 NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR
PHENOL SULFONIC ACID -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
PHOSPHORIC ACID 5 - 50 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 120/49 180/82 100/38 150/65
PHOSPHORIC ACID FUMES -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
PHOSPHOROUS --
PENTOXIDE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
PHOSPHOROUS TRICHLORIDE 100 NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR
PHTHALIC ACID 100 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
PICKLING ACIDS: -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
(Sulfuric And Hydrochloric)
PICRIC ACID ALCOHOLIC -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
POLYVINYL ACETATE LATEX -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL 100 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 120/49 NR 100/38
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE LATEX -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
With 35 (Parts Dop)
POTASSIUM ALUMINUM SULFATE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 180/82 120/49 150/65
POTASSIUM BICARBONATE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
POTASSIUM BROMIDE 10 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
POTASSIUM CARBONATE 10 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 150/65 180/82 NR 120/49
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE 100 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
POTASSIUM DICHROMATE 100 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49
POTASSIUM FERRICYANIDE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
POTASSIUM FERROCYANIDE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE 10 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 120/49 180/82 NR 150/65
POTASSIUM NITRATE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 180/82 120/49 150/65
POTASSIUM PERMANGANTE 100 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 120/49 180/82 100/38 150/65
POTASSIUM PERSULFATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
POTASSIUM SULFATE 10 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 180/82 120/49 150/65
PROPIONIC ACID 1 - 50 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
PROPIONIC ACID 50 - 100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
PROPYLENE GLYCOL 100 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 180/82 150/65 150/65
PULP PAPER MILL EFFLUENT -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
PYRIDINE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
SALICYLIC ACID -- NR 140/60 NR 140/60 NR 140/60 NR 140/60
SEA WATER -- 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65
SEWAGE TREATMENT -- NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38
SEBACIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SELENIOUS ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SILVER NITRATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SILVER PLATING SOLUTION: -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
(4% Silver Cyanide, 7% Potassium
Cyanide,5% Sodium Cyanide,
2% Potassium Carbonate)
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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 6
9
Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d)


Soaps – Superphosphoric Acid
Supergrate™ Supergrate™
Flowgrip® Pultruded Grating Molded Grating Pultex
®
Structural Profiles
Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester 1500/1525 Srs. 1625 Srs.
Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp
Concentratio
n
Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max.
Chemical Environment Percentage F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C
SOAPS -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM ACETATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM BENZOATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM BICARBONATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM BIFLUORIDE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM BISULFATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM BISULFITE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM BROMATE -- 150/65 140/60 150/65 140/60 150/65 140/60 150/65 140/60
SODIUM BROMIDE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM CARBONATE 0 - 25 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM CHLORATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM CHLORIDE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM CHLORITE 25 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM CHROMATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM CYANIDE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM DICHROMATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM DI-PHOSPHATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM FERRICYANIDE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM FLUORIDE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
SODIUM FLOURO SILICATE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
SODIUM HEXAMETAPHOSPHATES -- NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38
SODIUM HYDROXIDE 0 - 5 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65
SODIUM HYDROXIDE 5 - 25 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65
SODIUM HYDROXIDE 50 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65
SODIUM HYDROSULFATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE 10 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 120/49
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM MONO-PHOSPHATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM NITRATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM SILICATE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 120/49
SODIUM SULFATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM SULFIDE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 120/49
SODIUM SULFITE -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 120/49
SODIUM TETRA BORATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SODIUM THIOCAYNATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM THIOSULFATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM TRIPOLYOPHOSPHATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM XYLENE SULFONATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM SOLUTIONS -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SODIUM CRUDE OIL -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SOVA OIL -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
STANNIC CHLORIDE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
STANNOUS CHLORIDE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
STEARIC ACID -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
STYRENE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
SUGAR, BEET AND CANE LIQUOR -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SUGAR, SUCROSE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SULFAMIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SULFANILIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SULFATED DETERGENTS -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SULFUR DIOXIDE, WET OR DRY -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SULFUR, TRIOXIDE/AIR -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SULFURIC ACID 0 - 30 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SULFURIC ACID 30 - 50 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
SULFURIC ACID 50 - 70 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
SULFUROUS ACID 10 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38
SUPERPHOSPHORIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
(76% P2O5)
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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 6
10
Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d)


Tall Oil – Zinc Sulfate

Supergrate™ Supergrate™
Flowgrip® Pultruded Grating Molded Grating Pultex
®
Structural Profiles
Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester Polyester Vinyl ester 1500/1525 Srs. 1625 Srs.
Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp Temp
Concentratio
n
Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max.
Chemical Environment Percentage F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C F/C
TALL OIL -- NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65
TANNIC ACID -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 120/49
TARTARIC ACID -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
THIONYL CHLORIDE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
TIN PLATING SOLUTION: -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
(18%Stannous Fluoroborate,
7% Tin, 9% Fluoroboric Acid,
2% Boric Acid)
TOLUENE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
TOLUENE SOLFONIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
TRANSFORMER OILS: -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
(Mineral Oil Types,
Chloro-phenyl Types)
TRICHLOR ACETIC ACID 50 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
TRICHLORETHYLENE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
TRICHLOROPENOL -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
TRICRESYL PHOSPHATE +A618 -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
TRIDECYLBENZENE SULFONATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
TURPENTINE -- NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38
UREA -- NR 140/60 NR 140/60 NR 140/60 NR 140/60
VEGETABLE OILS -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
VINEGAR -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
VINYL ACETATE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
WATER:
DEIONIZED -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
DEMINERALIZED -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
DISTILLED -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
FRESH -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SALT -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
SEA -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
WHITE LIQUOR (Pulp Mill) -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
XYLENE -- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
ZINC CHLORATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
ZINC NITRATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71
ZINC PLATING SOLUTION: -- NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49
(9% Zinc Cyanide, 4% Sodium
Cyanide, 9% Sodium Hydroxide)
ZINC PLATING SOLUTION: -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71
(49% Zinc, Fluoroborate,
5% Ammonium Chloride,
6% Ammonium Fluoroborate)
ZINC SULFATE -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71


Chemical Compatibility Guide information is based on full immersion laboratory tests and resin manufacturers’ data. In some
environments, splashing may lead to further corrosion than indicated due to the evaporation of water. Regular washdown is
recommended in these situations. All data represents the best available information, is believed to be correct, and is not a warranty of
product performance. User tests are recommended to determine actual suitability of service, for which CP will gladly supply samples.
CP does not take responsibility for design or suitability of materials for service intended, nor will CP be held liable for consequential
or special damages due to defective material or workmanship including, without limitation, labor charge and/or other expense of
damage to properties resulting from loss of materials or profits, or increased expenses of operation.

They are expected typical values. Depending on the individual resin formulation/fiber volume of the composite, additional testing
may be needed.

“- - ” = All Concentrations
“NR” = Not Recommended
The New and Improved Pultex
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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 7
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Chapter 7 Custom Profile Design


Custom profiles are created from a wide variety of resin systems and an array of colors.

Several items need to be considered in the cross-sectional design of a custom pultruded profile. The
following elements are conducive to efficient profile production. Although not absolutes, there are
important considerations that can affect the economics of the system from tooling costs to price per piece.

Wall-Section Thickness

The rate at which a profile is produced is determined by the curing time required for the thickest section:
the thicker the section, the slower the cure rate. For example, a 1/8-inch thick profile can be produced at
3 – 4 feet per minute. In comparison, a 3/4-inch thick profile section has a production rate of
approximately 6-inches per minute. Whenever possible, it is advantageous to design a section with
uniform cross-sectional wall thickness.

Pultruded profiles exhibit a 0% to 4% cross-sectional shrinkage during production. A uniform wall
thickness aids in limiting the warpage of the end product, because shrinkage will be uniform.

Symmetrical design, although not necessarily of uniform thickness, also helps in controlling warpage.

Pultruded sections of .032 to 2 inch thickness, with solid rounds up to 3-inch diameters, are currently
produced, but typical structural laminates range from .080 inches to 1 inch in thickness. Again, the
thickness determines the pull rate; therefore, when rigidity is an important consideration, it is preferred to
design deeper sections with a thinner wall.

Radius Design

Radius in pultruded profiles is the curved connection of two intersecting sections. With pultrusion, the
best practice is to maintain uniformity of cross-section through the radius. It helps to prevent resin-rich
areas that can crack or flake. Uniformity also aids in a more even distribution of glass reinforcement and
helps to maintain consistent properties throughout the profile.

While square corners are obtainable, generous radii aid in processing and in-feed guiding systems.
Generous radii also help to distribute stress in corners or cross-sectional changes, resulting in stronger
profiles.

Although profile cross-section is the determining factor when calculating radii, a minimum of 1/16 inch is
recommended for interior or exterior surfaces. The minimum radius is especially important on profiles
The New and Improved Pultex
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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 7
2
where surface appearance is critical, particularly where reinforcing ribs are necessary on the opposite
side. A radius that is too generous can cause shrink marks and off-color areas in the profile.

On dead-end sections, it is particularly helpful to maintain a radius of half the thickness.

Shrinkage

Pultruded profiles typically shrink 2% to 3% during processing. Since the shrinkage is caused by the
resin, changes in the type of resin or resin content will affect the final profile shrinkage. Proper die
design will allow for this shrinkage.

Shrinkage, though a small percentage of the profile thickness, must be taken into consideration when
establishing tolerances.

Shrinkage can be controlled with low-shrink resin systems. These systems typically contain
thermoplastics that lessen shrinkage. Some problems that may be experienced in the final product are:
decreased weatherability; lower peak temperature usage; reduced corrosion resistance; and lessened paint
and bonding agent adhesion.

Shrinkage can also affect the angular relation of one section to another. Again, proper design of the die
can lessen this problem, but variances do occur, and must be considered when establishing tolerances.

Surface Appearance And Performance

Pultrusions manufactured by a low-pressure process typically display a glass-rich surface. The surface can
create several problems, such as pattern-through of reinforcing materials and exposure of glass fibers due
to excessive wear or weathering.

When pattern-through is a problem, there are several methods for surface improvement. Low-shrink resin
systems can dramatically lessen this occurrence. By lowering resin shrinkage, the surface of the profile
remains smooth and uniform. Finer fiber mats and surfacing veils also improve surfaces by creating a
smooth backing and attract more resin to the surface, masking the coarser fibers beneath.

Where pattern-through and exposed fibers are both a problem, a polymeric surface veil is available and
used to create a resin-rich surface of up to .020 inches thick without detracting from the profile's
performance. The surface improves the weatherability, ultraviolet resistance and corrosion resistance of
the laminate. It will effectively coat the material with the base resin in-line and eliminate the need for
secondary coating operations on areas other than end-cut or fabricated holes.

Since pultrusion is a low-pressure process, fiberglass reinforcements normally appear close to the surface
of the profile. The reinforcements can affect the appearance, corrosion resistance or handling of the
product. Fiberglass and polymeric veils can be added to the laminate construction to depress the
reinforcement from the surface. This is done to enhance the surface by adding a resin-rich finish to the
profile. The two most commonly used products are A-glass and polymeric veils.

To extend long life during outdoor exposure, urethane coatings are employed. In this secondary
operation, a typical application is 25 to 40 microns. These coatings protect the profiles from UV
degradation and are generally recommended when they will be exposed to a variety of weather
conditions. They are also beneficial for profiles in which uniformity of color or variety of color is
required in a low volume application.

To determine the proper surface treatment, artificial weathering or accelerated corrosion tests can be
employed.

The New and Improved Pultex
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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
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Parting Lines

Pultruded dies are typically segmented to aid in machining and facilitate chrome plating of the die
surface. Where these segments join in the assembled die, surface marks are created on the profile. These
marks are referred to as parting lines. A parting line will appear as a straight, slightly raised area on the
profile. On structural profiles, these lines are unimportant, as most of them are incorporated into ends or
corners where they are fairly well concealed. On profiles where surface appearance is critical, these
parting lines must be taken into consideration. It is best for the designer to consult with Creative
Pultrusions to establish the part configuration and die segmentation to produce the best profile without
dramatically affecting the tooling and price per piece due to difficulties.

Localized Stiffening

Although this section may seem contradictory to some earlier statements, localized strength and stiffening
are obtainable by various methods. Distribution of glass loadings or changes in reinforcement types can
provide localized strength. By replacing materials of lesser strength with higher strength, the end product
physical properties can be altered to meet necessary requirements.

Additional ribs or added thickness can also be used for reinforcing a profile as necessary. Creative
Pultrusions can greatly aid the designer in cross-sectional development to best meet the end requirements.


Undercuts

Unlike some other processes, undercuts are obtainable with pultruded profiles. The main consideration
when working with undercuts is the machining and plating of the tool.

Dimensional Tolerances

Standard tolerances for pultruded profiles have been established by the industry and ASTM committees.
Workable tolerances are best established as a joint effort between the designer and the pultruder. As with
most other processes, tight tolerances affect the costs of the end product. It is important to take this into
consideration when establishing tolerances. Tolerances of particular segments of a cross-section are also
an effective method of meeting the needs of both the designer and the pultruder.

The New and Improved Pultex
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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 7
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CREATIVE PULTRUSIONS, INC
214 Industrial Lane „ Alum Bank, PA 15521 USA
PHONE: 814-839-4186 „ FAX: 814-839-4276
Web Site: http://www.creativepultrusions.com „ e-mail: crpul@pultrude.com


Designer Checklist


1. Company Information

Company Name _____________________________________________________________________________

Name _____________________________________________________________________________________

Department or Position ________________________________ Phone _______________________________


2. Profile Application Information

A. Profile Name ___________________________________________ Number ______________________

New Design R Profile Modification R Existing Design R

Profile Application________________________________________________________________________

Present Material Used _____________________________________________________________________

Current Material Cost __________ Annual Volume __________ Release Quantity ______________


B. Profile Dimensions Height __________ Width __________ Length __________

Actual Print Attached R Conceptual Sketch Attached R

Is sample available? Yes R No R
Have you used FRP before? Yes R No R
Were the results satisfactory? Yes R No R

If no, please explain ______________________________________________________________________




Color __________________________________________________________________________________

Surface Appearance/Cosmetic Requirements ___________________________________________________












The New and Improved Pultex
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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 7
5
Designer Checklist (cont’d)


C. Properties Standard R Custom R

Primary loads on part ______________________________________________________________________

Critical properties required _________________________________________________________________

Electrical requirements ____________________________________________________________________

Resin Fire Retardant _____ Polyester ______ Vinyl ester _____ Other (please specify) ______

ASTM R NBS R UL R Fed. Spec R Other R


D. Fabrication

Drilling R Punching R Grinding R

Assembly _______________________________________________________________________________

Finishing _______________________________________________________________________________

Painting ________________________________________________________________________________

Bonding ________________________________________________________________________________


E. Environmental Considerations

Chemical Exposure Type (s) ________________________________________________________________

Service Temperatures _____________________________________________________________________

Intermittent R Continuous R

Degree of Exposure

Immersion R Vapors R Splash R

Concentration % by weight _________________________________________________________________

Indoor __________ Outdoor __________


F. Other Requirements/Comments ___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 7
6
Notes
The New and Improved Pultex
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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 8
1
Chapter 8 Quality Assurance and Standard Tolerances























Quality Assurance System

To provide consistency in the production of Pultex
®
Profiles, a Quality Assurance System is
followed. Inspection points have been established to cover incoming raw materials, various stages of
production, and follow-up to production before shipment. In addition, routine quality audits are
performed internally, and by large-contract customers, to assure adherence to our quality assurance
system.

Standard Tolerances

A better understanding of the dimensional and physical property capabilities of the material can assist
the designer in determining the performance limitations of the product before it is produced.

In addition to those tolerances provided on the following pages, the designer should consult with the
reference standards for background information and as a guideline in determining dimensional
performance.

ASTM 3647 Standard Practice for Classifying Reinforced Plastic
Pultruded Products According to Composition

ASTM D3917 Standard Specifications for Dimensional Tolerances
of Thermosetting Glass Reinforced Plastic
Pultruded Products

ASTM D3918 Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Reinforced
Plastic Pultruded Products


Profiles are subjected to
rigorous testing,
insuring customer
specifications are met.
Coupon testing is conducted to
verify mechanical properties.
Full section bending test is conducted to
assure product performance.
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®
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Standard Tolerances Index

I. Cross Sectional Dimensions

A. Pultex
®
Structural Profiles
B. Pultex
®
Round and Square Tubes
C. Pultex
®
Round and Square Bars
D. Pultex
®
Flat Sheets

II. Straightness

A. Pultex
®
Profiles
B. Pultex
®
Rods and Bars
C. Pultex
®
Structural Profiles
D. Pultex
®
Round, Square and Rectangular Tubes
E. Pultex
®
Camber (Lateral Bow), Sheets and Plates

III. Flatness

A. Pultex
®
Rods, Bars, and Structural Profiles
B. Pultex
®
Sheets and Plates
C. Pultex
®
Hollow Profiles

IV. Twist

A. Pultex
®
Bars, Tubes and Structural Profiles

V. Angularity

VI. Length

VII. Squareness of End Cut

A. Pultex
®
Structural Profiles
B. Pultex
®
Sheets and Plates
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Standard Tolerances of Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles

I. Cross Sectional Dimensions

A. Pultex
®
Structural Profiles

Allowable deviation from nominal dimensions
Angles I-Beams Channels

Dimensions
Tolerance
±
Deviation
±
Tolerance
±
Deviation
±
Tolerance
±
Deviation
±
Thickness (T) 10% .010" Minimum 10% .010" Minimum 10% .010" Minimum
Flange (B) 5% .094" Maximum 5% .094" Maximum 5% .094" Maximum
Depth (H) 5% .094" Maximum 5% .094" Maximum 5% .094" Maximum

B. Pultex
®
Round and Square Tubes




Dimensions (D) or (B)
Allowable deviation of depth at
corners or diameter from specified
Under 2" ± .020"
2" – 4" ± .040"
Over 4" ± 1.5%
Dimensions (T) Tolerance
Under .100" ±20%
.100" and Over ±15%

C. Pultex
®
Round and Square Bars

Dimensions (D) or (B) Allowable deviation from nominal dimensions
Under 3" ± .020"

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D. Pultex
®
Flat Sheets

Dimensions Tolerances Allowable Deviation
Width (D)
Thickness (T) .125" and under
Over .125"
± 3%
± 15%
± 10%
± .125" Maximum
± .010" Minimum
± .050" Maximum


II. Straightness

A. Pultex
®
Structural Profiles*


Allowable deviation from straight (D)
Width of Profile Wall thickness Deviation Deviation per part
Up to 1.5" Up to .094" .050"/ft .050" x length (L)
Up to 1.5" Over .094" .040"/ft .040" x length (L)
Over 1.5" All .050"/ft .050" x length (L)
Note: length of part (L) in feet/meters

B. Pultex
®
Rods and Bars*

Allowable deviation from straight (D)
Outside Dimensions Deviation Deviation per part
Up to 1" .020"/ft .020" x length (L)
Over 1" .030"/ft .030" x length (L)
Note: length of part (L) in feet/meters
*Note: Straightness is measured when weight of pultrusion minimizes the deviation by contact with
flat surface.
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C. Pultex
®
Structural Profiles, i.e., Channels, I-beams, Angles, etc.*



Allowable deviation from straight (D)

Length Deviation Deviation per part
Up to 5 feet .025"/ft .025" x length (L)
5 feet and Over .050"/ft .050" x length (L)
* Note: length of part (L) in feet/meters


D. Pultex
®
Round, Square and Rectangular Tubes*


Allowable deviation from straight (D)
Diameter/Depth Deviation Deviation per part
Up to 2" .020"/ft .020" x length (L)
2" and Over .030"/ft .030" x length (L)
Note: length of part (L) in feet/meters

*Note: Straightness is measured when weight of pultrusion minimizes the deviation by contact with
flat surface.









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®
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E. Pultex
®
Camber (Lateral Bow), Sheets and Plates*

Allowable deviation from straight (D)
All Thicknesses Length in feet x .025"


III. Flatness

A. Pultex
®
Rods, Bars, Profiles and Structural Profiles


Allowable deviation from flat (D)
Width (B) Deviation per part width
Up to 1" 0.008"
1" and Over 0.008 in/in

*Note: Straightness is measured when weight of pultrusion minimizes the deviation by contact with
flat surface.
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B. Pultex
®
Sheets and Plates

Allowable deviation from flat (D)
All Thicknesses .25" up to 78" in width

C. Pultex
®
Hollow Profiles

Allowable deviation from flat (D)
Thickness Dimensions up to 1" width (B) Dimensions over 1" width (B)
Up to .187" .012" 0.012 in/in of width
.187" and over .008" 0.008 in/in of width


IV. Twist

A. Pultex
®
Bars, Tubes and Structural Profiles

Allowable deviation from straight in degrees
Width/Diameter Thickness of profile Twist per foot/meter Twist per part length (ft)(m)
Up to 1.5" .100" and up 1° 1° x length (ft), 7° Max.
1.5" to 3" .100" and up .5° .5° x length (ft), 5° Max.
3" & over .100" and up .33° .33° x length (ft), 3° Max.
Note: length of part (L) in feet/meters


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V. Angularity

All Pultex
®
Structural Profiles

Allowable deviation from specific angle
Thickness Angles less than 90° Angles more than 90°
Up to .75" ± 1 1/2° ± 1 1/2°


VI. Length

All Pultex
®
Structural Profiles

Allowable deviation from specific length
Length up to 20' 20' to 30' 30' to 40' 40' and Over
+ .125", - .125" + .250", -.250" + .500", -.500" + 1.000", -1.000"


VII. Squareness of End Cut

Allowable deviation from square
Profiles over 2" ±1°
Profiles 2" and under ±2°



Structural Profiles: The previous tolerances have been established for the production of Pultex
®
Fiber
Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles and represent customer acceptance standards for these products.

Custom Profiles: The selection, type and amount of fiberglass reinforcements, as well as the resin
system used, directly affect dimensions of the finished product. These tolerances should be used as a
guide between the end user and Creative Pultrusions in determining custom application specifications.


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VIII. Standard Tolerances for Pultruded Shapes Fabricated without CNC or Custom Fixtures

PRODUCTION LINE CUT LENGTHS:
Length up to 20 feet 20 feet to 30 feet 30 feet to 40 feet 40 feet and Over
+ or - 1/8 inch + or - 1/4 inch + or - 1/2 inch + or - 1 inch
The above tolerances represent cut to length at the pultrusion line tolerances and do not include secondary
cutting.

MITRE CUT or SQUARENESS OF END CUT: As specified + or - 1 degree for profiles outside a 2
inch envelope. As specified + or - 2 degrees for profiles within a 2 inch envelope. The tolerance applies to
the x and y axis.

RIP TO WIDTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/8 inch.

HOLE DIAMETER TOLERANCE: As specified + or - .020 of an inch.

HOLE or SLOTTED HOLE LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/8 inch keyed from one
origin, non-accumulative.

SLOTTED HOLE SIZE TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/8 inch.

ROUT LENGTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/8 inch.

ROUT DEPTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/8 inch.

ROUT LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/8 inch keyed from one origin, non-
accumulative.

NOTCH or CUT-OUT TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/4 inch.

NOTCH OR CUT-OUT LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/8 inch keyed from one
origin, non-accumulative.

NOTES: The above tolerances are for hand fabricated profiles without custom fixtures. Tighter tolerances
may be achieved with the CNC and or custom-built fixtures. Reference the Creative Pultrusions, Inc.,
Standard Tolerances for Pultruded Shapes Fabrication With CNC or Custom Fixtures.
-Consult CPI when special tolerances are required.
-Tolerances are measured prior to resin sealing.
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®
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IX. Standard Tolerances for Pultruded Shapes Fabricated with CNC or Custom Fixtures

CUT LENGTHS:

Length up to 20 feet 20 feet to 30 feet 30 feet to 40 feet 40 feet and Over
+ or - 1/8 inch + or - 1/4 inch + or - 1/2 inch + or - 1 inch
The above tolerances represent cut to length at the pultrusion line tolerances and do not include secondary
cutting.

Length up to 20 feet 20 feet to 30 feet 30 feet to 40 feet 40 feet and Over
+ or - 1/16 inch + or - 1/8 inch + or - 1/4 inch + or - 1/2 inch
The above tolerances represent a secondary cut.

MITRE CUT or SQUARENESS OF END CUT: As specified + or - 1 degree for profiles outside a 2
inch envelope. As specified + or - 2 degrees for profiles within a 2 inch envelope. The tolerance applies to
the x and y axis.

RIP TO WIDTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/8 inch.

HOLE DIAMETER TOLERANCE: As specified + or - .010 of an inch.

HOLE or SLOTTED HOLE LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/16 inch keyed from
one origin, non-accumulative.

SLOTTED HOLE SIZE TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/16 inch.

ROUT LENGTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/16 inch.

ROUT DEPTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/16 inch.

ROUT LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/16 inch keyed from one origin, non-
accumulative.

NOTCH or CUT-OUT TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/16 inch.

NOTCH or CUT-OUT LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or - 1/16 inch keyed from one
origin, non-accumulative.

NOTES: Consult CPI when special tolerances are required.
-Tolerances are measured prior to resin sealing.



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Chapter 9 Fabrication Techniques


























Almost all fabricating methods currently used for wood, aluminum, steel or other materials are available
for fabrication of fiber reinforced polymer pultrusions.

To fabricate Pultex
®
Profiles with complete success, the following techniques should be followed:

• Punches work better with a slight shear edge.

• Router bits should be diamond-coated.

• Drilling speeds should take hole size and thickness into consideration.

• Cutting speeds should be moderately fast (3,450 rpm).

• Solvents, such as methylene chloride or acetone, should be used to prepare surface for bonding
or coating.

• Lag screws are not recommended for fastening FRP to metal.

• Counter support is necessary when drilling hollow profiles.

• A medium coarse grinding wheel is preferable to the finer grades.

Each operation requires some change in technique or some modifications of equipment.

Many profiles are pre-fabricated, making
on-site installation easy.

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When fabricating, the most important characteristics of pultrusion are: it is a fibrous material with a grain
(very much like wood); it is quite abrasive; it will bend. Although working with a fiberglass profile is
similar to working with wood, it is uniquely a pultrusion and has its own characteristics. Explaining the
nature of pultrusion fabrication is the purpose of this section of the manual.

Fabrication Of Pultex
®
Structural Profiles

Before fabricating Pultex
®
Profiles, several characteristics of the product itself should be recognized.
These considerations apply to every phase of each operation.

1. Fiberglass is extremely abrasive. Tools, such as saw blades, router bits or punches, will wear
quickly. Production problems will occur unless this problem is anticipated.

• Frequent tool sharpening is common.

• Diamond-coated edges and blades are the best.

• Some re-tooling is common for heavy production.

• Maintaining an at-hand inventory of saw blades, punches and other cutting tools is
recommended.

2. Fiberglass is dusty during fabrication.

• Minor health problems, such as skin irritation, may be experienced by some workers.

• Wear dusk masks or respirators, long-sleeved shirts or coats.

• Machines, such as saws, should have totally enclosed dustproof motors or better.

• Machines, their supports and their general vicinities should be cleaned frequently. Dust and
glass particles will build and become abrasive; and the machine will become damaged.

• Vacuum hoses or vents should be placed near fabricating areas for dust collection.

3. Fiberglass, though strong, is also elastic. Pultex
®
is typically produced in 20-foot
lengths. Because of its greater length, increase in elasticity, warpage or twist may be experienced.

• Rigid support is needed for all fabrication procedures.

• Clamps, tie-downs, and vices should be incorporated before and after a section is to be cut.

• Process designers should individualize clamp and support systems for each profile for each
fabrication procedure. What is typical for aluminum is not necessarily appropriate for
pultruded profiles. Rigidity is mandatory.

4. Fiberglass will degrade if exposed to friction. Ragged edges and material splits could result.

• Always use appropriate machine speeds in each operation.

• The greater the thickness, the slower the cutting or drilling speed.

5. Exposed fibers will absorb more moisture or other contaminants than resin-coated fibers. When

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fabricating, the surface coating of resin is broken and fibers are exposed; therefore, it is always a
good practice to coat fabricated areas with resin to prevent attack from the elements, whether it be
corrosive agents or simple weathering.

6. All fastening procedures should be carefully appraised. Prototype testing should be included in
the decision process.

• Experience has demonstrated that mechanical fasteners and a good adhesive bond are the
best procedures.

• Choosing the correct adhesive is mandatory; bonding surfaces should be carefully prepared.

• Process engineering should know the final product application and environment when
considering fastening systems.

• Fiberglass is a composite in which many variables are operating, such as ultra-violet
exposure, chemical and temperature factors, and mechanical requirements. All fastening
systems should take these variables into account.

• Never assume that what works with aluminum, bronze, or wood will suffice for FRP.
Concurrently, never assume that it won't. It is best to check first.

7. Pultex
®
Profiles are composites that are engineered into laminate sections. Do not rigidly
impose the fabrication requirements of homogenous materials, such as aluminum or cold rolled
steel, on FRP, without first considering the composite characteristics of Pultex
®
.

• Properly understood, FRP will fabricate as well as any other material.

• Tolerances, punch clearances and hole sizing should be gauged to the fibrous characteristics
of FRP.

Adhesives/Bonding

Consult Creative Pultrusions for adhesive recommendations for your needs. Adhesives are an integral
factor in fastening Pultex
®
Profiles. As has been detailed, adhesives should be used in combination with
other fastening devices whenever possible.

Thousands of formula for adhesives exist; the basic ones used with Pultex
®
are:
1. Epoxies
2. Acrylics
3. Polyesters

Advantages Of Adhesives

• Distribute stress more uniformly.

• Permit fabrication at a lower cost and weight for structures that are mechanically equivalent to or
stronger than conventional assemblies.

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Advantages of Adhesives (cont’d)

• Bond thin sections to thick sections; thus, make use of the full strength of each section.

• Produce smooth surfaces.

• Eliminate defacing of exposed surfaces.

• Reduce weight.

• Join dissimilar materials.

• Accommodate differences in thermal expansion.

• Permit profile movement with flexible adhesives.

• Seal surfaces and joints.

• Accommodate thin or fragile profiles.

Bonded Shear Joint Concepts

The behavior of bonded joints is further challenged by several significant variables which requires an
understanding of the mechanics of configuration necessary for efficient and successful design.

Four basic stresses are associated with joint behavior: tensile, shear, cleavage and peel. Cleavage and
peel stresses are both special cases of tensile stresses involving large stress gradients through the joint.
Joints developing direct tension or shear stresses are stronger and more reliable than joints subjected to
cleavage and peel stresses.


Joint Stresses
Cleavage Tensile Shear Peel

Symmetry of load transfer through a joint is to be held in highest esteem. (This axiom is also true for any
material and connectors, such as bolts or welds.) Non-symmetrical joints induce couples, which must be
resisted by cleavage or peel stresses.

With adhesive joints, flexibility of either the adhesive or the joined components is an advantage because it
permits the connecting elements to rotate into alignment with the applied forces, thereby reducing the
couple effect in the glue line. The geometric design of the joint can be used to improve strength and
efficiency; for example, where a single lap joint is a very inefficient joint, it can be improved by using a
low-modulus adhesive or beveling the joined elements to introduce some flexibility. The eccentricity of

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the joint may also be reduced by using a scarf type lap. (CAUTION: The desired stiffness of the joint
must be observed if a joint is designed to maximize flexibility. Both cannot be achieved at the same time.)

The strength of a single lap (or any other nonsymmetrical joint) is not proportional to its size due to the
stress concentration at the edges. The usual mechanism of failure in an adhesive joint is a crack
propagation process initiating at points of high tensile stress; thus, failure is progressive and limited to a
very small localized region at any given time, indicating that the overall size of the joint may be irrelevant
to the total strength of the joint. Anything done to avoid the stress concentration will improve the integrity
of the joint. The use of mechanical fasteners in cleavage stress regions, and void or crack-free glue lines,
are methods in which joints can be strengthened.

Surface Preparations

The bond strength of an adhesive can be no better than the lap sheer strength of the interlaminate
material itself; in other words, surface is bonded to surface, resin to resin. The fiberglass reinforcement
has little to do with achieving the bond strength.

The major fact in bonding Pultex
®
Profiles is this: because the profiles have been manufactured with a
formulated mold-release, many adhesives will not react properly.

Mold release agents rise to the surface of the profile during the manufacturing process. By removing this
outer layer through proper surface preparation, the overly smooth surface can be abraded. Also, the
majority of mold release agents will be removed. The procedures for surface preparation in painting can
also apply.

Guidelines For Surface Preparations

1. Wipe contaminated surfaces with a solvent---styrene, toluene or methyl alcohol.

2. Wipe surface dry.

3. Remove surface film by sanding or light sand-blasting. Surface gloss should be removed.

4. Air blast the surface to remove any remaining dust. (Avoid recontamination by re-handling!)

5. Mix and apply adhesive 3 to 5 mils thick. Be certain that all surfaces and any glass fibers have
been covered.

6. Clamp, screw and/or fasten the bonded surface.

7. Allow for proper cure time:

• Ovens will shorten the cure time.

• A minimum of 20 to 24 hours is an average length of time for many adhesives to bond.

• A structure should not be exposed to its designed load limit until 48 hours have
passed.

8. Always follow the adhesive manufacturer's recommendations.



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Table 9-1 Adhesive Comparison Guide Used With Pultex
®
Standard Structural and
Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles

Important Details Epoxies Acrylics
Product Advantages Strongest average lap shear can
be approximately
1200 psi
Adheres to many surfaces
Lower cost

Impurity tolerant
Substrates Many use clean surfaces Metals, glass, plastics,
ceramics
Resistant to Moisture, acids, bases, salts Moisture, solvents, acids
Dispensing Methods Meter mixing
Hand mixing
Meter mixing
Hand mixing
Strength Strength to
6000 psi
Average 1200 psi
Strength to
4000 psi
Average 700 psi
Cure time Varies Varies
Formula available Thousands Many
Upper temperature range Service Range
-40°F and +160°F

250°F Maximum
Cost relative to other
adhesives

Moderate

Moderate

Table 9-2 Comparison of Joining Techniques

Mechanical Bonds Adhesive Bonds

Seal (water tightness) No Yes
Thermal insulation No Yes
Electrical insulation No Yes
Stress concentration at joint High Medium
Strength/weight ratio Low Medium
Aesthetics (smooth joints) Poor Good
Fatigue endurance Poor Good
Inspection Easy Difficult
Skill required of fabricator Low High
Sensitivity to peel loading No Yes
Time to develop strength Immediate Varies
Disassembly Possible Impossible

Cutting/Sawing

The most common cuts are: (1) straight lines, (2) 20°-80° angles, (3) ripping, and (4) concentric cuts.
Different saws are not required for cutting profiles of different resin systems; however, adequate support
is necessary for all cutting procedures. Clamps are the preferred method for the hold-down function.
These clamps can be either air cylinder hold-downs or the wide range of welding clamps such as the
De-Sta-Co type. Precise cuts can be made if the profile is fastened on each side of the cut-line. Because
dust will obscure the cutting marks and the heat of the saw may burn the material, it is advisable to use
water-cooled blades for heavy production cutting. Parameter for cutting: Anything can be cut; thickness
is not an issue, shape is.


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Table 9-3 Machining Operations

Type of Saw Application Comments
Circular Power Saw Straight cuts
and ripping
a) The hand model is good for on-site fabrication with
small to moderate numbers of cuts.

b) The table saw is a better model for accuracy and
support use, and is recommended for volume slitting or
cutting when equipped with the proper blade.
Radial Arm Saw Straight cuts
and ripping
a) Good for large or thick sections. Water-cooled for
large production. Blade sizes can be varied.
Saber Saw/Band Saw Curved cuts a) Adequate for very small quantities. Diamond-coated
blades will increase production.
Hand Router Curved cuts a) Better for large production. Often the slot cut by the
router bit will be wider or deeper than needed. It is a
good practice to try the bit before designing fixtures;
however, if properly done, this will yield precise
results.
Radial Arm Saw with Swivel Head 20°-80° angle cuts a) Can be used for mitering; 3,450 rpm recommended.
Hack Saw Cutting rod stock a) Hand variety good for limited cuts ---.94 – 1.25 teeth
per mm.
Power hack saw is better for large production.
Tungsten carbide or diamond abrasive blades
recommended. Keep plenty on hand as breakage is a
problem.

Cutting Procedures

1. Blades should always be diamond or carbide-coated for large production; diamond blades
should be 30 to 40 mesh.

2. Tolerances should be no less than ± 1/16 inches for large productions.

3. Very often another more precise cutting is needed as a secondary procedure.

4. Precision cuts are also made with a (diamond-tipped) jig saw.

5. When mitering an end-cut, permit 1/2 to 1 inch waste area.

6. Infrequent circular cuts could use a metal cutting blade, although it will be dull after one cut.

7. Carbide-coated masonry blades are recommended for on-site fabrication.

8. For large section cuts, use the following:

a) begin with a power band saw for multiple cuts
b) use a circular saw and then invert material to finish the cuts

Operating Tips

1. When the edges begin to fray, reduce the saw speed.

2. If pultruded profiles are covered with nico or veil material, cut the visible side face-up.


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Operating Tips (cont’d)

3. Use a light, even touch!

4. The thicker the profile, the slower the cut. Time must be taken and a saw with adequate
horsepower used.

5. Excessively high speed will make the edges ragged and the diamonds will peel off the saw
blade.

Design Note

For hollow sections with thin walls (.080 inches and under), counter supports may have to be designed to
fit into the cavity. Or, you may need to purposely schedule a second-cut procedure. Unique custom
profiles often require unique cut-off operations and equipment.

Drilling

Drilling Pultex
®
Profiles is an easy, routine operation. Re-design of equipment is generally unnecessary.
Standard twist drills are more than adequate for low production, but cobalt-bits are best for high
production. Carbide-tipped bits are not required.

Parameters for Drilling

Drilling of Pultex
®
Profiles is standard for sections with thicknesses of .187 inches or
thicker.

Holes drilled in Pultex
®
Profiles are generally undersized by .002 inches to .005 inches. A 1/8-inch
drill bit will not make a hole large enough for a 1/8-inch rivet. A No. 30 bit is necessary. Oversize
the drill bit in order to compensate for any shrinkage variation in fastener dimensions.

1. Drill Pultex
®
Profiles as you would drill hard wood.

2. Feed drills slowly, even with higher speeds.

3. For profiles with surfacing veils, drill from the visible side to the non-visible side.

4. Off-centering can be a problem in mass production; use bushings for this procedure.

5. For riveting holes, use supplier's recommended clearance.

6. For larger holes, a back-up plate of wood or receiving bushing will prohibit fracturing or
“breakouts” on the backside of the material.

Design Note

For round, hollow profiles and custom, hollow profiles, use sturdy counter-supports from within the
hollow sections.



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Grinding

Grinding of Pultex
®
Profiles is not generally recommended; however, it is necessary for the following
operations:

1. Notching

2. Recessing an internal wall in order to accommodate a flush fitting with another surface

3. Mounting secondary accessories or parts

4. Correcting inaccuracies in primary or secondary cuts (fragments, splinters)

5. Touching up edges

Parameters for Grinding

Grinding may be used for any thickness; results may vary.

Grinding Equipment

• Use any standard grinder. Air-powered equipment is preferred.

• Use carbide grinding wheels---especially for medium and coarse grit surfaces. (Fine surfaces
will quickly clog.)

• Provide constant attention to the wheel surface. Grinding wheels need to be "dressed" or
cleaned regularly.

• Operate at fairly high speeds. (1500 rpm plus)

• Centerless grinding for tubes and rods is very accurate.

• Use light pressure.

Turning

Pultex
®
Profiles can be “turned” with standard metal working equipment on either a limited or a large-
production basis.

Parameters For Turning

Dimensional tolerance for turning Pultex
®
Profiles should be equated with cold rolled steel
tolerances. Operation feed and speed limits should be geared as if for brass or aluminum.

Equipment

• For short production, steel tool cutters, with a single or multiple point, are satisfactory.

• For large or multiple production, carbide tool bits are a necessity.

• Round-nose lathe tools are best for good finishes.


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Turning (cont’d)

• Use water coolants.

• Use climb cutting, not under cutting.

• For round-nose lathe tools, observe these pointers:

• The tool should display tight tolerance.

• Single points may tear the material, with sharp corners being rounded instead.

• The surface speeds must be regulated according to the desired finish.

• The speed must be geared to the hardness of the material and the type of cutting.

• The material should be fed continuously and steadily.

• Stopping and starting will noticeably mark the fiberglass.

• The cutters should be set slightly above the center of the material when lathing.

Design Note

Fiberglass is a composite material; turning it should be executed only after ample experimentation. Get to
know the tolerances and the degree of hardness of each profile. Gauge the turning procedures to a
medium range derived from that experiment.

Routing

A router can cut a straight line or any angle. With a special bit, routers can be used for cutting radii,
keyways and milling profiles. The router cuts tend to be smooth and even which makes this an excellent
choice. Frayed edges may then be avoided.

Thickness

Routing is done on parts that are 1/8 to 1/2 inches thick.

Equipment

Two types of routing machines are used:

• A hand-held air-powered model of 0 - 4,500 rpms

• A medium-sized table model of 4500 - 10,000 rpms

Tungsten-carbide coated rotary file bits are adequate for moderate production; however, the self-
cleaning diamond-tipped, channeled or fluted bits serve even better for a routing operation.



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®
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11
Routing (cont’d)

Procedures

1. A coarser bit (36 mesh) will generally cut faster. Routing greatly improves when performed
at a higher speed; however, with a 1/2-inch-thick profile, the pultrusion material will cause a
great deal of friction. Caution should be exercised to avoid over-heating.

2. Use very light pressure when making router cuts. Forcing the bit could damage the material.

Design Note

A wide variety of router bits is available. As pultrusion gains the design flexibility of aluminum
extrusions, routing will take on great significance. The versatility of the process adapts quite well to
profile customization.

Punching

Fiberglass punches better than metal because it will spring back rather than bend. The amount of tonnage
for punching is also somewhat less than aluminum, especially on a thinner profile.

Punching is one of the most common fabrication methods. It is very important for a number of secondary
processes, such as fastening. If the inherent qualities of fiberglass are taken into account, punching can be
effortless. If not taken into account, problems may arise.

It is also important to note that many basic rules applicable to metal are not applied when punching
Pultex
®
Profiles. Some differences to keep in mind are:

• The clearances between the punch and the die are not as generous with pultrusion.

• Hole sizing in pultrusion is typically "oversized" by as much as .002 to .030 inches.

• The standard 15% rule regarding die clearance and material thickness of metal does not apply to
fiberglass.

• Standard metal punching equipment is often inadequate for pultrusion punching. The equipment
must be realigned and/or fitted.

Procedure

1. The abrasiveness of pultrusion must be compensated for in the method of punching:

• The punches need to be sharpened often.

• The dies will need to be replaced or sharpened.

• The overall tooling life may be shorter than the equivalent for metal punching.

• It is common for punched holes to be drilled again in a secondary procedure when
dictated by tight tolerances.


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12
Punching (cont’d)

2. The fiberglass material will make dust and chips.

• A clearance of .001 inches is not adequate. Dust will clog the female die almost instantly;
thus, a punch would quickly be off-center.

• The minimum clearance should always begin at .005 inches. For high-production lines or
thicker sections of 3/16 inch or more, there is often a clearance of .010 to .020 inches.

3. All plastics are not the same.

• Extremely close tolerances can be maintained for some thermoplastics.

• Polyester, vinyl ester and epoxy thermosets are not as predictably tight; tolerances
often have to be generous.

• Mat-reinforced pultrusion (thermoset) can be punched to closer tolerances than those
containing high roving.

4. Reinforced fiberglass is resilient.

• The hold-down systems should be designed very carefully to compensate for this
resiliency.

• Strippers are mandatory.

• Lubrication will gather the fiber and dust particles, thus quickly jamming the punch.
A clean machine and work area at all times should eliminate this problem.

5. Pultex
®
Profiles can deviate from specified tolerances regarding thickness, warpage, twist and
straightness. Though the deviation may not extend beyond acceptable limits, punching
accuracy and alignment may be affected.

• System designers must take into account the degree of variance from specified
tolerances.

• System flexibility should be designed into the punching system.

• Due to the flexibility of a pultruded profile, proper clamp-down systems can alleviate
most of the problems associated with profile deviations.

Press Tonnage Requirements

Test results illustrate the shear strength values for Pultex
®
Profiles.

The samples below were taken from one production run. The sample dimensions were circular coupons.

Thickness = 0.130 inches


Circumference = 3.132 inches

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®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
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13

Results

Sample #1 Break = 7,400 lbs.
= 18,175 psi

Sample #2 Break = 6,800 lbs.
= 16,701 psi

Sample #3 Break = 7,200 lbs.
= 17,683 psi

• The average shear value for Pultex
®
Profiles is 17,520 psi. Converted to pounds,
the total is7,133 lbs.

• The press tonnage required to punch fiberglass: .130 inches thick = 3.56 tons.

• Punching a 15/16-inch diameter hole in 10-gauge half-hard 1/4-inch
thick aluminum requires 3.80 tons.

To determine the press tonnage values to punch Pultex
®
Profiles, follow this procedure:

Multiply the profile material thickness by the hole circumference to be punched by the shear value.

Example: a 13/16-inch hole in a pultruded profile .077 inches thick is .077 inches (thickness) x 2.553
inches (circumference) x 17,000 psi (punch shear) = 3,342 lbs. pressure.

If 15 holes were going to be simultaneously punched, the number of holes would be multiplied by 3,342
pounds. In the above example, 50,130 pounds, or 25 tons of pressure, would be necessary for the
multiple punch machine.

Always use the 17,520 psi (120.8 MPa) shear value in the calculation.

Equipment

The following punching equipment is used routinely at Creative Pultrusions:

Equipment Application

(1) 3 Ton Press 1 to 6,000 pounds

(1) 5 1/2 Ton Press Punching profiles of 1/8-inch
thickness or smaller
profiles from 1/8-3/16 inch
thickness

(1) 13 Ton Brake Press Punching profiles from 3/16 - 1/2 inch
thickness

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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 9

14
Design Note

Most fabrication shops are already equipped to punch aluminum sheet metal and cold rolled steel. Their
machinery can be used for punching Pultex
®
Profiles, if the punches are appropriate for fiberglass. Hold-
down and support equipment should be evaluated for appropriateness, i.e., extra support.

Shear Angle in Punching

Rule: Optimum benefits for punching will be achieved when the punch is specially designed. Only a
small portion of the cutting edge should penetrate the material at any given time.

During the punching cycle, the goal is to subject the minimum amount of fiberglass to the smallest
fraction of cutting edge on an even basis. The punch should function as much like a scissor edge as
possible.

To design shear angle into a punch, the following criteria can be observed:

• Shear strength of material

• Thickness

• Degree of resiliency

• Production needs

• Amount of hole clearance for fasteners

• Type of fasteners (if any)

Round, flat-headed punches without shear edges are routinely used in punching small round holes on an
industry-wide basis with success.

Shear angle should be incorporated, if optimum benefits are desired. A shear angle that is equal to the
material thickness will reduce the required tonnage by one-third.

Providing a slighter shear angle is the most effective method. Shear angles are used, not only to reduce
tonnage, but to obtain a cleaner punch hole.

Doubling the shear angle to twice the material thickness of the profile is the recommended maximum
angle. Shear angle should not exceed that limit.

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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
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15
















Other Useful Guidelines for Punching

1. Some useful parameters are:

• Oversize all holes by .020 to .030 inches.

• The punched holes will range from .010 to .020 inches smaller than
the punching die.

• The larger the hole, the “cleaner” the punch.

• Material thickness to be punched will range from .070 to .187 inches.

2. For riveting, punched holes occasionally have to be redrilled especially in parts with thickness
of 1/8 inch or thicker.

3. Material Differences:

• Mat-reinforced materials can be punched with exactness, especially when bushings are used.

• Profiles with surfacing veils are punched from the non-visible to visible side.

4. A laminate .070 inches thick by 43 feet long, with a hole punched every 2 inches, has been
punched successfully.

5. For materials 3/16-inch thick, rivet holes can be placed every 6-8 inches; for bolting, the holes
should be 8-12 inches (203.2 mm – 304.8 mm).

6. The depth of a punch should be twice the thickness of the laminate.

7. When punching hollow profiles, use strong counter supports, such as mandrels or bottom
carriage rests.




Routing is one of many techniques used in fabrication.

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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 9

16
Shearing

Similar to punching, shearing is possible with Pultex
®
Profiles. Profiles of 3/16-inch or thinner have
been sheared successfully in production.

Shearing is very useful for large production, particularly in very thin laminates (.070 to .090 inches).
Thicker profiles (.125 to .187 inches) can be sheared on flat sections, but shearing of profiles with
multiple contours are best cut with a saw.

The rules for punching also apply to shearing, especially those rules referring to angles.

All shearing should be done perpendicular to any continuous fibers in the laminate.

Shearing should be perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcements. Cuts must be clean.

Consideration of the shear angle should be of primary importance before specifying this procedure.
Small profiles with a thickness not exceeding 3/16 inches can be sheared if the punch and profile are
designed together.

Painting

For most applications, internal coloration and a variety of surface treatments eliminate the need for
secondary coating operations. Situations exist, however, when paints are used to improve the weathering
properties or the appearance of a pultruded profile.

For improved weathering, urethane coatings are recommended as they have superior ultraviolet resistance
and adhere well to the pultruded substrate. Urethane-coated Pultex
®
Profiles have been exposed to
advanced weathering, equivalent to 30 years of exposure, with no loss in insulation properties and only a
slight loss in mechanical properties. Non-skid coatings are available for slip resistant surfaces. These
coatings are available from several suppliers and in a wide range of colors.

Surface Preparation

Due to the fact that the pultrusion process requires internal mold releases, it is essential that, prior to any
painting or coating, the surface be properly prepared. The mold releases are a form of wax that creates a
film on the surface of the profile to be removed. It can be accomplished with several methods:

• Solvent-wiping is the simplest method of surface preparation. Several solvents will attack
the mold release films. Some of these are toluene, xylene, acetone, or styrene.

• Sanding will also adequately prepare the surface; however, when you break the surface at times,
you will expose minor imperfections that become quite visible when paint is applied. A sand and
fill primer can be applied to help this situation.

Sand-blasting can be used as a surface preparation technique, but exhibits the same problems as sanding.

It is best to follow the paint manufacturer's recommendations for the application of any type of coating.







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®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 9

17
Joining Pultex
®
Structural Profiles

Channel Joints









The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 9

18

Joining Pultex
®
Structural Profiles (cont’d)

Tube Joints







Fabricated Beams





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®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 9

19
Joining Pultex
®
Structural Profiles (cont’d)

I-Beam Joints

Platform Supports










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®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 9

20
Mechanical Fastenings

Application Fastener Engaged


SCREW
Used for fastening Pultex
®
profiles to metal.
Use metal as backup to fiberglass.





BOLT AND NUT
Used for fastening profiles together. Best to use
washers to distribute load whenever possible.
Steel, galvanized, silicon, bronze, nylon,
polyester and other materials available for a
wide range of applications. Check with your
supplier.





SUPERSTUD!

/NUTS!
Threaded fiberglass rods with molded fiberglass
nuts. Good for highly corrosion applications.
Good shear values.





BOLTS AND THREADED HOLE
Possible assembly technique; however,
special construction of Pultex
®
Profile required.
Fiberglass nuts above are made by this
technique. Epoxies or other adhesives greatly
improve joint strength.


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®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
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21
Mechanical Fastenings (cont’d)

Application Fastener Engaged


LAG SCREW
Can be used to attach profiles to wood. Washer
should be used to distribute load. Not recommended
for attaching fiberglass to fiberglass.





TUBULAR RIVET
Used in conjunction with washer or metal
backup plate. Stronger than pop-rivets
because of solid shank. Requires accessibility
from both sides of profile.





SOLID RIVET
Use with backup plate or washer. Must have
accessibility to both sides of profile.





BLIND RIVET
Pull-up mandrel. Special tool required.
Assembly from one side only. Good for fiberglass
to metal or with washer backup. Steel or aluminum.


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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
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22
Mechanical Fastenings (cont’d)

Application Fastener Engaged


NYLON RIVET
Crimp type rivet. Requires special tool for
installation. Good for insulating in mildly corrosive
environment.





T-RIVET (Aluminum)
Good for metal to fiberglass or fiberglass to
fiberglass with backup plate. Wide expansion
provides good load distribution and prevents
tear.





DRIVE RIVET (Aluminum)
Good for fiberglass to metal. Can be installed
with hammer. Can also be removed from
one side by driving out mandrel.





DRIVE RIVET (Nylon)
Installed with hammer. Same as above.
Lower shear value than metal. Center core
stays in place.


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Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 9

23
Mechanical Fastenings (cont’d)

Application Fastener Engaged


BLIND THREAD INSERTS
Applies metal threads to profile. Good for
products for which disassembly is required.
Hexagon shape available to prevent twist.
Special tool required.





BLIND THREAD INSERTS
Better torque and shear strength. Loads
are more evenly spread on back surface.




CLEVIS AND PIN (Metal)
Can be used for some installations. Not
normally a very tight fit.




CLEVIS AND PIN (Nylon)
Used in some installations. Electrical
insulating properties.


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®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 9

24
Notes
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 10
1
Chapter 10 Writing Specifications for Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Profiles

Writing Specifications for Pultex
®
Profiles and Fabrications

Part 1 – General

1.01 Related Documents

A. Drawings and general provisions of Contract, including General and Supplementary
Condition Specifications apply to the Writing Specification Section.

1.02 Summary

A. The following Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
• Pultex
®
Structural Profiles • Flowgrip
®
Flooring Panel
• Pultex
®
SuperStructural Profiles • Tuf-Dek

Flooring Panel
• Supergrate

Pultruded Grating • Stair Treads
• Supergrate

Molded Grating

1.03 Scope of Work

A. Furnish all labor, material and equipment to install the fiber reinforced polymer products
as displayed on the drawings and as specified herein.

1.04 Quality Assurance

A. The material specified will be furnished by a reputable and qualified manufacturer of
demonstrated ability who has routinely engaged in the manufacture of Fiber Reinforced
Polymer Composites.
B. Substitution of any component or modification of system will be made only when
approved by the Architect or Engineer.
C. Qualifications are limited to experienced manufacturers and fabricators producing fiber
reinforced polymer composite products similar to that indicated for this project, with
adequate production capacity, so as to not delay the work.
D. In addition to requirements of these specifications, comply with manufacturer’s
instructions and recommendations for work.

1.05 Design Criteria

A. The design of fiber reinforced polymer composite products, including connections, will
be in accordance with the governing building codes and standards, as applicable.

1.06 Submittals

A. Drawings of all fiber reinforced polymer composite products will be submitted to the
Engineer for approval in accordance with the necessary requirements of each specific
project.

B. Manufacturer’s catalog of data displaying



The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 10
2
Submittals (cont’d)

1. Dimensions, spacings and construction of products
2. Design tables, with span length and deflection limits, under various
uniform and concentrated loads
3. Construction materials

C. Detail drawings displaying

1. Dimensions of fiber reinforced polymer composite products
2. Sectional assembly
3. Location and identification mark

1.07 Shipping and Storage Instructions

A. All systems, sub-systems and structures will be factory-fabricated and assembled to the
best practical sizes for transportation.

B. All material and equipment necessary for the fabrication and installation of the fiber
reinforced polymer composite products will be stored before, during, and after shipment
in a manner to prevent cracking, twisting, bending, breaking, chipping or damage of any
kind to the material, or equipment, including ultraviolet damage. Any material, which in
the opinion of the Engineer, becomes damaged as to be unfit for use, will be promptly
removed from work site, and the Contractor will receive no compensation for the
damaged material or its removal.

C. Identify all materials, items, and fabrications for installation and field assembly.

Part 2 – Products

2.01 General

A. Material used in the manufacturing of fiber reinforced polymer composite products of the
best quality and free from defects and imperfections that may affect the performance of
the finished product.

B. All material will be of the type and quality specified; where quality is not specified, it
will be the best of the respective types and applicable for the intended purpose.

C. All standard 1525 and 1625 fiber reinforced polymer composite products noted in the
Summary Section will be manufactured using the pultrusion manufacturing process, with
either thermoset polyester or thermoset vinyl ester resins, including flammability and
ultraviolet (UV) inhibitor additives. A synthetic surface veil will be the outermost layer
of the exterior surface. The fiber reinforced polymer composite profiles will achieve a
class 1 flammability rating (< 25) per ASTM E84 test method. (Thermoset polyester
resin and vinyl ester resins are available without flame retardant and UV inhibitor
additives.)

D. After fabrication, all cut ends, holes and abrasions of fiber reinforced polymer composite
products will be sealed with a compatible resin coating to prevent intrusion of moisture
where applicable.



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®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 10
3
General (cont’d)

E. Fiber reinforced polymer composite products, exposed to weather, will contain an
ultraviolet inhibitor.

F. All exposed surfaces will be smooth and true-to-form.

G. Manufacturer’s:

1. Creative Pultrusions, Inc., Pultex
®
Standard Structural Profiles, Pultex
®

SuperStructural Profiles, Superstud!

/Nuts!, Flowgrip
®
, Supergrate


and Tuf-dek

.
2. or approved equal

2.02 Gratings and Treads

General

A. Grating will be transported from the manufacturer, palletized and banded with
exposed edges protected by cardboard to prevent damage.

B. Each product will be clearly identified with the applicable drawing number.

C. Grating will be Supergrate

, Flowgrip
®
or Tuf-dek

, as manufactured by Creative
Pultrusions, Inc., Alum Bank, Pennsylvania.

D. Grating will be specified by loading requirements. Specify grating type by using
Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access Structure
Products in the Industry, page #11 – 18 and 20c and 20d.

Design

A. The panels will be ______inches deep and sustain a deflection of no more than_____
inches under a uniform distributed load or point load over a span length of
_____inches. Reference Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating
and Access Structure Products in the Industry.

B. The top surface of all panels will have a nonskid grit affixed to the surface. Reference
“Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access Structure
Products in the Industry”.

C. Panels will be fabricated to the sizes shown on the drawings.

Hold down clamps will be type 316L stainless steel. A minimum of four each per
panel.

(Select One)
Option 1: Color will be high visibility safety yellow. (OSHA safety yellow)
Option 2: Color will be gray. (OSHA safety gray)


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®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 10
4
Products

A. The fiber reinforced polymer composite grating and stair treads will be fabricated
from bearing bars and cross rods manufactured by the pultrusion process. The
glass fiber reinforcement for the bearing bars will be a core of continuous glass
strand rovings wrapped with continuous glass strand mat. A synthetic surface
veil will be the outermost layer of covering for the exterior surfaces. Reference
Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access Structure
Products in the Industry.

2.03 Fiberglass Grating and Stair Treads

A. Fiberglass grating and stair treads will be manufactured with a premium grade chemical
resistant, fire retardant thermoset polyester or fire retardant thermoset vinyl ester resin
system, with antimony trioxide included to meet the flame rating of 25 or less in
accordance with ASTM E84 testing and the self-extinguishing requirements of ASTM
D635. UV inhibitors are added to the resin.

2.04 Flowgrip
®
Flooring Panel or Supergrate

Grating with Plate

A. Grating will be the same as described above in this section.

B. Plate will be Pultex
®
flat sheet as manufactured by Creative Pultrusions, Inc., Alum
Bank, Pennsylvania.

C. Grating with plate will be manufactured with a premium grade polyester or vinyl ester
resin with fire retardant additive to meet Class I flame rating of 25 or less as tested by
ASTM E84 and the self extinguishing requirements of ASTM D635. All plate will
contain a UV inhibitor.

D. Grating with plate will be bonded to the grating, and non-skid grit will be affixed to the
top surface.

E. All cut and machined edges, holes and abrasions will be sealed with a resin equal to the
resin used in manufacturing the product.

F. All panels will be fabricated to the sizes displayed on the approved drawings.

G. Grating with plate can be substituted with Flowgrip
®
; for additional information
Reference Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access
Structure Products in the Industry.

2.05 Pultex
®
Structural Profiles

A. Structural profiles will be manufactured with a premium grade polyester or vinyl ester
resin with fire retardant additives to meet Class I flame rating of ASTM E84 and the self-
extinguishing requirements of ASTM D635. All structural profiles will contain a UV
inhibitor.

B. Manufactured by the pultrusion process.

C. Structural fiber reinforced polymer composite member composition will consist of a glass
fiber reinforced polyester or vinyl ester resin matrix, approximately 50% resin-to-glass
ratio. A synthetic surface veil will be the outermost layer of the exterior surfaces.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 10
5
Continuous glass strand rovings will be internally used for the longitudinal strength.
Continuous strand glass mats or stitched fabrics will be internally used for transverse
strength.

For properties, reference the Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profile Materials
Properties Sheet, Superstud!

/Nuts! Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fastener System Materials
Properties Sheet, Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Rod and Bar Materials Properties Sheet and
Pultex
®
Fiber Reinforced Polymer Flat Sheet Materials Properties Sheet. Reference Solutions
that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access Structure Products in the Industry.



Part 3 – Execution

3.01 Installation – All Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Profiles

A. All field cut and drilled edges, holes and abrasions will be sealed with a catalyzed resin
compatible with the original resin as recommended by the manufacturer. The sealing of
the edges will prevent premature fraying at the field cut edges.

B. Install items specified as indicated and in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Part 4 – Inspection and Testing

A. The Engineer will have the right to inspect and test all to-be-furnished materials under
these specifications prior to transportation from the point of manufacture.

B. All labor, power, materials, equipment and appurtenances required for testing will be
furnished by the Contractor at no cost to the Owner.

Part 5 – Subsection

Part 1 – General

1.01 Related Documents
1.02 Summary
1.03 Scope of Work
1.04 Quality Assurance
1.05 Design Criteria
1.06 Submittals
1.07 Shipping and Storage Instructions

Part 2 – Products

2.01 General
2.02 Gratings and Treads
2.03 Fiberglass Grating and Stair Treads
2.04 Flowgrip
®
Flooring Panel or Supergrate

Grating With Plate
2.05 Pultex
®
Structural Profiles


The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Chapter 10
6
Part 3 – Execution

3.01 Installation – All Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Profiles

Part 4 – Inspection and Testing

The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Appendices
1
Appendix A

Clip Connection Test Procedures


Double Cantilever Test

The objective of the double cantilever test is to develop full section data to be used by engineers, for the
design of structural systems using Pultex

SuperStructural Angles.

Test Set-Up

A double cantilever test setup was designed as displayed below. The design was implemented to
maximize the effects of shear and minimize the eccentricity in the connection. Two hinge supports were
placed directly below the bolts in the web of the beams; and an identical support was placed at the top of
the column beneath the load cell. The steel Wide Flange Section 8 x 31 column used in the connection
was loaded in the main stiffness direction.





The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Appendices
2
Test Procedure

All hinges were made of steel plates and rollers. The bottom hinges were placed in the line of
action of the beam-web bolts to eliminate eccentricity. After the connection was centered on the
testing machine a small load of 100 lbs. was applied. The load was applied in increasing
increments of 5,000 lbs. at a constant rate of 2,000 lbs. per minute. At every 5,000 lbs., the
deflection was recorded. The tests were halted when the load would no longer increase.

Experimental Results

The tests were conducted using 4" x 4" x 3/8" Pultex
®
SuperStructural Angles, pultruded in
polyester and vinyl ester resins. The angles were clipped into steel beams and columns. The
load value recorded from the load cell was divided by 2 to calculate the force transferred to each
connection. This computation provided a conservative load estimate because the side that failed
first supported more than half the load. The failure mechanism observed was interlaminar
peeling and shear through the heel of the angle. The design loads were calculated by dividing
the heel area of the angles by half of the total load.

Tests were conducted at the University of Maine by Dr. Roberto Lopez-Anido and Creative
Pultrusions’ full section testing laboratory.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Appendices
3

Appendix B

Computing Modulus (E) and Shear Modulus (G)
Objective

The Elastic Modulus and the Shear Modulus of a beam can be estimated by using a linear regression
analysis of the three-point bending deflection equation and a deflection test as pictured above.


Analysis

The deflection of a simply supported beam with a concentrated center load can be modeled by the
following equation:


A G K I E
L P
′ ⋅
⋅ +
⋅ ⋅

= ∆
1
4
1
48
3
(1)

where
∆ = Deflection of the beam at its center
A′ = kA
w
(Ref. Table 2)
A
w
= Cross sectional area of web (in
2
)(Ref. Table 2)
E = Modulus of elasticity (psi)
G = Modulus of rigidity (shear modulus) psi
I
xory
= Moment of inertia about axis being tested (in
4
)
k = Shear coefficient (Ref. Table 2)
L = Span of beam (inches)
P = Applied load (lbs.)

This equation can be rearranged into the following slope-intercept form:


A G
L
I E L P ′ ⋅
⋅ + ⋅

⋅ =

∆ 1
4
1 1
48
1
2
(2)

(ASTM D198)
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Appendices
4

where

I E
SLOPE

⋅ =
1
48
1
(3)

and

A G
INTERCEPT
′ ⋅
⋅ =
1
4
1
(4)


By the method of super position, equation (2) can be split into separate terms and rearranged into the
following equations:


SLOPE
I E
1
48
1
⋅ = ⋅
(5)


INTERCEPT
A G
1
4
1
⋅ = ′ ⋅
(6)


Test the beam at a minimum of three different spans and gather load, span, and deflection data. The
graph of
L P⋅

, versus
2
L as displayed, can be produced.

The Apparent Modulus can be calculated by finding the slope of the regression line and plugging it into
equation (5). At least three points need to be used in order that test results can be checked for error by
calculating the variance of the line. The Shear Modulus can be calculated from the y-intercept of the line
and equation (6).



/(P*L) vs. L
2
L
2

/
(
P
*
L
)
L
2
2
L
1
2
L
3
2
I E⋅

1
48
1
A G ′

1
4
1
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Works Cited
1
Works Cited


Bank, L.C. “Flexural and Shear Moduli of Full-Section Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Pultruded
Beams, Journal of Testing and Evaluation.” ITEVA, Vol. 17, No. 1. Philadelphia: 1989.
Bank, L.C. “Bolted Connections for Pultruded Frame Structures.” Diss. The Catholic
University of America, 1996.
Beer, Ferdinan P., E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Mechanics of Materials. 2nd ed. New York:
McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992.
Cowper, G.R. “The Shear Coefficient in Timoshenko’s Beam Theory.” National Aeronautical
Establishment, National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada, 1966.
Hibbeler, R.C. Engineering Mechanics Statics and Dynamics. 5th ed. New York: R.C.
Hibbeler, 1989.
Mallick, P.K. Fiber Reinforced Composites Materials, Manufacturing, and Design. 2nd ed.
New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1993.
Salmon, Charles G. and John E. Johnson. Steel Structures Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load
and Resistance Factor Design. 3rd ed. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.,
1990.
Task Committee on Design of the Structural Plastics Research Council of the Technical Council
on Research of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Structural Plastics Design Manual
Vol. 1. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, 1984.
Task Committee on Design of the Structural Plastics Research Council of the Technical Council
on Research of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Structural Plastics Design Manual
Vol. 2. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, 1984.
Davalos, Julio F., PhD., Barbero, Ever, J., Ph.D., Qiao, Pizhong, Ph.D., P.E. “Step-by-Step Engineering
Design Equations for Fiber-reinforced Plastic Beams for Transportation Structures.” Diss. West
Virginia Department of Transportation, 1999.

I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
1-1/4 x 3/4 x 1/8 1,700 0.26
4 x 1/8 x 1-3/4 x
1/4 2,000 1.37
4-7/16 x 1-7/16 x
1/8 2,500 1.03
4-3/4 x 1-3/4 x
1/8 2,500 1.17
5 x 2 x 1/8 2,500 1.44
6 x 2 x 1/8 4 2,000 2.00
8 x 1 x 3/32 1,000 1.84
Shapes contain internal webs.
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Sq. Ft.
1/8 x 48 x 96 x x
**
4 x 188 1.17
3/16 x 48 x 96 x 4 4 140 1.69
1/4 x 48 x 96 x x
**
x 94 2.27
3/8 x 48 x 96 4 x x4 63 3.46
1/2 x 48 x 96 x x 47 4.64
5/8 x 48 x 96 40 5.77
3/4 x 48 x 96 30 6.57
1 x 48 x 96 20 9.45
Minimum Mill Run is shown by sheets.
Flat sheet is stocked in 4' x 8' sheets.
**Stocked in Light Gray and Slate Gray.
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
1 x 1/8 x x 3,000 0.17
1 x 1/4 2,500 0.31
1-1/2 x 1/8 2,700 0.25
1-1/2 x 3/16 2,200 0.38
1-1/2 x 1/4 x x x 2,000 0.51
2 x 1/8 2,500 0.35
2 x 3/16 2,000 0.56
2 x 1/4 x x
**
x 1,800 0.68
3 x 1/8 x 2,000 0.53
3 x 3/16 1,500 0.78
3 x 1/4 x x x 1,500 1.06
3 x 3/8 x x x 1,200 1.74
4 x 1/4 x
**
x 1,300 1.59
4 x 3/8 x x 900 2.28
4 x 1/2 x x 1,300 3.01
6 x 1/4 900 2.29
6 x 3/8 x 800 3.57
6 x 1/2 x x 700 4.66
**Stocked in Light Gray and Slate Gray.
Rectangular
Box Beam
Square
Tube
Rectangular
Tube
Round
Tube
I-Beam
Equal
Leg Angle
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
3 x 1-1/2 x 1/4 1,400 1.01
4 x 2 x 1/4 x 1,300 1.63
6 x 3 x 1/4 x x 800 2.39
6 x 3 x 3/8 x 800 3.78
8 x 4 x 3/8 x x 600 4.74
8 x 4 x 1/2 x 700 6.45
10 x 5 x 3/8 700 6.06
10 x 5 x 1/2 x
*
600 7.93
12 x 6 x 1/2 400 9.83
*Stocked in 25' Lengths Only.
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
1 x 1/8 x x x
***
1,800 0.33
1-1/4 x 1/4 1,000 0.76
1-1/2 x 1/8 4 x 4 1,800 0.48
1-1/2 x 1/4 4 x
**
2,500 0.92
1-3/4 x 1/8 2,500 0.54
1-3/4 x 1/4 x
*
x
*
1,600 1.12
2 x 1/8 x
*
x
*
1,600 0.69
2 x 1/4 x
****
x
+
x
*
1,200 1.40
2-1/8 x 3/16 1,500 1.08
2-1/2 x 1/4 1,000 1.79
3 x 1/4 x 800 2.16
3-1/2 x 3/8 700 3.16
4 x 1/4 x 700 2.96
5.2 x 3/8 700 5.82
6 x 3/8 700 7.81
Pultex Fiberglass Standard Structural Profiles
and Superstud! /Nuts!
Product Availability List
®

All items are available upon request in standard resin series: Delivery:
Series 1500 - Isophthalic Polyester (I) - Green Stocked Items: 1-3 days
Series 1525 - Isophthalic Fire Retardant (IFR) - Slate Gray (Dark Gray) Items Out of Stock: 2 weeks
Series 1625 - Vinyl ester Fire Retardant (VFR) - Beige Non-Stocked Items: 2 weeks
X = Stocked items (All items are stocked in 20' lengths unless otherwise noted.)
Channel
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
1-1/2 x 1 x 3/16 2,200 0.48
2 x 9/16 x 1/8 x 2,800 0.27
2-3/4 x 1 x 1/8 5,000 0.42
3 x 7/8 x 1/4 x
****
x 1,700 0.78
3 x 1 x 3/16 4 4 4 1,800 0.63
3 x 1-1/2 x 1/4 x 1,300 0.98
4 x 1-1/16 x 1/8 1,900 0.54
4 x 1/8 x 1-3/4 x
3/16 x 1,500 0.87
4 x 1-1/8 x 1/4 x x 1,200 1.02
5 x 1-3/8 x 1/4 4 4 1,300 1.37
6 x 1-5/8 x 1/4 x x x 1,200 1.67
6 x 1-11/16 x 3/8 x
**
x x 1,000 2.51
7 x 2 x 1/4 x
+
1,200 2.06
8 x 2-3/16 x 1/4 1,000 2.22
8 x 2-3/16 x 3/8 x
***
x x 800 3.28
10 x 2-3/4 x 1/8 1,500 1.44
10 x 2-3/4 x 1/2 x 600 5.77
11-1/2 x 2-3/4 x
1/2 600 6.46
14 x 6 x 1/2 500 10.44
24 x 3 x 1/4 600 5.61
24 x 4 x 1/2 500 11.21
**Stocked in 20'1", 30'1" and 40'1"
Lengths Only.
***Stocked in 20'1", 25'1" and 30'1"
Lengths Only.
****Stocked in 20'1" Length Only.
+Stocked in Light Gray 24' 6", 28' 6" and
31' Lengths.
Also available in SUPURTUF
Polyurethane Resin. Consult factory for
pricing.
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
3/4 x 3/32 2,000 0.17
1 x 1/8 x x 2,000 0.28
1-1/4 x 3/32 1,900 0.27
1-1/4 x 1/8 1,900 0.34
1-1/2 x 1/8 x x4 4 1,900 0.42
1-1/2 x 1/4 x 1,500 0.77
1-3/4 x 1/8 4 1,600 0.50
1-3/4 x 1/4 4 4 x4 1,500 0.91
2 x 1/8 1,500 0.64
2 x 1/4 x
**
1,400 1.08
2-1/2 x 1/8 4 4 4 1,500 0.62
2-1/2 x 1/4 4 4 4 1,000 1.32
3 x 1/4 4 4 900 1.66
**Stocked in Dark Gray and Yellow Only.
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
1 x 1-1/2 x 1/8 2,500 0.21
1 x 2 x 1/8 2,500 0.27
1 x 2 x 3/16 2,000 0.46
1 x 2 x 1/4 2,000 0.50
1 x 3 x 1/8 2,000 0.35
1-1/4 x 3/4 x 1/8 3,000 0.16
1-1/4 x 2 x 1/4 1,500 0.55
1-1/2 x 2 x 1/8 2,500 0.37
1-1/2 x 2 x 1/4 1,500 0.55
1-1/2 x 3 x 1/8 2,000 0.39
1-1/2 x 3 x 3/16 1,500 0.57
1-1/2 x 3 x 1/4 1,500 0.79
1-5/8 x 2-5/8 x
1/8 2,500 0.38
2 x 3 x 3/16 4 4 1,000 0.66
2 x 3 x 1/4 4 4 1,500 0.91
2 x 3 x 3/8 1,500 1.28
2 x 4 x 1/4 1,500 1.07
2 x 4 x 3/8 1,000 1.99
3 x 4 x 1/4 4 4 1,200 1.25
3 x 4 x 3/8 1,000 1.85
3-1/2 x 5 x 1/2 1,000 2.98
3-1/2 x 11 x 1/8 1,000 1.14
4 x 6 x 1/4 1,000 1.82
4 x 6 x 3/8 700 2.93
4 x 6 x 1/2 700 3.75
Flat Sheet
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
3 x 1/4 x x 1,000 1.84
4 x 1/4 x x
*
x 800 2.44
6 x 1/4 x
*
700 3.64
6 x 3/8 x x 600 5.53
8 x 3/8 x 400 7.26
8 x 1/2 x
*
400 9.99
10 x 3/8 400 9.07
10 x 1/2 x
*
400 12.03
12 x 1/2 x
**
300 14.92
*Stocked in 20' and 25' Lengths Only.
**Stocked in 25' Lengths Only.
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
6 x 4 x 1/4 4 1,000 3.85
7 x 4 x 1/4 4 4 1,000 4.08
7 x 4 x 3/8 800 5.99
8 x 4 x 1/4 4 4 4 1,000 4.48
8 x 4 x 3/8 4 800 6.52
Wide Flange
Beam
Unequal
Leg Angle
CREATIVE PULTRUSIONS, INC.
214 Industrial Lane Alum Bank, PA 15521 USA
Phone: 814-839-4186 Fax: 814-839-4276
Toll Free: 888-CPI-PULL (274-7855)
Web site: www.creativepultrusions.com E-mail: crpul@pultrude.com
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Product Availability List
1
I-Beam
Square
Tube
Notes:
* Stocked in Yellow Only.
** Stocked in Dark Gray and Yellow Only.
***Stocked in Dark Gray, Yellow and
Beige.
****Stocked in 21' 1" Lengths Only.
+Stocked in Yellow 20' Length and Light
Gray 24' 6", 28' 6" and 31' Lengths.
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
Sludge Flight
6 x 1/8 x 2-1/2
x 3/16 x 1,000 1.52
8 x 1/8 x 2-1/2
x 3/16 x 1,000 1.67
U-Trough 4
8-1/2 x 9-1/4 x
1/4 1,000 4.95
12 x 12 x 1/4 1,000 6.32
Square Tube
with Round Hole
1 x 3/4 dia. 5,000 0.47
2 x 1-1/2 dia. 1,300 1.72
Door Frame
6 1,500 1.64
Fluted Ladder
Rung
1.24 x .125 x
*
2,300 0.32
T-Sections
Note: T-Sections are cut from I-Sections
and can be quoted upon request.
*Stocked in Yellow Only.
**Stocked in Dark Gray Only.
***Stocked in NSF 61 White Only.
Flat Strip
Solid
Square Bar
Solid Round Rod
Series 1500
Superstud! /Nuts!
Fasteners
Special Shapes
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
1/8 x 2-1/2 4 10,000 0.24
1/8 x 4 x
**
6,000 0.39
3/16 x 2-1/2 x
*
6,000 0.37
1/4 x 4 3,000 0.76
1/4 x 6 4 4 2,000 1.10
1/4x 9 1,500 1.90
3/8 x 3 3,000 0.87
3/8 x 6 4 4 4 1,500 1.62
1/2 x 2 3,000 0.75
Note: Many other flat strips are available.
Consult factory for other sizes.
*Stocked in Yellow 21' Lengths Only.
**Stocked in Yellow 22' 4-1/2" Only.
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P Stocked Ft.
Superstud!
3/8" - 16 UNC x 0.08
1/2" - 13 UNC x 0.13
5/8" - 11 UNC x 0.21
3/4" - 10 UNC x 0.32
1" - 8 UNC x 0.59
Nuts!
3/8" - 16 UNC 4x4 0.55
1/2" - 13 UNC x 1.10
5/8" - 11 UNC x 1.00
3/4" - 10 UNC x 1.25
1" - 8 UNC x 1.35
All Superstud!™ is stocked in
48" and 96" lengths and is made with
Series 1625 (Vinyl ester) resin.


Special Shapes
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
Toe Plate 4
4 x 1/2 x 1/8 x
*
x
*
2,500 0.53
6 x 1/2 x 1/8 2,500 0.72
Curb Angle 4 4 4
1 x 1-1/2 x 1/4 x
**
1,400 0.90
1-1/2 x 1-1/2
x 1/4 x
**
1,300 1.02
2 x 1-1/2 x 1/4 x
**
1,200 1.10
Gate Guide
2-1/2 x 2-1/4 x
***
2,500 1.21
x 1/4
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
1/4 x 1/4 4 10,000 0.05
1 x 1 x 1,400 0.81
1-1/4 x 1-1/4 x
*
4 4 1,000 1.27
1-1/2 x 1-1/2 x
**
x
*
4 800 1.84
*Stocked in Yellow Only.
**Stocked in Yellow and Green Only.
I V Min.
I F F Mill Wt.
Size in In. P R R Run Ft.
1/4 x 4 10,000 0.04
3/8 x 5,000 0.10
1/2 x 4 4 43,500 0.17
5/8 4 2,400 0.28
3/4 x 2,000 0.40
1 x 4 4 1,500 0.69
1-1/4 x 1,200 1.10
1-1/2 x 900 1.54
2 4 600 2.56
All Rods Stocked in Natural Color
2
*Stocked in Yellow Only.
**Stocked in Dark Gray Only.
***Stocked in NSF 61 White Only.
DLR: 4/2/09
1298-5Mr23
) Trademark of Creative Pultrusions, Inc.
The New and Improved Pultex
®
Pultrusion Global Design Manual
Product Availability List
Isoplast™ Flanged
Hex Nuts

Wt.
Size in In. Stocked Ft.
Isoplast™
3/8" - 16 UNC 4x4 0.45
1/2" - 13 UNC x 0.90
5/8" - 11 UNC x 0.90
3/4" - 10 UNC x 1.25
1" - 8 UNC x 1.30
Isoplast™ Flanged Hex Nuts are also
stocked in all sizes. Please specify
square or hex when ordering.
Flowgrip® and Pultex® are registered trademarks of Creative Pultrusions, Inc. Creative Pultrusions™, Shaping the Future™, Superstud!™, Superstud!™/Nuts!, Superstik™,
SUPURTUF™, Superplank™, Superdeck™, Supergrate™, Tuf-dek™, SuperLoc™, SuperWale™, SuperCap™, SuperRod™, Pultrusion Dynamics™, DYNAPUL™, Pulshaping™,
TOPSCAN™ and TOPDIE™ are trademarks of Creative Pultrusions, Inc.
Size in In. PStocked
Adhesive Epoxy Kits
1/2 Gallon Kit x
(includes 1 quart base and
1 quart hardener)
Adhesive Epoxy Kits

CPS034IMP-0404.5C
October 2009







































































The Pultex
®
Pultrusion
Design Manual
of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles
Volume 4 - Revision 6


CREATIVE PULTRUSIONS, INC.
214 Industrial Lane
Alum Bank, PA 15521
Toll-free: 888-CPI-PULL (274-7855)
+1 814-839-4186
Fax: +1 814-839-4276
Web site: http://www.creativepultrusions.com
E-mail: crpul@pultrude.com


Flowgrip® and Pultex® are registered trademarks of Creative Pultrusions, Inc. Creative Pultrusions™, Shaping the Future™, Superstud!™,
Superstud!™/Nuts!, Superstik™, SUPURTUF™, Superplank™, Superdeck™, Supergrate™, Tuf-dek™, SuperLoc™, SuperWale™, SuperCap™,
SuperRod™, Pultrusion Dynamics™, DYNAPUL™, Pulshaping™, TOPSCAN™ and TOPDIE™ are trademarks of Creative Pultrusions, Inc.

“The first Pultex® Design Manual was published in 1973. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles, 2004 Edition, Volume 4 – Revision 6 is a tool for engineers to specify Pultex® pultruded standard structural profiles. Creative Pultrusions, Inc. consistently improves its information to function as a solid reference for engineers.”

“No portion of this Design Manual may be reproduced in any form without the prior written consent of Creative Pultrusions, Inc.” Volume 4 – Revision 6 Copyright© 2004 by Creative Pultrusions, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Flowgrip® and Pultex® are registered trademarks of Creative Pultrusions, Inc. Creative Pultrusions™, Shaping the Future™, Superstud!™, Superstud!™/Nuts!, Superstik™, SUPURTUF™, Superplank™, Superdeck™, Supergrate™, Tuf-dek™, SuperLoc™, SuperWale™, SuperCap™, SuperRod™, Pultrusion Dynamics™, DYNAPUL™, Pulshaping™, TOPSCAN™ and TOPDIE™ are trademarks of Creative Pultrusions, Inc.

The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual

i

Contents

The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles, including Imperial Measurements Table of Contents Volume 4 – Revision 6 Page Numbers Chapter 1 Introduction To Pultrusion

Pultex® ....................................................................................................................................... 1 – 2 Pultex® Pultrusion Process .................................................................................................. 2 – 3 Process Advantages................................................................................................................... 3 Raw Materials Used in the Pultrusion Process.................................................................... 3 – 4 Pultex® Resin Systems......................................................................................................... 4 – 5 Chapter 2 Value Engineering

Design Benefits.......................................................................................................................... 1 – 2 Applications ............................................................................................................................... 2 – 3 Cost Analysis for Standard and Custom Profiles....................................................................... 3 – 4 Raw Material Advantages................................................................................................................ 4 Fabrication Advantages ................................................................................................................... 4 Shipping Advantages ....................................................................................................................... 4 Chapter 3 Physical And Mechanical Properties

Introduction to Design with Pultruded Composites......................................................................... 1 Fiber Properties........................................................................................................................... 1 Resin Properties .......................................................................................................................... 2 Fillers .......................................................................................................................................... 2 Imperial Material Properties Sheets Material Properties of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles .................... 3 – 4 Material Properties of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Flat Sheets................................ 5 – 6 Material Properties of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Rods and Bars ................................ 7 Material Properties of Superstud!/Nuts! Square Nuts Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fastener Systems............................................................................................................................... 8 Material Properties of Isoplast* Flanged Hex Nuts Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fastener Systems............................................................................................................................... 9 Material Properties of Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles – Wide Flange and I-Sections.................................................................................................................. 10 – 11 Material Properties of Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles – Angles ................................. 12 – 13 Procedures for Obtaining Properties ...................................................................................... 14 – 15 Safety Factors .......................................................................................................................... 16 Elements of Sections Imperial Elements of Section .......................................................................................... 17 – 23
*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company

ii

The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual

Contents

The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles, including Imperial Measurements Table of Contents Volume 4 – Revision 6 Page Numbers Chapter 4 Load Tables For Flexural Members And Connections

Beam Deflections............................................................................................................................. 1 Allowable Stresses ........................................................................................................................... 1 Lateral – Torsional Buckling ..................................................................................................... 2 – 4 Stress Calculations for Channels ............................................................................................... 5 – 9 Local and Global Buckling of FRP Channels................................................................................ 10 Beam Deflection Formula...................................................................................................... 11 – 13 Examples of Beam Selection of Pultex® Profiles used as Flexural Members........................ 14 – 17 Channel Selection Example ................................................................................................... 17 – 18 Nomenclature......................................................................................................................... 19 – 20 Introduction to Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles .......................................................................... 21 Comparison of Standard Structural Profiles and Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles .............. 21 – 23 Span/Deflection Ratio Conversion Tables............................................................................. 24 – 25 Allowable Uniform Load Tables ........................................................................................... 26 – 90 Connections Clip Connection Load Tables with Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles ............................ 91 – 93 Bolt Hole Bearing Capacity ............................................................................................ 94 – 95 Design Example Using the Clip Connection Charts ............................................................... 96 Moment of Capacity of Pultex® SuperStructural Angles ............................................... 97 – 98 Designing a Connection with a Coped Flange ........................................................................ 99 End Notes .............................................................................................................................. 100 Chapter 5 Load Tables For Compression Members

Load Tables For Compression Members ......................................................................................... 1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 2 Pultex® Column Test Program ................................................................................................... 3 – 8 Nomenclature................................................................................................................................... 9 Tables for Allowable Compressive Stresses and Loads ................................................................ 10 Imperial Tables for Allowable Compressive Stresses and Loads ................................... 11 – 45 Biography............................................................................................................................... 47 – 48 Chapter 6 Environmental Considerations

Temperature ..................................................................................................................................... 1 Weathering....................................................................................................................................... 1 UV Stabilizers.................................................................................................................................. 1 Resistance to Chemicals and Reagents ............................................................................................ 2 Chemical Compatibility Guide ................................................................................................ 3 – 10

The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual

iii

Contents

.................................. 8 Grinding ............................................................................................................................................... 3 Localized Stiffening...................................................... 2 – 3 Parting Lines ........................ 1 – 2 Shrinkage ................................................................................................................................................................ including Imperial Measurements Table of Contents Volume 4 – Revision 6 Page Numbers Chapter 7 Custom Profile Design Wall-Section Thickness ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5 Adhesives Comparison Guide used with Pultex® Profiles .................... 14 Other Useful Guidelines for Punching .................................................................................. 10 – 11 Punching............................ 1 – 2 Fabrication of Pultex® Structural Profiles............................................................ 3 Advantage of Adhesives.............................................................................................................................. 3 Dimensional Tolerances.............................................................. 1 Radius Design .............................................. 12 – 14 Shear Angle in Punching............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1 – 8 Standard Tolerances for Pultruded Shapes Fabricated without CNC or Custom Fixtures............................. 2 – 3 Adhesives/Bonding .......................................................................................................... 3 Designer Checklist ........... 1 Standard Tolerances.................................................. 7 Cutting Procedures ............................................................................................................................... 4 – 5 Notes .............................. 11 – 12 Press Tonnage Requirements ........ 6 Machining Operations.................................................. 2 Surface Appearance and Performance .......................................................... 3 Undercuts ............................................................................ 10 Chapter 9 Fabrication Techniques Fabrication Techniques........................................................................................................ 15 Shearing................................................................ 9 Turning ............................................................................................. 16 iv The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Contents ..................................................................................................................................................... 6 Chapter 8 Quality Assurance And Standard Tolerances Quality Assurance System .......................................... 4 – 5 Surface Preparations.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 Comparison of Joining Techniques ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9 Standard Tolerances for Pultruded Shapes Fabricated with CNC or Custom Fixtures ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 – 8 Drilling ............................................................................................................................... 9 – 10 Routing ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Operating Tips..................................................................... 3 – 4 Bonded Shear Joint Concepts...............The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....... including Imperial Measurements Table of Contents Volume 4 – Revision 6 Page Numbers Chapter 9 Fabrication Techniques (cont’d) Painting .......................................... harmless from and against any and all losses......... may sustain or incur as a result of any claim............................................................................. Creative Pultrusions............................................................. 1 – 2 “Creative Pultrusions.................... Inc............. Inc................................... 20 – 23 Notes ............... 1 Pultex® Product Availability List Imperial Pultex® Product Availability List ........................................................” The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual v Contents ................................................................. in connection with the use of the information in this manual......... damages.............................. Inc............................................. believes the information put forth in this Design Manual to be as accurate and reliable as we can ascertain as of the date of publication........................................................................................................................................... However.................................................................................................................... does not warrant that the information hereunder will not infringe the claims of any United States or other patents covering products or processes......................................... 1 – 2 Appendix B ... 17 – 19 Mechanical Fastenings............. Inc.............................................. 1 – 6 Appendices Appendix A........... 24 Chapter 10 Writing Specifications For Pultex® Structural Profiles Writing Specifications ................................................................................................................................................................ User also agrees to indemnify and hold Creative Pultrusions............................................................. 16 Joining Pultex® Structural Profiles..................... and expenses (including attorney fees and other costs of defending any action) that Creative Pultrusions...................................... 16 Surface Preparation................... or the use thereof in combination with other products or in the operation of any process... 3 – 4 Works Cited............The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles.......................................

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classifying pultrusion as a structural engineering material. electrical/electronic. consumer and water/wastewater applications. Pultex® profiles are Pultruded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) components. the pultrusion process has been used by the design engineer as having the capability of manufacturing products that solve many modern problems. Pennsylvania (Corporate Headquarters) and Roswell. channels and angles for the chemical processing industry. lightweight and maintenance-free products and structures have been designed and built. With The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual. Oakwood Village. corrosionresistant. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 1 1 . high-strength. Technology Center: Pultrusion Dynamics Division. Inc. the company operates in two manufacturing locations: Alum Bank. Within the last two decades. Established in 1973. United Kingdom. manufactured from a wide variety of high performance thermosetting resins and reinforcements. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual is developed to aid the design engineer in understanding the pultrusion process and how various elements of the process and design affect the performance and cost of the final product. Creative Pultrusions International Ltd. As a result. As a result. will share in the knowledge and experience to assist in the design of your future pultrusion requirements. Pultex® profiles have been used extensively in many industries for construction. The information provided is the result of many years of participation with industries worldwide.Chapter 1 Introduction to Pultrusion Pultex® standard structural profiles are used in many highly-corrosive applications. New Mexico. Pultex® is the registered trademark of Creative Pultrusions. the design engineer. (CP) for products made by the pultrusion process.. and a complementary Worldwide Distribution Network. is The World’s Most Innovative Leader in the Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Industry. Applications vary from the development of new high-performance springs and bumpers for the automotive industry to corrosion-resistant structural I-beams. Creative Pultrusions. transportation. Inc. you. Ohio.

Bridges are easily installed in hard-to-access areas. easy to erect and maintenance-free. Fiberglass platform systems are ideal in highly corrosive areas. An integrated building system is lightweight. Pultex® Pultrusion Process 2 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 1 .

optimizing laminate performance for a particular application by strategic placement of high performance reinforcements. Resin Roving and mat are of major importance in determining physical properties. Specific strength characteristics can be designed into the composite. certain application requirements of higher strength or corrosion resistance can be satisfied with the selection of vinyl ester. are drawn through a resin bath in which all material is thoroughly impregnated with a liquid thermosetting resin. Processing capabilities include the production of both simple and complex profiles. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 1 3 . mat or cloth. binding the fibers together and providing the structural corrosion resistance and other properties required. Since the process is continuous. Color is uniform throughout the cross section of the profile. length variations are limited to shipping capabilities. profiles up to 72 inches wide and 21 inches high are possible. The laminate solidifies in the exact cavity shape of the die. Although the vast majority of applications can be serviced by the variety of polyester resins available. Currently. such as fiberglass roving.Pultex® Pultrusion Process (cont’d) Pultrusion is a continuous molding process using fiber reinforcement in polyester or other thermosetting resin matrices. catalysts. the resin cure is initiated by controlling precise elevated temperatures. Once inside the die. as it is continuously pulled by the pultrusion machine. The wet-out fiber is formed to the desired geometric shape and pulled into a heated steel die. Pultex® profiles can result in more satisfactory performance of your finished products and structures. Selected high performance polyester resins are combined with suitable fillers. eliminating the need for many painting requirements. Pre-selected reinforcement materials. eliminating the need for much post-production assembly of components. Process Advantages The process provides maximum flexibility in the design of pultruded FRP profiles. Raw Materials Used in the Pultrusion Process Each resin mix is formulated carefully to suit application requirements. UV inhibitors and pigments to formulate the resinous matrix.

this process forms the basic composition found in most pultruded products. UL 94 VO rating also available on request. fiberglass reinforcements normally appear close to the surface of the product. Table 1-1 Available Resin Systems Pultex® Resin Series 1500 Polyesters Typical Applications Standard Structurals used in moderately corrosive environments Crossing gate arms Dunnage bars Ladders Fire retardant standard structurals Characteristics Good chemical resistance combined with high mechanical and electrical properties. it is a necessary ingredient in the profile design. Roving also provides the tensile strength needed to pull the other reinforcements through the die. glass content and their combination can be altered to achieve special properties in a profile due to the versatility of the pultrusion process. The ratio of mat to roving determines the relationship of transverse to longitudinal physical properties. improved physical properties and elevated service temperature capabilities. These can affect the appearance. The amount and location of these reinforcements can be determined in the design stage and can alter the subsequent physical properties of the finished product. Profiles requiring optimum surface finish High performance standard structurals High performance standard structurals for severely corrosive environments Transportation 4 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 1 . Veil Since pultrusion is a low-pressure process. corrosion resistance or handling of the products. Same as Series 1600 plus the added bonus of a 25 or less rating per ASTM E84 and low smoke generation.Roving Fiberglass roving provides the high longitudinal strength of pultruded products. Mat Continuous strand mat provides the most economical method of obtaining a high degree of transverse physical properties. Pultex® Resin Systems Resin mixtures. therefore. The mats are layered with roving. Excellent corrosion resistance. The specific resin formula may be adjusted for each profile due to processing requirements. 1525 Fire Retardant Polyesters 1600 Vinyl esters 1625 Fire Retardant Vinyl esters 2020 Low Profile Modified Polyester Resin System A flame spread rating of 25 or less when tested per ASTM E-84 plus the attributes of 1500 Series profiles. Surface veils can be added to the laminate construction to displace the reinforcement from the surface adding a resin-rich finish to the profile. as well as. The two most commonly used veils are A-glass and polyester .

Care must be taken when designing profiles with carbon and aramid fiber materials since they are more costly. the composites using these reinforcements are more expensive than standard construction pultrusion. Since these materials are more costly. The fiberglass fabrics are available in balanced. woven fabric forms. The composite should be designed for optimum performance. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 1 5 . Other Reinforcing Material Carbon and aramid fibers are also used in the pultrusion process in roving. or in combination with fiberglass. These high modulus fibers add considerable stiffness to the composite. Typical Applications Mass Transit Electrical Reference The Pultex® Product Availability List for stocked items. please contact the Engineering Department of Creative Pultrusions. Inc. Woven and Stitched Fabric When the mix of required physical properties is not satisfied by conventional mat roving construction. Varieties of these products can be used by themselves or in conjunction with the standard mat roving construction to obtain the necessary results. Woven/stitched goods increase transverse properties of pultruded profiles.Table 1-1 Available Resin Systems (cont’d) Pultex® Resin Series 3535 Modified Polyester Characteristics Halogen free. high longitudinal. high transverse or ± 45° multi-ply construction. Surfacing veils enhance the finished profile and increase corrosion resistance. selected fabrics can be used to meet the end use requirements. low flame and smoke. Other special resin systems are available.

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high strength and electrical insulating properties make FRP profiles ideal for third-rail coverboard on electrical mass transit systems around the world. compared to conventional materials. Light weight. The first step is to compile the total cost of the application. such as steel. wood or other plastics. Savings in the life cycle of the product should be considered with the product’s original cost when making cost comparisons. Costs are easily obtained from the Sales and Estimating Department of Creative Pultrusions. These savings are realized in reduced maintenance cost. due to lighter weight properties. aluminum. which includes: tooling.Chapter 2 Design Benefits Value Engineering Many advantages exist in using Pultex® Profiles. lower installation cost and reduced freight. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 2 1 . Analyzing the benefits of Pultex® can mean a cost savings to you. in comparison to using conventional construction materials. The second step is to add the cost savings that would be realized by you and the end user. raw materials and any required fabrication.

warp-. Low thermal conductivity rating of 1/250 of aluminum. flexure.Table 2-1 Features & Benefits of Pultex® Profiles Features Strength Description Unit strength in tension. and compression is approximately 20 times that of steel when properties are combined on the basis of unit density Density of Pultex® is 20% of steel and 60% of aluminum Benefits • Structural design capabilities • Optional strength in desired directions • Exceptionally high impact strengths • Higher performance at less weight • Reduced shipping costs • Reduced operational energy demands • Reduced labor expense for installations • Easily handled • Assembled and installed with ease • Minimal maintenance costs • Long-term safety • Installation longevity and increased service life • Outdoor storage capabilities • Lower cost performance ratio • Less need for replacements • Less components for assemblies • Non-magnetic • Additional safety factors • Predictable insulation values • Reduced assembly costs • Reduced inventory requirements • Smooth aerodynamic surfaces • Improved reliability • No permanent set under high stress • Reduced damage to structure assemblies • Easy to repair misused parts • Close tolerances • Reduced insulation thickness requirements • Reduced energy operation requirements • No condensation problems Lightweight Corrosion Resistance Unaffected by a wide range of corrosive chemicals and environments Electrical Insulation Structural strength and rigidity are provided with dielectric material. Part Consolidation Many individual components can be combined into one large profile. platforms and handrail systems Structural supports for process equipment Trusses and joists Wind blades Window frames 2 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 2 . and swell-resistant over a wide range of temperatures and physical stresses. 1/60 of steel Thermal Insulation Applications Construction/Industrial Bridges Bulk head frames Cable trays Complete building systems Cooling tower components Flooring supports Grating and supports Pipe supports Prefabricated walkways. Dimensional Stability Stretch-.

Even custom profiles can be effectively fabricated and/or assembled from available standard profiles. such as development time. If possible.Applications (cont’d) Automotive Automobile springs Automotive leaf springs and bumpers Bus components Bus window latch supports Dunnage bars Roll-up doors/ insulated roll-up door panels Spring bumpers Tank supports Truck/trailer wall posts Ladders Light poles Mop. broom and brush handles Pruning poles Rake handles Shovel handles Cell partitions Scrubber components Traveling water screens Water/waste water treatment sludge flights Composite utility poles Crossarms Crossing gate arms Electrical enclosures Mist eliminators Mounting braces & backboards Switch gear components Third rail coverboards Walk-in refrigeration door jambs Boat dock power posts Fender pilings Sheetpiles Consumer Wastewater Electrical Marine Cost Analysis for Standard and Custom Profiles Careful study of end-use requirements for an application will establish the potential for use of Pultex®. assembly and/or erection/installation cost. aiding the designer in determining the feasibility of an idea with minimal cost. plus the additional consideration of transportation. The applied cost of the end uses of a pultruded profile is the sum of the tooling. and manufacturing for limited quantity runs. In many cases of mechanical design or prototyping. raw material and fabrication. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 2 3 . as it may eliminate elements of cost. The most economical alternative for the designer is to evaluate the material. tooling. designs should be drawn and the commercial feasibility determined. standard Pultex® Profiles can be used.

multihead drilling and assembly. 2. Standard shipping lengths are usually 45 feet or less to fit the length of most common carriers. therefore. In most shipments. Since pultrusion is a continuous process. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 2 4 . due to their lower density. It particularly applies to glass-reinforced products. it allows the designer to use any length product possible. Chapter 9 provides many helpful hints in determining the optimum fabrication techniques. it can be engineered with specialized reinforcements and resins. the following factors must be considered: 1. The combination provides a quality product that is economically priced. Although premium raw materials also affect the cost of a product by adding complexity and possibly lowering production rates. Products selected from the list of available Pultex® standard structural profiles involve no additional tooling cost and are normally available in any quantity through the distribution network. Shipping Advantages Shipping of components or sections is one segment of costs sometimes neglected in early design stages. Rods or smaller profiles. such as pultrusions. Fabrication Advantages Creative Pultrusions provides a full-service Fabrication Network that offers painting. continuous strand mat and roving. Creative Pultrusions can provide recommendations on methods and equipment to be used based on extensive experience. and are often less than those for traditional materials. The ability to stack or crate the profile will affect the end-product costs. which can be coiled. although there are some process limitations. it is important for the designer to consider this fact when designing the profile. Another consideration is length. punching. Tooling costs for custom pultruded profiles are dependent on the complexity of the profile and the volume requirements. the benefits realized can usually justify the additional costs. have a theoretically unlimited length. the volume of a shipping container is completely filled before the maximum shipping weight is reached. The only limitation is that profiles must be practical shipping lengths. Highperformance resins or specialized reinforcements can improve usable life or ultimate strength of a profile. If you choose to do your own fabrication.Tooling Costs When the feasibility is determined and a custom profile is required. When the application requires higher performance ratings for standard or custom profiles. Raw Material Advantages Pultex® 1500 and 1525 Series are produced with high performance grades of polyester resin.

depending on the glass loading. The four major types are E-GLASS. thus adding to the range of properties of the end composite. Other reinforcements are more costly.6 5. fiber orientation and resin selection. used more sparingly in construction.094 500. Fiber reinforcements and loadings can be varied to produce a wide range of structural properties in the end product.4 Aramid . as manufactured. and knitted goods. Table 3-1 Typical Properties of Fibers Used in Pultruded Structural Profiles Properties are displayed below for virgin fibers. stitched. if necessary.000 9.0 2.000 33-55 0. S-GLASS. and.Chapter 3 Physical and Mechanical Properties Surface Veil Continuous Strand Mat Continuous Roving Continuous Strand Mat Continuous Roving Pultrusion Composite Diagram Continuous Strand Mat Surface Veil Introduction To Design With Pultruded Composites A pultrusion is a composite of several materials and reinforcements.090 665. Tensile strengths. and can be modified. therefore. braided.8 S-Glass .053 400. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 1 . Typical structural items contain 45% to 75% glass by weight. It presents the opportunity to design product components with properties to meet specific needs.6-1.000 12. Property Density lbs/in3 Tensile Strength (psi) Tensile Modulus (106 psi) Elongation to break (%) E-Glass .064 275.5 4.000-450.2 Fiber reinforcements are available in a variety of single-strand woven. Fiber Properties A variety of continuous and woven reinforcement types is also available to the designer. This composite type is widely used in the pultrusion industry for determining the standard mechanical properties of pultrusion.3 Carbon . ARAMID and CARBON. for example. can vary from 40 MPa to 1000 MPa.000 10. The primary type used is E-glass. for special applications.

Resin Properties Determination of resin is controlled by factors such as corrosive environments. Fire retardancy can be altered with the proper blending of different resins. Epoxy resins are typically used with carbon fiber reinforcements in applications in which high stiffness and strength requirements are critical.000 0.000 Test Method ASTM D638 ASTM D638 ASTM D790 ASTM D790 ASTM D648 ASTM D2344 Fillers Various fillers are also used in the pultrusion process. Some of the obtainable results on flammability specifications and tests are presented further in the Material Properties.5 17. opacity and general lowering of costs. Polyesters are the primary resins used in pultrusion. 2 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 . They can also be used with E-glass to improve the physical properties. physical properties of the laminate can be expected to increase up to 15%.43 160 4. Calcium carbonate offers improved surfaces. opacity. Alumina trihydrate and antimony trioxide are used for fire retardancy. Alumina trihydrate can also be used in conjunction with clays for improved insulation properties.800 5 20.500 Epoxy 11.47 330 8. For the selection of a particular polyester.3 16.000 6. Because of their chemistry with glass reinforcements.500 Vinyl ester 11. and flame retardancy.200 4. The capabilities and needs for these various resins can only be determined by end-use applications. For superior fire retardancy. Fire-retardant polyesters are also available. They are used to improve the chemical resistance of the laminate.54 220 5. A wide range of polyesters is available with distinct characteristics. Table 3-2 Typical Properties of Resins Used in Pultruded Structural Profiles Property Tensile Strength (psi) % Elongation Flexural Strength (psi) Flexural Modulus (106 psi) Heat Distortion Temperature (°F) Short Beam Shear (psi) Polyester 11. phenolic or other specialty resins may be used. the designer should consult Creative Pultrusions. good surface finish and improved insulation properties. whiteness. Vinyl ester resins are also commonly used in the pultrusion process.800 0. temperature exposure. Aluminum silicate (kaolin clay) is used for improved chemical resistance.700 0.

000 Mechanical Tensile Strength (LW) Tensile Strength (CW) Tensile Modulus (LW) Tensile Modulus (CW) Compressive Strength (LW) Compressive Strength (CW) Compressive Modulus (LW) Compressive Modulus (CW) Flexural Strength (LW) Flexural Strength (CW) Flexural Modulus (LW) Flexural Modulus (CW) Modulus of Elasticity (Channels) (Square and Rectangular Tubes) Shear Modulus Interlaminar Shear (LW)3 Shear Strength By Punch (PF) Notched Izod Impact (LW) Notched Izod Impact (CW) Maximum Bearing Strength (LW) Maximum Bearing Strength (CW) Poisson’s Ratio (LW) Poisson’s Ratio (CW) In-plane Shear (LW) LW = lengthwise psi 33.0 2.8-3.Thermoset Polyester – Olive Green 1525 Series .000 3. Composite materials are not homogeneous.Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR – Beige The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing.2 37.000 psi 18.15 7.2 106 psi 0.0 1.000 PF = perpendicular to laminate face Additional properties located on page 4 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 3 .8 psi 33.2 106 psi 2.000 psi 11. Square Tubes.35 in/in 0.2 0.0 37.0 106 psi 1.0 1. and therefore. Please consult the Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles Angles Material Properties 1500 Series .500 20. 6” x 3/8” and 6” x 1/2”.6 106 psi 0.000 psi 7.8-3.2 2.500 106 psi 2.500 6.000 18.42 4. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots.500 psi 5.5 106 psi 0. the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results.500 12.000 0.15 psi 7.500 106 psi 3.Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR – Slate Gray (Dark Gray) 1625 Series .0 1.8 3.000 psi 16.500 8.MATERIAL PROPERTIES Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes.8 106 psi 3.8 106 psi 2. Channels. Property (coupon values) ASTM Test D638 D638 D638 D638 D695 D695 D695 D695 D790 D790 D790 D790 Full Section2 Full Section2 Full Section2 Full Section2 D2344 D732 D256 D256 D953 D953 D3039 D3039 Modified D23444 CW = crosswise Units 1500/1525 Series 1625 Series 37. Creative Pultrusions publishes an average value of random samples from production lots.42 psi 4.500 ft-lbs/in 28 ft-lbs/in 4 psi 30.0 psi 33. Round Tubes Includes all angles except 4” x 1/4”. which are SuperStructurals.000 in/in 0. 4” x 3/8”. Angles.000 106 psi 1.35 0.000 3.500 2.000 30 5 30.

but rotate coupon 90° (cut section of coupon length faces up). angles = 3. Appendix B.93 4.2 Physical Barcol Hardness1 Water Absorption Density Specific Gravity Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) Thermal Conductivity (PF) Electrical Arc Resistance (LW) Dielectric Strength (LW) Dielectric Strength (PF) Dielectric Constant (PF) 1 2 Pultex uses a synthetic surface veil that reduces the Barcol Hardness.6 0. for details). 3 Tested on a 3:1. it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s intended application process or product infringes no patent. Inc. we assume no obligation or liability.2 1625 Series 45 0.MATERIAL PROPERTIES Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes.66-1. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication. Square Tubes. Please consult the Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles Angles Material Properties Property (coupon values) ASTM Test D2583 D570 D792 D792 D696 C177 D495 D149 D149 D150 Units % Max lbs/in3 10-6in/in/°F BTU-in/ft2/hr/°F seconds KV/in volts/mil @60Hz 1500/1525 Series 45 0. Round Tubes Includes all angles except 4” x 1/4”. While Creative Pultrusions. Inc. which are SuperStructurals. 4” x 3/8”. Angles.070 1.6 0. 6” x 3/8” and 6” x 1/2”.66-1.060-0. 4 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 . but does not reflect lack of cure.060-0.500 psi.4 4 120 40 200 5. 5 In-plane Shear (CW) values for square tubes and rectangular tubes = 2. Full section testing based on a 3-point bend with simply supported end conditions (Reference The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual.4 4 120 40 200 5. However. Channels. which may arise as a result of its use. has no knowledge that the information put forth infringes any valid patent.070 1. span to depth ratio.93 4.800 psi ASTM Test Property Flammability Classification Tunnel Test Flammability Extinguishing NBS Smoke Chamber UL94 ASTM E-84 ASTM D635 ASTM E662 Value 1525 (VO) 25 Max Self extinguishing 650 Value 1625 (VO) 25 Max Self extinguishing 650 UNC 13 UNC 11 UNC 10 UNC 8 UNC Creative Pultrusions. 4 Follow ASTM D2344.

000 32.93 8. the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results.Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR – Slate Gray (Dark Gray) 1625 Series .66-1.2 Mechanical Flexural Strength.070 1.25 40 0.000 10. Creative Pultrusions publishes an average value of random samples from production lots.000 2. but does not reflect lack of cure.0 24.Thermoset Polyester – Olive Green 1525 Series .0 24. and therefore. Edgewise (LW) Compressive Strength.8 1.000 0. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots. Flatwise (CW) Flexural Modulus.6 0.0 20 5 32. Edgewise (CW) Compressive Modulus.0 1.000 16. Property (coupon values) ASTM Test D790 D790 D790 D790 D638 D638 D638 D638 D695 D695 D695 D695 D256 D256 D953 D953 D3039 D3039 D2583 D570 D792 D792 D696 D495 D149 D149 D150 Units psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi ft-lbs/in ft-lbs/in psi psi in/in in/in 1500/1525 Series 35.66-1. Flatwise (LW) Flexural Modulus.000 32.000 2. Flatwise (LW) Flexural Strength. Additional Properties located on page 6 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 5 .8 1.000 15.1 20.060-0.0 120 40 200 5.000 16.6 0.1 20.8 1.Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR – Beige The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing. Edgewise (CW) Notched Izod Impact (LW) Notched Izod Impact (CW) Bearing Strength (LW) Bearing Strength (CW) Poisson’s Ratio (LW) Poisson’s Ratio (CW) Physical Barcol Hardness1 Water Absorption Density Specific Gravity Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) Electrical Arc Resistance (LW) Dielectric Strength (LW) Dielectric Strength (PF) Dielectric Constant (PF) 1 % Max lbs/in3 10-6in/in/°F seconds KV/in volts/mil @60Hz Pultex uses a synthetic surface veil that reduces the Barcol Hardness.000 1.000 1.000 0.2 1625 Series 35.25 40 0.0 120 40 200 5.000 1.000 1.070 1.000 15.32 0.32 0.0 20 5 32.0 1.000 10. Composite materials are not homogeneous.060-0. Edgewise (LW) Compressive Modulus.93 8.8 1.MATERIAL PROPERTIES Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Flat Sheets 1500 Series . Flatwise (CW) Tensile Strength (LW) Tensile Strength (CW) Tensile Modulus (LW) Tensile Modulus (CW) Compressive Strength.

believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication. has no knowledge that the information put forth infringes any valid patent.MATERIAL PROPERTIES Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Flat Sheets (cont’d) ASTM Test Property Flammability Classification Tunnel Test Flammability Extinguishing NBS Smoke Chamber UL94 ASTM E-84 ASTM D635 ASTM E662 Value 1525 (VO) 25 Max Self extinguishing 650 Value 1625 (VO) 25 Max Self extinguishing 650 Creative Pultrusions. we assume no obligation or liability. Inc. However. Inc. which may arise as a result of its use. 6 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 . it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s intended application process or product infringes no patent. While Creative Pultrusions.

Inc. and therefore.Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR – Slate Gray (Dark Gray) 1625 Series .000 100. it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s intended application process or product infringes no patent. While Creative Pultrusions. we assume no obligation or liability.0 60.MATERIAL PROPERTIES Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Rods And Bars 1500 Series .25 0.Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR – Beige The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing.0 40 Mechanical Tensile Strength (LW) Tensile Modulus (LW) Compressive Strength (LW) Flexural Strength (LW) Flexural Modulus (LW) Notched Izod Impact (LW) Physical Barcol Hardness Units Water Absorption Density Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) LW . Inc. which may arise as a result of its use.000 6. Composite materials are not homogeneous. has no knowledge that the information put forth infringes any valid patent. Property (coupon values) ASTM Test D638 D638 D695 D790 D790 D256 Units psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi ft-lb/in Test Results 100.lengthwise D2583 D570 D792 D696 % Max lbs/in3 -6 10 in/in/°F 50 . Creative Pultrusions publishes an average value of random samples from production lots. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 7 . The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots. However.000 6. Rod and Bar stock contain longitudinal reinforcements only. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication. the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results.076 3.0 Creative Pultrusions.Thermoset Polyester – Olive Green 1525 Series .073-0.

592 1.480 60. While Creative Pultrusions. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication.062 50 24 . has no knowledge that the information put forth infringes any valid patent. if such results of torque tightening are important. 4 Torque results are dependent on several variable factors including the lubricant used.688 .000 7.562 .000 17.200 7.000 2.600 60. it is vital that torque limits be determined experimentally for the exact installation conditions.5 55.000 1. load lb. KV/in % 10-6 in/in/°F 3/8" 16 UNC 1.000 2. Inc.0 55. and therefore.500 40 1 3.100 40 1 3. However.688 .500 40 1 3. Creative Pultrusions. it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s intended application process or product infringes no patent. Ultimate strength values are average obtained in design testing.0 Ultimate Thread Shear Capacity Using Standard CP Square Nut 1 2 6 Max.100 2.0 1" 8 UNC 6.960 60. we assume no obligation or liability which may arise as a result of its use.400 3. the length of stud between nuts. Ultimate Design Tensile Load Using CP Square Nut 1 2 5 6 Flexural Strength 2 3 Flexural Modulus 2 3 Compressive Strength (LW) 2 3 Ultimate Transverse Shear 2 3 Transverse Shear Yield 2 3 Dielectric Strength 2 3 Water Absorption 3 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) Torque Strength Using CP Square Nut Lubricated With SAE 10W30 Motor Oil 2 4 5 6 Stud Weight 3 Flammability Thickness Square Nut Width Square Nut Ultimate Recommended D635 ft-lb ft-lb lb/ft in in 8 4 .129 . Inc. 8 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 . 1 2 Applies to single nut only.000 27.000 2.400 12.076 15 33 8 16 .0 3. multiple nuts do not yield corresponding results. etc. 3 Values are based on unthreaded rod.315 .200 4.500 40 1 3.437 . 5 Appropriate safety factors must be applied.75 60. Therefore.0 Diameter /Threads per Inch 1/2" 5/8" 3/4" 13 UNC 11 UNC 10 UNC 2.600 60.000 800 60. washer surfaces. Creative Pultrusions publishes an average value of random samples from production lots.813 1. Composite materials are not homogeneous.875 1. 6 Properties apply to Superstud!™ used with CP Square Nut.0 4.000 4.500 3.209 Self-Extinguishing on All .062 1.0 55.625 LW = lengthwise Note: the results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots.600 4.250 115 50 .300 40 1 3.000 2. the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon results.000 11.MATERIAL PROPERTIES Superstud!™/Nuts! Square Nuts Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fastener System Property (coupon values) ASTM Test Units lbs D790 D790 D695 B565 D149 D570 D696 lbs psi 106 psi psi load lb. alignment.000 2.0 55.200 2.

592 1.000 60. it is vital that torque limits be determined experimentally for the exact installation conditions.000 60. we assume no obligation or liability which may arise as a result of its use.0 Diameter /Threads per Inch 1/2" 5/8" 3/4" 13 UNC 11 UNC 10 UNC 2. 4 Torque results are dependent on several variable factors including the lubricant used.590 1.750 2. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication.250 1.000 L W = lengthwise Notes: 1.250 50 24 . Therefore. Ultimate strength values are average obtained in design testing. Inc.209 1.100 40 1 3.500 40 1 3.745 15 8 .000 2. Ultimate Design Tensile Load Using CP Hex Nut 1 2 5 6 Flexural Strength 2 3 Flexural Modulus 2 3 Compressive Strength (LW) 2 3 Ultimate Transverse Shear 2 3 Transverse Shear Yield 2 3 Dielectric Strength 2 3 Water Absorption 3 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) Torque Strength Using CP Hex Nut Lubricated With SAE 10W30 Motor Oil 2 4 5 6 Stud Weight 3 Thickness Hex Nut Diameter of Flange *Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company Ultimate Recommended ft-lb ft-lb lb/ft in in 8 4 . Creative Pultrusions publishes an average value of random samples from production lots. 1 2 Applies to single nut only.315 1.000 2.000 2.000 2. washer surfaces. Composite materials are not homogeneous. load lb.0 55.5 55.650 4.750 .000 7.500 40 1 3. alignment.0 55.520 60. the length of stud between nuts.0 Ultimate Thread Shear Capacity Using CP Hex Nut 1 2 6 Max. etc.855 1. 5 Appropriate safety factors must be applied.MATERIAL PROPERTIES Isoplast* Flanged Hex Nuts Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fastener System Property (coupon values) ASTM Test Units lbs D790 D790 D695 B565 D149 D570 D696 lbs psi 106 psi psi load lb. However.75 60.076 .000 11.0 1" 8 UNC 7.000 17.900 3.200 2.000 4. Inc.600 4. While Creative Pultrusions.000 2. KV/in % 10-6 in/in/°F 3/8" 16 UNC 1.000 33 16 . The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 9 . has no knowledge that the information put forth infringes any valid patent.129 .200 7. the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon results.0 55.300 40 1 3. multiple nuts do not yield corresponding results. 3 Values are based on unthreaded rod. if such results of torque tightening are important. Creative Pultrusions.220 1.0 5.400 6.400 3.200 60.0 3.000 27.500 40 1 3. it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s intended application process or product infringes no patent.120 60. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots.950 115 50 . and therefore. 6 Properties apply to Superstud!™ used with CP Hex Nut.500 2.400 12.

12 0.0 2. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots. Creative Pultrusions publishes an average value of random samples from production lots.500 43.400 Compressive Modulus (LW) D695 106 psi 3.50 0.200 Flexural Modulus (LW) D790 106 psi 2.330 10 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 .500 Compressive Strength (CW) D695 psi 17.000 Tensile Modulus (LW) D638 106 psi 3.9 3.MATERIAL PROPERTIES Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles Wide Flange Sections and I-Sections Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles are identified with 1500 Series .12 Web Section .0 5 Interlaminar Shear (LW) D2344 psi 4. the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results.9-4.770 52.000 Maximum Bearing Strength (CW)3 D953 psi 23.500 Shear Strength By Punch (PF) D732 psi 5.000 Flange Section .000 38.Thermoset Polyester – Olive Green 1525 Series .500 6.000 4.000 Tensile Modulus (LW) D638 106 psi 4.35 Poisson’s Ratio (CW) D3039 in/in 0.800 20. Property (coupon values) ASTM Test Units 1500/1525 Series 1625 Series Full Section Modulus of Elasticity Full Section2 106 psi 3.16 4.9 Flexural Strength (LW) D790 psi 42.85 3.000 33.9-4.0 Shear Modulus (Modulus of Rigidity) Full Section2 106 psi 0.4 1.0 4.35 0. 1625 Series . Composite materials are not homogeneous.50 Flexural Strength Full Section2 psi 33. and therefore.000 46.500 12.Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR – Slate Gray (Dark Gray) imprinted veil.200 16.125 Compressive Strength (CW) D695 psi 14.Mechanical Tensile Strength (LW) D638 psi 40.000 Notched Izod Impact (LW) D256 ft-lbs/in 28 32 Notched Izod Impact (CW) D256 ft-lbs/in 21 24 Maximum Bearing Strength (LW) D953 psi 33.9 1.000 26.300 35.1 3.9 (1/4" & 3/8" thick profiles) Full Section2 106 psi 4.4 Compressive Strength (LW) D695 psi 37.Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR – Beige The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing.500 Poisson’s Ratio (LW) D3039 in/in 0.000 Tensile Strength (CW) D638 psi 10.800 49.0 2 (1/2" thick profiles) Full Section 106 psi 3.Mechanical Tensile Strength (LW) D638 psi 30.16 Compressive Strength (LW) D695 psi 45.85 Compressive Modulus (CW) D695 106 psi 1.0 3.1 Tensile Modulus (CW) D638 106 psi 1.

2 PF = perpendicular to laminate face ASTM Test Property Flammability Classification Tunnel Test Flammability Extinguishing NBS Smoke Chamber UL94 ASTM E-84 ASTM D635 ASTM E662 Value 1525 (VO) 25 Max Self extinguishing 650 Value 1625 (VO) 25 Max Self extinguishing 650 Creative Pultrusions.9 49.9 1.000 34.2 5.500 0.060-0.75 3. However. seconds 120 120 KV/in 40 40 volts/mil 200 200 @60Hz 5.93 4.66-1. but rotate coupon 90° (cut section of coupon length faces up). While Creative Pultrusions. we assume no obligation or liability. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication.000 43 22 39.93 4.900 6.8 1. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 11 . span to depth ratio.000 39 0.000 0.500 psi. but does not reflect lack of cure.980 30.800 19. Inc.8 1. it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s intended application process or product infringes no patent.900 1.9 1. Full section testing is based on a 3-point bend with simply supported end conditions (Reference The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Appendix for details).500 38 19 33.35 0.070 1.000 33 0. has no knowledge that the information put forth infringes any valid patent.060-0.070 1.35 0. 5 Tested on a 3:1.4 4 Pultex® uses a synthetic veil that reduces the Barcol Hardness. which may arise as a result of its use.9 43.MATERIAL PROPERTIES Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles Wide Flange Sections and I-Sections (cont’d) Property (coupon values) ASTM Test Web Section .66-1.Mechanical Compressive Modulus (LW) D695 Compressive Modulus (CW) D695 Flexural Strength (LW) D790 Flexural Strength (CW) D790 Flexural Modulus (LW) D790 Flexural Modulus (CW) D790 Interlaminar Shear (LW)5 D2344 Shear Strength By Punch (PF) D732 Notched Izod Impact (LW) D256 Notched Izod Impact (CW) D256 Maximum Bearing Strength (LW) D953 Maximum Bearing Strength (CW)3 D953 Poisson’s Ratio (LW) D3039 Poisson’s Ratio (CW) D3039 In-plane Shear (LW) Modified D23444 Physical Barcol Hardness1 D2583 Water Absorption D570 Density D792 Specific Gravity D792 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) D696 Thermal Conductivity (PF) C177 Electrical Arc Resistance (LW) D495 Dielectric Strength (LW) D149 Dielectric Strength (PF) D149 Dielectric Constant (PF) D150 LW = lengthwise CW = crosswise 1 2 Units 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi ft-lbs/in ft-lbs/in psi psi in/in in/in psi % Max lbs/in3 10-6 in/in/°F BTU-in/ft2/hr/°F 1500/1525 Series 2.12 7. Inc.320 17.12 7.6 0. 4 Follow ASTM D2344.400 5.4 4 1625 Series 2.360 1.6 0.75 3. 3 Crosswise bearing strength of the Web sections of 1/4" profiles = 20.

000 38. the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots. 6” x 3/8” and 6” x 1/2 1500 Series .0 38.6 2.400 5.5 3.Thermoset Polyester – Olive Green 1525 Series .0 2. The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing.400 1625 Series 35.000 0.500 3.5 1.600 18.35 0.800 25.500 34 33 33.9 1.6 2.000 3.000 33. Creative Pultrusions publishes an average value of random samples from production lots.12 7.2 50.900 Mechanical Tensile Strength (LW) D638 Tensile Strength (CW) D638 Tensile Modulus (LW) D638 Tensile Modulus (CW) D638 Compressive Strength (LW) D695 Compressive Strength (CW) D695 Compressive Modulus (LW) D695 Compressive Modulus (CW) D695 Flexural Strength (LW) D790 Flexural Strength (CW) D790 Flexural Modulus (LW) D790 Flexural Modulus (CW) D790 Modulus of Elasticity Full Section2 Shear Modulus Full Section2 4 Interlaminar Shear (LW) D2344 Shear Strength By Punch (PF) D732 Notched Izod Impact (LW) D256 Notched Izod Impact (CW) D256 Maximum Bearing Strength (LW) D953 Maximum Bearing Strength (CW) D953 Poisson’s Ratio (LW) D3039 Poisson’s Ratio (CW) D3039 In-Plane Shear (LW) Modified D23443 In-Plane Shear (LW) Full Section* (through heel of angle) *Note: Based on Full Section Connection Test Additional properties located on page 13 12 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 .500 29. 4” x 3/8”.0 44.500 24.9 1.Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR – Beige Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles are identified with imprinted veil.0 2.000 3.000 39 38 38.35 0. and therefore.12 7.500 1.000 27.5 1.2 43.000 3.MATERIAL PROPERTIES Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles Angles SuperStructural Angle sizes are: 4” x 1/4”.500 3. Property (coupon values) ASTM Test Units psi psi 6 10 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106psi 106psi 106psi 106psi psi psi ft-lbs/in ft-lbs/in psi psi in/in in/in psi psi 1500/1525 Series 31.5 3.8 0.000 0.900 6. Composite materials are not homogeneous.000 16.900 3.Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR – Slate Gray (Dark Gray) 1625 Series .8 0.000 1.

070 1.060-0.93 4.4 4 Physical Barcol Hardness1 Water Absorption Density Specific Gravity Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) Thermal Conductivity (PF) Electrical Arc Resistance (LW) Dielectric Strength (LW) Dielectric Strength (PF) Dielectric Constant (PF) D495 D149 D149 D150 seconds KV/in volts/mil @60Hz 120 40 200 5. Inc. ASTM Test Property Flammability Classification Tunnel Test Flammability Extinguishing NBS Smoke Chamber UL94 ASTM E84 ASTM D635 ASTM E662 Value 1525 (VO) 25 Max Self extinguishing 650 Value 1625 (VO) 25 Max Self extinguishing 650 Creative Pultrusions.2 LW = lengthwise 1 2 CW = crosswise PF = perpendicular to laminate face Pultex uses a synthetic surface veil that reduces the Barcol Hardness.66-1. While Creative Pultrusions. but rotate coupon 90° (cut section of coupon length faces up).2 120 40 200 5.93 4.66-1.MATERIAL PROPERTIES Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles Angles SuperStructural Angle sizes are: 4” x 1/4”. Full section testing based on a 3-point bend simply supported. it assumes no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s intended application process or product infringes no patent.060-0. believes the information put forth in this property sheet to be as accurate and reliable as of the date of publication. Inc. 4 Tested on a 3:1. 4” x 3/8”.4 4 1625 Series 45 0. 6” x 3/8” and 6” x 1/2 Property (coupon values) ASTM Test D2583 D570 D792 D792 D696 C177 Units % Max lbs/in3 10-6in/in/°F 2 BTU-in/ft /hr/°F 1500/1525 Series 45 0.6 0. but does not reflect lack of cure. 3 Follow ASTM D2344. span to depth ratio. which may arise as a result of its use. we assume no obligation or liability.6 0. However.070 1. has no knowledge that the information put forth infringes any valid patent. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 13 .

The percentage of weight increase is then reported as water absorption. The strengths are then determined by force/area. These tests are defined in detail in the referenced standards. A short description is provided herein as an introduction for the designer. The amount of force required to break the specimen is then calculated in foot pounds per inch of notch in prepared specimens. Izod Impact (ASTM D256) Impact values are determined by clamping a notched specimen. in tests performed according to ASTM or other standard procedures. This value is important when profiles are to be used in electrical and corrosive applications. employing a swinging pendulum to apply the force. Flexural Properties (ASTM D790) Flexural strengths are determined by placing a specimen on supports. in a testing device. Shear Strength by Punch Tool (ASTM D732) Shear strength values are obtained by mounting a specimen in a punch-type fixture with a 1-inch diameter punch. 14 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 . Consult Creative Pultrusions. Bearing Strength of Plastics (ASTM D953) This procedure is for determining the ultimate bearing capacity of a specimen. Specific gravity is important in pricing.Procedures For Obtaining Properties The typical properties listed in this manual were obtained using random samples selected from the production line. for 4% hole elongation bearing load numbers. Please note that this procedure is not being used for 4% elongation. calculated to psi values. Tensile Strength (ASTM D638) A coupon is used to determine the modulus of elasticity of the material based on a ratio of stress and strain. therefore. A center load is applied until failure occurs and the load of failure is the ultimate flexural strength. Compressive Strength (ASTM D695) The ultimate compressive strength of a material is the force required to rupture a specimen. Reinforced materials will have a wide range of values. ten readings are taken and the average is reported. Inc. typically 1-inch. Barcol Hardness (ASTM D2583) Barcol hardness is determined by the resistance of a coupon to the indentation of a spring-driven indentor. Water Absorption (ASTM D570) Coupons are immersed in water for twenty-four hours or longer. Specific Gravity (ASTM D792) Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a material to an equal amount of water.

The thermal transmission values of the specimen are then recorded. Longitudinal values are obtained using 1-inch sections and the current is applied parallel to the fiber orientation.. low-current charge to arc the surface. ASTM-D495 (indicates reported value-measured in longitudinal direction) Pultex® 1500 1525 & 1625 Series 7. The extent of this test and the results obtained are determined by the end-use application. If a current passes through the laminate. as rain or dew. 60 Hz. The test is performed by exposing coupons to artificial weather conditions.Arc Resistance (ASTM D495) Arc resistance is a measure of the ability of the laminate to resist the conduction of a high-voltage.58 kV/mm 5. Short-time in oil is the most commonly used method for pultrusion. The above tests are primarily used for the determination of published physical values. ASTM D149 (tested perpendicular to laminate face) Dielectric Strength. Two electrodes are placed on either side of a coupon. simulating the deterioration caused by sunlight and water. this constitutes failure.03 120 Seconds The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 15 . Thermal Conductivity (ASTM C177) The thermal conductivity test is performed using a guarded hot plate.2 0. ASTM D150 (tested perpendicular to laminate face) Arc Resistance.CTE (ASTM D696) CTE value is obtained by measuring the linear expansion of a coupon in temperature ranges of -30 °C to +30 °C. ASTM D150 (tested perpendicular to laminate face) Dissipation Factor 60 Hz.. Table 3-7 Typical Electrical Properties of Pultex® Profiles Electrical Property Dielectric Strength. ASTM D149 (tested lengthwise) Dielectric Constant. Weathering (ASTM G53) The weathering test is very useful for profiles used in outdoor exposures.9 kV/mm 1. Dielectric Strength (ASTM D149) Dielectric strength is a measure of a profile as an insulator. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion .

Safety Factors Because empirical mathematical analysis of strength characteristics of a composite are difficult to predict. 16 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 . depending on the application. Current practices have used safety factors from “2” to “10”. Elements Of Sections The Elements of Section Tables contain the properties of profiles which are stocked or produced from tooling owned by Creative Pultrusions. reliance on experimentally derived properties has been used. When using standard structural profiles. The properties were calculated from nominal dimensions. It is good practice to check on availability before designing from these lists. as full section bending tests can verify the E-Modulus of a particular profile. Actual size will vary within the parameters allowed by the ASTM D3917 specification. it is common practice to use a safety factor of “3” for shear and “2” for bending. Factors of safety have thus been used to compensate for any uncertainties or variables involved with the composite material. Some of the section weights are calculated based on density and slight variances may occur. It is acceptable to use a safety factor of “1” for deflection.

00 4.451 10.00 2.284 0.281 0.182 0.606 0.72 3.382 1.00 6.578 0.129 0.194 1.00 3.00 4.626 0.854 rz in 0.78 1.186 0.375 0.492 1.50 1.338 0.92 2.021 0.250 0.035 0.230 1.00 6.34 3.42 1.67 0.654 X-X axis or Y-Y axis S r 3 in in 0.383 0.70 0.053 0.250 1.949 0.435 0.568 0.56 1.129 0.09 1.780 0.50 1.00 2.125 0.895 3.375 0.651 0.282 0.00 1.00 3.185 1.002 4.28 3.499 1.50 1.00 6.500 Area Weight 2 in lb/ft 0.455 0.00 Thickness(t) in 0.587 0.297 0.00 1.381 0.125 0.187 0.1875 0.034 1.35 0.250 0.92 1.230 19.938 0.030 0.211 2.552 1.00 4.125 0.00 1.74 1.50 1.815 0.00 2.50 1.071 0.183 0.133 0.35 0.50 2.92 0.08 0.1875 0.774 1.125 0.250 0.250 0.72 4.250 0.075 0.927 0.06 2.1875 0.106 0.51 0.00 4.101 0.47 0.Elements of Sections Pultex® Equal Leg Angles Part Number AE120 AE140 AE122 AE130 AE142 AE220 AE230 AE240 AE320 AE330 AE340 AE360 AE440 AE460 AE480 AE640 AE660 AE680 Depth(h) Width(b) in in 1.590 0.84 2.38 0.500 0.00 4.616 0.25 0.286 0.42 0.00 2.66 I in4 0.445 0.304 0.250 0.266 0.290 5.00 3.51 0.59 2.00 3.00 6.375 0.00 2.53 0.00 3.386 0.491 15.241 0.00 4.00 3.57 5.465 0.908 1.00 1.31 0.17 0.934 1.874 4.68 0.01 2.721 3.00 6.72 0.00 3.00 3.29 4.00 6.584 0.787 0.223 1.947 1.177 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 17 .22 0.

73 10.00 5.33 0.125 .12 r in 0.05 0.50 3.75 1.250 0.50 1.Pultex® Square Tubes Part Number TQ120 TQ140 TQ124 TQ142 TQ126 TQ144 TQ220 TQ230 TQ240 TQ242 TQ340 TQ360 TQ440 CT045 TQ660 Width or Depth(h) in 1.16 1.375 0.92 0.25 1.50 2.00 2.44 1.73 2.53 1.08 0.25 1.20 0.00 1.08 1.00 1.73 0.44 0.16 3.03 0.32 0.00 1.90 1.71 X-X axis S in3 0.93 0.25 1.66 2.50 1.76 0.37 2.0937 .98 0.27 0.190 0.44 0.13 1.250 0.92 1.25 0.75 1.72 0.11 0.00 2.84 0.34 0.56 0.50 1.03 0.34 0.50 1.50 1.04 I in4 0.42 0.93 14.53 0.40 0.16 0.40 1.09 0.17 0.07 0.75 2.64 0.84 2.98 r in 0.125 .37 1.33 0.375 0.96 5.41 0.250 0.53 1.00 1.07 0.64 0.28 44.14 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual .49 0.92 1.77 0.31 7.31 0.125 0.50 2.125 .66 0.34 0.56 0.73 7.50 Inside Diameter (d) in 0.67 0.77 1.00 2.52 0.13 0.50 1.50 3.40 8.48 0.94 Thickness(t) in .78 0.82 7.91 0.47 2.53 0.84 0.30 Pultex® Round Tubes Part Number TU005 TU120 TU122 TU118 TU143 TU124 TU142 TU126 TU240 TU220 TU242 TU222 TU340 TU342 18 Outside Diameter (D) in .54 0.75 1.24 0.79 2.28 Chapter 3 Area Weight 2 in lb/ft 0.36 0.00 3.69 1.25 2.66 2.06 3.80 0.23 0.25 1.28 1.76 0.11 0.00 Thickness(t) in 0.42 0.50 1.125 .37 26.34 0.25 .21 0.19 0.39 0.125 0.25 1.58 0.12 0.89 0.54 0.66 0.64 1.89 1.47 X-X axis or Y-Y axis I S 4 in in3 0.250 0.125 .25 .67 1.75 2.80 1.0937 .24 2.06 0.62 2.26 0.48 0.70 2.24 0.27 0.45 0.28 0.54 1.42 0.125 .125 0.54 0.71 4.00 1.48 Weight lb/ft 0.17 0.91 0.74 4.00 3.21 0.11 2.250 0.28 0.98 1.125 0.00 8.00 2.75 2.20 6.40 0.00 2.33 1.52 3.01 0.250 .25 .75 4.375 Area in2 0.13 0.63 0.250 0.95 2.93 0.89 0.68 3.5 4.35 0.54 0.75 1.33 0.62 0.25 .57 0.

32 6.21 5.97 0.71 3.25 4.00 6.44 100.25 1.000 639.92 1.64 IW640 6.329 0.03 IW980 12.71 3.50 11.00 .26 IW860 8.08 1.375 8.87 4.92 2.49 0.63 0.17 1.20 82.530 2.07 9.74 8.00 1.352 192.25 2.67 14.82 5.375 4.803 1.00 .32 42.031 0.23 Design J Cw in4 in6 0.537 IB440 6.063 9.00 5.01 1.48 457.00 .92 1.00 4.00 .09 3.500 5133.63 4.29 3.67 7.00 .17 5.62 1.315 0.35 IB640 6.063 10.202 1.93 7.00 3.66 2.25 2.42 0.91 4.00 .78 22.178 IB340 4.05 4.00 .11 0.52 1.50 14.00 .50 11.99 IW880 10.23 2.42 3.27 2.375 7.00 .50 7.26 76.15 1.12 0.57 5.76 5.00 .76 13.00 .37 31.316 0.00 6.33 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 19 .62 3.42 1.042 1.06 113.00 12.00 10.833 256.281 63.39 259.71 0.375 11.00 .11 1.45 29.00 .92 IW982 X-X axis Y-Y axis I S r I S in4 in3 in in4 in3 3.422 506.667 84.375 5.55 22.09 4.39 16.84 IW340 4.38 16.41 2.00 .000 673.00 4.45 72.32 4.35 Pultex® I-Sections Part ThickX-X axis Number Depth(h) Width(b) ness(t) Area Weight I S r in in in in2 lb/ft in4 in3 in 3.00 3.63 1.84 1.03 10.00 5.36 51.50 .186 0.11 0.32 3.67 1.67 9.375 6.26 0.48 18.67 6.46 1.20 3.07 IW960 10.53 2.314 0.71 14.27 4.50 9.09 10.12 3.59 2.11 0.81 32.22 1.18 3.42 0.35 25.94 IB960 10.37 0.59 23.140 0.00 .03 17.527 1548.316 119.90 1.26 61.58 9.45 40.44 IW440 6.94 12.32 28.95 0.74 0.Pultex® Wide Flange Sections Part ThickNumber Depth(h) Width(b) ness(t) Area Weight in in in in2 lb/ft 3.39 2.07 IB880 10.82 4.047 2.00 4.37 1.52 200.54 8.25 1.094 80.90 0.09 142.67 12.21 1.265 1.64 2.77 Design r J Cw in in4 in6 0.25 2.49 13.12 IB860 8.82 7.71 IB982 Y-Y axis I S r in4 in3 in 0.89 IB980 12.50 17.46 40.52 2.329 0.00 2.84 1.65 7.95 1.74 56.59 2.53 IW660 8.84 1.99 0.00 0.31 IB660 8.00 8.03 1.76 43.93 146.00 6.91 128.00 8.92 2.250 2059.414 1.211 15.83 258.00 3.13 4.00 .00 10.82 7.80 0.00 .67 9.

00 *8.98 2.37 0.66 r in 0.20 3.20 2.00 Thickness(t) Area Weight in in2 lb/ft 0.59 0.300 1.85 0.366 0.101 0.44 0.74 1.71 0.77 1.54 11.125 1.264 0.87 2.63 0.63 5.72 4.90 1.40 1.402 0.70 16.50 1.64 1.375 7.Pultex® Rectangular Tubes Part Number TR120 TR420 TR422 TR440 TR522 TR620 TR640 TR740 TR760 TR815 TR842 TR860 Depth(h) Width(b) in in 0.58 14.66 1.20 1.125 2.40 2.83 10.67 0.81 7.67 21.49 0.083 1.03 0.61 5.45 1.125 2.86 r in 0.34 22.80 1.00 4.00 1.80 1.059 0.82 I in4 0.92 6.61 *Contains internal webs 20 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 .250 1.250 4.60 3.00 7.40 15.57 1.39 2.14 46.38 6.82 0.110 0.61 47.61 13.00 2.62 3.95 9.00 4.130 1.375 8.00 *6.91 0.74 5.033 2.31 33.00 4.00 1.92 5.00 8.70 4.50 2.84 13.20 4.11 7.75 9.00 4.31 1.68 0.73 Y-Y axis S in3 0.77 1.43 4.165 4.00 8.25 0.41 1.08 2.48 0.61 1.61 11.44 9.64 1.125 1.74 1.96 2.250 5.17 0.63 X-X axis S in3 0.45 1.00 4.54 2.89 4.59 0.99 0.78 1.20 1.00 6.26 3.80 66.82 1.250 5.79 0.08 0.38 1.52 I in4 0.00 0.84 0.91 19.00 7.

989 1.046 0.085 0.67 0.35 0.033 0.285 0.00 2.31 0.028 0.50 1.077 0.835 6.209 0.00 5.073 0.375 .79 0.54 0.580 1.394 0.334 0.272 0.026 0.107 0.554 0.00 6.477 0.207 0.851 0.25 .415 0.1875 .572 0.230 0.814 9.043 0.69 13.024 0.1875 .00 2.623 0.240 3.064 1.40 0.25 .511 0.80 1.112 0.41 0.263 0.962 3.49 0.1875 .375 .114 0.224 0.125 .271 0.035 0.59 4.00 6.922 1.28 1.743 0.1875 0.125 .00 2.07 1.09 1.168 0.51 0.Pultex® Unequal Leg Angles Part Number AU120 AU122 AU220 AU230 AU240 AU242 AU222 AU244 AU224 AU320 AU322 AU330 AU340 AU332 AU342 AU360 AU440 AU460 AU442 AU462 AU580 AU640 AU660 AU680 AU911 Depth(h) in 1.144 0.262 0.72 0.25 .00 1.123 0.926 1.60 0.181 1.434 2.00 1.91 1.50 4.00 2.568 1.71 1.278 1.088 1.044 0.00 1.125 .135 0.640 0.619 0.00 2.39 0.125 .146 0.258 1.947 1.00 4.47 0.35 0.142 0.25 .288 0.00 2.590 0.80 0.25 1.089 0.254 0.42 2.874 1.89 1.280 4.156 0.125 0.00 2.50 2.60 0.093 0.00 3.197 0.00 3.00 4.146 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 21 .934 2.526 0.22 0.00 3.375 .29 0.00 3.25 1.00 ThickWidth(b) ness(t) Area Weight in .405 0.505 0.522 0.46 3.449 0.25 .00 3.365 0.825 1.23 0.42 3.50 1.65 0.493 2.50 1.00 4.999 1.977 0.57 1.00 2.934 1.161 2.63 1.00 2.98 1.396 0.25 .408 0.25 2.582 0.121 0.00 in .25 .539 0.017 0.00 4.335 1.378 4.00 3.142 2.255 0.066 0.125 .305 0.85 2.041 1.413 0.750 1.035 0.882 3.633 0.97 2.50 0.643 0.54 17.360 0.953 0.623 0.183 0.966 0.388 0.73 0.429 0.212 0.250 .00 2.083 0.065 0.67 0.532 0.26 0.111 0.82 0.472 0.50 in 2 X-X axis I in 4 Y-Y axis r in 0.963 0.55 0.00 3.340 0.301 0.25 1.906 I in 4 S in 3 S in 3 r in lb/ft 0.50 0.373 0.38 0.63 3.894 9.032 0.50 1.00 3.289 1.010 0.00 4.526 0.375 .440 0.264 0.17 0.206 0.957 0.222 0.261 0.956 0.429 0.848 0.243 0.67 2.715 0.50 .762 0.059 0.164 0.00 6.165 0.00 1.00 3.05 0.359 2.130 0.383 0.092 0.50 2.269 1.034 0.362 3.333 0.573 1.00 1.894 0.00 4.17 1.125 .50 1.730 3.244 0.964 0.311 3.

785 1.13 1.33 14.852 0.427 16.227 1.17 7.30 0.273 1.00 7.83 1.110 0.011 0.517 0.679 0.606 0.75 2.063 0.02 0.58 0.00 1.945 1.076 0.001 0.530 0.156 0.00 4.094 0.048 0.167 0.535 2.855 1.25 1.375 0.56 1.098 0.47 5.300 4.581 349.307 0.397 0.384 0.090 0.38 1.756 0.051 1.617 82.503 0.31 2.10 2.75 3.074 0.290 0.402 2.930 9.1875 .286 0.255 1.164 0.018 0.192 0.42 0.188 0.054 3.31 0.37 1.00 8.75 2.00 3.534 1.45 0.016 0.164 0.441 0.007 0.374 8.710 Pultex® Solid Round Rods Part Number SO004 SO006 SO008 SO010 SO012 SO016 SO020 SO024 SO032 22 X-X axis or Y-Y axis S in3 <0.196 0.00 3.291 0.25 .024 0.706 1.1875 .25 0.375 .173 0.50 .972 0.23 1.890 0.34 0.25 .01 7.364 0.30 3.57 2.728 1.275 0.447 0.63 1.00 11.476 4.180 3.07 1.00 4.722 1.456 2.64 2.043 0.885 86.50 2.25 .628 0.75 6.890 1.78 0.50 .751 25.313 0.00 2.785 Diameter(d) in .385 9.628 5.001 4.875 1.293 0.00 Thickness(t) in .56 1.154 3.00 Area in2 0.69 2.611 1.018 0.762 8.00 3.611 13.00 2.52 Weight lb/ft 0.826 1.19 2.248 0.66 11.071 0.041 0.50 0.75 1.00 4.275 0.068 2.519 3.00 1.062 1.95 6.147 0.223 0.55 0.25 .692 6.075 8.002 0.143 r in 0.00 4.426 0.63 1.607 0.12 3.19 2.297 0.054 5.050 1.876 124.001 0.433 0.35 10.357 40.072 0.625 .25 .60 0.125 .125 0.237 13.100 1.586 1.375 .080 0.00 10.00 .71 1.25 .44 5.25 .50 2.828 4.068 0.767 3.550 0.125 0.250 0.024 0.129 0.36 1.142 Weight lb/ft 0.096 0.375 21.275 0.666 49.47 Area in2 0.00 24.88 7.012 0.125 0.125 .791 0.556 0.142 0.16 .223 0.630 1.120 0.75 1.049 0.685 1.00 0.87 1.404 985.300 33.49 0.323 0.831 0.00 6.785 0.00 6.06 1.470 3.331 0.003 0.00 5.75 2.314 2.442 0.00 24.049 0.086 0.005 0.00 8.090 r in I in4 Y-Y axis S in3 0.231 2.00 10.621 2.249 0.678 0.10 2.10 1.431 0.50 0.375 0.060 1.081 0.177 17.333 1.65 2.046 1.222 0.91 4.420 24.794 2.50 1.00 1.110 0.692 0.Pultex® Channels Part Number CH130 CH222 CH230 CH224 CH340 CH330 CH342 CH420 CH434 CH440 CH540 CH640 CH662 CH740 CH840 CH860 CH922 CH980 CH995 CH800 CH990 CH994 Depth(h) Width(b) in in 1.118 1.085 475.50 14.00 0.008 0.739 0.1875 .850 2.869 39.437 5.00 1.425 1.25 .061 0.560 Chapter 3 I in4 r in 0.435 0.551 0.21 I in4 X-X axis S in3 0.204 4.375 .590 0.500 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual .30 1.78 12.

18 2.52 SF011 8.001 0.00 2.25 0.510 0.67 SF021 X-X axis I S 4 in in3 7.373 Y-Y axis S r 3 in in 0.002 0.12 1.27 1.Pultex® Solid Bars Part Number SQ040 SQ011 SQ020 SQ024 Depth(h) Width(b) Area Weight in in in2 lb/ft 0.285 0.189 0.99 0.59 4.161 0.84 I in4 < .052 1.87 1.285 0.080 0.51 1.88 Y-Y axis I S 4 in in3 1.50 1.00 1.00 2.510 0.02 0.11 r in 2.354 0.002 0.60 r in 0.46 1.419 I in4 < .25 0.306 0.07 0.23 1.07 0.306 0.11 0.46 2.77 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 3 23 .373 X-X axis S r 3 in in 0.809 1.00 0.354 0.81 2.080 0.77 15.189 0.23 1.161 0.419 Pultex® Sludge Flights Part Number Depth(h) Width(b) Area Weight in in in2 lb/ft 6.50 1.58 1.79 0.06 0.64 1.001 0.

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000/2. reference the Beam Deflection Formula and relative design tables. Deflection predictions should be made with values based on full section testing. flexural and shear strengths with applied safety factors. The Load Tables are based on simply supported end conditions with uniformly distributed loads. the shear deflections comprise a significant portion of the actual deflections. Shear deflections are most apparent when the spans to depth ratios are less than 20. Safety Factors The allowable stresses used in The Allowable Uniform Load Tables are based on the ultimate compressive buckling.200 psi (Equation P-5) 1 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .5” safety factor is used for local buckling and flexural stresses while a “3” safety factor is used for shear. At short spans./in) ∆ Allowable Stresses Fiber reinforced composite beams exhibit compressive. Table 2) k = Shear coefficients (Ref.5 = 13. composite materials are not homogeneous and will exhibit different properties in the web and flange areas. Fiber reinforced composite beams exhibit both flexural and shear deflections. Reference Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles Material Properties Sheets for the appropriate properties of the profiles for which you are utilizing in your design. The Allowable Uniform Load Tables were calculated using physical properties that were derived from full section testing. and shear stresses under various load conditions. Please reference Appendix B per ASTM D198 for full section testing procedure. Table 2) Ex = Modulus of elasticity (psi) G = Modulus of rigidity (Shear Modulus) (psi) I = Moment of inertia (in4) L = Length of span (in) ∆ = Deflection (in) w = Load on the beam (lbs. Although coupon testing is a good quality control method. Specifically. strength and buckling. the designer should always account for shear deflections when designing with composites.333psi (Equation P-4) M= fb(Sx).000/3 = 2. For beam loadings and end conditions not represented in the Allowable Uniform Load Tables. The dominating failure mode for long span flexural members is typically local buckling of the compressive flange. therefore.Chapter 4 Load Tables for Flexural Members and Connections Beam Deflections . where fb = allowable flexural stress = 33.A pultruded beam will be designed for deflection. The following shear and flexure formula were used to predict the Allowable Loads. flexural. while short spans are dominated by in-plane shear failures. where fv = allowable shear stress = 7. The following formula was used to predict the deflections in The Allowable Uniform Load Tables: = 5wL4 + w L2 Where: 384 EI 8A′G A′ = kAw (in2) Aw = Shear area of profile (in2) (Ref. a “2. V=fv(Aw).

004   0. q = 0.3 +  . b=bf (in) = Width of the compression flange (in) = Height of the section (in) = Longitudinal modulus of elasticity (psi) = Transverse modulus of elasticity (psi) = Flange = Modulus of rigidity (Shear Modulus) (psi) = Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ) = Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ) = Thickness of the compression flange (in) = Coefficient of restraint of the compression plates = Web 2 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . ζ = p = 0.5   ζ + 0.Local Buckling of the Compression Flange for Wide Flange. and p and q are constants that are defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ) at the junction of the plates: I/W sections: 2bw (E y ) f bf  0.3   ζ + 0.b =  ζ − 0.08  .Barbero and Qiao 2 σx cr = π 2 tf    12  b    [ q (2 (Ex ) f (E y ) f )+ p((E ) (ν y f xy f ) + 2(Gxy ) f )] (Equation P-3) Where. I-Sections. σx is the critical stress. (Reference Step by Step Design Equations for Fiber-reinforced Plastic Beams for Transportation Structures)Davalos.0 +  .002   0.065  . Square Tube and Rectangular Tube Sections The local compression buckling strength of pultruded wide flange.ζ = p = 2. The local bucking equations were derived from University research.2  b f (E y )w     Where: σxcr b b bf bw Ex Ey f Gxy p q t ζ w = Critical buckling stress in (psi) = Half the width of the compression flange for I/W sections (in) = The width of the compression flange for box sections. q = 1.b = bf  ζ − 1. square tubes and rectangular tubes can be determined by utilizing the following equations.0 +  .025 +  .4  b f (E y )w 2     Box sections: bw (E y ) f  0. I-Sections.

Note that the bracing intervals must be adequate. For I-Sections or Wide Flange Sections.– d.Lateral-Torsional Buckling The Allowable Uniform Loads in the Allowable Uniform Load Tables are derived assuming that adequate lateral support is provided for the flexural members. laterally unsupported beam global buckling capacity. The degree of lateral support for structures is difficult to predict. In the event that lateral support is not used. the designer must investigate lateral torsional buckling criteria. the lateral torsional buckling load for various loading conditions can be determined by using the following equation: Design Equation for Lateral-Torsional Buckling M cr = Cb π KLb  πE y    KL  Cw I y + E y I y G J   b 2 (Equation P-1) Where. The Allowable Uniform Load Tables contain a column titled Allowable load. for Wide Flange Sections and I-Sections Cw = 4 1 3 J = (2bt 3 + ht w ) f 3 h2I y 3 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . Figures a. represent common bracing scenarios that are considered to provide adequate lateral support. Please note that the global buckling load tables include a 2.5x safety factor.

Table 4-1 Lateral Buckling Coefficient for Various End Conditions1 Lateral Support about y-axis Moment gradient adjuster (Cb) Effective length coefficient (K) None 1. Table 4-1) = Moment of Intertia about the minor axis Cb is a moment gradient adjuster. Table 4-1) = Critical moment (in-lbs. for simplicity.5 None Full 1.) = Unsupported length between points that have lateral restraint (in) = Modulus of elasticity for bending about minor axis y-y (psi) (Use same value as Ex.Cw J Cb Mcr Lb Ey G K Iy = Warping constant (in6) = Torsion constant (in4) = Moment variation constant (Ref.0 1.70 1.35 1.86 1.04 1. that depends on the type of load and end restraint conditions.97 1. Values for Cb can be located in Table 4-1.0 0.0 None Full 1.0 0.5 None Full 1. Values are very similar) Ey ≈Ex = Shear modulus (psi) = Effective length coefficient (Ref.07 1.0 0.5 None Full 1.13 0.30 0.5 4 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .0 0.

the panels of FRP channel shapes were simulated as discrete laminated plates or panels (Figure 2) (Qiao et al. 5 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . Due to the fact that channel sections are rarely. y t Shear center x Centroid e h t x w y Figure 1 FRP channel shapes Local Buckling of FRP Channels A variational formulation of Ritz method (Qiao and Zou 2002. The following design equations were developed based on combined experimental.Stress Calculations for Channels INTRODUCTION Channel sections are used extensively in composite structures. In the local buckling analysis. All the five channel sections were analyzed. and the developed analytical solutions and design formulas were compared with the commercial finite element modeling using ANSYS (Qiao 2003). 10”x2-3/4”x1/2”. 6”x1-5/8”x1/4”. analytical and numerical study of five FRP channel sections. 8”x2-3/16”/3/8”. which are representative of the shapes currently used in practice. a firm understanding of the behavior of loaded channels must be understood. the panel is modeled as a discrete plate with equal elastic restraints at two unloaded edges (restrained-restrained (RR) condition) (Figure 2b). if ever loaded through the shear center (see Figure 1). whereas for the web. The five beams studied include the following channels 4”x1-1/8”x1/4”. 6”x111/16”x3/8”. The flange of pultruded FRP channel sections were modeled as a discrete panel with elastic restraint at one unloaded edge and free at the other unloaded edge (restrained-free (RF) condition) and subjected to uniform distributed axial in-plane force along simply supported loaded edges. and the effects of restraint at the flange-web connection are considered. Qiao and Zou 2003) was used to establish an eigenvalue problem. and the flange and web critical local buckling coefficients were determined. The information gained from the five channel sections was used to derive the local and lateral buckling loads for all of the channel sections produced by CPI. 2001).

Ex. t and bf are the thickness and width of the flange. where a is the length of the panel) of the flange panel is defined as 6 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . the formula of plate local buckling strength. Gxy and vxy are the material properties of the channel sections.y Free edge w Ncr b Flange a Restraint from web (a) discrete plate of flange h y Restraint from flange Ncr x Ncr b Web a Restraint from flange Ncr x (b) discrete plate of web Figure 2 Modeling of Local Buckling of FRP Channel Shapes For the flange panels under compression.49 (2 + ξ ) (6 + 15ξ + 10ξ 2 ) E x E y 2 2 12b f (6 + 15ξ + 10ξ ) [ + 40(4 + 6ξ + 3ξ 2 )G xy ] (1) where. (Nx)cr. Ey. with elastically restrained at one unloaded edge and free at the other (Figure 2a) is given as (Qiao and Zou 2003) (N x )cr = t3 − 20(2 + 3ξ ) E y v xy + 15. ξ is the coefficient of restraint for flange-web connection and is given as ξ= bw bf 1 G xy 6 (b ) 1− 2 f 2 π (b ) ( E x E y + E y v xy + 2G xy ) w 2 (2) where bw is the width of the web panel (Figure 2). The critical aspect ratio (γ = a/b.

e. however. the desirable locations of restraint supports or bracings can be obtained. 3b f (5) 7 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . the critical stress due to the local buckling of the channel can be computed as σ cr = (N x )cr t (4) The explicit formulas for the critical aspect ratio (γ = a/b. From Equation (3). Lateral Buckling of FRP Channels Figure 3 Experimental testing for lateral buckling of FRP channel shapes Since two back-to-back channels have similar behavior of I-section. where a = length and b = width) are also given in Equation (3). Based on the critical aspect ratios for local buckling. the applied load in the channel section must be acted at the shear center of the channel section (see Figure 1). the shear center (e in Figure 1) can be simply defined as (Boresi and Schmidt 2003): 2 3w 2 e= or = bw + 6b f h + 6w where bf (= w) and bw (= h) are the widths of flange and web. the number and locations of restraint (or lateral) supports can be recommended and properly designed. the lateral buckling behavior of a single channel may be similar to the one of I-section. Thus. respectively (Figure 1)..γ cr ξ (10ξ 2 + 18ξ + 9) E x  4   = 1. both the web and flanges have the same material properties and thickness).1287m  2 (ξ + 2) E y     1 (3) where m is the number of buckling half waves. For uniform FRP channel section (i.

The Pcr or tip load applied through the shear center that causes the channel to lateral buckle can be related back to a moment applied to the beam. Master Design Curves Based on the design formulas and critical loads for local buckling and global (lateral) buckling. a simplified engineering equation for lateral buckling of an “I” section is adapted for prediction of lateral buckling of channel section.08 1 + 19. The lateral buckling of channel sections under a tip load (cantilever beam) through the shear center is approximated as: Pcr = γ where E x I yy JG L2 (6) γ = 5. Based on Vlasov’s theory (Pandey et al.For long-span FRP channel beams without lateral supports and with relatively large slenderness ratios. 8 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . The master design curve provides the relationship between moment capacity and unbraced length. The moment relation can be used to predict the lateral buckling capacity of channel sections for any given load scenario. lateral buckling is prone to happen. 1995).3  (κ + 13)(κ + 3)  κ  (κ + 10) 2    κ= JG = JGL2 I ww 2 ( Gxy ) f t f 3b f 3 + ( Gxy ) w t w 3bw 3 I ww = ( E x ) f t f bw 2 b f 3 24 + ( E x ) f t f 3b f 3 36 + ( E x ) w t w 3bw 3 144 and Iyy is the moment of inertial of the channel section along the weak axis. The buckling loads derived from Equation (5) were characterized for all the channel sections offered by CPI. a master design chart for stability of FRP channel beams was developed.

The ultimate local buckling moment should always be evaluated against the ultimate lateral or global buckling capacity. 3. Predict the global (lateral) buckling of channel sections using Eq. 2. To simplify the complex equations. the critical stress can be defined as σ cr = M cr h I xx 2 (8) where Ixx is the moment of inertial of the channel section along the strong axis (Figure 1). (4) or (8) based on the mode of buckling (either local or lateral buckling).The moment capacity can be utilized for channel beams with various end conditions and load scenarios. a step-by-step design guideline is recommended as follows: 1. Please reference Example 4 and 5 of the Examples Section for details on how to use the channel load tables. 4. 9 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . reference Local and Global Buckling of FRP Channels Equation Solutions spreadsheet on the following page. For information on Ultimate Moment Capacity versus Lateral Restraint. 5. (1) to predict the local buckling strength of flange. Determine the flexural capacity based on Equation P-5. and h is the height of the channel. Use Eq. Obtain the critical stress of the channel using Eq. Corresponding to the lateral or global buckling. reference graphs in Uniform Load Table Section. Determine the shear capacity based on Equation P-4. The moment charts are based on equation (6): M cr = Pcr L where the maximum load Pcr was determined from the cantilever beam loadings. (6). (7) The ultimate local buckling moment is also applied to the charts. Obtain the channel material properties from the Channel Material Property Sheets. To facilitate the design of stability of FRP channel sections.

654 5.3030 -83363686.0538 11.127 2.25 8 2.020 5.3667987 1.438 32.2843 0.7508 Part# CH540 5” x 1-3/8” x 1/4” t bw bf H L 0.9554 Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx 0.4233 Part# CH955 11-1/2” x 2-3/4” x 1/2” t bw bf H L 0.723 24.523 4.416 124.472 24 4 24 40 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr γcr 2.4698 9.927 5.9081 16250 725.2 550224952 694361146 6.3375 -2173631139 6.3403 Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx 4.4008 108773.3242E+10 8.375 8 2.876 Part# CH662 6” x 1-11/16” x 3/8” t bw bf H L 0.8848E+11 10.5 3 24 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr γcr 3.374.6213 9.1667 21.3525 -63402801.6207 Part# CH980 10” x 2-3/4” x 1/2” t bw bf H L 0.2917 2.0350 322916.25 6 1.188 8 24 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr γcr 11.2545 8.667 154.4203 Part# CH342 3” x 1-1/2” x 1/4” t bw bf H L 0.5 11.423 5.1163 7.6677 82406.4068 560821.12 4 24 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr 13.2392 10.5687 Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx 13.205.903.5032E+10 2.0666 9.129.25 3 1.4907 12.705 5.3035 Part# CH440 4” x 1-1/8” x 1/4” t bw bf H L 0.25 3 0.82973134 24088.8450 -304744205 4929454298 1.8023 4.25 8.4811 -255103569 3810621431 9366704901 7.372.188 8 36 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr γcr 11.375 5 18 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr γcr 11.657 33.1895 35.5807 Part# CH640 6” x 1-5/8” x 1/4” t bw bf H L 0.6106 Part# CH840 8” x 2-3/16” x 1/4” t bw bf H L 0.070 16.33364906 28645.6 792774089 1130965423 6.8153185 -367121688 6464727906 1.1573204 2.4455 -317355211 5228598198 1.0181 Part# CH740 7” x 2” x 1/4” t bw bf H L 0.60682271 354166.0444E+10 13.402 1.5180 -465878835 9162437283 3.7162 -239040145 3469540947 8256156885 4.8279 10.7944 14.6197 t bw bf H L 0.349 5.5 36 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr γcr 5.Local and Global Buckling of FRP Channels Part# CH340 3” x 7/8” x 1/4” t bw bf H L 0.4285 Part# CH994 24” x 4” x 1/2” t bw bf H L 0.4811 -255103569 3810621431 9366704901 2.4456 2.934.2957 Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx 0.4021 11.5 2.667 176.9570609 -265098279 4028140115 1.032.48116546 Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx 0.0450 4.0312 Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx 1.469 3.7917 198.821.688 6 24 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr γcr 14.797 13.3516 15625 962.2454 γcr Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx Part# CH860 8” x 2-3/16” x 3/8” 0.076.9709 12369.8786 32229.187 985 10 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .069 16.139 7.695 3.8565 Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx 0.75 11.909 5.875 3 24 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr γcr 21.9063E+10 2.75 10 44 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr γcr 68.1785 Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx 3.4334E+10 12.7 23.1504 5.8333 12.1513253 20182.25 7 2 7 24 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr γcr 16.625 6 24 ξ n1 n2 n3 Ncr γcr 10.07661682 Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx 0.8011 Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx 0.25 5 1.077 1.852 5.075.0093E+10 5.8423 0.25 4 1.292 9.814 86.7978971 3.0312 Iyy γ κ JG Iww Ixx 1.375 6 1.307 4.7704 -135179215 1542776744 2770330492 13.0495 6.5417 4.589 2.5 10 2.

(at midpoint) ∆x R is V Vx M max. Uniform Load = = ∆ x ∆ max. Shear Areas and Shear Coefficients for Various Cross Sections A'. (at M x = = = = = = 2P Pl3 48 EI Px 48 EI P 2 Pl 4 Px 2 + Pl 4GA′ 2 x (3 l − 4 x 2 ) point   when  of load) x < 1   2  11 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . (at midpoint) M ( ) = Note: Reference Table 4-2. (at ends) M 1 (at midpoint) M x = 2 wl 3 w l4 wl 2 + 384 EI 8G A′ wx2 (l − x )2 24 EI l 2 wl 2  1  − x w  2  wl2 12 wl2 24 w 6 lx − l 2 − 6 x 2 12 ( ) Point load on simply supported beam Total Equiv. ∆ max. A'=kAw. (at midpoint) = = = = = R is V Vx M max. Uniform load on beam fixed at both ends Total Equiv. Uniform Load = = = = = = x wl 5 wl 4 wl 2 + 384 EI 8 G A′ wx l 3 − 2 lx 2 + x 3 24 EI wl 2 1  w − x 2  wl 2 8 wx (l − x ) 2 ∆ max. (at ∆ Uniform point   when  of Load load) x < 1   2  V M max.Beam Deflection Formula Uniform load on simple beam Total Equiv.

(at fixed R is V end ) M x P Pl Px Uniform load on cantilever beam Total Equiv. (at fixed end) M x = 12 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .Point load on beam with fixed ends = = 1   2  V M max. (at free end ) ∆x ( ) M max. Uniform Load = = x 4 wl wl 2 wl4 + 8 EI 2 GA′ w 24 EI wl wx wl 2 2 wx2 2 ∆ max. Uniform Load = = = = = = 8P Pl3 Pl + G A′ 3 EI P 2l 3 − 3l 2 x + x 3 6 EI ∆ max. (at midpoint) ∆ x  when   x < = = = = (3 l − 4x) and ends) x < 1   2    when  P 2 Pl 8 P (4 x − l ) 8 Point load on cantilever beam Total Equiv. (at center M x Total Equiv. Uniform Load P Pl3 192 EI Px 2 48 EI l 2 + Pl 4 G A′ ∆ max. (at free end) ∆ = = = = (x 4 − 4l 3 x + 3l 4 ) R is V Vx M max.

(between loads) M x (when x < a ) Table 4-2 Shear Areas and Shear Coefficients for Various Cross Sections for calculating A'. Cross Section Type Shear Area k A' = kAw Cross Section Type Shear Area k Rectangular Section Aw= bd 5/6 Channel Section Aw= 2bt 5/6 I or W-Section Aw= 2bt 5/6 Channel Section Aw= ht 1 I or W-Section Aw= th 1 Solid Round Aw= π 2 8/9 Square Tube Aw= 2th 1 Angle Section Aw= th 1 Rectangular Tube Aw= 2tb 5/6 Circular Tube Aw= 2πRt 1/4 Note: Arrows indicate direction of shear forces k = Shear coefficient Note: Values are approximated for simplicity. (at ) = = = = = = ∆ x (when ∆ x (when x < a) ( ) ) x > a and < ( l . Uniform Load center = 8 Pa l Pa  l 2 a2  Pa   8 − 6  + G A′  EI   Px 3 la − 3 a 2 − x 2 6 EI ∆ max. For exact shear coefficients reference Timoshenko's Beam Theory.a) ) Pa 6 EI P Pa Px (3 l x − 3 x 2 − a2 R is V M max. Aw = Shear area 13 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .Two Concentrated Loads Equally Spaced on a Simply Supported Beam Total Equiv.

Design Parameters Determine the maximum allowable point load and deflection of a laterally unsupported 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section that is simply supported at a span of 12'. Solution Refer to the Allowable Uniform Load Tables./ft.. Select a 10" x 10" x 1/2" Wide Flange Section. the section is adequate. The maximum load is 261 lbs. Solution Reference the Allowable Uniform Load Tables.) L = Unsupported length (in) Ey = Modulus of elasticity for bending about minor axis (psi) Ey ≈E 14 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . load in the L/240 column. therefore. the 10" x 10" x 1/2" beam is adequate. Example 2. select a larger Wide Flange Section. laterally unsupported beam. From the Allowable Uniform Load Tables. The beam is to be used in a 10% concentration of Potassium Hydroxide./ft with a 2x safety factor. The beam is laterally supported and has an assumed weight of 4. The load tables do not take into account the weight of the beam./ft. This load is more than the design load of 90 lbs. M cr = Cb π KLb  πE y    KL  C w I y + E y I y GJ   b 2 Cw = Warping constant (in6) J = Torsion constant (in4) Cb = Moment gradient adjuster Mcr = Critical moment (in-lbs. load is greater than the design load plus the weight of the Wide Flange Section. Select a 10" x 10" x 1/2" Wide Flange Section./ft. The number in the space represents a uniform load of 95 lbs./ft and is not adequate. reference the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section. notice that the 211 lbs./ft./ft./ft (assumed weight of selected beam) = 94. Reference equation (P-1) for lateral-torsional buckling. Solution Step 1. therefore.92 lbs. Locate the Allowable load. Locate the 8" x 8" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section and the span of 21'. the deflection will be less than L/240. Locate the 21' span and Maximum Load Laterally Unsupported column. design load is less than the 229 lbs. with a deflection limit of L/180. Locate the span column and find the 17' span and look across the columns to the L/180 column. Example 3. therefore.92 lbs. Scanning across the columns. Select a member size to begin the process. Design Parameters Select a Pultex® Wide Flange Section that is simply supported and is capable of withstanding a laterally unsupported load of 200 lbs/ft at a span of 21' with a deflection less than L/240. span and load interface. add the weight of the section to the design load./ft + 4. over a simply supported span of 17'. The maximum load is 87 lbs.92 lbs. therefore./ft./ft. global buckling capacity and locate the 21ft.Examples of Beam Selection of Pultex® Profiles used as Flexural Members Example 1. Select a 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section. The 261 lbs. Therefore. Design Parameters Select a Pultex® Wide Flange Section capable of withstanding a uniform load of 90 lbs.

Example 3. (cont’d) G = Shear modulus (psi) K = Effective length coefficient (ref. Table 1) Step 2. Use equation (P-2) to predict the critical moment Mcr. Obtain the moment variation constant Cb from Table 1. Cb is 1.35 for the simply supported beam with no end constraints and a point load (Table 41.) L is the laterally unsupported length of 12' or 144". E is the modulus of elasticity (reference the Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles Material Properties Sheet) E = 4.0e6 psi. G is the modulus of rigidity (Shear Modulus) (reference the Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles Material Properties Sheet) G = 500,000 psi Cw is the warping constant; a value can be located in the Elements of Section in the Design Manual. For the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section, Cw = 119.84 in6. J is torsion constant, a value can be found in the Elements of Section in the Design Manual. For the 6" x 6" x 3/8"Wide Flange Section, J = 0.316 in4. Iy is the moment if inertia about the weak axis, Iy = 13.32 in4. (from Elements of Section) K is the effective length coefficient from Table 1., K = 1. Step 3. Equate Mcr
M cr  π 4e6 psi   (119.84in 6 )(13.32in 4 ) + (4.0e6 psi )(13.32in 4 )(5e5 psi )(.316in 4 )  = 1.35 (1)144"  (1)144"   

π

2

Mcr = 133,593.72 lbs-in For a simply supported span with a point load at mid span, the maximum moment is given by M= PL/4. Where: P = point load in (lbs.) L = length of span (in), equals Lb in the present case. Therefore, calculate P. 133593.72 lbs-in = P(144")/4 P= 3,710 lbs. Apply the desired safety factor. In this case, use a 2.5 safety factor. Therefore, Pallowable = 1,484 lbs. Step 4. Calculate the allowable deflection with the 1,484 lb. load.

1 PL3 1 PL ∆= + 48 EI 4 GA'
From the beam deflection equations, determine the equation for the simply supported, mid-span, point load condition. ∆ P L G E Ix = Deflection (in) = Concentrated load (lbs.);i.e., Pallowable = 1,484 lbs. = length of span (in) 144" = Modulus of rigidity (Shear modulus) (psi) i.e., 500,000 psi = Full section modulus of elasticity (psi), i.e., 4.0e6 psi = Moment of inertia (in4), i.e., 40.76in4
15
The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual

Where: A' = kAw

Chapter 4

Example 3. (cont’d) A′ = kAw, i.e. 1(2.25in2)=2.25in2 Aw = Cross sectional area of web (in2)(t)(h) k = Shear Coefficient Reference Table 4-2. (Shear area of common cross sections), i.e.,(Table 4-2) Step 5. Solve for deflection ∆.

∆=

1 (1484lbs.)(144" )3 1 (1484lbs.)(144" ) + 4 48 (4e6 psi )(40.76in ) 4 (5e5 psi )(2.25in 2 )

∆ = 0.614" or L/235 Step 6. Determine if the flexural strength is adequate. σf = M/Sx Where: σf = flexural stress (psi) M = maximum moment (lbs.-in) Sx = Section modulus (in3) From the Elements of Section of The New and Improved Design Manual for Pultrusion of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles, determine Sx for the 6"x6"x3/8" Wide Flange Section. Sx = 13.59 in3. From the Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles for Wide Flange Sections and I-Sections Material Properties Sheets, determine the ultimate flexural strength and apply the proper safety factor, which in the present case is 2.5. σf = 33,000 psi ultimate flexural strength. (33,000 psi/2.5) = (P144"/4)/13.59in3 Pflexural= 4,983 lbs. Pflexural > Pallowable therefore, the strength is adequate. Step 7. Calculate the Critical Buckling load and determine if it is adequate. From equation (P-3):
2

σx

cr

=

π 2 tf 
  12  b   

[ q (2

(Ex ) f (E y ) f

)+ p((E ) (ν
y f

xy f

)

+ 2(Gxy ) f

)]

2bw (E y ) f bf  0.004   0.065  ; q = 0.025 +  ; ζ = ;b = p = 0 .3 +     ζ + 0 .4  2 b f (E y )w  ζ − 0 .5   
Where:

σxcr b b bf bw Ex Ey
16

= Critical buckling stress in (psi) = Half the width of the compression flange for I/W sections (in) = The width of the compression flange for box sections, b=bf (in) = width of the compression flange (in) = Height of the section (in) = Longitudinal modulus of elasticity (psi) = Transverse modulus of elasticity (psi)
The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual

Chapter 4

f Gxy p q t ζ σxcr

= Flange = Modulus of rigidity (Shear Modulus) (psi) = Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ) = Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ) = Thickness of the compression flange (in) = Coefficient of restraint of the compression plates = 22,647 psi

Step 7. The allowable local buckling load is determined by evaluating the critical buckling stress to bending stress and applying the appropriate safety factor. In this case use 2.5. Use σ =M/Sx where, M=PL/4 Therefore, P =(σxcr Sx4)/L Pbuckling=(22,647psi*13.58*4)/144" = 8,542 lbs./2.5 Pallowable =3,417 lbs.> Pglobal buckling 1,484 lbs; therefore, global buckling governs the design. The design is governed by Mcr Lateral Torsional Buckling (Global buckling) and is limited to 1,484 lbs. Reference the Chemical Compatibility Guide to determine the proper Pultex® Series. Choose Pultex® 1625 Series.
Channel Selection Example Example 4.

Determine the Channel section that is required to support a uniform load of 70 lbs./ft at a span of 24’with a maximum deflection criteria of L/D= 180. Step 1. Locate the channel uniform load tables in chapter 4. Next, locate the Simply Supported Beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratio section of the allowable uniform load tables. Step 2. Locate the column with the 180 heading. This stands for the L/D ratio of 180. Next, refer to the left hand side of the page until you see the Span section. Locate the 24’ span section. Find the intersection of the 24’ span and the L/D ratio of 180. Step 3. Page through the channel sections until a number greater than or equal to 70 lbs/ft is obtained. You will conclude that an 11-1/2”x2-3/4”x1/2” channel is required. The actual value is 72 lbs/ft. Step 4. Scan across the columns and review the allowable uniform loads. The allowable uniform loads will be based on the shear, flexural, local buckling and lateral support spacing. The lowest number between the values at the 24’ span will dictate the allowable uniform load according to the strength of the beam. The L/D=180 column is based strictly on deflection. Step 5. Referencing the 24’ span tab, once concludes that the lowest value is 271 lbs./ft with lateral restraint and 12 lbs./ft with lateral restraints. As one can conclude, lateral restraint is very important.

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The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual

Chapter 4

Example 4. (cont’d)

Step 6. Determine the number of lateral restraints and the maximum spacing by referencing the Maximum Lateral Support Spacing column. One can conclude that the maximum spacing distance is 36”. Therefore, in order for the charts to hold true, a minimum of nine restraints with a maximum spacing of 36” is required. Note: The lateral restraint spacing can be modified, however the loads must be reevaluated based on the lateral restraint spacing. The graphs that depict the ultimate moment capacity versus lateral restraint can be utilized to make the necessary adjustments to the allowable uniform loads.
Example 5.

Determine the lateral spacing of the diaphragms that are necessary for a structure of two 8”x2-3/16”x3/8” channels that are positioned 36” apart and span 20’. The structure is required to hold an ultimate point load of 4,000 lbs. located over the center of the 20’ span. The 4,000 lbs. had been factored to include a 2.5 times safety factor. Step 1. Locate the Ultimate Moment Capacity versus Lateral Restraint graph in the channel uniform load tables. Reference the 8”x2-3/16”x3/8” graph. Step 2. Determine the moment acting on the two channels. The moment is calculated by PL/4 for the simply supported structure with a point load in the middle. The corresponding moment is 20,000 lb.*ft. Step 3. In referencing the graph and concluding that the two channels will be required to resist a total moment of 20,000 lb*ft. One concludes that one of the channels must support a moment of 10,000 lb.*ft. Scan across the graph at the 10,000 lb.*ft mark. The lateral buckling curve is intersected at approximately the 48” bracing spacing. Therefore, the channels must be braced at a maximum support spacing of 48”. One must note that the values are not factored and that appropriate safety factors must be applied. In this case the factors were applied to the 4,000 lb. point load prior to determining the lateral spacing required. Step 4. Design the structure with diaphragms spaced at 48” on center. The deflection and shearing, flexural and local compression stresses should always be checked.

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The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual

Chapter 4

Nomenclature

∆ ∆ ζ σc σxcr νxy νyx a Aw A′ b b bf bw Cb Cw D D11, D22 ExorEy Ey local f fb fv G Gxy h Ix or y J K k L Lb M Mcr P p q r Sx t V Wt. Wlb Wf Wv Wlu L/D

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Deflection (in) 1-(νxyνyx) Coefficient of restraint of the compression plates Compressive stress (psi) Critical buckling stress in (psi) Poisson’s ratio (longitudinal) Poisson’s ratio (transverse) Unsupported length or region over which Nx acts (length of beam) inches Shear area of profile (Table 2) (in2) kAw, Shear coefficient x shear area of profile (in2) Half the width of the compression flange for I/W sections (in) The width of the compression flange for box sections, b=bf (in) Width of the compression flange (in) Height of the section (in) Moment Variation Constant Warping Constant (in6) Deflection (in) Flexural rigidity in 1, 2 and radial directions Modulus of elasticity of the major or minor axis(psi) Local transverse modulus of Elasticity (psi) Flange Flexural stress (psi) Shear stress (psi) Shear modulus (modulus of rigidity) (psi) Shear modulus (psi) Depth of section (in) Moment of Inertia about desired axis (in4) Torsion Constant (in4) Effective length coefficient Shear coefficient (Table 2.) Length (inches) Unsupported length between points that have lateral restraint (in) Maximum moment (in-lbs) Critical Moment that causes lateral buckling (in-lbs) Point load (lbs.) Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ) Constant defined by the coefficient of restraint (ζ) Radius of gyration (in) Section modulus (in3) Thickness of compression flange (in) Shear Force (lbs.) Weight of profile in lbs./ft Maximum load governed by critical local buckling (lbs./ft) Maximum load governed by flexural stress (lbs./ft) Maximum load governed by shear strength (lbs./ft) Maximum laterally unsupported load (lbs./ft) Ratio of length of the span to the deflection

19
The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual

Chapter 4

Channel Section Nomenclature a b bf (= w) bw (= h) Ex Ey Gxy h Ixx Iyy Iww JG L m Mcr (Nx)cr Pcr t vxy w = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = the length of the plate (panel) the width of the plate (panel) the widths of flange (Figure 1) the widths of web (Figure 1) the panel stiffness in x-direction the panel stiffness in y-direction the panel in-plane shear stiffness the height of the channel (Figure 1) the moment of inertial of the channel section along the strong axis the moment of inertial of the channel section along the weak axis the warping stiffness of the channel section the torsional stiffness of the channel section the span length the number of buckling half waves the critical moment of the channel section subject to buckling the plate local buckling strength the lateral buckling load through the shear center of channel section the thickness the flange the panel Poisson’s ratio the widths of the channel (Figure 1) the coefficient of restraint for flange-web connection the critical aspect ratio the critical stress ξ γcr σcr 20 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .

The allowable uniform load of a standard 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section at a span of 10′ and L/D ratio of 360 is 149 lbs. an average improvement in E-Modulus of 49%. Creative Pultrusions. Pultex SuperStructural profiles offer the designer the ability to design longer spans with heavier loads. one will notice that the strengths of the materials are generally comparable while the stiffness characteristics are dissimilar. as material and labor costs are greatly reduced. Allowable Uniform Load Tables. The graph demonstrates the allowable uniform loads for each beam at various spans with the deflection limit of L/D = 360. In an effort to improve stiffness.8E6 psi to 3.5-2./ft 400 300 200 100 0 8 9 10 11 12 Span (ft) 13 14 15 48% increase in E-Modulus Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section Comparison of Standard Structural Profiles and Pultex SuperStructural Profiles 21 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .0 Reference Creative Pultrusions former Design Guide..5 times between the two materials.9-4. The following example is a comparison of a standard pultruded section to a Pultex® SuperStructural profile. the modulus of elasticity of steel is approximately 29E6 psi. The most important advantage is a more economical design. The difference is a 48% increase in E-Modulus.5-2. Example 1. Volume 2./ft. Referencing The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual.0E6 psi. ® ® Pultex SuperStructural vs Pultex Standard Structural Allowable Uniform Load Comparison (Uniform Load (lbs.8E6 psi. span and deflection criteria is 220 lbs. The graph below demonstrates the difference between the Pultex SuperStructural 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section and a standard pultruded 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section. The stiffness difference is 11.Introduction to Pultex SuperStructural Profiles Product Advantage Summary When comparing pultruded fiber reinforced polymer composites to traditional building materials such as steel. page 3-17. has modified the fiber architecture of selected structural profiles. Revision 1. the allowable uniform load for the same loading./ft. For example.. while the modulus of elasticity of a typical pultruded Wide Flange Section is 2. The result improved the modulus of elasticity from 2.

Spaced 3.46 psf DL of Flowgrip. Revision 1.52 $33. Pultex® SuperStructural Project Design Factors Description: Plating tank cover 10' x 60' Design load: 80 psf Maximum deflection: L/180 or .5' O. the allowable uniform load at L/180 is 298 lbs/ft.57' O.Project example: Plating Tank Cover Design 1..C.074. a. fasteners. For a 6"x6"x3/8" Wide Flange Beam.C. (The beam spacing is based on 5' O.C. Step 4. Flowgrip Solid Panel Misc.67" Service temperature: 80°F 5% concentration of Chromic Acid Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Step 1. Standard Structural Project Design Factors Description: Plating tank cover 10' x 60' Design load: 80 psf Maximum deflection: L/180 or .14/ft $13. Determine the maximum span of Flowgrip Solid Floor Panel. 1625.C.e.) 22 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . i. Based on the 80 psf + the 3. (Note: beam weight excluded) Bill of Materials for Standard Structural Project Design Item 6"x6"x3/8" W-Section. @20' Price $ Total $24. Reference Creative Pultrusions former Design Guide.. (298 lbs/ft)/83.993. Step 2.46lbs/ft2= 3. Determine the allowable spacing by dividing the allowable load by the design load.e. i.28/ft $5.5' O.32 Pultex SuperStructural Profiles 2. @11' 21 pcs.67" Service temperature: 80°F 5% concentration of Chromic Acid Step 1. adhesive Total Material Price Quantity 19 pcs. Volume 2. Space the beams @ 3. Step 3. determine the allowable beam spacing.918. Reference page 7 of the Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access Structure Products in the Industry Note: The Flowgrip® Solid Floor Panel will span 60" and satisfy the above design criteria..80 $18.

Bill of Materials for Pultex SuperStructural Project Design Item Quantity 6"x6"x3/8" W-Section. i. @11' Flowgrip Solid Floor Panel 21 pcs. Calculate the weight of the Flowgrip 3.e.000 $16.390. Determine which Wide Flange Section profile will satisfy the loading condition above.46 psf x 5' = 17. Calculate the dead load. therefore.500 Pultex® SuperStructural Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles Profiles Pultex®®Standard Pultex Standard Structural Profiles Strucural Profiles $17.. Assume that a 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section profile is sufficient. d. b. Step 5.472.3 lbs/ft. c.000 $18. a. 1625. The weight of the 6" x 6" x 3/8" section is 4.C./ft. fasteners. Locate the 10' span row and look across to the l/180 deflection column.2 lbs.84 Pultex ® Supe r Str uctur a l vs Pultex ® Standard Structural Profiles Price Advantage Comparison $18. Determine the total live load (LL) and dead load (DL) combination.993 $19. Reference the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section in the Allowable Uniform Load Tables. across the 10' section of the span. @ 20' Misc. 80 psf x 5' panel width = 400 lbs/ft live load on the beams. Determine if the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section profile is adequate.3 lbs/ft DL = 422.500 $17.04 $13.C.391 Total Material Cost 23 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .000 $17. Space all beams at 5' O. adhesives Total Material Price Price $ $24..918. Spaced 5' O. a. 13 pcs.28/ft $33. Step 3. c. The Pultex SuperStructural 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section will hold 441 lbs/ft and deflect less than L/180.80 $17. b. Step 4.Step 2.14/ft Total $3.92 lbs/ft DL + 17. a.92 lbs/ft. the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section profile is adequate. 400 lbs/ft LL + 4.500 $18.

40 0.37 0.28 0.22 0.45 0.40 2.5 234 L/D=80 L/D=100 L/D=150 L/D=180 L/D=240 L/D=360 L/D=500 Deflection (in) 0.29 1.0 156 13.27 0.58 1.07 0.26 0.30 0.38 1.28 2.50 1.07 0.36 1.23 0.52 0.50 0.25 0.30 0.10 2.35 1.65 1.08 0.93 0.26 1.24 1.44 1.14 1.45 0.08 0.68 0.23 0.13 0.27 0.13 1.67 0.44 0.48 1.72 0.25 2.5 114 10.20 0.23 0.0 96 8.41 1.55 0.25 0.60 0.53 0.18 2.36 1.16 0.40 0.02 0.30 0.24 0.45 0.28 0.60 0.08 0.33 0.43 1.96 0.08 0.35 1.35 0.43 0.32 1.13 0.5 18 2.0 84 7.38 1.Span/Deflection Ratio Conversion Tables Span Span feet Inches 1.0 144 12.88 0.00 0.23 0.70 0.5 198 17.37 0.03 2.03 0.35 0.10 0.86 1.20 0.80 0.60 0.33 0.44 1.25 0.17 0.0 192 16.83 0.52 1.06 0.5 138 12.57 0.65 0.80 0.22 2.30 0.07 0.10 0.75 0.90 0.63 0.5 42 4.84 0.50 1.20 0.74 1.48 0.77 0.5 54 5.96 1.40 0.12 0.30 0.5 90 8.02 1.32 1.62 0.20 1.57 0.68 0.27 0.5 150 13.43 0.20 0.0 228 19.83 0.5 78 7.75 0.15 0.80 1.0 48 4.20 0.66 0.36 0.05 0.53 0.98 1.08 1.5 126 11.48 2.0 168 14.78 0.83 0.56 1.54 0.40 1.12 0.00 0.10 0.05 1.0 60 5.40 0.5 30 3.47 0.43 0.42 1.0 12 1.0 216 18.93 0.28 0.50 0.47 0.60 0.34 24 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .37 1.14 0.17 0.03 0.28 1.31 1.58 0.90 0.63 0.5 186 16.72 0.22 0.42 0.30 1.12 0.98 2.58 0.68 0.55 0.97 0.23 0.60 0.13 0.78 0.0 108 9.20 0.88 1.93 0.33 0.53 0.13 0.60 0.32 0.07 0.10 2.30 0.24 0.56 0.40 1.44 1.32 0.48 0.95 0.08 0.85 2.5 222 19.5 210 18.05 0.28 0.0 72 6.17 0.48 0.47 0.33 2.62 1.0 132 11.12 0.0 204 17.10 0.16 2.92 0.92 1.20 1.88 0.13 0.38 0.16 0.18 0.78 2.70 0.38 0.32 1.95 2.38 0.68 1.90 0.90 0.0 180 15.63 0.80 0.0 36 3.05 0.64 0.0 24 2.5 66 6.20 1.73 0.55 2.98 0.87 0.63 2.34 1.52 0.16 0.65 0.12 0.42 0.36 0.46 1.56 1.18 0.15 0.85 0.43 1.11 0.73 0.23 0.04 0.50 0.76 0.73 1.5 174 15.04 2.24 0.18 0.53 0.17 0.80 1.48 0.28 1.18 0.5 102 9.70 2.04 0.84 0.19 0.15 0.5 162 14.10 0.0 120 10.

89 3.82 0.85 1.95 1.24 3.68 2.28 1.74 2.5 282 24.85 2.03 0.93 1.0 384 32.60 3.5 450 38.08 2.63 1.0 252 21.55 1.00 0.85 5.52 2.72 3.56 1.28 0.64 2.73 4.15 0.87 0.0 432 36.47 1.76 2.58 1.60 1.5 366 31.43 1.0 468 39.15 3.50 1.96 3.36 3.32 1.88 2.13 0.43 1.84 2.08 4.90 1.83 3.67 2.77 2.68 1.80 1.00 0.Span/Deflection Ratio Conversion Tables .23 1.68 1.70 1.20 1.97 1.78 1.5 390 33.58 2.56 2.70 0.57 1.13 0.70 5.20 2.36 1.54 3.5 330 28.35 4.33 1.60 2.0 444 37.88 2.0 420 35.0 300 25.46 2.75 0.5 258 22.20 1.73 1.75 1.77 1.22 0.54 1.40 0.65 4.80 2.55 5.61 2.10 1.79 2.91 3.78 2.00 1.83 1.63 1.70 2.73 0.90 3.65 2.28 4.50 1.93 0.74 4.53 1.32 0.98 0.50 1.93 6.5 426 36.07 0.0 360 30.48 1.62 4.92 2.48 2.93 1.18 0.68 2.5 414 35.32 4.40 1.55 1.28 0.64 1.83 2.78 5.90 3.95 5.37 1.5 378 32.5 438 37.97 0.38 4.20 0.10 5.14 4.88 1.58 4.05 0.84 1.33 0.43 4.0 264 22.72 0.0 324 27.71 2.60 3.53 1.20 0.0 396 33.68 0.53 3.95 3.90 3.76 1.56 4.52 1.30 0.0 480 L/D=80 L/D=100 L/D=150 L/D=180 L/D=240 L/D=360 L/D=500 Deflection (in) 1.23 0.63 1.86 2.Cont’d Span Span feet Inches 20.0 348 29.52 2.12 2.20 4.96 2.94 3.67 2.72 1.30 1.02 0.64 2.35 0.57 1.30 0.5 306 26.15 0.68 4.87 1.04 2.5 402 34.12 1.18 3.44 2.18 5.40 1.73 1.12 0.5 246 21.50 4.00 3.30 3.45 3.50 1.72 2.60 2.0 276 23.38 3.76 2.5 342 29.5 270 23.53 1.96 1.83 0.49 1.70 1.80 1.02 4.27 0.78 0.63 5.98 4.0 372 31.10 0.92 3.84 3.92 1.25 0.26 4.88 0.90 1.73 2.60 1.00 1.40 5.5 318 27.60 1.94 3.66 3.40 2.08 1.13 1.64 2.0 456 38.23 3.83 1.0 408 34.45 0.48 3.0 312 26.42 3.77 0.5 354 30.50 4.16 1.0 288 24.68 3.65 1.40 2.88 1.96 4.25 0.0 240 20.80 0.5 462 39.82 2.48 0.07 1.78 3.06 3.88 4.92 0.17 1.33 0.38 0.08 0.05 0.05 4.00 1.25 5.80 2.00 2.33 5.33 1.80 4.53 1.17 0.88 2.90 0.66 2.95 0.62 2.20 4.76 2.18 0.03 0.04 1.03 5.70 2.08 3.08 0.80 1.43 0.24 1.48 5.10 0.16 2.67 0.80 25 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .72 2.75 3.84 2.47 1.67 1.44 4.0 336 28.5 294 25.03 1.82 2.00 2.85 0.00 3.37 1.59 2.23 0.98 1.5 474 40.27 1.58 1.30 3.60 1.13 4.12 3.

5x Safety capacity.0x106 psi G =5.5x 2.000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =4. 3x Span 2. Aw=1.=2.000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =4. Allowable load. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.15 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 2 ft. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity. Allowable load. Allowable load.647 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=8.75 in2 Wt. of the web global buckling capacity.05 in Sx=4. of the web global buckling capacity. 2.0x106 psi G =5. local load. capacity.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 3 5622 2704 3940 1196 1556 4 1840 1521 2217 882 588 1167 5 784 974 1419 782 651 489 326 933 6 396 985 778 474 395 296 197 676 7 224 724 667 460 307 256 192 128 497 8 138 554 583 314 210 175 131 87 380 9 91 438 519 224 149 124 93 62 300 10 63 355 467 165 110 91 69 46 243 11 45 293 424 125 83 69 52 35 201 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 26 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 40.5x 2.03 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 2.5x Safety capacity.23 in Sx=2.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33. local load.Allowable Uniform Load Tables Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 3" x 3" x 1/4" (Part# IW 340) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. Allowable load. Aw=. 2.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.63 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load. capacity.00 in2 Wt.0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 22.5 ft.19 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 2 9156 5771 4730 1520 1750 3 1941 2565 2102 1130 847 565 1167 4 668 1443 1183 628 523 392 262 875 5 300 923 757 505 337 280 210 140 700 6 159 641 583 300 200 167 125 83 526 7 94 471 500 192 128 107 80 53 386 8 60 361 438 130 87 72 54 36 296 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 4" x 4" x 1/4" (Part # IW 440) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. 3x Span 2.261 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=3.=1.

5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 5 3627 3355 1400 963 1023 6 1768 2330 1167 611 711 7 967 1712 1000 409 522 8 575 1310 875 285 400 9 365 1035 778 206 316 10 243 839 700 231 154 256 11 169 693 636 176 117 211 12 122 582 583 137 92 178 13 90 496 538 145 109 73 151 14 68 428 500 117 88 59 131 15 53 373 467 96 72 48 114 16 42 328 438 95 80 60 40 100 17 34 290 412 80 67 50 33 89 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 27 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .58 in Sx=9.000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =4.0x106 psi G =5. 3x Span 2.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 6" x 6" x 1/4" (Part # IW 640) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.31 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load. Aw=1.0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 10. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.50 in2 Wt. Allowable load.5x Safety capacity.065 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=28. 2. capacity.53 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 3. Allowable load. of the web global buckling capacity.=3. local load.5x 2.5 ft.

local load.92 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 6" x 6" x 3/8" (Part # IW 660) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity. Aw=2.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.5x Safety capacity. capacity.5x 2.0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 22. 2.59 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 3.25 in2 Wt. of the web global buckling capacity.0x106 psi G =5.000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =4.76 in Sx=13.647 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=40. 3x Span 2.=4.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 6 2758 2280 3322 1322 882 1750 7 1528 1675 2441 1412 1176 882 588 1500 8 922 1869 1313 984 820 615 410 1282 9 593 1476 1167 710 592 444 296 1013 10 402 1196 1050 793 529 441 330 220 821 11 284 988 955 605 403 336 252 168 678 12 207 831 875 472 314 262 196 131 570 13 156 708 808 374 250 208 156 104 486 14 120 610 750 302 201 168 126 84 419 15 94 532 700 247 165 137 103 69 365 16 75 467 656 205 136 114 85 57 321 17 61 414 618 171 114 95 71 48 284 18 50 369 583 145 97 80 60 40 253 19 42 331 553 123 82 69 51 34 227 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 28 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . Allowable load.5 ft. Allowable load.

000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =4. Allowable load. local load.00 in2 Wt. 2.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 12.5x Safety capacity. 3x Span 2. Aw=3.0x106 psi G =5.35 in Sx=25.=6. Allowable load. capacity.739 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=100.5x 2.09 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 5 ft. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.61 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 6 8288 2368 6133 1841 2333 7 4516 4506 2000 1271 1739 8 2675 3450 1750 908 1332 9 1689 2726 1556 1003 668 1052 10 1123 2208 1400 757 505 852 11 777 1825 1273 584 389 704 12 557 1533 1167 459 306 592 13 411 1306 1077 490 367 245 504 14 310 1126 1000 397 298 199 435 15 239 981 933 327 245 163 379 16 188 862 875 326 271 204 136 333 17 150 764 824 274 228 171 114 295 18 122 681 778 232 193 145 97 263 19 100 612 737 198 165 124 83 236 20 83 552 700 171 142 107 71 213 21 70 501 667 148 123 93 62 193 22 59 456 636 129 108 81 54 176 23 50 417 609 113 95 71 47 161 24 43 383 583 100 83 63 42 148 25 37 353 560 89 74 56 37 136 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 29 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 8" x 8" x 3/8" (Part # IW 860) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. of the web global buckling capacity.

3x Span 2. local load.9x106 psi G =5.20 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 5 ft.5x 2. capacity.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33. Allowable load.75 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load. Allowable load.000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =3.=8. 2.00 in2 Wt.5x Safety capacity. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.443 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=128. Aw=4.81 in Sx=32.0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 22.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 6 10974 5353 7871 3111 7 6020 3933 5783 2426 1617 2667 8 3593 3011 4428 1728 1152 2333 9 2288 2379 3498 2030 1692 1269 846 2074 10 1533 1927 2834 1530 1275 956 637 1867 11 1071 2342 1697 1179 982 737 491 1593 12 774 1968 1556 926 772 579 386 1338 13 576 1677 1436 1110 740 616 462 308 1140 14 439 1446 1333 900 600 500 375 250 983 15 341 1259 1244 739 493 410 308 205 857 16 271 1107 1167 614 409 341 256 171 753 17 218 980 1098 515 344 286 215 143 667 18 178 875 1037 437 291 243 182 121 595 19 147 785 982 373 249 207 156 104 534 20 123 708 933 321 214 179 134 89 482 21 104 643 889 279 186 155 116 77 437 22 89 585 848 243 162 135 101 68 398 23 76 536 812 213 142 119 89 59 364 24 66 492 778 188 126 105 78 52 335 25 57 453 747 167 111 93 70 46 308 26 50 419 718 149 99 83 62 41 285 27 44 389 691 133 89 74 55 37 264 28 39 361 667 119 80 66 50 33 246 29 35 337 644 108 72 60 45 30 229 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 30 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . of the web global buckling capacity.Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 8" x 8" x 1/2" (Part # IW 880) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.

2.153 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=200. of the web global buckling capacity. Aw=3.0x106 psi G =5. capacity.5x 2. Allowable load.75 in2 Wt. Allowable load.30 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 10" x 10" x 3/8" (Part # IW 960) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. 3x Span 2.45 in Sx=40.5x Safety capacity.09 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 6 ft. local load.000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =4.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 12 1288 2450 1458 574 605 13 942 2088 1346 463 516 14 705 1800 1250 378 445 15 540 1568 1167 312 387 16 420 1378 1094 261 340 17 333 1221 1029 220 302 18 267 1089 972 187 269 19 217 977 921 241 161 241 20 179 882 875 208 139 218 21 148 800 833 181 120 198 22 125 729 795 158 105 180 23 105 667 761 139 93 165 24 90 612 729 123 82 151 25 77 564 700 109 73 139 26 67 522 673 97 65 129 27 58 484 648 116 87 58 120 28 51 450 625 104 78 52 111 29 45 419 603 94 71 47 104 30 39 392 583 85 64 43 97 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 31 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 8.=8.

000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.5x Safety capacity. local load. Allowable load.=11. 3x Span 2.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 10 3501 4565 2333 1770 1180 1987 11 2417 3772 2121 1381 921 1642 12 1726 3170 1944 1096 730 1380 13 1268 2701 1795 882 588 1176 14 955 2329 1667 960 720 480 1014 15 734 2029 1556 793 595 396 883 16 575 1783 1458 662 496 331 776 17 458 1579 1373 670 558 418 279 687 18 370 1409 1296 569 474 356 237 613 19 302 1264 1228 488 407 305 203 550 20 250 1141 1167 421 351 263 175 497 21 209 1035 1111 366 305 229 152 451 22 176 943 1061 320 267 200 133 410 23 150 863 1014 281 234 176 117 376 24 129 792 972 249 207 155 104 345 25 111 730 933 221 184 138 92 318 26 97 675 897 197 164 123 82 294 27 84 626 864 176 147 110 73 273 28 74 582 833 238 158 132 99 66 253 29 66 543 805 214 143 119 89 60 236 30 58 507 778 194 129 108 81 54 221 31 52 475 753 176 117 98 73 49 207 32 47 446 729 160 107 89 67 45 194 33 42 419 707 146 98 81 61 41 182 34 38 395 686 134 89 75 56 37 172 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 32 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .36 in Sx=51.Pultex® SuperStrucural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 10" x 10" x 1/2" (Part # IW 980) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.5x 2. 2.0 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load. Allowable load.9x106 psi G =5.87 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 6 ft.364 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=259. Aw=5.0 in2 Wt.000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =3. capacity.0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 14. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity. of the web global buckling capacity.

0 in2 Wt.975 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=457. 2.25 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =3.0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 9. 3x Span 2.9x106 psi G =5. of the web global buckling capacity.=13.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 10 7077 6706 2800 1892 2027 11 4860 5543 2545 1495 1675 12 3452 4657 2333 1199 1408 13 2522 3968 2154 974 1199 14 1887 3422 2000 801 1034 15 1442 2981 1867 666 901 16 1123 2620 1750 559 792 17 888 2321 1647 473 701 18 712 2070 1556 605 404 626 19 579 1858 1474 521 347 562 20 475 1677 1400 451 300 507 21 395 1521 1333 393 262 460 22 331 1386 1273 344 229 419 23 280 1268 1217 303 202 383 24 238 1164 1167 268 179 352 25 204 1073 1120 318 239 159 324 26 176 992 1077 284 213 142 300 27 153 920 1037 255 191 127 278 28 134 855 1000 229 172 115 259 29 118 797 966 207 155 103 241 30 104 745 933 187 141 94 225 31 92 698 903 204 170 128 85 211 32 82 655 875 186 155 116 78 198 33 73 616 848 170 142 106 71 186 34 66 580 824 156 130 97 65 175 35 59 547 800 143 119 90 60 165 36 54 517 778 132 110 82 55 156 37 49 490 757 122 101 76 51 148 38 44 464 737 112 94 70 47 140 39 40 441 718 104 87 65 43 133 40 37 419 700 97 81 60 40 127 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 33 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity. capacity.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33. local load.5x Safety capacity.21 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 7 ft. Allowable load.5x 2. Aw=6.Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 12" x 12" x 1/2" (Part # IW 982) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. Allowable load.26 in Sx=76.

Allowable load.5x Safety capacity.307 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=1.75 in2 Wt. Allowable load.44 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.0 in2 Wt. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.298 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=4.53 in Sx=2.=1.=1. Aw=1.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 3 831 5535 2220 1176 784 1556 4 296 3114 1249 875 729 547 364 1167 5 137 1993 933 705 470 392 294 196 799 6 74 1384 778 419 280 233 175 116 555 7 45 1017 667 269 179 149 112 75 408 8 29 778 583 182 121 101 76 51 312 9 20 615 519 129 86 72 54 36 247 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 34 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 146.2 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 1 ft. of the web global buckling capacity.06 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load. Allowable load. 3x Span 2. of the web global buckling capacity. 2.0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 82. capacity.25 ft. Aw=. 3x Span 2.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33. local load.5x 2. capacity.000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =4.000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =4. Allowable load.0x106 psi G =5.0x106 psi G =5.Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles I-Sections 3" x 1-1/2" x 1/4" (Part # IB 340) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.8 in Sx=1. 2.5x Safety capacity.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 2 1415 11705 2640 1515 1010 1750 3 345 5202 1173 830 692 519 346 1167 4 133 2926 875 556 370 309 231 154 660 5 65 1873 700 292 195 162 122 81 422 6 37 1301 583 172 114 95 72 48 293 7 23 955 500 109 73 61 45 30 216 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 4" x 2" x 1/4" (Part # IB 440) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.5x 2.27 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 1. local load.

000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.000 Loads at various L/D ratios E =4.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 4 1169 7393 2965 2416 1812 1208 1750 5 499 4732 2100 1595 1329 997 665 1897 6 252 3286 1750 962 802 601 401 1318 7 143 2414 1500 933 622 518 389 259 968 8 88 1848 1313 636 424 353 265 177 741 9 58 1460 1167 452 301 251 188 126 586 10 40 1183 1050 332 221 185 138 92 474 11 29 978 955 251 167 140 105 70 392 12 22 821 875 194 130 108 81 54 329 13 17 700 808 154 102 85 64 43 281 14 13 604 750 123 82 69 51 34 242 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 35 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . capacity. of the web global buckling capacity.577 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=16.=2.75 ft.Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles I-Sections 6" x 3" x 1/4" (Part # IB 640) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. local load.17 in Sx=5.39 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 1. Aw= 2.0x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 36.5x 2. 3x Span 2. 2.0x106 psi G =5. Allowable load.19 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.25 in2 Wt. Allowable load.5x Safety capacity.

Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles I-Sections 6" x 3" x 3/8" (Part # IB 660) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.298 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=22.5x Safety capacity.93 in Sx=7. local load. 3x Span 2.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33. capacity.25 in2 Wt. Allowable load.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 4 1918 10479 4202 2377 1585 2625 5 848 6707 2689 1786 1339 893 2100 6 442 4657 1868 1312 1093 820 547 1750 7 259 3422 1500 1284 856 713 535 357 1372 8 164 2620 1313 881 587 489 367 245 1051 9 111 2070 1167 629 419 349 262 175 830 10 78 1677 1050 464 309 258 193 129 672 11 57 1386 955 352 234 195 147 98 556 12 43 1164 875 273 182 152 114 76 467 13 33 992 808 216 144 120 90 60 398 14 26 855 750 173 116 96 72 48 343 15 21 745 700 142 94 79 59 39 299 16 17 655 656 117 78 65 49 32 263 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 36 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .24 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.0x10 psi G =5.=3. Allowable load. 2.0x10 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 82.000 Loads at various L/D ratios 6 5 E =4. Aw= 2. of the web global buckling capacity.75 ft.5x 2. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.64 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 1.

capacity.18 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 2.5x 2. 3x Span 2.0x10 psi G =5. 2.=4. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.0x10 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 46.292 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=56.000 Loads at various L/D ratios 6 5 E =4.5 ft.36 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load. Allowable load.5x Safety capacity. of the web global buckling capacity. Allowable load.71 in Sx=14. local load.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 6 1144 4862 3466 1823 1215 2333 7 642 3572 2547 1950 1625 1219 813 2000 8 393 2735 1950 1361 1134 851 567 1750 9 256 2161 1556 1476 984 820 615 410 1541 10 176 1750 1400 1099 733 611 458 305 1248 11 125 1447 1273 839 559 466 350 233 1031 12 93 1216 1167 654 436 364 273 182 867 13 70 1036 1077 520 346 289 217 144 738 14 55 893 1000 419 280 233 175 116 637 15 43 778 933 343 229 191 143 95 555 16 35 684 875 284 189 158 118 79 487 17 29 606 824 238 159 132 99 66 432 18 24 540 778 201 134 112 84 56 385 19 20 485 737 172 114 95 71 48 346 20 17 438 700 148 98 82 61 41 312 21 14 397 667 128 85 71 53 35 283 22 12 362 636 111 74 62 46 31 258 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 37 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles I-Sections 8" x 4" x 3/8" (Part # IB 860) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.0 in2 Wt. Aw= 3.

5 ft.75 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load. local load.5x 2. 3x Span 2. Aw= 4. Allowable load.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 6 1622 10951 4429 3073 2305 1537 3111 7 929 8045 3254 2458 2048 1536 1024 2667 8 578 6160 2492 1711 1426 1069 713 2333 9 384 4867 2074 1853 1235 1029 772 515 1969 10 267 3942 1867 1378 919 765 574 383 1595 11 164 3258 1697 1051 701 584 438 292 1318 12 145 2738 1556 819 546 455 341 227 1107 13 111 2333 1436 650 433 361 271 181 944 14 87 2011 1333 524 349 291 218 146 814 15 70 1752 1244 429 286 238 179 119 709 16 57 1540 1167 355 237 197 148 99 623 17 47 1364 1098 297 198 165 124 83 552 18 39 1217 1037 251 167 140 105 70 492 19 33 1092 982 214 143 119 89 60 442 20 28 986 933 184 123 102 77 51 399 21 24 894 889 159 106 89 66 44 362 22 21 815 848 139 93 77 58 39 329 23 18 745 812 122 81 68 51 34 301 24 16 684 778 107 72 60 45 30 277 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 38 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .5x Safety capacity.587 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=72. Allowable load.9x10 psi G =5.48 in Sx=18.000 Loads at various L/D ratios 6 5 E =3.Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles I-Sections 8" x 4" x 1/2" (Part # IB 880) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.12 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 2. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.=5. capacity.0 in2 Wt.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33. of the web global buckling capacity. 2.0x10 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 81.

capacity. of the web global buckling capacity.Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles I-Sections 10" x 5" x 3/8" (Part # IB 960) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 8 856 2803 3123 2099 1574 1049 2188 9 547 2215 2467 1847 1539 1154 770 1944 10 368 1794 1998 1390 1159 869 579 1750 11 258 1652 1591 1070 892 669 446 1483 12 187 1388 1458 840 700 525 350 1246 13 139 1183 1346 1006 671 559 419 280 1062 14 107 1020 1250 816 544 453 340 227 915 15 83 888 1167 670 446 372 279 186 797 16 66 781 1094 556 371 309 232 155 701 17 53 692 1029 467 311 259 195 130 621 18 44 617 972 396 264 220 165 110 554 19 36 554 921 338 225 188 141 94 497 20 30 500 875 291 194 162 121 81 449 21 26 453 833 252 168 140 105 70 407 22 22 413 795 220 147 122 92 61 371 23 19 378 761 193 129 107 80 54 339 24 16 347 729 170 114 95 71 47 311 25 14 320 700 151 101 84 63 42 287 26 13 296 673 135 90 75 56 37 265 27 11 274 648 120 80 67 50 33 246 28 10 255 625 108 72 60 45 30 229 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 39 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . local load.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.49 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.55 in Sx=22.0x10 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 29. laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.0x10 psi G =5. Aw= 3.75 in2 Wt. Allowable load.=5.71 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 3 ft.5x Safety capacity.627 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=113. 2.5x 2. Allowable load.000 Loads at various L/D ratios 6 5 E =4. 3x Span 2.

Aw= 5. 3x Span 2. local load.45 in Sx=29.Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles I-Sections 10" x 5" x 1/2" (Part # IB 980) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. Allowable load.29 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 3.0x10 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 52.=7.5x Safety capacity.000 Loads at various L/D ratios 6 5 E =3.5x 2.9x10 psi G =5.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.5 ft.215 (lbs/ft) 4 3 Ix=146. capacity. of the web global buckling capacity. Allowable load.0 in2 Wt.25 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.5x Safety Factor Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 8 1190 6372 4027 2670 2002 1335 2917 9 770 5035 3182 2345 1954 1465 977 2593 10 524 4078 2578 1762 1469 1101 734 2333 11 372 3371 2130 2033 1355 1129 847 565 2121 12 273 2832 1944 1594 1063 886 664 443 1790 13 206 2413 1795 1272 848 707 530 353 1525 14 159 2081 1667 1030 687 572 429 286 1315 15 126 1813 1556 845 564 470 352 235 1146 16 101 1593 1458 702 468 390 292 195 1007 17 82 1411 1373 589 393 327 245 164 892 18 68 1259 1296 499 333 277 208 139 796 19 57 1130 1228 426 284 237 178 118 714 20 48 1020 1167 367 245 204 153 102 644 21 41 925 1111 318 212 177 132 88 584 22 35 843 1061 277 185 154 116 77 533 23 30 771 1014 243 162 135 101 68 487 24 26 708 972 215 143 119 89 60 447 25 23 653 933 190 127 106 79 53 412 26 20 603 897 169 113 94 71 47 381 27 18 559 864 152 101 84 63 42 354 28 16 520 833 136 91 76 57 38 329 29 14 485 805 123 82 68 51 34 306 30 13 453 778 111 74 62 46 31 286 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 40 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity. 2.

0 x 10 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 4 3 Ix= 258.F. 2.75 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load. 3x Span 2.76in Sx=43.1 (lbs/ft) E= 3.3 Simply Supported beam with Uniform 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 227.0 in2 Wt.5x Safety capacity. Allowable load.5 ft.9 x 10 psi G = 5. Aw= 6. Allowable load. of the web global buckling capacity.6 Loads at various L/D ratios 6 5 250.Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles I-Sections 12” x 6” x1/2” (Part # IB 982) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 48. local load.5x Safety Factor 2. Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 10 976 4170 3795 2442 1832 1221 2800 11 682 3447 3137 2274 1895 1421 948 2545 12 493 2896 2636 1797 1497 1123 749 2333 13 367 2468 2246 1442 1202 901 601 2154 14 280 2128 2000 1760 1173 978 733 489 1936 15 218 1854 1867 1450 967 806 604 403 1687 16 173 1629 1750 1208 805 671 503 336 1483 17 140 1443 1647 1017 678 565 424 282 1313 18 114 1287 1556 863 575 480 360 240 1171 19 94 1155 1474 739 493 410 308 205 1051 20 79 1043 1400 637 425 354 265 177 949 21 67 946 1333 553 369 307 230 154 861 22 57 862 1273 483 322 268 201 134 784 23 49 788 1217 424 283 236 177 118 717 24 42 724 1167 375 250 208 156 104 659 25 37 667 1120 333 222 185 139 92 607 26 32 617 1077 296 198 165 123 82 561 27 29 572 1037 265 177 147 111 74 521 28 25 532 1000 238 159 132 99 66 484 29 23 496 966 215 143 119 90 60 451 30 20 463 933 194 130 108 81 54 422 31 18 434 903 177 118 98 74 49 395 32 16 407 875 161 107 89 67 45 371 33 15 383 848 147 98 82 61 41 349 34 13 361 824 134 90 75 56 37 328 35 12 340 800 123 82 68 51 34 310 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 41 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . laterally compression flexural In-plane shear unsupported beam buckling capacity.13 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Maximum Lb = 3.= 8. capacity.5x S.

68 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 56.77 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load. capacity.=0. In-plane Allowable restraints Maximum load without buckling on the beam shear parallel lateral capacity of per total lateral flexural to the web.5 13 10 4 108 275 66 10 13 10 3 97 261 60 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 100 878 524 336 228 161 118 89 69 54 44 36 29 25 21 18 15 150 1083 585 349 224 152 108 79 60 46 36 29 24 20 16 14 12 10 180 903 488 291 187 127 90 66 50 38 30 24 20 16 14 11 10 8 240 677 366 218 140 95 67 49 37 29 23 18 15 12 10 9 7 6 360 451 244 145 93 63 45 33 25 19 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 42 Chapter 4 .5 6 10 79 793 747 488 4 6 10 53 607 653 373 4.5 4 10 218 1555 1045 956 3 5 10 126 1080 871 664 3.692 4 Ix=1.42 Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 3" x 7/8" x 1/4" (Part # CH 340) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7.5x capacity.5 8 10 20 321 475 197 6 9 10 16 270 436 166 6.000 Ex =2.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Aw=.5 12 10 6 134 307 83 9 12 10 5 120 290 74 9.5x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor 2. 3x support 2.328 Wt.02 in G =5. local Number of Allowable Allowable lateral compression load based load.5 7 10 37 480 581 295 5 7 10 27 389 523 239 5.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33.5 9 10 12 230 402 141 7 10 10 10 198 373 122 7.56 in2 Sx=.8x106 psi Ey =1.5x safety safety factor (feet) (inches) (lbs/ft) Ends) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 2 4 10 428 2429 1493 1307 2. span support flange. 2.5 10 10 8 173 348 106 8 11 10 7 152 327 93 8.0x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 53.

500 3.000 1.*ft) lateral buckling local buckling Chapter 4 30 35 40 43 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 43 Chapter 4 .S.500 2.000 2.Ultimate moment capacity V. Laterial restraint Pultex® CH340 3"x 7/8"x 1/4" 3.000 500 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Bracing Distance (in) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Moment (lb.500 1.

5x safety safety factor (feet) (inches) (lbs/ft) Ends) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 2 2 28 1091 1846 2354 1750 2. In-plane Allowable restraints Maximum load without buckling on the beam shear parallel lateral capacity of per total lateral flexural to the web.0x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 25. local Number of Allowable Allowable lateral compression load based load. span support flange.5x capacity.03 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load.8x106 psi Ey =1. 2.372 Aw=.5 5 28 20 167 467 131 8 5 28 17 147 438 115 8.5 3 28 95 465 778 365 5 4 28 69 377 700 295 5.5 4 28 31 223 538 175 7 4 28 25 192 500 151 7.44 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 3" x 1-1/2" x 1/4" (Part # CH 342) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7.07 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 27.61 in G =5. 3x support 2. capacity.75 in2 Wt.5 3 28 556 1507 1400 1181 3 3 28 321 1046 1167 820 3.5 5 28 14 130 412 102 9 5 28 12 116 389 91 9.5x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor 2.5 6 28 10 104 368 82 10 6 28 9 94 350 74 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio Chapter 4 100 **** 1364 818 526 358 254 186 141 109 86 69 56 46 39 33 28 24 150 1669 909 545 351 238 169 124 94 73 57 46 37 31 26 22 19 16 180 1391 758 454 292 199 141 104 78 60 48 38 31 26 22 18 15 13 240 1043 568 341 219 149 106 78 59 45 36 29 23 19 16 14 12 10 360 695 379 227 146 99 70 52 39 30 24 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 44 Chapter 4 .000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33.5 4 28 52 311 636 244 6 4 28 40 262 583 205 6.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Sx=1.876 4 Ix=1.000 Ex =2.=1.5 3 28 202 769 1000 603 4 3 28 135 589 875 461 4.

Lateral Restraint Pultex 3.Ultimate Moment Capacity v.500 1.*ft) ® CH342 3"x 1 1/2"x 1/4" Channel 2.500 2.000 1.500 3.000 Moment (lb.s.000 500 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Bracing Distance (in) lateral buckling local buckling The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 45 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 45 39 .

2. span support flange.5 4 15 140 993 1333 941 4 5 15 94 760 1167 721 4.62 in G =5.0x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 34.5 3 15 386 1946 1867 1844 3 4 15 222 1352 1556 1281 3.5 6 15 36 402 848 381 6 6 15 28 338 778 320 6.820 4 Ix=2.5x safety safety factor (feet) (inches) (lbs/ft) Ends) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 2 3 15 758 3041 2882 2333 2.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Sx=1.5 7 15 22 288 718 273 7 7 15 17 248 667 235 7.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33.5x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor 2.0 in2 Wt.8x106 psi Ey =1.5 5 15 66 601 1037 569 5 5 15 48 487 933 461 5.000 Ex =2.5 7 15 14 216 622 205 8 8 15 12 190 583 180 8. 3x support 2.5x capacity.11 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load. In-plane Allowable restraints Maximum load without buckling on the beam shear parallel lateral capacity of per total lateral flexural to the web.5 9 15 7 135 491 128 10 9 15 6 122 467 115 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio Chapter 4 100 **** 2165 1307 845 576 410 301 228 176 139 112 91 75 63 53 45 39 150 2620 1443 871 563 384 273 201 152 118 93 75 61 50 42 35 30 26 180 2183 1203 726 469 320 228 167 127 98 77 62 51 42 35 29 25 22 240 1637 902 545 352 240 171 126 95 73 58 47 38 31 26 22 19 16 360 1092 601 363 235 160 114 84 63 49 39 31 25 21 17 15 13 11 46 Chapter 4 . capacity.181 Aw=1.46 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 4" x 1-1/8" x 1/4" (Part # CH 440) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7. local Number of Allowable Allowable lateral compression load based load.31 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 36.5 8 15 10 168 549 160 9 9 15 8 150 519 142 9.=1.

500 4.S.000 2.000 500 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Bracing Distance (in) Moment (lb.Ultimate Moment Capacity V. Lateral Restraint Pultex ® CH440 4" x 1-1/8" x 1/4" 4.500 1.500 3.000 3.*ft) lateral buckling local buckling The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 90 100 110 120 47 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 47 Chapter 4 .500 2.000 1.

8x106 psi Ey =1.000 Ex =2.25 in2 Wt. 2.5x capacity.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33. span support flange.5x safety safety factor (feet) (inches) (lbs/ft) Ends) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 2 3 22 1218 3418 4772 2917 3 3 22 356 2121 1944 1519 4 4 22 150 1193 1458 854 5 4 22 76 763 1167 547 6 5 22 44 530 972 380 7 5 22 28 390 833 279 8 6 22 19 298 729 214 9 6 22 13 236 648 169 10 7 22 10 191 583 137 11 7 22 8 158 530 113 12 8 22 6 133 486 95 13 9 22 4 113 449 81 14 9 22 3 97 417 70 15 10 22 3 85 389 61 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio 100 **** **** **** **** 359 229 154 109 80 60 46 37 29 24 150 **** **** 766 406 239 152 103 73 53 40 31 24 20 16 180 **** 1412 638 338 199 127 86 61 44 33 26 20 16 13 240 **** 1059 479 254 150 95 64 45 33 25 19 15 12 10 360 2002 706 319 169 100 63 43 30 22 17 13 10 8 7 Chapter 4 48 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .5x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor 2. 3x support 2.42 in G =5.262 Aw=1. In-plane Allowable restraints Maximum load without buckling on the beam shear parallel lateral capacity of per total lateral flexural to the web.40 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Sx=2. capacity.=1.636 4 Ix=5.0x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 23.48 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 5" x 1-3/8" x 1/4" (Part # CH 540) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7.17 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 24. local Number of Allowable Allowable lateral compression load based load.

Lateral Restraint ® Pultex CH540 5" x 1-3/8" x 1/4" 5.*ft) lateral buckling local buckling The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Bracing Distance (in) 49 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 49 Chapter 4 .000 3.000 4.000 2.000 500 0 10 20 30 40 50 Moment (lb.S.500 4.500 3.500 2.000 1.500 1.Ultimate Moment Capacity V.

20 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 17.50 in2 Wt.50 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 6" x 1-5/8" x 1/4" (Part # CH 640) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7.5x capacity. span support flange.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33.000 Ex =2. In-plane Allowable restraints Maximum load without buckling on the beam shear parallel lateral capacity of per total lateral flexural to the web.=1. 3x support 2.5x safety safety factor (feet) (inches) (lbs/ft) Ends) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 2 2 30 1738 3683 7055 3500 3 3 30 505 3136 2333 1637 4 3 30 212 1764 1750 921 5 3 30 108 1129 1400 589 6 4 30 62 784 1167 409 7 4 30 39 576 1000 301 8 5 30 26 441 875 230 9 5 30 18 348 778 182 10 5 30 13 282 700 147 11 6 30 10 233 636 122 12 6 30 8 196 583 102 13 7 30 6 167 538 87 14 7 30 5 144 500 75 15 7 30 4 125 467 65 16 8 30 3 110 438 58 17 8 30 3 98 412 51 18 9 30 2 87 389 45 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio 100 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 140 106 82 64 52 42 35 29 24 150 **** **** **** **** **** 266 180 128 94 71 55 43 34 28 23 19 16 180 **** **** **** 583 346 222 150 106 78 59 45 36 29 23 19 16 14 240 **** **** 814 437 260 166 113 80 58 44 34 27 22 18 14 12 10 360 3121 1167 542 291 173 111 75 53 39 29 23 18 14 12 10 8 7 Chapter 4 50 Chapter 4 .228 4 Ix=9.0x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 17.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Sx=3.62 in G =5.8x106 psi Ey =1.70 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load. local Number of Allowable Allowable lateral compression load based load. 2. capacity.5x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor 2.344 Aw=1.

000 1.000 0 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 lateral buckling local buckling The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 95 105 115 Bracing Distance (in) 51 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 51 Chapter 4 .000 Moment (lb.*ft) 4.S.000 2.000 3.Ultimate Moment Capacity V. Lateral Restraint Pultex CH640 6"x 1-5/8"x 1/4" ® 5.

52 Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 6" x 1-11/16" x 3/8" (Part # CH 662) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7.0x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 34.42 in G =5. capacity.46 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load. 2.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33. 3x support 2. span support flange.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Sx=4.167 Aw=2.000 Ex =2.25 in2 Wt.47 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 38.8x106 psi Ey =1.=2.5x safety safety factor (feet) (inches) (lbs/ft) Ends) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 2 3 22 4019 10227 9848 5250 3 3 22 1167 4545 4377 3500 4 4 22 489 2557 2625 2462 5 4 22 249 1636 2100 1576 6 5 22 144 1136 1750 1094 7 5 22 91 835 1500 804 8 6 22 61 639 1313 615 9 6 22 43 505 1167 486 10 7 22 31 409 1050 394 11 7 22 23 338 955 326 12 8 22 18 284 875 274 13 9 22 14 242 808 233 14 9 22 11 209 750 201 15 10 22 9 182 700 175 16 10 22 8 160 656 154 17 11 22 6 142 618 136 18 11 22 5 126 583 122 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 100 **** **** **** 1473 874 559 378 268 196 148 114 90 72 59 49 41 34 150 **** **** 1833 982 583 373 252 178 131 99 76 60 48 39 32 27 23 180 **** 3307 1528 818 486 311 210 149 109 82 63 50 40 33 27 23 19 240 **** 2480 1146 614 364 233 158 112 82 62 48 38 30 25 20 17 14 360 4472 1654 764 409 243 155 105 74 54 41 32 25 20 16 13 11 9 52 Chapter 4 . local Number of Allowable Allowable lateral compression load based load.5x capacity.5x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor 2.272 4 Ix=13. In-plane Allowable restraints Maximum load without buckling on the beam shear parallel lateral capacity of per total lateral flexural to the web.

000 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 lateral buckling local buckling Chapter 4 90 100 110 120 Bracing Distance (in) 53 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 53 Chapter 4 .S.*ft) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 10.000 6.000 2.000 8.Ultimate Moment Capacity V.000 Moment (lb.000 4. Lateral Restraint Pultex ® CH662 6"x 1-11/16" x 3/8" 16.000 12.000 14.

capacity. 2.000 Ex =2. span support flange.54 7" x 2" x 1/4" (Part # CH 740) 1500/1525/1625 Series The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 7. 3x support 2.42 in G =5.5x capacity.0x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 10.525 Aw=1.=2. local Number of Allowable Allowable lateral compression load based load.5x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor 2.616 4 Ix=16.75 in2 Wt.5x safety safety factor (feet) (inches) (lbs/ft) Ends) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 5 3 46 166 1651 1633 531 6 3 46 96 1146 1361 369 7 3 46 60 842 1167 271 8 4 46 40 645 1021 207 9 4 46 28 510 907 164 10 4 46 21 413 817 133 11 4 46 16 341 742 110 12 5 46 12 287 681 92 13 5 46 9 244 628 79 14 5 46 8 211 583 68 15 5 46 6 183 544 59 16 6 46 5 161 510 52 17 6 46 4 143 480 46 18 6 46 4 127 454 41 19 6 46 3 114 430 37 20 7 46 3 103 408 33 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio Chapter 4 100 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 35 30 150 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 92 73 59 48 39 33 28 24 20 180 **** **** **** **** **** 132 99 77 61 49 40 33 27 23 20 17 240 **** **** **** 189 134 99 75 58 46 37 30 25 21 17 15 13 360 478 287 185 126 90 66 50 38 30 24 20 16 14 12 10 8 54 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . In-plane Allowable restraints Maximum load without buckling on the beam shear parallel lateral capacity of per total lateral flexural to the web.69 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 11.8x106 psi Ey =1.00 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Sx=4.

Lateral Restraint Pultex ® CH740 7" x 2" x 1/4" 5.500 1.000 1.Ultimate Moment Capacity V.000 4.*ft) lateral buckling local buckling The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 100 110 120 55 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 55 Chapter 4 .000 2.S.500 4.000 500 0 40 50 60 70 80 90 Bracing Distance (in) Moment (lb.500 2.500 3.000 3.

000 Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 6.643 Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable Allowable load.4 lbs/ft Span (feet) 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Number of lateral restraints per total span (Including Ends) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Maximum lateral support spacing (inches) 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 7. In-plane load without buckling flexural shear parallel lateral capacity of capacity.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 56 14"x6"x1/2" (Part # CH 800) 1500/1525/1625 Series Ex =3. 2.5x safety capacity.506 Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 6. to the web. 3x safety factor safety factor factor safety factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 1271 6857 4083 1352 891 5418 3630 1068 648 4388 3267 865 486 3627 2970 715 374 3048 2722 601 294 2597 2513 512 235 2239 2333 441 191 1950 2178 385 158 1714 2042 338 131 1519 1922 299 111 1354 1815 267 94 1216 1719 240 81 1097 1633 216 70 995 1556 196 61 907 1485 179 Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio 56 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 100 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 150 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 180 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 240 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 360 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 330 277 235 201 173 150 131 Chapter 4 .=10.5x 2.0x106 psi Ix=349.5x106 psi G =5.5x flange.0 in2 Ey =1. local load based Allowable Allowable compression on the beam load.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33.0x105 psi Sx=49.87 in3 Wt. support 2.085 in4 Aw=7.

5x safety span capacity.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33.0x106 psi 4 Ix=349. support support 2.5x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 6.0 in2 Wt.5x 2.643 Aw=7.5x flange. to the web. 2.87 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 6. 3x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor factor safety factor (lbs/ft) (feet) Ends) (inches) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 23 3 207 53 830 1420 164 24 3 207 47 762 1361 150 25 3 207 41 702 1307 138 26 3 207 37 649 1256 128 27 3 207 33 602 1210 119 28 3 207 29 560 1167 110 29 3 207 26 522 1126 103 30 3 207 24 488 1089 96 31 3 207 22 457 1054 90 32 3 207 20 429 1021 84 33 3 207 18 403 990 79 34 3 207 16 380 961 75 35 4 207 15 358 933 71 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio 100 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 150 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 180 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 79 73 67 240 **** **** 135 120 108 97 87 79 72 65 59 54 50 360 115 101 90 80 72 64 58 53 48 43 40 36 33 57 57 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . In-plane lateral restraints Maximum load without buckling flexural shear parallel lateral per total lateral capacity of capacity.085 in G =5.000 Ey =1.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Sx=49.(Continued) 14"x6"x1/2" (Part # CH 800) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7. local load based Allowable Allowable compression on the beam load.506 Ex =3.=10.4 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable Allowable Number of load.

000 200.000 250.*ft) 58 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 58 Ultimate Moment Capacity V.000 300.000 100.000 0 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 Bracing Distance (in) lateral buckling local buckling The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 Chapter 4 .S.Moment (lb.000 150. Lateral Restraint Pultex CH800 14"x6"x1/2" 350.000 50.

158 Aw=2. 2. span support flange.5x capacity.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 8" x 2-3/16" x 1/4" (Part # CH 840) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7. In-plane Allowable restraints Maximum load without buckling on the beam shear parallel lateral capacity of per total lateral flexural to the web. 3x support 2.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33.000 Ex =2.5x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor 2.32 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Sx=6.30 in G =5.0 in2 Wt.07 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 10.0x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 9.8x106 psi Ey =1. local Number of Allowable Allowable lateral compression load based load.=2.396 4 Ix=24.5x safety safety factor (feet) (inches) (lbs/ft) Ends) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 6 3 52 118 1485 1556 423 7 3 52 74 1091 1333 311 8 3 52 50 835 1167 238 9 4 52 35 660 1037 188 10 4 52 25 535 933 152 11 4 52 19 442 848 126 12 4 52 15 371 778 106 13 4 52 12 316 718 90 14 5 52 9 273 667 78 15 5 52 8 238 622 68 16 5 52 6 209 583 59 17 5 52 5 185 549 53 18 6 52 4 165 519 47 19 6 52 4 148 491 42 20 6 52 3 134 467 38 21 6 52 3 121 444 35 22 7 52 2 110 424 31 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 100 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 150 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 58 48 41 35 30 26 23 180 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 89 72 59 48 40 34 29 25 22 19 240 **** **** **** **** 145 110 85 67 54 44 36 30 26 22 19 16 14 360 415 269 184 131 96 73 57 45 36 29 24 20 17 15 12 11 9 Chapter 4 59 Chapter 4 59 . capacity.

Moment (lb. Lateral Restraint Pultex® CH840 8" x 2-3/16" x 1/4" 6.000 3.000 1.000 2.S.000 4.*ft) 60 Ultimate Moment Capacity V.000 5.000 0 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Bracing Distance (in) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual lateral buckling local buckling Chapter 4 60 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .

75 in4 Aw=3. local Allowable Allowable compression load based load. In-plane Allowable load without buckling on the beam shear parallel capacity of lateral flexural to the web. 3x support 2.=3.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33.0x106 psi Ix=33. flange.0x105 psi Sx=8.139 Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 21. capacity.5x safety safety factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 869 4641 3500 2973 442 2970 2800 1903 255 2063 2333 1321 160 1515 2000 971 107 1160 1750 743 75 917 1556 587 55 743 1400 476 41 614 1273 393 32 516 1167 330 25 439 1077 281 20 379 1000 243 16 330 933 211 13 290 875 186 11 257 824 165 9 229 778 147 9 229 778 147 8 206 737 132 7 186 700 119 Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) Ex =3.0 in2 Ey =1.43 in3 Wt.5x safety factor safety factor 2.000 Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 21.416 Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load.5x capacity. 2.0x106 psi G =5.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 8" x 2-3/16" x 3/8" (Part # CH 860) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7.41 lbs/ft Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio Span (feet) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18 19 20 Number of lateral restraints per total span (Including Ends) 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Maximum lateral support spacing (inches) 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 100 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 366 283 224 180 147 121 101 85 85 73 62 150 **** **** **** 902 616 438 322 244 189 149 120 98 81 67 57 57 48 42 180 **** **** 1161 752 513 365 269 203 157 124 100 81 67 56 47 47 40 35 240 **** 1438 871 564 385 274 202 152 118 93 75 61 50 42 36 36 30 26 360 1733 959 580 376 257 183 134 102 79 62 50 41 34 28 24 24 20 17 61 Chapter 4 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 61 Chapter 4 .

S.000 15.000 10.000 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 B racing D istance (in) 62 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 59 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual lateral buckling local buckling Chapter 4 Chapter 4 .anual M m n (lb o e t 62 U a M en C pa ltim te om t a city V L ter l R a t . a a estr in Pu ltex C 860 8"x 3/16"x H 2 3/8" 25.000 20.000 5.

capacity.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33.000 Ex =2. 2.452 Aw=5.08 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load. span support flange.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 11-1/2" x 2-3/4" x 1/2" (Part # CH 955) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Sx=21.5x safety safety factor (feet) (inches) (lbs/ft) Ends) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 4 3 36 2641 9767 11917 6708 6 3 36 770 5296 4472 4341 8 4 36 323 2979 3354 2442 10 5 36 165 1907 2683 1563 12 5 36 95 1324 2236 1085 14 6 36 60 973 1917 797 16 7 36 40 745 1677 610 18 7 36 28 588 1491 482 20 8 36 21 477 1342 391 22 9 36 15 394 1220 323 24 9 36 12 331 1118 271 26 10 36 9 282 1032 231 28 11 36 7 243 958 199 30 11 366 6 212 894 174 32 12 36 5 186 839 153 34 13 36 4 165 789 135 36 13 36 4 147 745 121 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 100 **** **** **** **** **** 651 440 311 228 172 133 105 84 68 56 47 40 150 **** **** 2151 1147 680 434 294 207 152 115 88 70 56 46 38 31 26 180 **** 3907 1792 956 566 362 245 173 127 95 74 58 47 38 31 26 22 240 **** 2930 1344 717 425 271 183 130 95 72 55 44 35 28 23 20 17 360 5363 1954 896 478 283 181 122 86 63 48 37 29 23 19 16 13 11 63 Chapter 4 63 .=6. In-plane Allowable restraints Maximum load without buckling on the beam shear parallel lateral capacity of per total lateral flexural to the web. local Number of Allowable Allowable lateral compression load based load.58 in G =5.67 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 30.5x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor 2.0x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 27. 3x support 2.8x106 psi Ey =1.5x capacity.75 in2 Wt.046 4 Ix=124.

Lateral Restraint Pultex® CH955 11-1/2"x 2 3/4"x 1/2" 60.000 10.Moment (lb.S.*ft) 64 Ultimate Moment Capacity V.000 30.000 50.000 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Bracing Distance (in) lateral buckling local buckling The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 64 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .000 40.000 20.

3x support 2.5x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 20. span support flange. local Number of Allowable Allowable lateral compression load based load.37 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 21.5x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor 2.278 4 Ix=86.5x safety safety factor (feet) (inches) (lbs/ft) Ends) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 4 2 52 2632 9554 5833 5870 6 3 52 770 4246 3889 2609 8 3 52 323 2388 2917 1468 10 4 52 165 1529 2333 939 12 4 52 95 1062 1944 652 14 5 52 60 780 1667 479 16 5 52 40 597 1458 367 18 6 52 28 472 1296 290 20 6 52 21 382 1167 235 22 7 52 15 316 1061 194 24 7 52 12 265 972 163 26 7 52 9 226 897 139 28 8 52 7 195 833 120 30 8 52 6 170 778 104 32 9 52 5 149 729 92 34 9 52 4 132 686 81 36 10 52 4 118 648 72 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 100 **** **** **** **** **** **** 384 271 199 150 116 91 73 60 49 41 35 150 **** **** **** 1000 592 378 256 181 132 100 77 61 49 40 33 27 23 180 **** **** **** 833 494 315 213 151 110 83 64 51 41 33 27 23 19 240 **** 2553 1171 625 370 236 160 113 83 62 48 38 30 25 20 17 14 360 4671 1702 781 417 247 158 107 75 55 42 32 25 20 17 14 11 10 65 65 Chapter 4 .=5.5 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load.102 Aw=5.5x106 psi Ey =1.0 in2 Wt.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33. 2.5x capacity. In-plane Allowable restraints Maximum load without buckling on the beam shear parallel lateral capacity of per total lateral flexural to the web.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 10" x 2-3/4" x 1/2" SuperStructural (Part # CH 980) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7. capacity.87 in G =5.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Sx=17.000 Ex =3.

000 15.000 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 25.000 20.000 5.Moment (lb. Lateral Restraint Pultex® SuperStructural CH980 10"x2 3/4"x1/2" 35.000 10.000 0 50 60 70 80 90 lateral buckling local buckling Chapter 4 100 110 120 Bracing Distance (in) 66 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .000 30.S.*ft) 66 Ultimate Moment Capacity V.

8x106 psi Ey =1.32 in2 Wt. 2.0 in3 with Maximum Lateral Support bracing (psi) 14.000 Ultimate Flexural Stress (psi) 33.5x capacity. In-plane Allowable restraints Maximum load without buckling on the beam shear parallel lateral capacity of per total lateral flexural to the web.5x Span (Including spacing safety factor safety factor 2. span support flange.=10. 3x support 2.89 lbs/ft Simply Supported Beam with a Uniform Load Load Tables Based on Laterally Supported Beams Unless Noted Allowable load.0x105 psi Ultimate Lateral-torsional Buckling Stress Sx=82. local Number of Allowable Allowable lateral compression load based load.000 Ex =2.419 Aw=11.184 4 Ix=985.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Channels 24" x 4" x 15/32" (Part # CH 994) 1500/1525/1625 Series 7.0x106 psi Ultimate Local Flange Buckling Stress (psi) 14.10 in G =5. capacity.5x safety safety factor (feet) (inches) (lbs/ft) Ends) (lbs/ft) factor (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 10 3 64 387 7216 5286 3102 12 4 64 223 5011 4405 2154 14 4 64 140 3682 3776 1582 16 4 64 93 2819 3304 1212 18 5 64 65 2227 2937 957 20 5 64 48 1804 2643 775 22 6 64 36 1491 2403 641 24 6 64 28 1253 2203 538 26 6 64 22 1067 2033 459 28 7 64 17 920 1888 396 30 7 64 14 802 1762 345 32 7 64 12 705 1652 303 34 8 64 10 624 1555 268 36 8 64 8 557 1468 239 38 9 64 7 500 1391 215 40 9 64 6 451 1322 194 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Reduction for weight of profile has not been applied to the charts Ultimate In-Plane Shear Stress (psi) Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) Load Tables Based on Minimum Lateral Support L/D ratio The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 100 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 150 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 243 205 175 150 180 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 357 292 242 202 171 146 125 240 **** **** **** **** **** 709 539 420 333 268 219 181 152 128 109 94 360 **** 1930 1277 885 637 472 360 280 222 179 146 121 101 85 73 63 Chapter 4 67 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 67 Chapter 4 .

Moment (lb.000 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 80.000 0 50 60 70 lateral buckling local buckling 68 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 Bracing Distance (in) Chapter 4 .*ft) 68 Mom ent Capacity V. Lateral Restraint ® Pultex CH994 24" x 4" x 15/32" 120.000 100.S.000 40.000 20.000 60.

2.40 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Aw=.33 in Sx= 44 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Aw= .35 in Sx=.511 4 3 Ix= .2x106 psi G =4.2x106 psi G =4.5x Safety capacity.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength 126.=. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 1 2479 3520 2042 2 880 1021 620 3 391 681 212 275 4 220 510 91 155 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 3069 444 136 58 180 2557 370 113 48 240 1918 278 85 36 360 1279 185 57 24 Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 452 141 61 180 377 118 51 240 1770 282 88 38 360 1180 188 59 25 69 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 1 14844 3872 3500 2 3711 1750 667 968 3 1649 1167 204 430 4 928 875 87 242 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 1-3/4" x 1-3/4" x 1/8" (Part # TQ 126) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength 7. 2.5x Safety capacity.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.5x 2.= . compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.75 in2 Wt.000 E = 3.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 23. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity. of the web capacity.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.92 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load. local load.5x 2.237 4 3 Ix=.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 1-1/2" x 1-1/2" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 142) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength 7.438 in2 Wt. of the web capacity.000 E =3. Allowable load. local load.54 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load. Allowable load.

3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 1 16606 5896 4083 2 4152 2042 1123 1474 3 1845 1361 348 655 4 1038 1021 149 369 5 664 817 77 236 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 2" x 2" x 1/8" (Part # TQ 220) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. local load. Allowable load.57 in Sx=. of the web capacity.53 in Sx=.5x Safety capacity.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.=1.=.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.67 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Aw=.2x106 psi G =4.69 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load. local load.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 17.000 E =3.000 E =3. 2.12 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load.53 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Aw=. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 1 2514 4664 2333 2 1166 1167 629 3 518 778 279 4 292 583 137 157 5 187 467 71 101 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 749 232 99 51 180 4061 624 193 83 43 240 3046 468 145 62 32 360 2030 312 97 41 21 Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 180 554 176 76 39 240 415 132 57 30 211 91 47 360 1633 277 88 38 20 70 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .2x106 psi G =4.875 in2 Wt.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 92. 2.791 4 Ix=. of the web capacity.5 in2 Wt.947 4 3 Ix=.5x 2.Pultex® Standard Structurals Square Tubes 1-3/4" x 1-3/4" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 144) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.5x 2. Allowable load.5x Safety capacity. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.

of the web capacity.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.20" (Part # TQ 230) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. local load.000 Simply Supported beam E =3.5x Safety capacity. Allowable load.162 with Uniform Loads at various Ix= . 2.11" x .40 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.5x 2.07 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load.=1. Allowable load.5x Safety capacity.919 4 3 Ix=.89 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft) 2 Aw=1. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 2 2346 1969 1708 1892 3 1043 1313 542 841 4 587 985 235 473 5 375 788 122 303 6 261 656 71 210 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 1138 361 156 81 47 180 949 301 130 68 39 240 711 226 98 51 30 360 474 151 65 34 20 71 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .=1.2x106 psi G =4. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.0 in Wt.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 71.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.86 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Aw=.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 40. 2. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.5x 2.84 in2 Wt.91 in Sx= .Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 2" x 2" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 240) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.89 in4 Sx= . of the web capacity.11" x 2. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 2 4222 2333 1706 1137 948 711 474 1958 3 1877 1556 536 357 298 223 149 870 4 1056 1167 231 154 128 96 64 490 5 676 933 119 80 66 50 33 313 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 2.000 E =3. local load.2x106 psi G =4.

=2. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 2 4871 5082 3500 3 2259 2333 1940 2165 4 1271 1750 862 1218 5 813 1400 453 779 6 565 1167 266 541 7 415 1000 169 398 8 318 875 114 304 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 2265 737 322 168 98 62 180 1888 615 269 140 82 52 240 1416 461 201 105 61 39 360 944 307 134 70 41 26 Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 1293 575 302 177 112 76 180 3179 1078 479 251 148 94 63 240 2384 808 359 189 111 70 47 360 1589 539 239 126 74 47 32 72 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .16 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load. local load.5x Safety capacity. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 2 4615 3344 3398 2917 3 2051 1944 1106 1486 4 1154 1458 483 836 5 738 1167 252 535 6 513 972 147 372 7 377 833 93 273 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 3" x 3" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 340) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.000 E =3.=1. of the web capacity. 2. Allowable load.2x106 psi G =4.25 in2 Wt.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 2-1/2" x 2-1/2" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 242) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.5 in2 Wt.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33. local load.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength 31.52 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Aw=1.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.31 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Aw=1.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 45.5x Safety capacity.79 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load. 2. of the web capacity. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.544 4 3 Ix= 1.47 in Sx= 2.000 E =3.2x106 psi G =4.5x 2. Allowable load.5x 2. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.628 4 3 Ix= 3.90 in Sx= 1.

5x 2.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.2x106 psi G =4.283 4 3 Ix= 7.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 3-1/2" x 3-1/2" x 3/8" (Part # TQ 360) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.=3. local load.71 in Sx= 4.5x Safety capacity.70 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 2 9687 15347 6125 3 4305 4179 6821 4083 4 3837 3063 1880 2422 5 2450 993 2455 1550 6 2042 585 1705 1076 7 1750 372 1253 791 8 1531 251 959 605 9 1361 177 758 478 10 1225 130 614 387 11 1114 98 507 320 12 1021 75 426 269 13 942 59 363 229 14 875 48 313 198 15 817 39 273 172 16 766 32 240 151 17 721 27 212 134 18 681 22 189 120 19 645 19 170 107 20 613 16 153 97 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 2786 1253 662 390 248 167 118 86 65 50 40 32 26 21 18 15 13 11 180 2321 1044 552 325 207 139 98 72 54 42 33 26 22 18 15 12 11 9 240 4990 1741 783 414 244 155 105 74 54 41 31 25 20 16 13 11 9 8 7 360 3326 1161 522 276 162 103 70 49 36 27 21 16 13 11 9 7 6 5 5 73 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . 2. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity. Allowable load.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 52.000 E =3. of the web capacity.62 in2 Wt.40 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Aw=2.

5x 2.0 in2 Wt. local load.96 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load.75 in Sx= 4. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 3 4273 3111 2304 4 2404 2333 1296 5 1538 1867 829 6 1068 1556 576 7 785 1333 416 423 8 601 1167 282 324 9 475 1037 199 256 10 385 933 146 207 11 318 848 110 171 12 267 778 85 144 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 180 1138 610 362 231 157 111 81 61 47 434 278 188 133 97 73 57 240 1848 854 457 271 174 117 83 61 46 35 360 1232 569 305 181 116 78 55 41 31 24 74 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . 2.5x Safety capacity.37 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Aw=2.000 E =3. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.791 4 3 Ix= 8. of the web capacity.=2.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.2x106 psi G =4. Allowable load.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 4" x 4" x 1/4" (Part # TQ 440) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 17.

791 Ix= 44. local load. 2.5 in Wt.98 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load 2 Aw=4.5x Safety capacity.0 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load.5x 2.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 6" x 6" x 3/8" (Part # TQ 660) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.000 E =3. of the web capacity. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 3 7896 14647 7000 4 8239 5250 4442 5 5273 4200 2843 6 3662 3500 1974 7 2690 3000 1450 8 2060 2625 1110 9 1627 2333 877 10 1318 2100 711 11 1089 1909 553 587 12 915 1750 429 494 13 780 1615 339 421 14 673 1500 272 363 15 586 1400 222 316 16 515 1313 184 278 17 456 1235 153 246 18 407 1167 129 219 19 365 1105 110 197 20 330 1050 95 178 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 180 240 3791 2125 1297 844 578 412 304 230 179 141 114 93 76 64 54 46 39 1351 925 660 487 369 286 226 182 148 122 102 86 73 63 2833 1729 1126 771 550 405 307 238 188 151 123 102 85 72 61 53 360 5046 2527 1417 864 563 385 275 203 154 119 94 76 62 51 43 36 31 26 75 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .=7.2x106 psi G =4.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength 17.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.93 in4 Sx= 14. Allowable load.

local load.5x 2.77 in Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Aw=1.74" x 1.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 23. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 3 1731 1843 1249 4 974 1383 703 5 623 1106 450 6 433 922 312 7 318 790 202 229 8 243 691 136 176 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 1066 476 250 147 93 180 2593 888 396 209 122 78 240 1945 666 297 156 92 58 360 1297 444 198 104 61 39 Simply Supported beam with Uniform Loads at various L/D ratios (lbs/ft) L/D ratio 150 671 357 211 134 91 180 1229 559 297 176 112 76 240 922 419 223 132 84 57 360 615 280 149 88 56 38 76 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . Allowable load. local load.5x 2.=1. Allowable load.=1.824 4 3 Ix=4.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 4 Ix=2.17 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load. 2.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.18 in2 Wt. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 2 3253 2882 2669 3 1446 1780 1281 4 813 1335 713 721 5 520 1068 375 461 6 361 890 220 320 7 266 763 140 235 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 4.43" x 0.20 in Sx=1.89 in Sx=1. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.13" (Part # TR 420) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.2x106 psi G =4.125" (Part # TR 422) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength 7.000 E =3.14 in2 Wt.000 E =3. 2.5x Safety capacity. of the web capacity.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes 4.08 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams Allowable Allowable load. of the web capacity.31 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load Aw=1.2x106 psi G =4.72" x 0.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.40" x 1. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.5x Safety capacity.

663 Uniform Loads at various 4 Ix=5. 2.=1.07" x 2" x 0.34 in Wt. Allowable load.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.5x 2.132" (Part # TR 522) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.45 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.2x106 psi G =4. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 3 2180 2082 1202 801 1299 4 1227 1562 554 369 731 5 785 1249 395 296 197 468 6 545 1041 281 234 176 117 325 7 400 892 180 150 112 75 239 8 307 781 182 121 101 76 51 183 9 242 694 129 86 72 54 36 144 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 77 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 19.5x Safety capacity.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes 5.23 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft) 2 Aw=1. of the web capacity.65 in Sx=2.000 Simply Supported beam with E =3. local load.

Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes 6" x 2" x 0. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.=2. Allowable load.5x 2.34 in4 Sx=3.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 20.5x Safety capacity.62 in Wt.540 Uniform Loads at various Ix=9.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33. of the web capacity.2x106 psi G =4. local load.00 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.11 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft) 2 Aw=1. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 4 1711 1890 877 585 1065 5 1095 1512 634 476 317 681 6 760 1260 455 379 284 190 473 7 559 1080 292 244 183 122 348 8 428 945 198 165 124 83 266 9 338 840 141 117 88 59 210 10 274 756 155 103 86 65 43 170 11 226 687 117 78 65 49 32 141 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 78 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . 2.135" Multicell (Part # TR 620) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.000 Simply Supported beam with E =3.

local load. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 4 886 1027 406 271 225 169 113 557 5 567 821 212 141 118 88 59 356 6 394 684 124 83 69 52 34 247 7 289 587 79 52 44 33 22 182 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 79 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.5x 2.61 in4 Sx=1. 2.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 20. Allowable load.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.2x106 psi G =4.61 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load L/D ratios (lbs/ft) 2 Aw=.000 Simply Supported beam with E =3.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes 2" x 6" x 0. of the web capacity.5x Safety capacity.00 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.88 in Wt.751 Uniform Loads at various Ix=1.=2.135" Multicell (Part # TR 620) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.

5x 2.5x Safety capacity.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 17. Allowable load.753 Loads at various L/D ratios 4 Ix=22. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 4 4092 3500 2005 1337 2201 5 2619 2800 1103 735 1409 6 1819 2333 886 665 443 978 7 1336 2000 687 573 429 286 719 8 1023 1750 468 390 293 195 550 9 808 1556 333 277 208 139 435 10 655 1400 245 204 153 102 352 11 541 1273 277 185 154 116 77 291 12 455 1167 215 143 119 89 60 245 13 387 1077 170 113 94 71 47 208 14 334 1000 136 91 76 57 38 180 15 291 933 111 74 62 46 31 157 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 80 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .0 in Wt.31 in Sx=7.44 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load (lbs/ft) 2 Aw=3.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform E =3. 2. local load.2x106 psi G =4. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.85 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.=3. of the web capacity.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes 6" x 4" x 1/4" (Part # TR 640) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.

2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 17. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity. local load.5 in Wt.2x106 psi G =4.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes 7" x 4" x 1/4 " (Part # TR 740) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 4 5286 4083 1908 2835 5 3383 3267 1600 1067 1815 6 2349 2722 974 650 1260 7 1726 2333 845 634 422 926 8 1321 2042 694 578 434 289 709 9 1044 1815 495 412 309 206 560 10 846 1633 365 304 228 152 454 11 699 1485 276 230 173 115 375 12 587 1361 214 178 134 89 315 13 500 1256 254 169 141 106 70 268 14 431 1167 204 136 113 85 57 231 15 376 1089 166 111 92 69 46 202 16 330 1021 137 92 76 57 38 177 17 293 961 115 77 64 48 32 157 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 81 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . of the web capacity.=4. Allowable load.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform E =3.08 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.5x 2.61 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load (lbs/ft) 2 Aw=3.61 in Sx=9.5x Safety capacity. 2.702 Loads at various L/D ratios 4 Ix=33.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.

2x106 psi G =4.=5. local load.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.25 in Wt.99 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 4 9028 7480 5474 4105 2737 6125 5 5778 4900 3657 3048 2286 1524 4787 6 4012 4083 2222 1852 1389 926 3324 7 2948 3500 2164 1443 1202 902 601 2442 8 2257 3063 1480 986 822 616 411 1870 9 1783 2722 1054 703 586 439 293 1478 10 1444 2450 776 518 431 323 216 1197 11 1194 2227 588 392 327 245 163 989 12 1003 2042 455 304 253 190 126 831 13 855 1885 360 240 200 150 100 708 14 737 1750 289 193 161 120 80 611 15 642 1633 236 157 131 98 65 532 16 564 1531 195 130 108 81 54 468 17 500 1441 163 108 90 68 45 414 18 446 1361 137 92 76 57 38 369 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 82 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .60 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load (lbs/ft) 2 Aw=5. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.5x Safety capacity.58 in Sx=13.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 39.830 Loads at various L/D ratios 4 Ix=47.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform E =3. Allowable load.5x 2.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes 7" x 4" x 3/8" (Part # TR 760) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7. 2. of the web capacity.

000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform E =3.5x 2.5x Safety capacity.48 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes 8" x 4" x 1/4" (Part # TR 842) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.70 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load (lbs/ft) 2 Aw=4. of the web capacity.0 in Wt.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 17.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33. 2.80 in Sx=11.673 Loads at various L/D ratios 4 Ix=46. Allowable load. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity.=4.2x106 psi G =4. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 5 4118 3733 2151 1434 2206 6 2860 3111 1322 882 1532 7 2101 2667 865 577 1125 8 1609 2333 793 595 397 862 9 1271 2074 680 567 425 284 681 10 1030 1867 503 419 314 209 551 11 851 1697 381 318 238 159 456 12 715 1556 296 247 185 123 383 13 609 1436 234 195 146 98 326 14 525 1333 188 157 118 78 281 15 458 1244 231 154 128 96 64 245 16 402 1167 191 127 106 79 53 215 17 356 1098 159 106 88 66 44 191 18 318 1037 134 90 75 56 37 170 19 285 982 115 76 64 48 32 153 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 83 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . local load.

=6.52 lbs/ft Laterally Supported beams L/D ratio Allowable Allowable load.0 in Wt.5x 2.2x105 psi Ultimate Local Buckling Strength (psi) 39.000 Simply Supported beam with Uniform E =3. local load.764 Loads at various L/D ratios 4 Ix=66.2x106 psi G =4. 3x Span Safety Factor Factor Safety Factor (feet) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) (lbs/ft) 100 150 180 240 360 5 7066 5864 4948 4124 3093 2062 5600 6 4907 4667 3034 2529 1896 1264 4072 7 3605 4000 2973 1982 1652 1239 826 2992 8 2760 3500 2041 1361 1134 850 567 2291 9 2181 3111 1458 972 810 608 405 1810 10 1767 2800 1076 718 598 449 299 1466 11 1460 2545 816 544 454 340 227 1212 12 1227 2333 633 422 352 264 176 1018 13 1045 2154 501 334 278 209 139 868 14 901 2000 403 269 224 168 112 748 15 785 1867 329 219 183 137 91 652 16 690 1750 272 181 151 113 75 573 17 611 1647 227 151 126 95 63 507 18 545 1556 192 128 106 80 53 452 19 489 1474 163 109 91 68 45 406 20 442 1400 140 93 78 58 39 367 Note: Bold numbers in the Factored Load Tables represent the governing load 84 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .63 in Sx=16.66 in3 Simply Supported with a Uniform Load (lbs/ft) 2 Aw=6. 2. compression flexural In-plane shear buckling capacity. Allowable load. of the web capacity.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes 8" x 4" x 3/8" (Part # TR 860) Ultimate In-Plane Shear Strength (psi) 7.000 1500/1525/1625 Series Ultimate Flexural Strength (psi) 33.5x Safety capacity.

Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Flat Sheets
1/8" (Part # FS 020) Pultex 1500/1525 & 1625 Series
®

E = 2.0x 106 psi Weight = 1.09 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction 100 21 6 3 150 14 4 2 L/D 180 12 3 1.4 240 9 3 1.1 360 6 2 0.7

span (inches) 12 18 24 1/8" (Part # FS020) Pultex 1500/1525 & 1625 Series
®

E = .8x 106 psi Weight = 1.09 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction 100 8 2 1.0 150 6 2 0.7 L/D 180 5 1.37 0.58 240 3 1.03 0.43 360 2 0.69 0.29

span (inches) 12 18 24

Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Flat Sheets
1/4" (Part # FS 040) Pultex® 1500/1525 & 1625 Series span (inches) 12 18 24 1/4" (Part # FS 040) Pultex® 1500/1525 & 1625 Series span (inches) 12 18 24 E = 2.0x 106 psi Weight = 2.27 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction 100 167 49 21 150 111 33 14 L/D 180 93 27 12 240 69 21 9 360 46 14 6

E = .8x 106 psi Weight = 2.27 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction 100 67 20 8 150 44 13 6 L/D 180 37 11 5 240 28 8 3 360 19 5 2

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Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Flat Sheets
E = 2.0x 106 psi Weight = 3.43 lb/ft2 3/8" (Part # FS 060) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. Pultex® 1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction span (inches) 12 18 24 30 36 100 563 167 70 36 21 150 375 111 47 24 14 L/D 180 313 93 39 20 12 240 234 69 29 15 9 360 156 46 20 10 6

E = .8x 106 psi Weight = 3.43 lb/ft2 3/8" (Part # FS 060) All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. ® Pultex 1500/1525 & 1625 Series Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction span (inches) 12 18 24 30 36 100 225 67 28 14 8 150 150 44 19 10 6 L/D 180 125 37 16 8 5 240 94 28 12 6 3 360 63 19 8 4 2

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Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Flat Sheets
1/2" (Part # FS 080) Pultex 1500/1525 & 1625 Series
®

E = 2.0x 106 psi Weight = 4.64 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction 100 1333 395 167 85 49 31 21 150 889 263 111 57 33 21 14 L/D 180 741 219 93 47 27 17 12 240 556 165 69 36 21 13 9 360 370 110 46 24 14 9 6

span (inches) 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 1/2" (Part # FS 080) Pultex 1500/1525 & 1625 Series
®

E = .8x 106 psi Weight = 4.64 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction 100 533 158 67 34 20 12 8 150 356 105 44 23 13 8 6 L/D 180 296 88 37 19 11 7 5 240 222 66 28 14 8 5 3 360 148 44 19 9 5 3 2

span (inches) 12 18 24 30 36 42 48

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Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Flat Sheets
5/8" (Part # FS 090) Pultex 1500/1525 & 1625 Series
®

E = 2.0x 106 psi Weight = 5.77 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction 100 2604 772 326 167 96 61 41 29 21 150 1736 514 217 111 64 40 27 19 14 L/D 180 1447 429 181 93 54 34 23 16 12 240 1085 322 136 69 40 25 17 12 9 360 723 214 90 46 27 17 11 8 6

span (inches) 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 5/8" (Part # FS 090) Pultex 1500/1525 & 1625 Series
®

E = .8x 106 psi Weight = 5.77 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction 100 1042 309 130 67 39 24 16 11 8 150 694 206 87 44 26 16 11 8 6 L/D 180 579 171 72 37 21 13 9 6 5 240 434 129 54 28 16 10 7 5 3 360 289 86 36 19 11 7 5 3 2

span (inches) 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60

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Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Flat Sheets
3/4"(Part # FS 100) Pultex 1500/1525 & 1625 Series
®

E = 2.0x 106 psi Weight = 6.57 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction 100 4500 1333 563 288 167 105 70 49 36 150 3000 889 375 192 111 70 47 33 24 L/D 180 2500 741 313 160 93 58 39 27 20 240 1875 556 234 120 69 44 29 21 15 360 1250 370 156 80 46 29 20 14 10

span (inches) 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 3/4" (Part # FS 100) Pultex® 1500/1525 & 1625 Series span (inches) 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60

E = .8x 106 psi Weight = 6.57 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs./ft2. Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction 100 1800 533 225 115 67 42 28 20 14 150 1200 356 150 77 44 28 19 13 10 L/D 180 1000 296 125 64 37 23 16 11 8 240 750 222 94 48 28 17 12 8 6 360 500 148 63 32 19 12 8 5 4

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Sheet Spanning in Lengthwise Direction 100 10667 3160 1333 683 395 249 167 117 85 150 7111 2107 889 455 263 166 111 78 57 L/D 180 5926 1756 741 379 219 138 93 65 47 240 4444 1317 556 284 165 104 69 49 36 360 2963 878 370 190 110 69 46 33 24 span (inches) 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 1" (Part # FS 110) Pultex 1500/1525 & 1625 Series ® E = . Sheet Spanning in Crosswise Direction 100 4267 1264 533 273 158 100 67 47 34 150 2844 843 356 182 105 66 44 31 23 L/D 180 2370 702 296 152 88 55 37 26 19 240 1778 527 222 114 66 41 28 20 14 360 1185 351 148 76 44 28 19 13 9 span (inches) 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 90 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Flat Sheets 1" (Part # FS 110) Pultex 1500/1525 & 1625 Series ® E = 2.8x 106 psi Weight = 9./ft2./ft2.45 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs.45 lb/ft2 All Allowable Uniform Loads are in lbs.0x 106 psi Weight = 9.

2.300 1500/1525 Series Pultex® SuperStructural Angles # of Ultimate Ultimate Allowable Clip Bolt # of Bolts Shear Load Bearing Bearing Load Clip Angle Angle Angle Hole Bolt # of Angles Bolts through # of Bolts through Load of for 4% Hole Ultimate Thickness Connection Dia.000 20. 6.300 1/2 4 1/2 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 15.000 20.900 psi (1625 Series) Note: Clip angle connection dimensions are governed by internal dimensions of beams and external dimensions of the flanges on the columns.300 1/2 6 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 20.475 24.400 psi (1500/1525 Series).400 91 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .) (lbs.475 1/2 4 1/2 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 15. Full section shear strength through angle heel = 3. The experimental procedure can be located in Appendix A. Experimental test results Room temperature (73°) A safety factor has not been applied.400 41.) 3/8 6 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 15.750 9.750 9. in in Beam Connected Angle Heels Connection Deformation Load before (in) Length (in) (in) (in) Connection Shear Web to Column (lbs.000 psi A 4% hole deformation bearing stress of 12.400 33.300 30.000 15. 3.000 15.) (lbs. 8.250 11.475 3/8 4 1/2 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 11.250 15.250 15.475 30.250 15. All loads are ultimate unless noted. 1500/1525 Series Pultex® SuperStructural Angles # of Ultimate Ultimate Allowable Clip Bolt # of Bolts Shear Load Bearing Bearing Load Clip Angle Angle Angle Hole Bolt # of Angles Bolts through # of Bolts through Load of for 4% Hole Ultimate Thickness Connection Dia.000 12. 7.Clip Connection Load Tables with Pultex® SuperStructural Angles The following Clip Connection Load Tables were developed based on full section testing of the Pultex® SuperStructural angles.) Failure (lbs.) (lbs. Dia.300 41.) Failure (lbs. 3. 9. An ultimate bearing strength of 33. Dia.400 1/2 6 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 20.300 24.000 psi No damage to the composite materials No chemical exposure Bolted connection only. The load tables were developed based on the following: 1.000 15. 4.000 12.) 3/8 4 1/2 9/16 1/2 2 4 2 4 11.) (lbs.000 11.300 3/8 6 11/16 5/8 2 4 2 4 15.938 11. 5.300 33. no adhesive. in in Beam Connected Angle Heels Connection Deformation Load before (in) Length (in) (in) (in) Connection Shear Web to Column (lbs.938 11.

550 11/16 5/8 9/16 1/2 11/16 5/8 92 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .) 2 6 3 6 21.163 17. (in) 1/2 5/8 1/2 5/8 # of Ultimate Ultimate Allowable # of Bolts Shear Load Bearing Bearing Load Clip Angle # of Angles Bolts through # of Bolts through Load of for 4% Hole Ultimate in in Beam Connected Angle Heels Connection Deformation Load before Connection Shear Web to Column (lbs.500 21.050 2 6 3 6 28.038 46.038 37.000 13.550 17. (in) 1/2 # of Ultimate Ultimate Allowable # of Bolts Shear Load Bearing Bearing Load Clip Angle # of Angles Bolts through # of Bolts through Load of for 4%Hole Ultimate Load in in Beam Connected Angle Heels Connection Deformation before Failure Connection Shear Web to Column (lbs.) (lbs. (in) Length (in) (in) 3/8 8 1/4 9/16 3/8 8 1/4 11/16 1/2 8 1/4 9/16 1/2 8 1/4 11/16 Bolt Dia.038 2 6 3 6 21.500 28.) (lbs.550 17.) Failure (lbs.550 30.938 33.038 2 6 3 6 28.250 12.050 61.875 21.750 9.050 1625 Series Pultex® SuperStructural Angles Clip Bolt Angle Angle Hole Thickness Connection Dia.163 17. (in) Length (in) (in) 3/8 4 1/2 9/16 3/8 1/2 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 Bolt Dia.406 16.1500/1525 Series Pultex® SuperStructural Angles Clip Bolt Angle Angle Hole Thickness Connection Dia.000 28.125 13.500 18.050 49.000 41.) (lbs.875 22.) (lbs.000 15.163 24.000 13.) (lbs.163 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 4 4 13.) 2 4 2 4 13.250 11.

125 13. in in Beam Connected Angle Heels (in) Length (in) (in) (in) Connection Shear Web to Column (lbs. (in) 1/2 5/8 1/2 5/8 1625 Series Pultex® SuperStructural Angles # of Ultimate Bolt # of Bolts Shear Load Clip Angle Angle Hole Bolt # of Angles Bolts through # of Bolts through Thickness Connection Dia.500 18.750 9.400 Clip Bolt Angle Angle Hole Thickness Connection Dia. Dia. 93 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .101" with adhesive.) 2 4 2 4 17.1625 Series Pultex® SuperStructural Angles Ultimate Shear # of Load # of Bolts through # of Angles Bolts through # of Bolts Angle in in Beam Connected Heels Connection Shear Web to Column (lbs.400 Ultimate Allowable Bearing Bearing Load Clip Angle Load of for 4% Hole Ultimate Load Connection Deformation before Failure (lbs.875 22.175 1/2 8 1/4 11/16 5/8 2 6 3 6 32.000 17. The maximum slip of the connection at failure is approximately 0.875 24.400 2 4 2 4 23.) (lbs.) 3/8 8 1/4 9/16 1/2 2 6 3 6 24.) (lbs.175 Note: The maximum slip of the connection at failure is approximately 0.400 41.175 Clip Angle Ultimate Allowable Ultimate Bearing Bearing Load Load Load of for 4% Hole before Connection Deformation Failure (lbs.550 2 4 2 4 17.250 17.) (lbs.500 24.175 61.550 2 4 2 4 23.406 16.000 23. (in) Length (in) (in) 3/8 6 9/16 3/8 6 11/16 1/2 6 9/16 1/2 6 11/16 Bolt Dia.938 11.) 37.000 32.000 12.250 15.131 46.) (lbs.131 49.550 33.000 23.500 32. The adhesive does not affect the ultimate load capacity of the connection.131 3/8 8 1/4 11/16 5/8 2 6 3 6 24.) 24.35"without adhesive.131 1/2 8 1/4 9/16 1/2 2 6 3 6 32. but does affect the amount of slip of the connection.550 30.

000 4.688 5.563 5.000 6.500 15.250 5.406 20.438 6.000 psi.500 15.313 20.516 2.250 16.875 7.188 2.000 22. The ultimate lengthwise bearing strength of the flange sections is 33.750 12.250 16.406 9..000 12. No safety factors are applied. The 4% hole deformation transverse bearing strength of the web is 11.) Direction (lbs.500 9.063 21.938 15. Table 4-3 Bolt Hole Bearing Capacity of Pultex® SuperStructural Columns and Beams for 1500/1525 Series Design Chart 4% Hole Ultimate Beam 4% Hole Deformation Beam Web Bearing Deformation Column Ultimate Column Web Bearing Load Load in Flange Bearing Load Flange Bearing Load # of Bolts # of Bolts in Transverse Transverse in Longitudinal in Longitudinal in Column in Beam Direction (lbs.500 3.875 Member Thickness (inches) 1/4 1/4 1/4 3/8 3/8 3/8 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/4 1/4 1/4 3/8 3/8 3/8 1/2 1/2 1/2 Bolt Diameter (inches) 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 Note: Values are representative for bolted connections without adhesives. Testing performed at room temperature (73°F) No adhesive is used.344 3. Bolt torque is not considered.609 7.500 11.000 49.Bolt Hole Bearing Capacity of Pultex® SuperStructural Beams and Columns Tables 4-3 and 4-4 represent the bearing capacity of the flange and web sections of various beams and columns.625 41.063 4.875 2.875 10.500 8.500 33.875 7.734 3.813 2.500 psi 94 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .172 2.250 1.000 13.500 24. The 4% hole deformation longitudinal bearing strength of the flange is 12.000 3.125 3.203 6. Web sections = 20.250 61.250 16.000 psi. The ultimate crosswise bearing strength of the web section is 30.500 6.000 psi.125 7. 8. 5.) 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 938 1.) Direction (lbs.578 5.000 22.125 6.469 30.313 2.375 24.375 18.) Direction (lbs. 7. 6.000 psi. 3.625 11.500 psi.000 18.750 28.750 7.500 8. 2. 4.500 10. Transverse bearing stress of 1/4" Pultex® SuperStructural profiles. 4% Elongation = 7.000 9.938 46.750 37.125 16. The load table is based on the following: 1.625 30.094 9.625 11.031 14.750 5.156 7.

5 Edge Distance.859 2.5 Pitch (Distance between holes) 4.563 32.500 7.0 5.400 psi Connection Fastener Edge Distance and Torque Level Recommendations2 Ratio of distance to fastener diameter Range Edge Distance.500 19.000 38.End 2.500 psi.930 8.000 21.625 17.125 19.938 5.500 15.750 47.813 6.750 19.) 1/4 1/4 1/4 3/8 3/8 3/8 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/4 1/4 1/4 3/8 3/8 3/8 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1. Transverse bearing stress of 1/4" Pultex® SuperStructural profiles 1625 Series.116 3.750 35.781 21.0 ASTM A325 Bolt Size 1/2" -13 5/8" .000 psi (0.563 13. Web sections = 23.) (lbs.250 25.875 8.938 19.744 7.0 2.750 13. (N m) 29 (39) 57 (77) High Torque 75% of Bolt Proof Load Torque ft-lbs.875 3.000 4.000 57.000 11.375 8.953 7.000 28.344 3.258 10.672 7.0-4.938 4.625 53.372 4.0 Reference: Structural Plastics Design Manual Low Torque 37.688 8.500 26.406 2.000 10.5 times hole dia.250 Note: Values are representative for bolted connections without adhesives.086 16.125 6.5 GPa) 95 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .965 5.500 71.) Direction (lbs.750 7.) (lbs.250 9. 4% elongation = 9.469 12..500 14.5-3.016 8.Table 4-4 Hole Bearing Capacity of Pultex® SuperStructural Columns and Beams for 1625 Series Design Chart 4% Hole Deformation 4% Hole Deformation Ultimate Column Beam Web Ultimate Beam Web Column Flange Flange Bearing Member Bolt # of Bolts Bearing Load in Bearing Load in Bearing Load in Load in Thickness Diameter in # of Bolts Transverse Direction Transverse Direction Longitudinal Direction Longitudinal (inches) (inches) Column in Beam (lbs.438 23.488 1.750 17.250 28.500 42.5% of Bolt Proof Load Torque ft-lbs.906 11.000 14.525 2.895 3.813 35.175 2.0-5.406 8.625 17.500 5.172 24.875 23.11 Bolt recommendations based on ASTM A325 grade five coarse threaded bolts Connection testing performed with grade 8 oversized washers (2.350 3.325 9.250 10.) Proof strength for ASTM A325 bolt equals 75. (N m) 57 (77) 113 (153) Recommended 3.163 6.469 2.Side 1.344 11.

5. Investigate the 1/2" thick angles.000 lbs. the connection is adequate. the 3/8" section is not adequate.. Minimum Safety Factor = 2. Reference the Hole Bearing Capacity of Pultex® Columns and Beams Design Chart. 4. The corrosive environment requires 1625 Series. the column bearing load is adequate at 35.172 lbs. the ultimate load of the 3/8" thick clip angle connection is 13. Looking across to the Ultimate Load Before Failure Column.(2. investigate the 3/8" thick angles. Reference the 1625 Series of Pultex® SuperStructural angle clip connection charts for the 4. First.5 Solution: 1.000 lbs. From Table 1a. therefore. The design load with the 2.. 3. Operating temperature = 73°F.) = 15. (Reference drawing below.550 lbs.000 lbs. The design load is 6.163 lbs.) Given Design load on connection is a static load of 6.5" long 1625 Series of Pultex SuperStructural angle.000 lbs.Design Example Using the Clip Connection Charts Task Design a connection for a 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section beam that is clipped into a 8" x 8" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section column.5 S. for the 5/8" diameter bolts.625 lbs. therefore.5" clip angle length (depth of the 6" x 6" x 3/8" section dictates the 4.5 S.F. 8. the 1/2" angle is adequate. The Ultimate load is 17. 7.. Determine the row that satisfies the desired bolting condition and member sizes. is 15. 2. Enter the row for the 3/8" member thickness and two bolts in the beam.F. 96 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 . 10.5" angle length). 6. Determine the bearing capacity of the two holes in the web of the 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section and the bearing capacity of the four holes in the column. The ultimate beam web bearing load in the transverse direction is 16. Specify the 4" x 4" x 1/2" angle 4.

/in 0 0 20 40 60 M o m e n t (in -lb s .) per longitudinal inch of angle Table 4-6 ® M om en t C ap acity of 3/8" th ick P u ltex S u p e rS tru c tu ra l A n gles 1500/1525/1625 S eries 2 1 U ltim ate M o m en t at F ailu re = 15 0 in -lb s./in 1 .0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 M o m e n t (in -lb s ./in ) Moment capacity is in (in-lbs.0 U ltim a te M o m e n t a t F a ilu re = 5 0 6 in -lb s.0 5 .) per longitudinal inch of angle 97 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .0 2 .0 4 .0 7 .Moment Capacity of Pultex® SuperStructural Angles Table 4-5 M o m e n t C a p a c ity o f 3 /8 " th ic k P u lte x S u p e r S tr u c tu r a l A n g le s 1 5 0 0 /1 5 2 5 /1 6 2 5 S e r ie s ® 8 .0 0 .0 6 ./in ) 80 100 120 Moment capacity is in (in-lbs.0 3 .

/in ) 80 U ltim a te M o m e n t a t F a ilu re = 9 5 4 in -lb s./in) Table 4-8 400 M o m e n t (in -lb s .0 0 ® M o m e n t C a p a c ity o f 1 /2 " th ic k P u lte x S u p e r S tr u c tu r a l A n g le s 1 5 0 0 /1 5 2 5 /1 6 2 5 S e r ie s 100 20 Moment capacity is in (in-lbs.0 3 .0 4 ./in 500 10 0 600 12 0 700 14 0 800 0 Chapter 4 .) per longitudinal inch of angle 98 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual 40 300 60 M om ent (in-lbs.0 9 .0 6 .Table 4-7 ® 3 M om ent C apacity of 1/2" thick Pultex SuperStructural A ngles 1500/1525/1625 Series Degrees of Rotation 2 1 U ltimate M oment at Failure = 235 in0 16 0 1 0 .0 7 .0 2 .0 1 .0 5 .) per longitudinal inch of angle 200 Moment capacity is in (in-lbs.0 0 .0 8 .

i. (Use “2” for demonstration.250 psi) 5.375) + 3. (Reference Figure 4-2) 4. Calculate the shear length (Lv) of the Figure 1. block shear must be checked to insure that the connection is adequate. the in-plane shear and tensile strengths of the web section are 7.000/2 = 3. Values for transverse tensile strength and in-plane shear strengths can be located in the Material Properties Sheets of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles and Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles for Wide Flange Sections and I-Sections.5(9/16)) =1.Designing a Connection With a Coped Flange Figure 4-1 Coped Flange Connection Figure 4-2 When designing a connection with a coped flange. (Reference Figure 4-1) 1. Determine the net tensile length (Lt) of the bolted connection. i.5 –..500 psi) (Allowable tension = 10.500 psi. 2.e.25 -9/16 . i.720 lbs. Determine the in-plane shear and tensile strengths of the beam profile with which you are designing.. (5000(1.9/32) = 2.e. (Reference Figure 4-2) 3. (Material Properties Sheets of Pultex®Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles and Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles for Wide Flange Sections and I-Sections). Apply the proper safety factors to the transverse shear and tensile strengths.000 psi and 10. Calculate the net tension length (Lt) of the above connection.219)(. Example Design a framed connection using a Pultex® SuperStructural 6" x 6" x 3/8" Wide Flange Section coped into an Pultex® SuperStructural 8" x 8" x 3/8" beam.53)(. Apply the proper safety factors to the connection.3 99 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .500(2.e. connection. 2.500/2 = 5. (Allowable shear = 7. Referencing the Material Properties Sheets for Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles. Calculate the allowable shear force for block shear Vblock i..219" 4. 6. (1. The two factors affecting block shear are the transverse tensile and shear strengths of the web section of the beam. Determine the shear length (Lv) of the bolted connection. The procedure for determining the block shear (Vblock) allowable load is as follows: 1.. respectively. (.53" 3. The holes are 9/16" to accommodate 1/2" bolts.375) = 5. Compare Vblock allowable to the design load.) Determine if Vblock allowable is greater than the design load.130 + 2 + 1.e.

A. P." Journal of Structural Engineering. New York. 5(3): 321-342. 1984. M. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers. Structural Plastics Design Manual Vol.Z. 1995. 439.C. “Local Buckling of Composite Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Wide-Flange Sections. and Zou. July 2003.J. ASCE.” Final Report to Creative Pultrusions.. 127 (3): 245-255.” Journal of Engineering Mechanics.D. 2003. Kabir. The Catholic University of America.” Journal of Structural Engineering. 6th edition. Structural Plastics Design Manual Vol. Inc.Z.” Diss. 1. pg. "Flexural-torsional stability of thin-walled composite I-section beams. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.F.L.Z. L. 2003. 2001. R.P. and Zou. J.Z. 36 pages.. G." Composites Engineering. P. ASCE. and Sherbourne. 29. “Bolted Connections for Pultruded Frame Structures. 129(1): 125-129. 6 Qiao. "Local buckling of composite FRP shapes by discrete plate analysis. 2003. ASCE. J. P. Advanced Mechanics of Materials. 8 Qiao.P. M. 7 Qiao. 128 (12): 1324-1330. NY.P. “Local Buckling of Elastically Restrained Fiber- Reinforced Plastic Plates and its Applications to Box-Sections.N. 5 Pandey.. pg. P. 2. pg.. A.Endnotes 1 Task Committee on Design of the Structural Plastics Research Council of the Technical Council on Research of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 2 Task Committee on Design of the Structural Plastics Research Council of the Technical Council on Research of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 9 Qiao. “Design equations and guidelines for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite channel sections. and Schmidt. (2002). John Wiley & Sons. 1996. and Wang. 3 Bank. Inc. 4 Boresi. Davalos. 732. G.Z. 1984. 100 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual Chapter 4 .

The column load tests. Yuan. with measurements taken of the axial deflections and lateral center displacements. using pinned-pinned end conditions. The test protocol required the analysis of short. with the corresponding effective length coefficient (K) of one. Column design equations. where the loads no longer increase due to local. Ph.. The columns were axially compressed. Creative Pultrusions. W. conducted by Creative Pultrusions. Round. global or bearing failure. through its comprehensive column load test program. at The University of Texas at Arlington. Full section column tests were performed by Professor Robert L. ranging from one to twenty foot section lengths. The tests were conducted in a reaction frame in the vertical position. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 1 . Arlington. are available and completely supported by the extensive column load test results. The results of this testing protocol correspond to a strong baseline confidence to which engineers can design and provide conclusions. used true pinned-pinned end conditions with minimum friction effects. Creative Pultrusions recognizes that some published results for column load information are inconsistent within the pultrusion industry. The protocol of full section column tests included more than 300 structural Pultex® FRP product specimens: I. The ultimate load is defined as the points on the plots. P. Texas. Axial load versus lateral displacements were plotted and the ultimate loads determined. intermediate and long columns..D. provides the most current. Square and Angle Sections.Chapter 5 Load Tables for Compression Members The objective of Chapter 5 is to provide engineers with a quantifiable baseline for designing with Pultex® FRP columns.E. for practical column applications with various end conditions. thorough manual for the practical design of Pultex® FRP columns.

and 5. the thicknesses are 1/8" and 1/4". written explanations to relate experimental data with the design equations and procedures. Figure 5-1 The thicknesses are 1/8" and 1/4" for square tube sections. were tested. For round tube sections. the other three are thinwalled open sections: wide-flange. The dimensions of the square tubes vary from 1. the thicknesses of the flanges are 1/4". Two sections have closed configurations: square tube and round tube. and angle sections. For Wide Flange Sections. 3/8" and 1/2". software and/or design equations for predicting load capacity of columns with various section configurations. The diameters of the round tube are 1.5" to 4". as shown in Figure 5-1. 2. the thicknesses of flanges and webs are 1/4" and 3/8". the allowable compressive stresses. For angle sections. with three specimens each. 3. I. the column load data for five section configurations. The dimension of the Wide Flange Section ranges from 4" to 10". Five section configurations of Pultex® FRP composite columns are studied in the research. 4" x 4" and 6" x 6". The dimensions of the angle section are 3" x 3". taking into consideration the length of the column and the effective length factor.Introduction The research work presented in the Load Tables for Compression Members represents a thorough investigation on the behavior of Pultex® FRP columns. 4. For I-Sections. the thicknesses of flanges and webs are 1/4" and 3/8". 2 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 . The objectives of the research are to provide: 1. produced by Creative Pultrusions. “K”. More than 300 column members. the allowable axial compressive loads. to be used as supporting members for civil engineering structures. The dimensions of I-Sections are 4" x 2" and 8" x 4".5" and 2".

for a given area. with and without fire retardancy. the ultimate strength of short columns with box sections depends upon the cross-sectional area. The measurements included strains. ultimate loads. and 88 kips for a 3" x 3" section. long column members were tested on a 30-ft. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 3 . e. the ultimate load capacity appears to increase linearly with an increase in the section dimensions. and long column members. axial displacements and lateral deflections. intermediate. reaction frame. for thickness t = 1/4". the bearing strength of a structural composite is approximately 30 ksi. For a given wall thickness of a box section. Figure 5-2 MTS Machine Reaction Frame Short vertical column members were tested on a MTS machine. the ultimate load capacity is a function of the bearing strength of the composite material and the column cross-sectional area.Pultex® FRP Column Test Program The length of the composite column varies from 1' to 20' to include short. During the test. the ultimate load strength was 40 kips for 1 3/4" x 1 3/4" box section. therefore./min. In general.. Full scale column tests are performed by an axial compressive load in a vertical position as shown in Figure 5-2. reinforced with E-glass fibers. 58 kips for 2" x 2" section. Analysis and Discussion Columns with Box Sections (Imperial) For the short columns with box sections. the columns with box sections appear to have the highest ultimate load capacities among the columns with other section configurations.1 in.. a microprofiler was used to generate the displacement rate of loading at a 0. length L = 2 ft. The composite materials for the column members are constructed of polyester-based and vinyl ester-based resin matrices.g.

the ultimate load capacity of the short round column is also a function of the bearing strength of the composites and column cross-sectional area. At KL/r = 25. the dividing line at the slenderness ratio appears to be between 30 to 40. For columns with KL/r greater than 35. For round columns with KL/r less than 30. the ultimate column strength is a function of the slenderness ratio KL/r. Columns with I-Sections Similar to the columns with Wide Flange Sections. the dividing line at the slenderness ratio for short and long columns appears to be 35. Columns with Wide Flange Sections From experimental results. therefore. For columns with I-sections. for I-section columns with KL/r less than 30. The column strength decreases with an increase in the slenderness ratio. The crippling of the flange in the testing of I-section columns was not observed. For round columns with KL/r greater than 40. The round column strength decreases with an increase in the slenderness ratio. For columns with Wide Flange Sections. the less the ultimate load capacity. the dividing line at the slenderness ratio for short and long columns appears to be in the range of 30 to 40. the bearing strength of the composite controls the ultimate load. The higher the bf/2tf ratio. For columns with KL/r less than 35. the columns have the characterization of an Euler behavior. the ultimate strength of columns with Wide Flange Sections is about 30 percent of the ultimate strength of columns with box sections for a given cross-sectional dimension and member length. The column strength decreases with an increase in the slenderness ratio. global buckling strength controls the ultimate load. however. the ultimate stress of the round column from test results is less than the bearing strength of 30 ksi of the composites. For round columns. The column strength decreases with an increase in the slenderness ratio. the ultimate stress of the I-section column from test results is less than the bearing strength of 30 ksi of the composites. For the long round columns. For columns with KL/r less than 60. For columns with box sections. the ultimate stress is significantly higher than the ultimate stress of the Wide Flange Section column due to a smaller bf/tf ratio. the prediction curve in short I-section column regions becomes an inclined straight line. the ultimate column strength is a function of the slenderness ratio KL/r. therefore. bearing mode of failure dominates the ultimate column strength. For the long columns. 4 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 . the column ultimate load depends on one-half of the flange width to the flange thickness ratio of bf/2tf. the dividing line at the slenderness ratio for short and long columns appears to be in the range of 40 to 60. At KL/r = 30.For the long columns. the ultimate column strength is a function of the slenderness ratio KL/r. For columns with KL/r greater than 40. For a given area and length. Columns with Round Sections Similar to the columns with box sections. the ultimate load capacity of the columns with I-sections is a function of the slenderness ratio KL/r. the ultimate column strength of a short round column is approximately 20% less than that of a short box column. the Euler characteristics of the column with I-sections are close to that of the column with Wide Flange Sections. the prediction curve in the short round column region becomes an inclined straight line.

The ultimate load capacity is a function of the slenderness ratio KL/r. The column strength decreases with an increase in the slenderness ratio. the long columns generally fail in the global buckling mode. The crippling of the flange in the testing of angle-section columns was observed for all specimens. however. The observed column failure can be categorized into two modes: bearing failure and local/global instability. Figure 5-3 depicts a general behavior for all fiber reinforced polymer columns. the dividing line at the slenderness ratio for short and long columns appears to be in the range of 45 to 60. KL/r The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 5 . the ultimate strength of the column with angle section decreases significantly. the ultimate column strength is sensitive to the bf/tf ratio. The short columns generally fail in bearing deformation or local buckling mode. In the short angle section column region. For a bf/tf greater than 8.Columns with Angle Sections Columns with angle sections were axially loaded at the centroid of the section. for the angle-section columns with KL/r less than 45. Column Load Design Equations The Column Load Design Equations for E-glass reinforced polymer columns are based on a large group of data points from full section tests of composite columns. For columns with KL/r greater than 60. as the plotted compressive stress versus slenderness ratio. ksi 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Slenderness Ratio. the Euler characteristics of the column with angle section is close to that of the column with Wide Flange Sections. Compressive Stress vs. The curve can be divided into two groups: short column and long column. the ultimate stress is significantly lower than that of the Wide Flange Section columns due to a larger bf/tf ratio and localized instability. the local buckling instigated a torsion and global buckling of the column. Slenderness Ratio Figure 5-3 35 30 Compressive Stress. For columns with angle sections.

0 is recommended for the stiffened outstanding webs of the Wide Flange Section The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual 6 Chapter 5 .Design Equations for Box Sections For short columns with box sections. A linear equation is developed from the test results for the transition behavior as follows: σ ult = 30 − 1 KL 7 r (ksi) for short Pultex  FRP Round − Section columns (2) (ksi) for short Pultex  FRP I − Section columns (3) σ ult = 25 − 5 KL 38 r = = = = Where σult K L r Ultimate compressive stress (ksi) Effective length coefficient Column length (in) when used in above equation Radius of gyration of the section (in) Columns with Wide Flange Sections For short columns with Wide Flange Sections. The design equations consider the interaction of bearing and flexural buckling failure. According to the test results. a coefficient to account for the orthotropic material of the composite 0.) Cross-sectional area (in2) Bearing strength of the composite (psi) Columns with Round.5 is recommended for the non-stiffened outstanding flanges of the Wide Flange Section 4.l of the Pultex® FRP composite Wide Flange Section column can be predicted by the modified buckling equation of thin plate for isotropic materials as follows: π 2E  t f  σ ult = Φk 12(1 − ν 2 )  b f  Where: E ν tf bf Φ k k = = = = = = =     2 (psi) for short Pultex  FRP W ide Flange Section columns (4) Modulus of elasticity in the loading direction (psi) Poisson’s ratio Thickness of the local flange element (in) Width of the local flange element (in) 0.8.and I-sections. a bearing failure due to axial compressive loading governs the design equation as follows: σ ult = Where Pult A = = = Pult A σult Ultimate axial load (lbs. local buckling or crippling occurs on the flanges. σult. the columns fail due to a combination of axial load and bending moment. the ultimate local buckling stress.and I-Sections For short columns with round.

the design Equation (4) can also be applied to predict the ultimate strength of the short columns with angle sections. the local buckling of the flange occurs. where bf is the width of the local flange element (in). Design Equations for Long Columns The flexural buckling. slender Pultex® FRP columns under axial compression loads. Thus. is the general behavior of long. The ultimate flexural-torsional buckling stress can be approximated by the lower value from equation (5) for flexural buckling strength about the weak axis.8 is recommended for Equation (6) to account for the orthotropic material of the composite. According to the test results. as in the column with the Wide Flange Section. Columns with Angle Sections For short columns with angle sections. ft t  f = Φ  2 (1 + ν )  b f E   (psi) for short Pultex® FRP Angle columns (6)   2 According to the test results. The “K-value” is recommended in Table 1. the ultimate buckling strength of the composite columns was in agreement with the Euler buckling equation: (psi) for all long Pultex  FRP columns (5) σ ult . W-. the ultimate strength of the short column is compared with the flexural buckling strength to determine the dividing point for short and long columns.sections. I-. Then. The lower value will be used for the ultimate strength of the short composite column with the Wide Flange Section. Euler = π 2E  KL     r  2 The equation can be applied to the long Pultex® FRP composite columns with square-. in the equation. one-half the width for Wide Flange Sections. known as Euler buckling. and angle. or from the torsional buckling equation as follows: σ ult . flexural-torsional buckling governs the ultimate strength. for columns with angle-sections. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 7 . however. for Pultex® FRP composite columns with various end supports. whole leg width for angle sections. The effective length coefficient. round-. the coupling of the flexural and torsional buckling was observed in a form of lateral deflection and global twisting for the angle-section columns. In the test.It should be noted that the ultimate local buckling strength needs to be checked against bearing strength. accounts for the different end conditions. the coefficient Φ = 0. “K-value”.

Pinned-Translation Fixed 2.10 6. Fixed-Translation Fixed 1.00 Note: Buckled Shape of Column Displayed by Dashed Line 8 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .00 2.20 5. K-Value End Conditions Recommended K-Value 1. Fixed-Translation Free 2. Pinned-Fixed 0.Table 5-1 Effective Length Coefficient. Fixed-Fixed 0.65 3. Pinned-Pinned 1.80 4.

a coefficient to account for the orthotrophic material of the composite Ultimate compressive or bearing stress of the composite (psi) Ultimate local buckling stress (psi) Ultimate Euler buckling stress (psi) Ultimate flexural-torsional buckling stress (psi) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 9 .l σult. (in) when used in KL/r equation Allowable axial load (lbs.ft = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area (in2) Width of local flange element. 4.5 for non-stiffened outstanding flanges of the Wide Flange Section.36 in/in) 0.Nomenclature A bf E Fa Ix.) Radius of gyration of the section (in) Section Modulus (in3) Thickness of local flange element (in) Poisson’s Ratio (.8.Iy k K L Pa r S tf ν Φ σult σult. width of angle leg or ½ width of a Wide Flange Beam (in) Modulus of elasticity in the loading direction (psi) Allowable compressive stress (psi) Moment of Inertia (in4) Flange stiffness factor 0.Euler σult.0 for stiffened Effective length coefficient Length of column (ft).

36 in/in No damages on the composite columns Tables display KL/r values to 200 for reference. 6. = 3. Wide Flange Sections. It is recommended that KL/r be limited to 120. round sections.Tables for Allowable Compressive Stresses and Loads The following tables provide information for the allowable stresses (Fa) and the allowable loads (Pa) for columns with square tube sections. The tables were developed based on the following criteria: 1. 2.0 A value of K = 1.0 A value of E = 3x106 psi ν = . Experimental test results Room temperature (73° F) A safety factor of S. 5. 3. 4. 7. 8.F. I-sections and angle-sections. 10 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 . The tables represent sections used as compressive members (columns).

rz = .0 1.92 in2.0 KL/r 31.0 7.5 5.4 236.5 47.5 7.) 4237 4081 2296 1469 1020 750 574 453 367 304 255 217 187 163 143 Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 11 .9 204.5 4.9 141.) 1.1 251.0 2.4 110.5 6.5 3.2 63.0 4.7 157.1 188.4 173.6 220.7 94.8 Fa (psi) 4596 4427 2490 1594 1107 813 622 492 398 329 277 236 203 177 156 Pa (lbs.5 8.2 125.5 2.Tables for Allowable Compressive Stresses and Loads Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Equal Leg Angles 2" x 2" x 1/4" (Part# AE 240) Pultex®1500/1525/1625 Series A = .0 78.0 6.0 3.0 5.38 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.

) 2904 2904 2904 2904 2904 2710 2075 1639 1328 1097 922 786 677 590 519 459 410 368 332 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 12 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .5 10.0 8. rz = .8 113.0 2.0 82.8 41.5 102.6 Fa (psi) 2042 2042 2042 2042 2042 1906 1459 1153 934 772 648 553 476 415 365 323 288 259 233 Pa (lbs.3 205.4 133.7 72.5 3.42 in2.0 3.5 6.58 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.1 51.8 185.0 KL/r 20.0 5.2 164.4 61.9 154.5 9.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Equal Leg Angles 3" x 3" x 1/4" (Part# AE 340) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 1.1 195.7 143.6 30.5 5.5 8.0 9.5 7.0 1.1 123.0 7.5 4.5 174.) 1.5 2.0 6.2 92.0 4.

8 4596 31.4 189 249.58 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.5 6.1 4596 41.4 467 155.5 2.5 5.0 2.0 9.0 1.6 229 228.0 542 145.0 5.5 3.0 6.1 358 176.2 757 124.1 1431 93.8 916 114.2 159 Pa (lbs.3 2543 72.) 9591 9591 9591 7644 5308 3900 2986 2359 1911 1579 1327 1131 975 849 746 661 590 529 478 395 332 Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 13 .9 3662 62.0 8.5 317 186.9 283 197.0 11.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Equal Leg Angles 3" x 3" x 3/8" (Part# AE 360) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 2.0 4.) 1.0 7.6 636 135.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 20. rz = .5 7.0 12.5 4596 51.5 8.7 407 166.3 254 207.4 1130 103.7 1869 83.5 4.1 in2.5 9.0 3.5 10.

5 1149 38.0 14.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Equal Leg Angles 4" x 4" x 1/4" (Part# AE 440) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 1.0 9.0 5.5 9.5 5.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 15.0 11.6 1149 76. rz = .5 2.7 351 183.0 8.0 4.5 6.1 1149 45.4 1149 61.4 754 122.0 7.5 8.5 7.0 295 198.2 524 144.2 1149 22.2 251 213.9 1149 30.0 1.) 2208 2208 2208 2208 2208 2208 2208 2208 2208 2208 2208 1931 1665 1450 1275 1129 1007 904 816 674 566 483 416 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 14 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .92 in2.) 1.0 2.7 866 114.2 1149 83.0 12.5 10.0 13.5 424 167.9 1149 91.1 1005 106.5 1149 99.0 1149 68.5 217 Pa (lbs.0 3.5 4.0 663 129.79 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.7 1149 53.0 6.9 470 152.6 587 137.5 3.

0 12.3 344 184.0 4.4 1157 100.1 2585 30.8 850 115.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Equal Leg Angles 4" x 4" x 3/8" (Part# AE 460) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 2.0 6.0 8.5 2.5 10.5 9.0 5. rz = .9 2585 61.9 576 138.9 416 169.0 11.2 2585 53.5 3.84 in2.5 8.0 7.0 2.5 7.0 9.7 289 200.5 4.1 986 107.5 2585 46.8 2585 38.0 3.1 246 215.5 740 123.78 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.3 2057 77.0 1666 84.5 6.0 14.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 15.7 1377 92.6 514 146.5 212 Pa (lbs.5 5.2 461 153.6 2585 69.2 651 130.0 1.4 2585 23.) 7334 7334 7334 7334 7334 7334 7334 5835 4726 3906 3282 2797 2411 2101 1846 1635 1459 1309 1182 976 821 699 603 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 15 .) 1.0 13.

5 2.6 116.5 23.0 8.0 9.5 10.0 13.3 62.7 248.0 7.5 7.5 4.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Equal Leg Angles 4" x 4" x 1/2" (Part# AE 480) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 3.0 12.0 5.2 Fa (psi) 4596 4596 4596 4596 4558 3348 2564 2026 1641 1356 1139 971 837 729 641 568 506 454 410 339 285 243 209 182 160 Pa (lbs.0 4.3 124.1 100.0 38.3 93.0 6.) 1.72 in2.1 201.0 1.9 139.8 77.6 186.5 5.8 108.5 54.4 155.0 2.0 KL/r 15.5 8.8 46.0 3.6 85.3 31.1 170.2 232.7 217. rz = .78 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.0 15.5 6.5 9.5 3.1 131.0 14.) 17087 17087 17087 17087 16946 12450 9532 7531 6100 5042 4236 3610 3112 2711 2383 2111 1883 1690 1525 1260 1059 902 778 678 596 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 16 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .6 147.0 69.0 16.0 11.

8 1149 70.3 281 192.4 796 121.5 4.0 7.2 963 106.1 1149 91.5 19.4 253 202.5 241 Pa (lbs.0 18.4 796 111.4 1149 40.2 1149 20.0 376 167.7 1149 65.6 1149 55.0 8.6 1149 50.5 3.7 1149 60.0 17.5 1149 45.) 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4983 4627 4176 3787 3451 3451 2900 2672 2471 2291 2130 1986 1856 1738 1631 1534 1445 1363 1289 1220 1157 1098 1044 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 17 .5 20.6 570 136.2 1149 25.6 616 131.0 12.3 873 111.5 8.5 18. rz = 1.5 6.5 2.0 2.1 1149 15.3 1149 30.0 1149 86.5 14.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 10.0 9.5 5.7 491 146.5 9.7 528 141.4 1149 35.34 in2.9 1149 81.5 16.0 5.0 19.5 7.1 333 177.0 1.9 1149 75.0 13.8 458 151.9 401 162.0 16.5 669 126.0 6.1 1149 96.2 297 187.5 15.2 314 182.2 1067 101.4 267 197.0 4.0 12.5 13.18 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.0 14.5 17.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Equal Leg Angles 6" x 6" x 3/8" (Part# AE 660) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 4.5 11.0 10.0 3.9 428 156.0 11.5 10.1 354 172.0 15.) 1.

7 2042 40.5 4.0 11.9 451 153.0 9.4 659 127.0 15.6 2042 35.) 1.5 607 132.1 2042 61.4 328 178.0 4.0 8.5 8.1 861 112.3 2042 71.0 16.) 11679 11679 11679 11679 11679 11679 11679 11679 11679 11679 11679 11679 11077 9649 8481 7512 6701 6014 5428 4923 4486 4104 3769 3474 3212 2978 2769 2581 2412 2259 2120 1994 1878 1772 1675 1586 1503 1427 1357 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 18 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .9 1052 102.6 562 137.2 371 168.3 2042 20.8 1172 96.0 1.5 3.9 2042 51.5 19.0 422 158.2 784 117.0 2042 56.5 9.5 6.7 1314 91.5 1687 81.5 13.6 277 193.0 14.0 3.5 20.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 10.18 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.8 484 147.0 19.9 237 Pa (lbs.5 5.0 13.5 18.5 310 183.5 17.1 395 163.5 293 188.0 10.0 12.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Equal Leg Angles 6" x 6" x 1/2" (Part# AE 680) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 5.5 15.3 349 173.5 14.5 10.0 2.4 1937 76.5 11.0 5.5 2042 30.7 263 198.3 718 122.0 7.5 7.5 2.0 949 107.8 2042 45.8 250 203.0 18.0 17.4 2042 25.5 16.2 2042 15.72 in2.6 1483 86.0 6. rz = 1.7 521 142.2 2042 66.5 12.

0 3.7 552 142.4 321 183.0 7.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 16.5 6.7 10000 25.0 2.6 837 117.0 4.5 11.0 11.3 629 133.4 8838 41.3 982 108.0 9.7 392 167.5 3.1 267 200.) 17290 17290 15281 9780 6792 4990 3820 3019 2445 2021 1698 1447 1247 1087 955 846 755 677 611 554 505 462 424 Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 19 .8 292 192.0 6.5 2886 66.73 in2.9 1169 100.8 5657 50. r = .8 2210 75.5 4.72in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.5 1414 91.1 3928 58.5 9.5 7.1 10000 33.5 2.4 436 158.5 10.0 721 125.5 246 Pa (lbs.0 5.0 10.5 12.0 489 150.2 1746 83.5 5.) 1.5 8.0 8.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 2" x 2" x 1/4" (Part# TQ 240) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 1.1 354 175.0 1.

0 3.5 3.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 13.) 22400 22400 22400 20882 14501 10654 8157 6445 5220 4314 3625 3089 2664 2320 2039 1806 1611 1446 1305 1184 1079 987 906 Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 20 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .0 1.6 806 117.0 6.0 8.1 910 110.5 10.6 4756 52.0 10000 32.2 583 136.1 719 123.7 441 156.6 1036 104.) 1.0 11. r = .5 9322 39.5 5.5 6.2 482 149.0 7.92 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.5 12.0 4.1 1189 97.5 11.6 1926 78.1 1618 84.5 2.24 in2.5 10000 26.0 5.2 405 Pa (lbs.1 3642 58.1 2331 71.5 7.5 8.0 6474 45.6 1379 91.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 2-1/2" x 2-1/2" x 1/4" (Part# TQ 242) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 2.7 528 143.0 10.0 9.5 9.5 4.0 2.6 646 130.0 10000 19.6 2877 65.

7 513 149.0 20.0 3.0 2.0 14.3 2053 74.7 2868 64.3 3470 58.0 6.0 10000 21.5 12.7 10000 32.12 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.0 4.0 386 170.7 1770 80.) 1.0 1542 85.3 217 Pa (lbs.0 15.3 7081 42.5 9.3 443 160.7 10000 16.7 5422 48.5 3.3 717 122.3 300 192.5 11.0 16.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 10.5 4.0 1071 101.7 867 112.5 10.0 602 138.5 2.3 1355 90.3 961 106.0 9638 37.0 2410 69.0 787 117.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 3" x 3" x 1/4" (Part# TQ 340) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 2.0 11.5 8.7 339 181.5 5.7 656 128.0 19.0 1.7 1201 96.0 268 202.0 10.5 7.5 6.0 5.3 10000 26.) 27400 27400 27400 27400 26409 19403 14855 11737 9507 7857 6602 5626 4851 4225 3714 3290 2934 2634 2377 2156 1964 1797 1651 1406 1213 1056 928 822 734 658 594 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 21 .74 in2.0 7.0 17.0 18.7 240 213.0 4284 53.0 13. r = 1.0 9.0 8.

5 112.5 12.0 13.5 9.5 10.0 9.0 16.5 3.0 4.0 1.) 77060 77060 77060 77060 77060 71082 54422 43000 34830 28785 24188 20610 17771 15480 13606 12052 10750 9648 8708 7898 7196 6584 6047 5152 4443 3870 3401 3013 2688 2412 2177 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 22 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .7 65.8 93.8 107.5 11.7 37.5 2.8 140.3 14.5 98.2 177.0 20.0 11.5 7.1 60.0 7.0 18.5 6.6 186.4 42.) 1.0 17.8 79.0 3.70 in2.0 8.9 168.5 158.9 Fa (psi) 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 9224 7062 5580 4520 3735 3139 2675 2306 2009 1766 1564 1395 1252 1130 1025 934 854 785 669 577 502 441 391 349 313 282 Pa (lbs.1 121.0 32.4 28.0 10.4 84.4 56.0 14.0 6.4 70.0 15.7 23.2 149.5 5.0 18.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 3-1/2" x 3-1/2" x 3/8" (Part# TQ 360) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 7.5 8.5 130. r = 1.1 74.0 19.1 46.1 102.5 4.1 88.0 KL/r 9.28 in3 Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.0 2.0 5.7 51.

5 4.0 54.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 4" x 4" x 1/4" (Part# TQ 440) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 3.5 27.0 4.3 141.53 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.1 47.5 78.4 86.9 Fa (psi) 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 7923 6418 5304 4457 3797 3274 2852 2507 2221 1981 1778 1604 1455 1326 1213 1114 949 819 713 627 555 495 444 401 Pa (lbs.5 9.2 43.) 37300 37300 37300 37300 37300 37300 37300 29553 23938 19784 16624 14165 12213 10639 9351 8283 7388 6631 5985 5428 4946 4525 4156 3541 3053 2660 2338 2071 1847 1658 1496 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 23 .1 51.5 11.0 19.2 149.5 10.3 90.7 70.0 1.5 2.6 23.0 16.0 156.0 9.0 2.0 10.5 3.5 133.0 5.4 82.3 39.5 31.0 11.0 7.0 15.0 109.8 117.0 14.4 35.5 5.0 8.0 KL/r 7.9 58.) 1.5 12.8 11.1 102.7 66.6 125.8 62.0 6.5 6.0 18.0 13.0 17.5 7.0 20.73 in2.2 94.5 8.0 3.8 15.6 74. r = 1.7 19.

8 73.0 12.3 36.0 13.0 9.0 52.8 125.0 14.0 4.0 10.0 20.0 KL/r 5.7 47.3 83.1 104.0 6.0 3.0 5.0 2.) 1.48 in2. r = 2.0 8.4 62.4 15.9 26.0 11.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Square Tubes 6" x 6" x 3/8" (Part# TQ 660) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 8.0 19.0 16.0 78.) 84800 84800 84800 84800 84800 84800 62747 48041 37958 30746 25410 21351 18193 15687 13665 12010 10639 9490 8517 7687 6353 5338 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 24 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .0 18.2 Fa (psi) 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 7399 5665 4476 3626 2996 2518 2145 1850 1611 1416 1255 1119 1004 906 749 629 Pa (lbs.7 20.2 57.9 99.3 114.0 15.0 17.5 88.0 7.5 41.0 22.2 10.0 24.3 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.6 67.1 31.7 93.

8 655 133.9 550 145.6 4952 55. r = .0 6.5 4.8 3169 67.0 4.4 978 111.3 8937 33.0 3.1 1617 89.4 352 178.5 5.5 8406 44.5 3.0 5.3 404 167.0 7.) 1.5 2.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Round Tubes 1-3/4" x 1/4" (Part# TU 142) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 1.1 469 156.6 792 122.54 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) 10546 9919 5844 3740 2597 1908 1461 1154 935 773 649 553 477 416 365 Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 25 .18 in2.5 7.5 8.0 1.0 2.3 1238 100.6 310 Pa (lbs.5 6.0 2201 78.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 22.

5 3.0 268 Pa (lbs.0 3.2 744 124.0 5.4 1322 96.6 2975 67.2 371 172.5 5.8 1673 86.6 418 163.0 8.5 2.0 4.0 6.8 634 134.2 2186 76.62 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.4 546 144.0 476 153.5 7.5 6.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 19.5 9.8 8629 38.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Round Tubes 2" x 1/4" (Part# TU 240) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 1.0 2.0 4284 57.6 885 115.0 1.5 10.) 12487 11859 9199 5888 4089 3004 2300 1817 1472 1216 1022 871 751 654 575 509 454 408 368 Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 26 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .5 4.) 1.0 7.0 1071 105.0 9.4 6693 48. r = .8 331 182.5 8.4 297 192.37 in2.2 9086 28.

5 5.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Round Tubes 2-1/2" x 1/4" (Part# TU 242) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 1.5 1038 105.5 398 165.80 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.0 10.5 6.5 486 150.0 8.0 305 Pa (lbs.0 7.0 6. r = .5 3.) 16408 15777 15146 12402 8612 6327 4844 3828 3100 2562 2153 1835 1582 1378 1211 1073 957 859 775 703 641 586 538 Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 27 .0 9.5 607 135.5 8.5 7018 45.0 1.0 3.0 9286 22.0 5.0 2.5 7.0 8571 37.5 332 180.5 2.0 895 112.0 363 172.0 685 127.5 9.77 in2.0 1218 97.) 1.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 15.5 8929 30.5 780 120.0 4.0 11.5 11.0 1755 82.5 12.0 542 142.0 4874 52.5 10.0 2742 67.5 3581 60.0 439 157.5 2166 75.5 1450 90.5 4.

5 2.0 1333 92.0 4.) 20334 19702 19070 18438 15678 11518 8819 6968 5644 4664 3919 3340 2880 2508 2205 1953 1742 1563 1411 1280 1166 1067 980 835 720 627 551 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 28 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .0 11.5 3.5 11.7 8537 36.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 12.9 1546 86.0 5333 49.3 1021 104.5 454 159.5 8.5 6.0 3.5 904 110.6 2160 73.5 7.4 290 196.5 4.7 255 Pa (lbs.6 8829 30.0 5.2 4083 55.5 5.3 9415 18.5 9.0 9.5 12.5 10.1 593 135.0 14. r = .8 724 122.0 2.4 9122 24.8 387 172.3 494 147.9 653 129.0 6.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Round Tubes 3" x 1/4" (Part# TU 340) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 2.5 2613 67.0 15.0 8.) 1.2 540 141.6 807 116.98 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.7 1815 79.0 16.0 13.2 1161 98.16 in2.0 1.1 333 184.3 3226 61.9 7259 43.0 10.0 7.

3 94.1 Fa (psi) 9500 9250 9000 8749 8499 7302 5591 4417 3578 2957 2485 2117 1825 1590 1398 1238 1104 991 894 811 739 676 621 529 456 398 349 Pa (lbs.8 84.0 9.5 99.0 4.3 73.5 3.5 5.8 126.8 105.0 8.5 11.5 120.0 7.1 136.) 1.8 42.5 6.84 in2.5 4.6 147.3 115.5 36.5 9.5 2.0 1.0 26.1 157.5 10.0 110.0 89.5 57.8 63.0 16.5 12.5 7.8 21.0 11.5 78.0 14.0 3.14 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.0 6.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Round Tubes 3-1/2" x 1/4" (Part# TU 342) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 2.3 52.0 5.0 KL/r 10.0 15.0 2.5 15.5 8.0 10. r = 1.0 68.) 26996 26285 25574 24863 24153 20750 15887 12552 10167 8403 7061 6016 5187 4519 3972 3518 3138 2816 2542 2306 2101 1922 1765 1504 1297 1130 993 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 29 .0 13.0 47.6 168.3 31.

8 240 Pa (lbs.9 818 118.8 8638 42.5 5.5 1382 93.5 3.5 7.8 614 135.5 8.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 3" x 3" x 1/4" (Part# IW 340) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 2.) 1.2 540 143.3 705 126.0 12.0 1.) 22783 22783 18744 11996 8331 6120 4686 3702 2999 2479 2083 1775 1530 1333 1171 1038 926 831 750 620 521 Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 30 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .0 346 185.0 11.71 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.4 10499 33.0 9.6 2159 76.4 960 109.5 10.0 7.0 1142 101.0 6.7 3839 59.5 2.0 5.5 4.0 2.1 1706 84.2 2820 67.7 478 152.0 4.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 16.17 in2.6 383 169.3 5528 50.0 8.5 9.0 3.9 286 202.1 427 160.5 6. r = .9 10499 25.

6 5906 18.0 3.5 8.0 5.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 4" x 4" x 1/4" (Part# IW 440) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 2.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 12.5 10.5 4.1 967 107.0 1.) 1.0 7.0 12.9 5906 44.5 9.5 3866 56.5 5.2 5050 50.0 9.2 2474 69.6 430 Pa (lbs.0 11.5 7.3 619 138.8 3055 63.4 1262 94.92 in2.4 856 113.9 511 151.6 5906 37.5 2.8 1718 82.0 685 126.5 3.5 2045 75.1 1464 88.7 764 120.0 6. r = .0 8.9 5906 25.) 17245 17245 17245 17245 17245 14745 11289 8920 7225 5971 5017 4275 3686 3211 2822 2500 2230 2001 1806 1493 1254 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 31 .0 2.3 5906 31.95 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.5 6.0 4.7 1100 101.

0 2.5 12.6 169.8 76.0 7.0 8.5 50.5 2.5 9.3 46.0 17.6 33.5 10.1 80.5 8.4 109.0 18.9 21.0 4.) 11602 11602 11602 11602 11602 11602 11602 11602 11602 11602 11602 11602 11602 10860 9545 8455 7541 6768 6109 5048 4242 3615 3117 2715 2386 2114 1885 1692 1527 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 32 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .9 59.0 19.5 4.3 126.0 Fa (psi) 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2457 2159 1913 1706 1531 1382 1142 960 818 705 614 540 478 427 383 346 Pa (lbs.4 67.0 5.0 20.5 5.7 54.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 6" x 6"x 1/4" (Part# IW 640) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 4.8 38.8 135.4 29.) 1.5 93.9 118.42 in2.6 71. r = 1.2 143.0 KL/r 8.0 14.1 25.5 7.0 9.0 6.0 101.0 12.5 3.0 15.0 3.7 16.3 84.0 42.0 16.42 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.7 152.2 63.0 11.1 160.0 13.5 6.0 1.

Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Wide Flange Sections
6" x 6" x 3/8" (Part# IW 660) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 6.56 in2, r = 1.42 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 KL/r 8.5 12.7 16.9 21.1 25.4 29.6 33.8 38.0 42.3 46.5 50.7 54.9 59.2 63.4 67.6 71.8 76.1 80.3 84.5 93.0 101.4 109.9 118.3 126.8 135.2 143.7 152.1 160.6 169.0 Fa (psi) 5906 5906 5906 5906 5906 5906 5906 5906 5528 4569 3839 3271 2820 2457 2159 1913 1706 1531 1382 1142 960 818 705 614 540 478 427 383 346 Pa (lbs.) 38801 38801 38801 38801 38801 38801 38801 38801 36320 30016 25222 21491 18530 16142 14187 12567 11210 10061 9080 7504 6305 5373 4633 4036 3547 3142 2802 2515 2270 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column

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Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Wide Flange Sections
8" x 8" x 3/8" (Part# IW 860) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 8.82 in2, r = 1.90 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 KL/r 6.3 9.5 12.6 15.8 18.9 22.1 25.3 28.4 31.6 34.7 37.9 41.1 44.2 47.4 50.5 53.7 56.8 60.0 63.2 69.5 75.8 82.1 88.4 94.7 101.1 107.4 113.7 120.0 126.3 132.6 138.9 Fa (psi) 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3322 3055 2742 2474 2045 1718 1464 1262 1100 967 856 764 685 619 561 511 Pa (lbs.) 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 29300 26942 24181 21823 18036 15155 12913 11134 9699 8525 7551 6736 6045 5456 4949 4509 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column

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Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Wide Flange Sections
8" x 8" x 1/2" (Part# IW 880) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 11.67 in2, r = 1.90 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 KL/r 6.3 9.5 12.6 15.8 18.9 22.1 25.3 28.4 31.6 34.7 37.9 41.1 44.2 47.4 50.5 53.7 56.8 60.0 63.2 69.5 75.8 82.1 88.4 94.7 101.1 107.4 113.7 120.0 126.3 132.6 138.9 Fa (psi) 5906 5906 5906 5906 5906 5906 5906 5906 5906 5906 5906 5856 5050 4399 3866 3425 3055 2742 2474 2045 1718 1464 1262 1100 967 856 764 685 619 561 511 Pa (lbs.) 68921 68921 68921 68921 68921 68921 68921 68921 68921 68921 68921 68342 58928 51333 45117 39965 35648 31994 28875 23863 20052 17086 14732 12833 11279 9991 8912 7999 7219 6548 5966 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column h l Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column

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Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Wide Flange Sections
10" x 10" x 3/8" (Part# IW 960) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 11.07 in2, r = 2.37 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 24.0 25.0 KL/r 5.1 7.6 10.1 12.7 15.2 17.7 20.3 22.8 25.3 27.8 30.4 32.9 35.4 38.0 40.5 43.0 45.6 48.1 50.6 55.7 60.8 65.8 70.9 75.9 81.0 86.1 91.1 96.2 101.3 106.3 111.4 116.5 121.5 126.6 Fa (psi) 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 2126 1964 1711 1504 1332 1188 1066 962 873 795 728 668 616 Pa (lbs.) 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 23536 21743 18941 16647 14746 13153 11805 10654 9664 8805 8056 7399 6819 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column

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Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Wide Flange Sections
10" x 10" x 1/2" (Part# IW 980) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 14.67 in2, r = 2.37 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 24.0 25.0 KL/r 5.1 7.6 10.1 12.7 15.2 17.7 20.3 22.8 25.3 27.8 30.4 32.9 35.4 38.0 40.5 43.0 45.6 48.1 50.6 55.7 60.8 65.8 70.9 75.9 81.0 86.1 91.1 96.2 101.3 106.3 111.4 116.5 121.5 126.6 Fa (psi) 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3780 3182 2673 2278 1964 1711 1504 1332 1188 1066 962 873 795 728 668 616 Pa (lbs.) 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 55448 46675 39220 33418 28814 25101 22061 19542 17431 15644 14119 12806 11669 10676 9805 9036 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column

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6 31.0 22.0 17.5 88.8 16.67 in2.5 10. r = 2.0 8.5 3.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles Wide Flange Sections 12" x 12" x 1/2" (Part# IW 982) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 17.8 35.0 13.6 Fa (psi) 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2625 2457 2159 1913 1706 1531 1382 1254 1142 1045 960 884 Pa (lbs.0 20.2 63.0 23.9 38.7 33.0 9.5 7.0 6.5 5.0 4.0 7.) 1.2 25.7 14.5 4.0 18.1 23.) 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 46380 43414 38157 33800 30149 27059 24420 22150 20182 18465 16959 15629 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 38 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .4 105.6 12.9 19.0 2.5 6.0 97.2 6.3 46.0 3.0 25.8 76.0 15.3 8.0 1.4 67.7 93.5 10.9 59.5 9.0 24.0 11.0 40.1 42.0 19.3 84.0 21.0 21.84 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.7 54.5 2.0 KL/r 4.1 80.0 14.0 12.5 8.4 27.2 101.5 50.5 29.0 5.6 71.0 16.

5 KL/r Fa (psi) 29.41 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.0 5.3 389 173.8 327 188.5 KL/r Fa (psi) 38.9 735 130.0 2.) 1. r = .0 334 Pa (lbs.5 6.4 5229 57.5 3.8 552 152.0 4.0 1.6 751 133.3 3003 76.3 76 Pa (lbs.0 4.0 6.5 2.0 1.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles I-Sections 3" x 1-1/2" x 1/4" (Part# IB 340) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 1.8 471 159.0 7063 43.0 3.3 581 144.9 422 172.92 in2.5 5.42 in2.0 3.5 4.5 3.9 2941 72.5 1081 114.) 13561 10039 5647 3614 2510 1844 1412 1115 904 747 627 146 Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 39 .4 1689 95. r = .4 1882 86.0 2.5 2.) 9439 4258 2395 1533 1065 782 599 473 Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles I-Sections 4" x 2" x 1/4" (Part# IB 440) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 1.4 960 115.) 1.5 4.31 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.9 1307 101.2 6657 57.

0 9.0 2.5 7.5 8.0 3.9 464 155.0 6.5 617 136.0 1.4 361 175.0 5.3 1043 107.6 407 165. r = .1 322 184.8 1630 87.62 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.2 7053 38.6 4172 58.) 1.7 724 126.0 4.5 2.2 532 145.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles I-Sections 6" x 3" x 1/4" (Part# IB 640) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 2.5 KL/r Fa (psi) 19.5 7480 29.5 9.92 in2.5 5.4 2897 68.0 7.0 862 116.0 8.5 3.) 21825 20580 19021 12173 8454 6211 4755 3757 3043 2515 2113 1801 1553 1353 1189 1053 939 662 Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 40 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .5 1288 97.5 6.8 227 Pa (lbs.1 2129 77.5 4.9 6519 48.

2 1654 86.5 4.0 3.0 4.6 2160 77.5 2.0 8.5 KL/r Fa (psi) 19.5 7.0 7063 38.1 366 183.0 1.6 6616 48.9 1307 96.9 2941 67.0 6.5 5.5 414 164.5 626 135.) 1.) 32304 30477 28550 18272 12689 9323 7138 5640 4568 3775 3172 2703 2331 2030 1784 1581 1238 Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 41 .Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles I-Sections 6" x 3" x 3/8" (Part# IB 660) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 4.5 9.2 875 115.3 7486 29.5 3.9 735 125.0 2.0 5.5 287 Pa (lbs.0 7.31 in2.5 8.8 470 154.2 540 144.6 1059 106. r = .5 6.3 4234 57.62 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.

0 949 109.0 422 160.6 2296 72.5 352 182.3 384 167.1 7055 36.0 8.7 465 153.8 1860 80.5 9.8 644 131.0 5.0 6.5 12.3 2906 65.0 1.5 8.9 7375 29.5 5.5 7.82 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.3 827 116.0 4.5 11.6 7694 21.5 6.0 7.1 1537 87.1 298 Pa (lbs.5 KL/r Fa (psi) 14.4 515 145.4 6736 43.81 in2.0 2.5 10.5 727 123.) 1.7 5167 51.) 44744 42886 41028 39170 30046 22075 16901 13354 10817 8939 7512 6400 5519 4807 4225 3743 3338 2996 2704 2453 2235 2045 1731 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 42 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .0 10.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles I-Sections 8" x 4" x 3/8" (Part# IB 860) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 5.5 3.7 1101 102.0 11.5 4.5 2.0 9. r = .0 3.4 1292 94.0 3796 58.1 574 138.

4 581 137. r = .0 7063 36.9 735 123.5 3.3 75 Pa (lbs.0 13.5 9.) 59053 56617 54180 51744 40100 29461 22556 17822 14436 11931 10025 8542 7365 6416 5639 4995 4456 3999 3609 2983 2506 575 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 43 .0 3.0 2.5 7.5 5.5 4.7 7380 29.6 521 144.9 2940 65.0 5.0 11.0 6.67 in2.2 6745 43.0 4.5 7698 21.0 1.7 3841 57.8 327 188.7 1555 86.4 960 108.5 6.4 1882 79.6 836 115.3 389 173.5 10.8 470 159.5 8.5 5227 50.0 9.83 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 14.0 7.9 1307 94.2 2323 72.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles I-Sections 8" x 4" x 1/2" (Part# IB 880) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 7.1 1114 101.0 8.1 651 130.) 1.0 12.5 2.

4 7308 29.0 2.2 7052 35.5 2.0 132 Pa (lbs.1 2007 76.0 4.) 1.5 5.0 KL/r Fa (psi) 11.4 2890 64.5 4.5 9.0 1.03 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.5 7564 23.3 321 187.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles I-Sections 10" x 5" x 3/8" (Part# IB 960) Pultex®1500/1525/1625 Series A = 7.0 5.0 6.3 1000 105.0 13.6 3569 58.7 7821 17.6 597 140.1 6796 40.0 7.0 8.7 1285 93.6 369 175.0 12.5 1129 99.5 10.0 15.0 3.2 502 151.0 16.0 14.9 5899 46.5 7.0 9.3 2389 70.9 723 128.5 6.31 in2.0 801 116.) 57210 55335 53460 51585 49710 43151 33038 26104 21144 17475 14683 12511 10788 9397 8259 7316 6526 5857 5286 4369 3671 3128 2697 2349 966 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 44 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .2 892 111. r = 1.5 3.7 4516 52.9 428 163.0 1710 81.8 1475 87.0 11.5 8.

5 7.0 3.0 174.7 81.5 6.0 7.4 58.) 1.8 110.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles I-Sections 10" x 5" x 1/2" (Part# IB 980) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 9.1 99.5 5.5 87.1 34.5 23.4 128.0 8.5 8.5 4.) 75655 73186 70716 68247 65778 57484 44011 34774 28167 23279 19561 16667 14371 12519 11003 9746 8694 7803 7042 5820 4890 4167 3593 3130 1577 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 45 .03 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.5 2.0 14.0 5.6 17.7 46.0 1.5 10.9 75.9 40.0 4.3 93.0 69.0 KL/r 11.7 151.3 Fa (psi) 7823 7567 7312 7057 6801 5944 4551 3596 2912 2407 2023 1723 1486 1294 1138 1008 899 807 728 602 506 431 371 324 163 Pa (lbs.6 52.5 9.67 in2.6 116.3 29.0 9.0 6.0 16.0 13.0 15.4 163.6 186.0 12.0 11. r = 1.0 104.1 139.2 64.0 2.5 3.

0 18.3 107.2 34.5 8.0 11.5 24.0 19.0 17.0 38.2 145.5 5.6 53.0 15.5 7.5 136.0 8.6 92.5 10.9 155.0 2.4 97.0 KL/r 9.) 1. r = 1.0 4.5 4.5 6.5 2.0 12.2 68.3 29.0 3.1 184.0 77.8 82.0 14.7 14.0 7.7 126.7 87.) 92280 89790 87300 84810 82320 79830 76070 60105 48685 40235 33809 28808 24839 21638 19017 16846 15026 13486 12171 10059 8452 7202 6210 5409 4754 4211 3757 2641 Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Short Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column Long Column 46 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .9 43.0 5.4 63.0 1.8 Fa (psi) 7907 7693 7480 7267 7053 6840 6518 5150 4171 3447 2897 2468 2128 1854 1629 1443 1287 1156 1043 862 724 617 532 463 407 361 322 226 Pa (lbs.67 in2.23 in Allowable Axial Stresses and Loads Effective Column Length (KL) (ft.7 165.5 3.0 16.5 9.0 9.Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles I-Sections 12" x 6" x 1/2" (Part# IB 982) Pultex® 1500/1525/1625 Series A = 11.0 6.8 48.0 13.6 19.0 116.1 73.4 175.5 58.

Robert Yuan has been a faculty member with the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). “The Effects of End Support Conditions on the Behavior of GFRP Composite Columns. His research specialties include (1) properties and behavior of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete. Dr. “Hydrothermal Effects on the Bearing Strength of FRP Composite Joint. Canada.” Proceedings of ASCE/MEC '96. Arlington. Presentations at National & International Meetings “The Effect of Environmental Exposure on the Behavior of Pultruded Mechanical Connections. Vol. pp. Dr. August 14. Daley). He has spoken at more than 50 national and international conferences. and (3) experimental mechanics. 965-966 (with S. Montreal. 951-958 (with C. structural mechanics. November 11. Dr. (2) fiber-reinforced polymer composites for civil engineering structure applications. 14F1 – 14F6 (with Shane E.C. He is the faculty advisor of the Chi Epsilon student chapter. and his M.” Proceedings of Fourth National Bridge Research Conference. Washington. Robert Yuan Dr. 1. and B. Hashcm). “Optimization of GFRP Composite Bridge Railing Systems. pp. Vol. Nashville.” Proceedings of ACMBS '96. Seangatith).S. “Study of Mechanical Connection for GFRP Laminated Structures. pp.. “Hydrothermal Effects on the Bearing Strength of FRP Composite Joints.” SPI/ICE Conference. since 1970. 1. Seangatith).” Proceedings of ICCI '96. 1996.” ACMBS Conference. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 47 .Biography Dr. 1997. 1996 (with S. Vol. Lui and T. Tennessee. 1. Texas. Weyant). “Study of Mechanical Connections for GFRP Laminated Structures. pp.D.” ASCE/MEC Conference. “Vibration Analysis of GFRP Composite Box Beams. respectively.S. degree in theoretical and applied mechanics from the University of Illinois in 1968.” Proceedings of ICE '97. Yuan has supervised 19 master theses and 10 doctoral dissertations. 1996. Vol. a national honor society for civil engineers. and the Haliburton Research in Excellence Award in 1986 at UTA. January 27. 345-348. Yuan received the Outstanding Engineering Teacher Award in 1976. 621-627 (with Z. Dr. degrees in Structural Engineering in 1964 and 1960.J. He is a professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and has been teaching courses in the area of structural design and analysis. Vol. D. Publications – Technical Papers “The Effect of Environmental Exposure on the Behavior of Pultruded Mechanical Connections. pp. 243-250 (with Stephanie Hurd). 1. Yuan has published over 40 refereed papers and 60 technical reports. 1. pp.” Proceedings of ICCE '96. and structural materials. Robert L. Yuan received his Ph.

” ICCE/3 Conference. 1996. 48 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 5 .Presentations at National & International Meetings (cont’d) “Vibration Analysis of GFRP Composite Box Beams. New Orleans. 1996. June 19. “Optimization of GFRP Composite Bridge Railing Systems. July 23.” Fourth National Bridge Research Conference. Louisiana.

Weathering Most plastic materials undergo some decay and change in appearance during prolonged exposure to outdoor weathering. In order to minimize this effect with pultruded profiles. various options are available. therefore. An example is Pultex® 1625 Series Vinyl Ester. Through experience and laboratory testing. recommended that property loss be taken into consideration during design using the following guidelines for Pultex® 1500/1525 Series and 1625 Series. it is possible to select a higher performance resin system specifically designed for elevated temperatures. “fiber blooming”.Chapter 6 Environmental Considerations Pultrusions are used in many varied applications. Contact Creative Pultrusions early in the design stages so that confirmation testing can be performed for various temperatures and environments to verify suitability. will occur on the surface of the profile with subsequent slight deterioration in physical properties. Table 6-1 Property Retention at Varying Temperatures Temperature Ultimate Stress 100° F 125° F 150° F 175° F 200° F Modulus of Elasticity 100° F (37° C) 125° F (51° C) 150° F (65° C) 175° F (79° C) 200° F (93° C) 100% 90% 85% Not Recommended Not Recommended 100% 95% 90% 88% 85% 85% 70% 50% Not Recommended Not Recommended 90% 80% 80% 75% 50% Pultex® 1500/1525 Series Pultex® 1625 Series In applications requiring greater strength retention. which has better strength retention of properties at elevated temperatures. Pultex® Profiles have been evaluated in a variety of environments. A condition. but eventually the profile surface will degrade. UV Stabilizers Pultex® 1500/1525 Series and 1600/1625 Series contain a UV inhibitor for protection against sunlight. It is. It will retard the effect of outdoor weathering. Creative Pultrusions can design additional resin systems to achieve higher temperature ratings. The resulting guidelines should be considered if the pultrusion is to be exposed to environmental attack. Temperature Pultrusion experiences some property loss from continuous exposure to high temperatures. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 6 1 .

38 mm dry coating will provide protection for many years with minimal change in appearance.Surfacing Veils To enhance the weathering characteristics further. Time Of Chemical Exposure Time of chemical exposure must be identified whether the application involves intermittent exposures. urethane coatings work very well with this application. A 0. 2 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 6 . UV stabilized. A coatings manufacturer should be contacted in order to determine the best coating for the application. exposure to fumes. Resistance To Chemicals And Reagents Pultex® is resistant to a wide range of organic and inorganic substances. Two-component. Concentration Of Solution The percentage of the reagent in the solution or environment will affect the overall performance of the pultruded profile. The veil enhances weatherability and corrosion resistance by adding resin thickness to the surface of the product. 1500/1525 Series is based on isophthalic polyester. a synthetic veil is applied to the composite surface during processing. 1600/1625 Series is based on vinyl ester. Coatings The optimum method of maintaining surface appearance during outdoor exposure is to apply a coating to the surface. complete submersion or only an occasional splash. eliminating any possibility of exposing glass fiber. It provides a smooth glass-free surface.

This chart is provided as a guide only. coupled with sealing all cut holes and ends. including minimum and maximum temperature The Chemical Compatibility Guide provides up-to-date information regarding the chemical resistance for Pultex® Profiles. Evaluate these recommendations in a laboratory or actual field trial prior to use. The data presented in the Chemical Compatibility Guide on the following pages covers the effect of chemicals on pultruded fiber reinforced profiles. for any special application. Temperatures are not the minimum or maximum. Some products may be suitable at higher temperatures. including minimum and maximum concentration • normal operating temperature. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 6 3 . or both. Resin systems can be designed for special needs. temperatures. The general guidelines in selection of resin types depend on the following: • the corrosion environment • normal operating concentration. to enhance the corrosion resistance.Chemical Compatibility Guide The Chemical Compatibility Guide describes various resin series and presents a detailed chemical resistance guide to assist engineers in recommending the type of resin to be used in each application. Conventional fabrication methods are used. Pultex® Selection Guide Pultex® 1500 Series Polyester Resin Pultex® 1525 Series Flame Retardant Polyester Resin Pultex® 1625 Series Flame Retardant Vinyl Ester Resin Thermosetting resins are used in a wide range of fiberglass reinforced profiles. Individual testing would be required. but represent standard test conditions. Contact Creative Pultrusions for chemicals.

METHYL ALCOHOL. ETHYL ALCOHOL. F/C 100/38 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 100/38 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 100/38 NR NR NR NR 100/38 NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR 150/65 F/C 100/38 NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 100/38 150/65 150/65 150/65 100/38 100/38 100/38 120/49 120/49 100/38 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 150/65 150/65 120/49 150/65 160/71 NR NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 120/49 NR 160/71 150/65 100/38 160/71 NR NR 150/65 160/71 NR 120/49 150/65 160/71 120/49 160/71 Supergrate™ Molded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. SECONDARY BUTYL ALUM ALUM POTASSIUM ALUMINUM CHLORIDE ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE ALUMINUM POTASSIUM SULFATE AMMONIA. Max.Chemical Compatibility Guide Acetic Acid – Calcium Bisultite Flowgrip® Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Concentratio Max. F/C 100/38 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 120/49 100/38 100/38 150/65 NR 100/38 120/49 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 120/49 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 150/65 120/49 NR NR NR 100/38 NR NR 100/38 150/65 NR NR 150/65 F/C 150/65 NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82 180/82 150/65 100/38 NR 150/65 150/65 120/49 150/65 180/82 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 180/82 180/82 120/49 180/82 160/71 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 120/49 150/65 160/71 180/82 150/65 160/71 100/38 100/38 150/65 160/71 NR 150/65 150/65 160/71 120/49 160/71 Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. ETHYL ALCOHOL.20 NR 150/65 100 150/65 150/65 0-10 NR 100/38 -NR 100/38 25 NR 100/38 15 NR 120/49 -NR 120/49 25 NR 100/38 10 NR 120/49 -NR 120/49 5 NR 120/49 10 NR 120/49 20 NR 120/49 15 120/49 150/65 5 .20 100/38 150/65 -NR 160/71 -NR NR 5 .20 NR 150/65 -NR 120/49 15 120/49 150/65 -NR 160/71 100 NR NR 100 NR NR 100 NR 100/38 10 NR NR 100 NR 100/38 10 NR NR -NR 120/49 100 NR NR 5 NR 160/71 5 . ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL. Max. AQUEOUS AMMONIA. Max. METHYL ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL. Temp Temp Max. Max.20 100/38 150/65 5 .20 NR 100/38 -NR 160/71 100 NR NR 100 NR NR 5 . 1625 Srs. n Percentage F/C F/C 0-50 NR 100/38 -NR NR 100 NR NR 100 NR NR -NR NR 10 NR 150/65 100 NR NR 10 NR 150/65 100 NR NR 10 NR 150/65 100 NR NR -NR 150/65 -NR 150/65 100 150/65 150/65 -100/38 100/38 10 NR 150/65 5 . F/C NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 100/38 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 100/38 NR NR NR NR 100/38 NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR 150/65 F/C 100/38 NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 100/38 150/65 150/65 150/65 100/38 100/38 100/38 120/49 120/49 100/38 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 150/65 150/65 120/49 150/65 160/71 NR NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 120/49 NR 160/71 150/65 100/38 160/71 NR NR 150/65 160/71 NR 120/49 150/65 160/71 120/49 160/71 Chemical Environment ACETIC ACID ACETIC ANYDRIDE ACETONE ACRYLONITRILE ALCOHOL. BUTYL ALCOHOL. GAS AMMONIUM ACETATE AMMONIUM BICARBONATE AMMONIUM BISULFITE AMMONIUM CARBONATE AMMONIUM CITRATE AMMONIUM FLUORIDE AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE AMMONIUM NITRATE AMMONIUM PERSULFATE AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE AMMONIUM SULFATE ARESENIOUS ACID BARIUM ACETATE BARIUM CARBONATE BARIUM CHLORIDE BARIUM HYDROXIDE BARIUM SULFATE BARIUM SULFIDE BEER BENZENE BENZENE IN KEROSENE BENZENE SULFURIC ACID BENZOIC ACID O-BENZOYL BENZOIC ACID BENZYL ALCOHOL BENZYL CHLORIDE BORAX BRASS PLATING SOLUTION BUTYL ACETATE BUTYRIC ACID BUTYLENE GLYCOL CADMIUM CHLORIDE CADMIUM CYANIDE PLATING CALCIUM BISULTITE 4 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 6 .30 NR 120/49 100 150/65 150/65 -NR 160/71 -NR 120/49 -150/65 160/71 Supergrate™ Pultruded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL. METHYL ALCOHOL.

Temp Max.Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d) Calcium Carbonate .WET GAS CHLORINE DRY GAS CHLORINE WET GAS CHLORINE LIQUID CHLORINE WATER CHLOROACETIC ACID CHLOROBENZENE CHLOROFORM CHLOROSULFONIC ACID CHROMIC ACID CHROMIC ACID CHROMIC ACID CHROMIUM SULFATE CITRIC ACID COCONUT OIL COPPER CHLORIDE COPPER CYANIDE COPPER FLUORIDE COPPER NITRATE COPPER BRITE PLATING COPPER PLATING SOLUTION COPPER MATTE DIPPING BATH COPPER PICKLING BATH COPPER SULFATE CORN OIL CORN STARCH-SLURRY CORN SUGAR COTTONSEED OIL CRUDE OIL CYCLOHEXENE CYCLOHEXENE VAPOR DEIONIZED WATER DETERGENTS SULFONATED DI-AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE DIBROMOPHENOL DIBUTYL ETHER DICHLORO BENZENE DICHLOROETHYLENE Polyester Temp Concentratio Max. F/C NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR Vinyl ester Temp Max.Dichloroethylene Flowgrip® Vinyl ester Temp Max. n Percentage F/C 10 10 10 5 . F/C 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 120/49 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 150/65 100/38 120/49 120/49 150/65 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 100/38 NR NR NR 100/38 120/49 NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 180/82 180/82 160/71 NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 100/38 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 NR NR Supergrate™ Molded Grating Polyester Temp Max. F/C NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR 1625 Srs.30 -5 5 -------100 -100 -100 ---------NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 6 5 . F/C 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 120/49 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 150/65 100/38 120/49 120/49 150/65 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 100/38 NR NR NR 100/38 120/49 NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 180/82 180/82 160/71 NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 100/38 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 NR NR Chemical Environment CALCIUM CARBONATE CALCIUM CHLORIDE CALCIUM CHLORATE CALCIUM HYDROXIDE CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE CALCIUM NITRATE CALCIUM SULFATE CALCIUM SULFITE CAPRYLIC ACID CARBON DIOXIDE CARBON DISULFIDE CARBON MONOXIDE GAS CARBON TETRACHLORIDE CARBONIC ACID CARBON METHYL CELLULOSE CASTOR OIL CHLORINATED WAX CHLORINE DIOXIDE/AIR CHLORINE DIOXIDE.20 10 5 10 ---100 -100 10 -100 10 -----10 0-50 -100 -5 20 30 -5 . Temp Max. F/C 120/49 120/49 120/49 100/38 100/38 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 120/49 NR 150/65 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 100/38 NR NR 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 100/38 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR Vinyl ester Temp Max. F/C 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 120/49 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 150/65 100/38 120/49 120/49 150/65 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 100/38 NR NR NR 100/38 120/49 NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 180/82 180/82 160/71 NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 100/38 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 NR NR Supergrate™ Pultruded Grating Polyester Temp Max. F/C 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 100/38 NR NR NR 150/65 120/49 NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 180/82 180/82 160/71 NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 150/65 160/71 180/82 160/71 180/82 120/49 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 NR NR Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs.

F/C NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 100/38 NR 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 100/38 100/38 150/65 NR 100/38 NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR F/C 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 160/71 NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 120/49 160/71 100/38 100/38 160/71 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 180/82 180/82 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 150/65 150/65 160/71 120/49 150/65 120/49 160/71 NR 160/71 NR NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 160/71 Supergrate™ Molded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. F/C NR NR NR NR 100/38 NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR 100/38 NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 120/49 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR NR NR 100/38 NR NR NR NR NR NR F/C 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 150/65 160/71 160/71 NR NR NR 180/82 NR 180/82 180/82 180/82 180/82 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 120/49 160/71 150/65 120/49 160/71 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 180/82 180/82 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 180/82 180/82 160/71 150/65 180/82 150/65 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 160/71 Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. F/C NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 100/38 NR 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 100/38 100/38 150/65 NR 100/38 NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR F/C 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 160/71 NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 120/49 160/71 100/38 100/38 160/71 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 180/82 180/82 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 150/65 150/65 160/71 120/49 150/65 120/49 160/71 NR 160/71 NR NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 160/71 Chemical Environment DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIETHYL ETHER DIMENTHYL PHTHALATE DIOCTYL PHTHALATE DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL DODECYL ALCOHOL ESTER. FATTY ACIDS ETHYL ACETATE ETHYL BENZENE ETHYL ETHER ETHYLENE GLYCOL ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE FATTY ACIDS FERRIC CHLORIDE FERRIC NITRATE FERRIC SULFATE FERROUS CHLORIDE FERROUS NITRATE FERROUS SULFATE 8-8-8 FERTILIZER FLUOBORIC ACID FLUOSILICIC ACID FORMALDEHYDE FORMIC ACID FUEL GAS FUEL OIL GAS NATURAL GASOLINE AUTO GASOLINE AVIATION GASOLINE ETHYL GASOLINE SOUR GLUCONIC ACID GLUCOSE GLYCERIN GLYCOL ETHYLENE GLYCOL PROPYLENE GLYCOLIC ACID GOLD PLATING SOLUTION HEPTANE HEXANE HEXALENE GLYCOL HYDRAULIC FLUID HYDROBROMIC ACID HYDROCHLORIC ACID HYDROCYANIC ACID HYDROFLUORIC ACID HYDROFLOUSILICIC ACID HYDROZINE HYDROGEN BROMIDE . Max.30 --10 100 -------NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 100/38 NR 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 100/38 100/38 150/65 NR 100/38 NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 160/71 NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 120/49 160/71 100/38 100/38 160/71 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 180/82 180/82 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 150/65 150/65 160/71 120/49 150/65 120/49 160/71 NR 160/71 NR NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 160/71 Pultruded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. Max. Max. DRY GAS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE. WET GAS HYDROGEN PEROXIDE HYDROGEN SULFIDE DRY HYDROGEN SULFIDE AQUEOUS 6 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 6 .50 10 . WET GAS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE .DRY HYDROGEN BROMIDE . Temp Temp Max. 1625 Srs. n Percentage F/C F/C -100 --100 --100 --100 -10 10 10 10 ------5 .30 25 -100 ------100 100 ----100 100 -100 5 .Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d) Diethylene Glycol – Hydrogen Sulfide Aqueous Supergrate™ Flowgrip® Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Concentratio Max. Max.

30 120/49 NR 150/65 100/38 120/49 NR 150/65 100/38 150/65 120/49 180/82 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 100/38 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 6 7 .Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d) Hydrogen Fluoride Vapors – Nitric Acid Flowgrip® Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Concentratio Max. F/C NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR NR 100/38 100/38 NR NR 100/38 150/65 120/49 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 120/49 120/49 NR NR F/C NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 150/65 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 120/49 160/71 150/65 150/65 120/49 120/49 120/49 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 160/71 NR NR 150/65 160/71 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 Supergrate™ Molded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. Max. F/C NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR NR 100/38 100/38 NR NR 100/38 150/65 120/49 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 120/49 120/49 NR NR F/C NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 150/65 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 120/49 160/71 150/65 150/65 120/49 120/49 120/49 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 160/71 NR NR 150/65 160/71 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 Chemical Environment HYDROGEN FLUORIDE VAPORS HYDROSULFITE BLEACH HYPOCHLORUS ACID IRON PLATING SOLUTION IRON AND STEEL CLEANING BATH ISOPROPYL AMINE ISOPROPYL PALMITATE JET FUEL KEROSENE LACTIC ACID LAUROYL CHLORIDE LAURIC ACID LEAD ACETATE LEAD CHLORIDE LEAD NITRATE LEAD PLATING SOLUTION LEVULINIC ACID LINSEED OIL LITHIUM BROMIDE LITHIUM CHLORIDE LITHIUM SULFATE LITHIUM HYDROXIDE MAGNESIUM BISULFITE MAGNESIUM CARBONATE MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE MAGNESIUM NITRATE MAGNESIUM SULFATE MALEIC ACID MERCURIC CHLORIDE MERCUROUS CHLORIDE METHANOL METHYLENE CHLORIDE METYL ETHYL KETONE @ 120F METHYL ISOBUTYL CARBITOL METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE METHYL STYRENE MINERAL OIL MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE MONOCHLORIC ACETIC ACID MONOETHANOLAMINE MOTOR OIL MYRISTIC ACID NAPTHA NICKEL CHLORIDE NICKEL NITRATE NICKEL PLATING: . 1625 Srs.4% Boric Acid) NICKEL PLATING: (11% Nickel Sulfate. 2% Nickle Chloride. 1% Boric Acid) NICKEL PLATING: (44% Nickel Sulfate. 4% Ammonium Chloride. n Percentage F/C F/C ------------100 10 10 ----25 -10 -10 10 10 10 10 100 10 10 ------100 ---100 -100 10 10 --NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR NR 100/38 100/38 NR NR 100/38 150/65 120/49 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 120/49 120/49 NR NR NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 150/65 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 120/49 160/71 150/65 150/65 120/49 120/49 120/49 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 160/71 NR NR 150/65 160/71 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 Supergrate™ Pultruded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. Max. Max. 4% Boric Acid) NICKEL SULFATE NITRIC ACID -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 10 5 . Max. Temp Temp Max. F/C NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 100/38 120/49 100/38 NR NR 150/65 150/65 100/38 150/65 100/38 NR 100/38 120/49 100/38 100/38 100/38 150/65 100/38 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR F/C NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 180/82 180/82 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 180/82 180/82 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 160/71 NR NR 150/65 160/71 150/65 180/82 180/82 160/71 160/71 Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs.

Temp Temp Max.025% Epsom Salts. F/C NR NR NR 120/49 120/49 120/49 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 F/C NR NR 160/71 150/65 150/65 180/82 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. SWEET CRUDE OLEIC ACID OLEUM (FUMING SULFURIC) OLIVE OIL OXALIC ACID PEROXIDE BLEACH: (2% Sodium Peroxide-96% .Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d) Nitric Acid Fumes – Silver Plating Solution Flowgrip® Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Concentratio Max. 1625 Srs.50 ---100 100 ---100 -10 -10 10 100 100 --10 10 100 -10 1 .5% Sodium Cyanide. SOUR CRUDE OIL. 1. Max.50 50 . Max. 5% Sodium Silicate 42°Be. 7% Potassium Cyanide.4% Sulfuric Acid 66°Be) PHENOL PHENOL SULFONIC ACID PHOSPHORIC ACID PHOSPHORIC ACID FUMES PHOSPHOROUS PENTOXIDE PHOSPHOROUS TRICHLORIDE PHTHALIC ACID PICKLING ACIDS: (Sulfuric And Hydrochloric) PICRIC ACID ALCOHOLIC POLYVINYL ACETATE LATEX POLYVINYL ALCOHOL POLYVINYL CHLORIDE LATEX With 35 (Parts Dop) POTASSIUM ALUMINUM SULFATE POTASSIUM BICARBONATE POTASSIUM BROMIDE POTASSIUM CARBONATE POTASSIUM CHLORIDE POTASSIUM DICHROMATE POTASSIUM FERRICYANIDE POTASSIUM FERROCYANIDE POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE POTASSIUM NITRATE POTASSIUM PERMANGANTE POTASSIUM PERSULFATE POTASSIUM SULFATE PROPIONIC ACID PROPIONIC ACID PROPYLENE GLYCOL PULP PAPER MILL EFFLUENT PYRIDINE SALICYLIC ACID SEA WATER SEWAGE TREATMENT SEBACIC ACID SELENIOUS ACID SILVER NITRATE SILVER PLATING SOLUTION: (4% Silver Cyanide. Max. F/C NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 F/C NR NR 160/71 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 Chemical Environment NITRIC ACID FUMES NIBROBEBZENE OCTONOIC ACID OIL. n Percentage F/C F/C ---100 100 100 ----NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 160/71 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 Supergrate™ Pultruded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. F/C NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 F/C NR NR 160/71 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 Supergrate™ Molded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. Max.100 100 ---------- NR NR 100/38 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 120/49 100/38 NR 120/49 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 100/38 120/49 150/65 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 160/71 160/71 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 160/71 NR 140/60 150/65 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR NR 100/38 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 120/49 100/38 NR 120/49 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 100/38 120/49 150/65 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 160/71 160/71 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 160/71 NR 140/60 150/65 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR NR 120/49 150/65 150/65 NR 100/38 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 100/38 100/38 150/65 100/38 100/38 150/65 150/65 120/49 120/49 120/49 NR 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR 120/49 NR 180/82 160/71 160/71 120/49 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 120/49 180/82 150/65 150/65 180/82 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 180/82 180/82 180/82 160/71 180/82 120/49 NR 180/82 160/71 NR 140/60 150/65 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR NR 100/38 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 120/49 100/38 NR 120/49 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 100/38 120/49 150/65 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 160/71 160/71 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 150/65 120/49 NR 150/65 160/71 NR 140/60 150/65 100/38 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 8 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 6 . 2% Potassium Carbonate) 10 -5 .

F/C NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 150/65 150/65 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR F/C 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 140/60 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 120/49 100/38 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 100/38 160/71 Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. n Percentage F/C F/C ---------0 . BEET AND CANE LIQUOR SUGAR. TRIOXIDE/AIR SULFURIC ACID SULFURIC ACID SULFURIC ACID SULFUROUS ACID SUPERPHOSPHORIC ACID (76% P2O5) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 6 9 . F/C NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR F/C 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 140/60 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 120/49 100/38 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 120/49 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 100/38 160/71 Supergrate™ Molded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. WET OR DRY SULFUR.70 10 -NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 140/60 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 120/49 100/38 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 120/49 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 100/38 160/71 Supergrate™ Pultruded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. Max.25 --25 --------0-5 5 . Max.30 30 . Max.50 50 . SUCROSE SULFAMIC ACID SULFANILIC ACID SULFATED DETERGENTS SULFUR DIOXIDE. F/C NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR NR F/C 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 140/60 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 120/49 100/38 150/65 150/65 150/65 160/71 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 160/71 120/49 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 100/38 160/71 Chemical Environment SOAPS SODIUM ACETATE SODIUM BENZOATE SODIUM BICARBONATE SODIUM BIFLUORIDE SODIUM BISULFATE SODIUM BISULFITE SODIUM BROMATE SODIUM BROMIDE SODIUM CARBONATE SODIUM CHLORATE SODIUM CHLORIDE SODIUM CHLORITE SODIUM CHROMATE SODIUM CYANIDE SODIUM DICHROMATE SODIUM DI-PHOSPHATE SODIUM FERRICYANIDE SODIUM FLUORIDE SODIUM FLOURO SILICATE SODIUM HEXAMETAPHOSPHATES SODIUM HYDROXIDE SODIUM HYDROXIDE SODIUM HYDROXIDE SODIUM HYDROSULFATE SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE SODIUM MONO-PHOSPHATE SODIUM NITRATE SODIUM SILICATE SODIUM SULFATE SODIUM SULFIDE SODIUM SULFITE SODIUM TETRA BORATE SODIUM THIOCAYNATE SODIUM THIOSULFATE SODIUM TRIPOLYOPHOSPHATE SODIUM XYLENE SULFONATE SODIUM SOLUTIONS SODIUM CRUDE OIL SOVA OIL STANNIC CHLORIDE STANNOUS CHLORIDE STEARIC ACID STYRENE SUGAR. Max. 1625 Srs. Temp Temp Max.Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d) Soaps – Superphosphoric Acid Flowgrip® Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Concentratio Max.25 50 -10 --------------------------0 .

labor charge and/or other expense of damage to properties resulting from loss of materials or profits. F/C NR 120/49 150/65 NR NR F/C 150/65 150/65 160/71 NR 160/71 Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. 9% Sodium Hydroxide) ZINC PLATING SOLUTION: (49% Zinc. Max.. “. Regular washdown is recommended in these situations. without limitation. for which CP will gladly supply samples. In some environments. Depending on the individual resin formulation/fiber volume of the composite. 4% Sodium Cyanide. nor will CP be held liable for consequential or special damages due to defective material or workmanship including. All data represents the best available information. additional testing may be needed. and is not a warranty of product performance. CP does not take responsibility for design or suitability of materials for service intended. 2% Boric Acid) TOLUENE TOLUENE SOLFONIC ACID TRANSFORMER OILS: (Mineral Oil Types. 1625 Srs. 5% Ammonium Chloride. 9% Fluoroboric Acid. 7% Tin. They are expected typical values.” = All Concentrations “NR” = Not Recommended 10 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 6 . Max. n Percentage F/C F/C -----NR NR 150/65 NR NR 150/65 120/49 160/71 NR 160/71 Supergrate™ Pultruded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. F/C NR NR 150/65 NR NR F/C 150/65 120/49 160/71 NR 160/71 Chemical Environment TALL OIL TANNIC ACID TARTARIC ACID THIONYL CHLORIDE TIN PLATING SOLUTION: (18%Stannous Fluoroborate. Temp Temp Max.Chemical Compatibility Guide (cont’d) Tall Oil – Zinc Sulfate Flowgrip® Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Concentratio Max. 6% Ammonium Fluoroborate) ZINC SULFATE ---- NR NR NR NR 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR 160/71 NR 50 ---------------------- NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 160/71 NR NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 100/38 140/60 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 160/71 NR NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 100/38 140/60 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 160/71 NR NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 100/38 140/60 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 160/71 NR NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 100/38 140/60 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 120/49 -- NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 -- 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 Chemical Compatibility Guide information is based on full immersion laboratory tests and resin manufacturers’ data. Max. Fluoroborate. User tests are recommended to determine actual suitability of service. F/C NR NR 150/65 NR NR F/C 150/65 120/49 160/71 NR 160/71 Supergrate™ Molded Grating Polyester Vinyl ester Temp Temp Max. or increased expenses of operation. Chloro-phenyl Types) TRICHLOR ACETIC ACID TRICHLORETHYLENE TRICHLOROPENOL TRICRESYL PHOSPHATE +A618 TRIDECYLBENZENE SULFONATE TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE TURPENTINE UREA VEGETABLE OILS VINEGAR VINYL ACETATE WATER: DEIONIZED DEMINERALIZED DISTILLED FRESH SALT SEA WHITE LIQUOR (Pulp Mill) XYLENE ZINC CHLORATE ZINC NITRATE ZINC PLATING SOLUTION: (9% Zinc Cyanide. splashing may lead to further corrosion than indicated due to the evaporation of water. is believed to be correct. Max.

but typical structural laminates range from . Several items need to be considered in the cross-sectional design of a custom pultruded profile. generous radii aid in processing and in-feed guiding systems. because shrinkage will be uniform. are currently produced. The following elements are conducive to efficient profile production. A uniform wall thickness aids in limiting the warpage of the end product. Although profile cross-section is the determining factor when calculating radii. Wall-Section Thickness The rate at which a profile is produced is determined by the curing time required for the thickest section: the thicker the section. Generous radii also help to distribute stress in corners or cross-sectional changes. Radius Design Radius in pultruded profiles is the curved connection of two intersecting sections. a 1/8-inch thick profile can be produced at 3 – 4 feet per minute. In comparison. it is preferred to design deeper sections with a thinner wall. although not necessarily of uniform thickness. Uniformity also aids in a more even distribution of glass reinforcement and helps to maintain consistent properties throughout the profile. Again. Although not absolutes. It helps to prevent resin-rich areas that can crack or flake. For example. with solid rounds up to 3-inch diameters. a minimum of 1/16 inch is recommended for interior or exterior surfaces. The minimum radius is especially important on profiles The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 7 1 . the best practice is to maintain uniformity of cross-section through the radius. Pultruded sections of . it is advantageous to design a section with uniform cross-sectional wall thickness. a 3/4-inch thick profile section has a production rate of approximately 6-inches per minute. Pultruded profiles exhibit a 0% to 4% cross-sectional shrinkage during production. the thickness determines the pull rate. there are important considerations that can affect the economics of the system from tooling costs to price per piece. when rigidity is an important consideration. therefore. also helps in controlling warpage. Whenever possible. resulting in stronger profiles. Symmetrical design.080 inches to 1 inch in thickness. With pultrusion.Chapter 7 Custom Profile Design Custom profiles are created from a wide variety of resin systems and an array of colors. While square corners are obtainable.032 to 2 inch thickness. the slower the cure rate.

A radius that is too generous can cause shrink marks and off-color areas in the profile. artificial weathering or accelerated corrosion tests can be employed. By lowering resin shrinkage. The surface improves the weatherability. proper design of the die can lessen this problem. It will effectively coat the material with the base resin in-line and eliminate the need for secondary coating operations on areas other than end-cut or fabricated holes. Fiberglass and polymeric veils can be added to the laminate construction to depress the reinforcement from the surface. it is particularly helpful to maintain a radius of half the thickness. They are also beneficial for profiles in which uniformity of color or variety of color is required in a low volume application. reduced corrosion resistance. 2 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 7 . particularly where reinforcing ribs are necessary on the opposite side. Some problems that may be experienced in the final product are: decreased weatherability. To determine the proper surface treatment. fiberglass reinforcements normally appear close to the surface of the profile. Proper die design will allow for this shrinkage. must be taken into consideration when establishing tolerances. Finer fiber mats and surfacing veils also improve surfaces by creating a smooth backing and attract more resin to the surface. On dead-end sections. These coatings protect the profiles from UV degradation and are generally recommended when they will be exposed to a variety of weather conditions. a polymeric surface veil is available and used to create a resin-rich surface of up to . and lessened paint and bonding agent adhesion. To extend long life during outdoor exposure. Shrinkage. Where pattern-through and exposed fibers are both a problem. but variances do occur. The two most commonly used products are A-glass and polymeric veils. masking the coarser fibers beneath. Since pultrusion is a low-pressure process. there are several methods for surface improvement.020 inches thick without detracting from the profile's performance. Since the shrinkage is caused by the resin. When pattern-through is a problem. urethane coatings are employed. and must be considered when establishing tolerances. The surface can create several problems. Shrinkage Pultruded profiles typically shrink 2% to 3% during processing. a typical application is 25 to 40 microns.where surface appearance is critical. corrosion resistance or handling of the product. changes in the type of resin or resin content will affect the final profile shrinkage. such as pattern-through of reinforcing materials and exposure of glass fibers due to excessive wear or weathering. This is done to enhance the surface by adding a resin-rich finish to the profile. the surface of the profile remains smooth and uniform. These systems typically contain thermoplastics that lessen shrinkage. The reinforcements can affect the appearance. In this secondary operation. Shrinkage can also affect the angular relation of one section to another. Low-shrink resin systems can dramatically lessen this occurrence. ultraviolet resistance and corrosion resistance of the laminate. lower peak temperature usage. though a small percentage of the profile thickness. Surface Appearance And Performance Pultrusions manufactured by a low-pressure process typically display a glass-rich surface. Shrinkage can be controlled with low-shrink resin systems. Again.

These marks are referred to as parting lines.Parting Lines Pultruded dies are typically segmented to aid in machining and facilitate chrome plating of the die surface. Where these segments join in the assembled die. undercuts are obtainable with pultruded profiles. these parting lines must be taken into consideration. Additional ribs or added thickness can also be used for reinforcing a profile as necessary. tight tolerances affect the costs of the end product. Tolerances of particular segments of a cross-section are also an effective method of meeting the needs of both the designer and the pultruder. these lines are unimportant. It is best for the designer to consult with Creative Pultrusions to establish the part configuration and die segmentation to produce the best profile without dramatically affecting the tooling and price per piece due to difficulties. Localized Stiffening Although this section may seem contradictory to some earlier statements. As with most other processes. localized strength and stiffening are obtainable by various methods. The main consideration when working with undercuts is the machining and plating of the tool. Dimensional Tolerances Standard tolerances for pultruded profiles have been established by the industry and ASTM committees. Distribution of glass loadings or changes in reinforcement types can provide localized strength. the end product physical properties can be altered to meet necessary requirements. On profiles where surface appearance is critical. Undercuts Unlike some other processes. surface marks are created on the profile. Creative Pultrusions can greatly aid the designer in cross-sectional development to best meet the end requirements. as most of them are incorporated into ends or corners where they are fairly well concealed. On structural profiles. Workable tolerances are best established as a joint effort between the designer and the pultruder. By replacing materials of lesser strength with higher strength. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 7 3 . It is important to take this into consideration when establishing tolerances. A parting line will appear as a straight. slightly raised area on the profile.

Company Information Company Name _____________________________________________________________________________ Name _____________________________________________________________________________________ Department or Position ________________________________ 2. Profile Application Information A. INC e-mail: crpul@pultrude.creativepultrusions.com Designer Checklist 1. Profile Name ___________________________________________ New Design Profile Modification Number ______________________ Existing Design Phone _______________________________ Profile Application________________________________________________________________________ Present Material Used _____________________________________________________________________ Current Material Cost __________ Annual Volume __________ Width __________ Release Quantity ______________ Length __________ B. PA 15521 USA PHONE: 814-839-4186 FAX: 814-839-4276 Web Site: http://www. please explain ______________________________________________________________________ Color __________________________________________________________________________________ Surface Appearance/Cosmetic Requirements ___________________________________________________ 4 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 7 .214 Industrial Lane Alum Bank.com CREATIVE PULTRUSIONS. Profile Dimensions Height __________ Actual Print Attached Is sample available? Have you used FRP before? Were the results satisfactory? Conceptual Sketch Attached Yes Yes Yes No No No If no.

Fabrication Drilling Punching Grinding NBS UL Vinyl ester _____ Other Other (please specify) ______ Fed. Properties Standard Custom Primary loads on part ______________________________________________________________________ Critical properties required _________________________________________________________________ Electrical requirements ____________________________________________________________________ Resin Fire Retardant _____ Polyester ______ ASTM D. Environmental Considerations Chemical Exposure Type (s) ________________________________________________________________ Service Temperatures _____________________________________________________________________ Intermittent Degree of Exposure Immersion Vapors Splash Continuous Concentration % by weight _________________________________________________________________ Indoor __________ Outdoor __________ F.Designer Checklist (cont’d) C. Other Requirements/Comments ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 7 5 . Spec Assembly _______________________________________________________________________________ Finishing _______________________________________________________________________________ Painting ________________________________________________________________________________ Bonding ________________________________________________________________________________ E.

Notes 6 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 7 .

Standard Tolerances A better understanding of the dimensional and physical property capabilities of the material can assist the designer in determining the performance limitations of the product before it is produced. to assure adherence to our quality assurance system. various stages of production. Quality Assurance System Full section bending test is conducted to assure product performance. Inspection points have been established to cover incoming raw materials.Chapter 8 Quality Assurance and Standard Tolerances Profiles are subjected to rigorous testing. Coupon testing is conducted to verify mechanical properties. In addition to those tolerances provided on the following pages. the designer should consult with the reference standards for background information and as a guideline in determining dimensional performance. routine quality audits are performed internally. a Quality Assurance System is followed. To provide consistency in the production of Pultex® Profiles. insuring customer specifications are met. ASTM 3647 ASTM D3917 Standard Practice for Classifying Reinforced Plastic Pultruded Products According to Composition Standard Specifications for Dimensional Tolerances of Thermosetting Glass Reinforced Plastic Pultruded Products Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Reinforced Plastic Pultruded Products ASTM D3918 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 8 1 . In addition. and follow-up to production before shipment. and by large-contract customers.

and Structural Profiles B. Pultex® Profiles Pultex® Rods and Bars Pultex® Structural Profiles Pultex® Round.Standard Tolerances Index I. Square and Rectangular Tubes Pultex® Camber (Lateral Bow). II. Bars. Pultex® Sheets and Plates C. Pultex® Sheets and Plates 2 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 8 . Pultex® Rods. C. Cross Sectional Dimensions A. Tubes and Structural Profiles V. Twist A. Sheets and Plates III. Pultex® Bars. Pultex® Structural Profiles B. D. VI. B. D. VII. Angularity Length Squareness of End Cut A. E. Pultex® Hollow Profiles IV. C. B. Pultex® Structural Profiles Pultex® Round and Square Tubes Pultex® Round and Square Bars Pultex® Flat Sheets Straightness A. Flatness A.

094" Maximum 5% .094" Maximum 5% .020" ± .094" Maximum Depth (H) 5% .010" Minimum 10% .010" Minimum 5% . Pultex® Round and Square Bars Dimensions (D) or (B) Under 3" Allowable deviation from nominal dimensions ± .010" Minimum Flange (B) 5% .Standard Tolerances of Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles I.020" 3 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 8 .5% Tolerance ±20% ±15% C. Pultex® Round and Square Tubes Dimensions (D) or (B) Under 2" 2" – 4" Over 4" Dimensions (T) Under .040" ± 1. Cross Sectional Dimensions A.094" Maximum 5% .100" . Pultex® Structural Profiles Allowable deviation from nominal dimensions Angles I-Beams Tolerance Deviation Tolerance Deviation Dimensions ± ± ± ± Thickness (T) 10% .100" and Over Allowable deviation of depth at corners or diameter from specified ± .094" Maximum Channels Tolerance Deviation ± ± 10% .094" Maximum B.

094" .050" Maximum II.5" Over 1.094" .010" Minimum ± .125" and under Over .030" x length (L) *Note: Straightness is measured when weight of pultrusion minimizes the deviation by contact with flat surface. Pultex® Rods and Bars* Outside Dimensions Up to 1" Over 1" Allowable deviation from straight (D) Deviation .125" Tolerances ± 3% ± 15% ± 10% Allowable Deviation ± .020"/ft . Pultex® Structural Profiles* Width of Profile Up to 1.050"/ft Note: length of part (L) in feet/meters Deviation per part .050"/ft Over . Straightness A.040"/ft All .040" x length (L) . 4 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 8 .5" Allowable deviation from straight (D) Wall thickness Deviation Up to .020" x length (L) .5" Up to 1.D.125" Maximum ± .050" x length (L) . Pultex® Flat Sheets Dimensions Width (D) Thickness (T) .050" x length (L) B.030"/ft Note: length of part (L) in feet/meters Deviation per part .

050"/ft * Note: length of part (L) in feet/meters Deviation per part .* Allowable deviation from straight (D) Length Up to 5 feet 5 feet and Over Deviation .020" x length (L) . i. Pultex® Structural Profiles. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 8 5 .. Square and Rectangular Tubes* Diameter/Depth Up to 2" 2" and Over Allowable deviation from straight (D) Deviation . Pultex® Round.e.020"/ft . etc. Angles.C.030"/ft Deviation per part .050" x length (L) D.025" x length (L) .030" x length (L) Note: length of part (L) in feet/meters *Note: Straightness is measured when weight of pultrusion minimizes the deviation by contact with flat surface. Channels. I-beams.025"/ft .

Sheets and Plates* Allowable deviation from straight (D) All Thicknesses Length in feet x . Pultex® Rods. 6 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 8 . Profiles and Structural Profiles Allowable deviation from flat (D) Width (B) Deviation per part width Up to 1" 0.025" III.008 in/in *Note: Straightness is measured when weight of pultrusion minimizes the deviation by contact with flat surface.E.008" 1" and Over 0. Flatness A. Bars. Pultex® Camber (Lateral Bow).

Note: length of part (L) in feet/meters The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 8 7 . Twist A.33° x length (ft).187" . 7° Max. Pultex® Bars. . 5° Max.187" and over Allowable deviation from flat (D) Dimensions up to 1" width (B) . .008 in/in of width IV.100" and up .B.33° .100" and up .100" and up 1° 1° x length (ft).008" Dimensions over 1" width (B) 0.5" 1.012 in/in of width 0. Tubes and Structural Profiles Width/Diameter Up to 1.5° .5° x length (ft). 3° Max.012" . Pultex® Sheets and Plates All Thicknesses Allowable deviation from flat (D) .25" up to 78" in width C. Pultex® Hollow Profiles Thickness Up to .5" to 3" 3" & over Allowable deviation from straight in degrees Thickness of profile Twist per foot/meter Twist per part length (ft)(m) .

V. These tolerances should be used as a guide between the end user and Creative Pultrusions in determining custom application specifications. Angularity All Pultex® Structural Profiles Allowable deviation from specific angle Angles less than 90° ± 1 1/2° Thickness Up to . -.125" Allowable deviation from specific length 20' to 30' 30' to 40' + .500". -. Custom Profiles: The selection.000".500" 40' and Over + 1.250" + . Squareness of End Cut Allowable deviation from square Profiles over 2" Profiles 2" and under ±1° ±2° Structural Profiles: The previous tolerances have been established for the production of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles and represent customer acceptance standards for these products. as well as the resin system used.250".75" Angles more than 90° ± 1 1/2° VI. Length All Pultex® Structural Profiles Length up to 20' + .125".000" VII. .. directly affect dimensions of the finished product. type and amount of fiberglass reinforcements. 8 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 8 . -1.

1/2 inch + or . HOLE or SLOTTED HOLE LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or .1/8 inch. -Consult CPI when special tolerances are required.1/8 inch. Inc.1/8 inch keyed from one origin. ROUT LENGTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or .1 inch The above tolerances represent cut to length at the pultrusion line tolerances and do not include secondary cutting. ROUT LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or .1/8 inch keyed from one origin.1/8 inch. -Tolerances are measured prior to resin sealing.1/8 inch. Standard Tolerances for Pultruded Shapes Fabrication With CNC or Custom Fixtures. Tighter tolerances may be achieved with the CNC and or custom-built fixtures. HOLE DIAMETER TOLERANCE: As specified + or . Reference the Creative Pultrusions.1/8 inch + or .1/4 inch + or .. Standard Tolerances for Pultruded Shapes Fabricated without CNC or Custom Fixtures PRODUCTION LINE CUT LENGTHS: Length up to 20 feet 20 feet to 30 feet 30 feet to 40 feet 40 feet and Over + or . nonaccumulative. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 8 9 .2 degrees for profiles within a 2 inch envelope. RIP TO WIDTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or .020 of an inch. The tolerance applies to the x and y axis. non-accumulative.VIII. non-accumulative.. NOTES: The above tolerances are for hand fabricated profiles without custom fixtures.1/4 inch. SLOTTED HOLE SIZE TOLERANCE: As specified + or . MITRE CUT or SQUARENESS OF END CUT: As specified + or . ROUT DEPTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or . NOTCH or CUT-OUT TOLERANCE: As specified + or .1 degree for profiles outside a 2 inch envelope.1/8 inch keyed from one origin. As specified + or . NOTCH OR CUT-OUT LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or .

IX. SLOTTED HOLE SIZE TOLERANCE: As specified + or .1 degree for profiles outside a 2 inch envelope. NOTCH or CUT-OUT TOLERANCE: As specified + or . Length up to 20 feet 20 feet to 30 feet + or . nonaccumulative. 10 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 8 . -Tolerances are measured prior to resin sealing.2 degrees for profiles within a 2 inch envelope..1/16 inch keyed from one origin. RIP TO WIDTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or .1/8 inch The above tolerances represent a secondary cut. HOLE or SLOTTED HOLE LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or .1/16 inch keyed from one origin.1/16 inch.1/16 inch. ROUT DEPTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or . ROUT LENGTH TOLERANCE: As specified + or .1 inch The above tolerances represent cut to length at the pultrusion line tolerances and do not include secondary cutting.1/16 inch. NOTES: Consult CPI when special tolerances are required.1/16 inch. Standard Tolerances for Pultruded Shapes Fabricated with CNC or Custom Fixtures CUT LENGTHS: Length up to 20 feet 20 feet to 30 feet 30 feet to 40 feet 40 feet and Over + or .1/16 inch keyed from one origin. As specified + or .1/16 inch + or .1/8 inch. non-accumulative.1/8 inch + or . NOTCH or CUT-OUT LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or .1/2 inch MITRE CUT or SQUARENESS OF END CUT: As specified + or .010 of an inch.1/4 inch 40 feet and Over + or . 30 feet to 40 feet + or . HOLE DIAMETER TOLERANCE: As specified + or .1/4 inch + or . ROUT LOCATION TOLERANCE: As specified + or . non-accumulative. The tolerance applies to the x and y axis.1/2 inch + or .

should be used to prepare surface for bonding or coating. Router bits should be diamond-coated. aluminum. Drilling speeds should take hole size and thickness into consideration.Chapter 9 Fabrication Techniques Many profiles are pre-fabricated. To fabricate Pultex® Profiles with complete success. Lag screws are not recommended for fastening FRP to metal.450 rpm). such as methylene chloride or acetone. A medium coarse grinding wheel is preferable to the finer grades. Cutting speeds should be moderately fast (3. Solvents. making on-site installation easy. the following techniques should be followed: • • • • • • • • Punches work better with a slight shear edge. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 1 . Almost all fabricating methods currently used for wood. Each operation requires some change in technique or some modifications of equipment. Counter support is necessary when drilling hollow profiles. steel or other materials are available for fabrication of fiber reinforced polymer pultrusions.

Rigidity is mandatory. Vacuum hoses or vents should be placed near fabricating areas for dust collection. • • • • • Minor health problems. • • Always use appropriate machine speeds in each operation. Ragged edges and material splits could result. • • • • Frequent tool sharpening is common. Some re-tooling is common for heavy production. Maintaining an at-hand inventory of saw blades. it is quite abrasive. and the machine will become damaged. Fiberglass will degrade if exposed to friction. may be experienced by some workers. These considerations apply to every phase of each operation. Machines. 2. Although working with a fiberglass profile is similar to working with wood. Explaining the nature of pultrusion fabrication is the purpose of this section of the manual. Machines. 5. Fabrication Of Pultex® Structural Profiles Before fabricating Pultex® Profiles. Process designers should individualize clamp and support systems for each profile for each fabrication procedure. warpage or twist may be experienced. is also elastic. should have totally enclosed dustproof motors or better. • • • Rigid support is needed for all fabrication procedures. punches and other cutting tools is recommended. Fiberglass. Fiberglass is dusty during fabrication. several characteristics of the product itself should be recognized. When The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 2 . router bits or punches. tie-downs. The greater the thickness. Because of its greater length. their supports and their general vicinities should be cleaned frequently. such as saws. Production problems will occur unless this problem is anticipated. it is uniquely a pultrusion and has its own characteristics. it will bend. Clamps. Tools. Dust and glass particles will build and become abrasive. the slower the cutting or drilling speed. Exposed fibers will absorb more moisture or other contaminants than resin-coated fibers. will wear quickly. What is typical for aluminum is not necessarily appropriate for pultruded profiles. 3. though strong. such as skin irritation. and vices should be incorporated before and after a section is to be cut. Fiberglass is extremely abrasive. Wear dusk masks or respirators.When fabricating. 1. Pultex® is typically produced in 20-foot lengths. 4. such as saw blades. increase in elasticity. Diamond-coated edges and blades are the best. long-sleeved shirts or coats. the most important characteristics of pultrusion are: it is a fibrous material with a grain (very much like wood).

Pultex® Profiles are composites that are engineered into laminate sections. never assume that it won't. punch clearances and hole sizing should be gauged to the fibrous characteristics of FRP. Thousands of formula for adhesives exist. or wood will suffice for FRP. All fastening procedures should be carefully appraised. Concurrently. FRP will fabricate as well as any other material. Adhesives are an integral factor in fastening Pultex® Profiles. As has been detailed. Polyesters Advantages Of Adhesives • • Distribute stress more uniformly. It is best to check first. such as aluminum or cold rolled steel. Process engineering should know the final product application and environment when considering fastening systems. Adhesives/Bonding Consult Creative Pultrusions for adhesive recommendations for your needs. All fastening systems should take these variables into account. such as ultra-violet exposure. Acrylics 3. Fiberglass is a composite in which many variables are operating. Prototype testing should be included in the decision process. adhesives should be used in combination with other fastening devices whenever possible. on FRP. • 7. Choosing the correct adhesive is mandatory. Epoxies 2. it is always a good practice to coat fabricated areas with resin to prevent attack from the elements. Do not rigidly impose the fabrication requirements of homogenous materials. Permit fabrication at a lower cost and weight for structures that are mechanically equivalent to or stronger than conventional assemblies. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 3 . • • Properly understood. whether it be corrosive agents or simple weathering. therefore. bronze. Never assume that what works with aluminum. and mechanical requirements. the basic ones used with Pultex® are: 1. bonding surfaces should be carefully prepared.fabricating. without first considering the composite characteristics of Pultex®. chemical and temperature factors. the surface coating of resin is broken and fibers are exposed. 6. Tolerances. • • • • Experience has demonstrated that mechanical fasteners and a good adhesive bond are the best procedures.

Joint Stresses Cleavage Tensile Shear Peel Symmetry of load transfer through a joint is to be held in highest esteem. make use of the full strength of each section. for example. Eliminate defacing of exposed surfaces. Bonded Shear Joint Concepts The behavior of bonded joints is further challenged by several significant variables which requires an understanding of the mechanics of configuration necessary for efficient and successful design. (This axiom is also true for any material and connectors.) Non-symmetrical joints induce couples.Advantages of Adhesives (cont’d) • • • • • • • • • Bond thin sections to thick sections. where a single lap joint is a very inefficient joint. thereby reducing the couple effect in the glue line. Permit profile movement with flexible adhesives. shear. The geometric design of the joint can be used to improve strength and efficiency. such as bolts or welds. thus. cleavage and peel. Join dissimilar materials. Accommodate differences in thermal expansion. Accommodate thin or fragile profiles. Seal surfaces and joints. Reduce weight. flexibility of either the adhesive or the joined components is an advantage because it permits the connecting elements to rotate into alignment with the applied forces. it can be improved by using a low-modulus adhesive or beveling the joined elements to introduce some flexibility. Cleavage and peel stresses are both special cases of tensile stresses involving large stress gradients through the joint. which must be resisted by cleavage or peel stresses. Joints developing direct tension or shear stresses are stronger and more reliable than joints subjected to cleavage and peel stresses. With adhesive joints. Produce smooth surfaces. Four basic stresses are associated with joint behavior: tensile. The eccentricity of The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 4 .

The usual mechanism of failure in an adhesive joint is a crack propagation process initiating at points of high tensile stress. the overly smooth surface can be abraded. many adhesives will not react properly. thus. Both cannot be achieved at the same time. failure is progressive and limited to a very small localized region at any given time. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 5 . Guidelines For Surface Preparations 1. surface is bonded to surface. 7. are methods in which joints can be strengthened. (Avoid recontamination by re-handling!) 5. The use of mechanical fasteners in cleavage stress regions. The major fact in bonding Pultex® Profiles is this: because the profiles have been manufactured with a formulated mold-release. Wipe contaminated surfaces with a solvent---styrene. A minimum of 20 to 24 hours is an average length of time for many adhesives to bond. 8. 4. The procedures for surface preparation in painting can also apply. Mix and apply adhesive 3 to 5 mils thick. 6. (CAUTION: The desired stiffness of the joint must be observed if a joint is designed to maximize flexibility. toluene or methyl alcohol. 3. By removing this outer layer through proper surface preparation. screw and/or fasten the bonded surface.the joint may also be reduced by using a scarf type lap. Allow for proper cure time: • • • Ovens will shorten the cure time. Be certain that all surfaces and any glass fibers have been covered.) The strength of a single lap (or any other nonsymmetrical joint) is not proportional to its size due to the stress concentration at the edges. Surface gloss should be removed. in other words. the majority of mold release agents will be removed. Surface Preparations The bond strength of an adhesive can be no better than the lap sheer strength of the interlaminate material itself. Always follow the adhesive manufacturer's recommendations. Also. A structure should not be exposed to its designed load limit until 48 hours have passed. Mold release agents rise to the surface of the profile during the manufacturing process. Clamp. indicating that the overall size of the joint may be irrelevant to the total strength of the joint. Anything done to avoid the stress concentration will improve the integrity of the joint. Air blast the surface to remove any remaining dust. 2. and void or crack-free glue lines. Remove surface film by sanding or light sand-blasting. Wipe surface dry. The fiberglass reinforcement has little to do with achieving the bond strength. resin to resin.

bases. (2) 20°-80° angles.Table 9-1 Adhesive Comparison Guide Used With Pultex® Standard Structural and Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles Important Details Product Advantages Epoxies Strongest average lap shear can be approximately 1200 psi Adheres to many surfaces Many use clean surfaces Moisture. glass. acids Meter mixing Hand mixing Strength to 4000 psi Average 700 psi Varies Many 250°F Maximum Moderate Substrates Resistant to Dispensing Methods Strength Cure time Formula available Upper temperature range Cost relative to other adhesives Table 9-2 Comparison of Joining Techniques Mechanical Bonds Seal (water tightness) Thermal insulation Electrical insulation Stress concentration at joint Strength/weight ratio Aesthetics (smooth joints) Fatigue endurance Inspection Skill required of fabricator Sensitivity to peel loading Time to develop strength Disassembly No No No High Low Poor Poor Easy Low No Immediate Possible Adhesive Bonds Yes Yes Yes Medium Medium Good Good Difficult High Yes Varies Impossible Cutting/Sawing The most common cuts are: (1) straight lines. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 6 . it is advisable to use water-cooled blades for heavy production cutting. salts Meter mixing Hand mixing Strength to 6000 psi Average 1200 psi Varies Thousands Service Range -40°F and +160°F Moderate Acrylics Lower cost Impurity tolerant Metals. Different saws are not required for cutting profiles of different resin systems. adequate support is necessary for all cutting procedures. Clamps are the preferred method for the hold-down function. Parameter for cutting: Anything can be cut. and (4) concentric cuts. shape is. ceramics Moisture. solvents. These clamps can be either air cylinder hold-downs or the wide range of welding clamps such as the De-Sta-Co type. however. Precise cuts can be made if the profile is fastened on each side of the cut-line. (3) ripping. Because dust will obscure the cutting marks and the heat of the saw may burn the material. plastics. thickness is not an issue. acids.

3. Cutting Procedures 1. 5. although it will be dull after one cut. cut the visible side face-up. Infrequent circular cuts could use a metal cutting blade. Tungsten carbide or diamond abrasive blades recommended. if properly done. 8. and is recommended for volume slitting or cutting when equipped with the proper blade. Radial Arm Saw Saber Saw/Band Saw Hand Router Straight cuts and ripping Curved cuts Curved cuts Radial Arm Saw with Swivel Head Hack Saw 20°-80° angle cuts Cutting rod stock b) The table saw is a better model for accuracy and support use. 4. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 7 . Power hack saw is better for large production. Blade sizes can be varied. 2. Blades should always be diamond or carbide-coated for large production. a) Good for large or thick sections. a) Better for large production. Precision cuts are also made with a (diamond-tipped) jig saw. Tolerances should be no less than ± 1/16 inches for large productions.25 teeth per mm. 2. 7. For large section cuts. Water-cooled for large production. Carbide-coated masonry blades are recommended for on-site fabrication. diamond blades should be 30 to 40 mesh.94 – 1. Very often another more precise cutting is needed as a secondary procedure. It is a good practice to try the bit before designing fixtures. a) Adequate for very small quantities. Diamond-coated blades will increase production. reduce the saw speed.Table 9-3 Machining Operations Type of Saw Circular Power Saw Application Straight cuts and ripping a) Comments The hand model is good for on-site fabrication with small to moderate numbers of cuts. however. permit 1/2 to 1 inch waste area. When mitering an end-cut. this will yield precise results. use the following: a) begin with a power band saw for multiple cuts b) use a circular saw and then invert material to finish the cuts Operating Tips 1. 3. 6. Keep plenty on hand as breakage is a problem.450 rpm recommended. When the edges begin to fray. a) Hand variety good for limited cuts ---. Often the slot cut by the router bit will be wider or deeper than needed. If pultruded profiles are covered with nico or veil material. a) Can be used for mitering.

30 bit is necessary. Design Note For round. Off-centering can be a problem in mass production. 6. A 1/8-inch drill bit will not make a hole large enough for a 1/8-inch rivet. but cobalt-bits are best for high production. 5. counter supports may have to be designed to fit into the cavity. use supplier's recommended clearance. 2. routine operation. Feed drills slowly. A No. 3. a back-up plate of wood or receiving bushing will prohibit fracturing or “breakouts” on the backside of the material.187 inches or thicker. Time must be taken and a saw with adequate horsepower used. Or. drill from the visible side to the non-visible side. you may need to purposely schedule a second-cut procedure. Excessively high speed will make the edges ragged and the diamonds will peel off the saw blade. Unique custom profiles often require unique cut-off operations and equipment. use bushings for this procedure. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 8 . hollow profiles. even with higher speeds. Re-design of equipment is generally unnecessary. 1. Parameters for Drilling Drilling of Pultex® Profiles is standard for sections with thicknesses of . For profiles with surfacing veils. 5. Holes drilled in Pultex® Profiles are generally undersized by .005 inches. Design Note For hollow sections with thin walls (.080 inches and under). For larger holes. the slower the cut. Oversize the drill bit in order to compensate for any shrinkage variation in fastener dimensions. Use a light. Drilling Drilling Pultex® Profiles is an easy. Drill Pultex® Profiles as you would drill hard wood. The thicker the profile. 4. even touch! 4. Carbide-tipped bits are not required. hollow profiles and custom.Operating Tips (cont’d) 3.002 inches to . For riveting holes. use sturdy counter-supports from within the hollow sections. Standard twist drills are more than adequate for low production.

(Fine surfaces will quickly clog. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 9 . Use carbide grinding wheels---especially for medium and coarse grit surfaces. Operation feed and speed limits should be geared as if for brass or aluminum. Notching 2. Touching up edges Parameters for Grinding Grinding may be used for any thickness. carbide tool bits are a necessity. Mounting secondary accessories or parts 4. results may vary. Parameters For Turning Dimensional tolerance for turning Pultex® Profiles should be equated with cold rolled steel tolerances.Grinding Grinding of Pultex® Profiles is not generally recommended. Operate at fairly high speeds. (1500 rpm plus) Centerless grinding for tubes and rods is very accurate. it is necessary for the following operations: 1. • Round-nose lathe tools are best for good finishes. Use light pressure. with a single or multiple point. Grinding Equipment • • • • • • Turning Pultex® Profiles can be “turned” with standard metal working equipment on either a limited or a largeproduction basis. splinters) 5. Air-powered equipment is preferred. however. are satisfactory. • For large or multiple production.) Provide constant attention to the wheel surface. Recessing an internal wall in order to accommodate a flush fitting with another surface 3. steel tool cutters. Equipment • For short production. Correcting inaccuracies in primary or secondary cuts (fragments. Grinding wheels need to be "dressed" or cleaned regularly. Use any standard grinder.

keyways and milling profiles. The speed must be geared to the hardness of the material and the type of cutting. For round-nose lathe tools. The surface speeds must be regulated according to the desired finish. Equipment Two types of routing machines are used: • • A hand-held air-powered model of 0 . Stopping and starting will noticeably mark the fiberglass. observe these pointers: The tool should display tight tolerance. channeled or fluted bits serve even better for a routing operation. however. the selfcleaning diamond-tipped. Thickness Routing is done on parts that are 1/8 to 1/2 inches thick. Design Note Fiberglass is a composite material. Single points may tear the material. with sharp corners being rounded instead.10. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 10 . The cutters should be set slightly above the center of the material when lathing. turning it should be executed only after ample experimentation. The router cuts tend to be smooth and even which makes this an excellent choice. routers can be used for cutting radii. not under cutting. Routing A router can cut a straight line or any angle. With a special bit. Frayed edges may then be avoided. Gauge the turning procedures to a medium range derived from that experiment.Turning (cont’d) • • • • • • • • • • Use water coolants. Use climb cutting. The material should be fed continuously and steadily. Get to know the tolerances and the degree of hardness of each profile.4.000 rpms Tungsten-carbide coated rotary file bits are adequate for moderate production.500 rpms A medium-sized table model of 4500 .

especially on a thinner profile. with a 1/2-inch-thick profile. Some differences to keep in mind are: • • • • The clearances between the punch and the die are not as generous with pultrusion. Punching Fiberglass punches better than metal because it will spring back rather than bend. Caution should be exercised to avoid over-heating. If not taken into account. Procedure 1. A coarser bit (36 mesh) will generally cut faster. Use very light pressure when making router cuts.002 to . The standard 15% rule regarding die clearance and material thickness of metal does not apply to fiberglass. The equipment must be realigned and/or fitted. It is also important to note that many basic rules applicable to metal are not applied when punching Pultex® Profiles. As pultrusion gains the design flexibility of aluminum extrusions. 2. punching can be effortless. It is very important for a number of secondary processes. problems may arise. Punching is one of the most common fabrication methods. Design Note A wide variety of router bits is available.030 inches. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 11 . however. routing will take on great significance. The dies will need to be replaced or sharpened. It is common for punched holes to be drilled again in a secondary procedure when dictated by tight tolerances. such as fastening. the pultrusion material will cause a great deal of friction. Forcing the bit could damage the material.Routing (cont’d) Procedures 1. If the inherent qualities of fiberglass are taken into account. Routing greatly improves when performed at a higher speed. The versatility of the process adapts quite well to profile customization. The amount of tonnage for punching is also somewhat less than aluminum. The overall tooling life may be shorter than the equivalent for metal punching. The abrasiveness of pultrusion must be compensated for in the method of punching: • • • • The punches need to be sharpened often. Hole sizing in pultrusion is typically "oversized" by as much as . Standard metal punching equipment is often inadequate for pultrusion punching.

• • • System designers must take into account the degree of variance from specified tolerances. The samples below were taken from one production run. System flexibility should be designed into the punching system. vinyl ester and epoxy thermosets are not as predictably tight. • • A clearance of .Punching (cont’d) 2. All plastics are not the same. twist and straightness. The minimum clearance should always begin at .010 to . warpage. 3. For high-production lines or thicker sections of 3/16 inch or more. A clean machine and work area at all times should eliminate this problem.130 inches 3. • • • Extremely close tolerances can be maintained for some thermoplastics. Reinforced fiberglass is resilient.001 inches is not adequate. 5. Polyester. there is often a clearance of . tolerances often have to be generous. • • • The hold-down systems should be designed very carefully to compensate for this resiliency.020 inches. Dust will clog the female die almost instantly. proper clamp-down systems can alleviate most of the problems associated with profile deviations. Thickness Circumference = = 0. Lubrication will gather the fiber and dust particles. Due to the flexibility of a pultruded profile. thus. punching accuracy and alignment may be affected.132 inches The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 12 . Mat-reinforced pultrusion (thermoset) can be punched to closer tolerances than those containing high roving.005 inches. The sample dimensions were circular coupons. thus quickly jamming the punch. The fiberglass material will make dust and chips. a punch would quickly be off-center. Press Tonnage Requirements Test results illustrate the shear strength values for Pultex® Profiles. Strippers are mandatory. 4. Pultex® Profiles can deviate from specified tolerances regarding thickness. Though the deviation may not extend beyond acceptable limits.

Results Sample #1 Break Sample #2 Break Sample #3 Break • • • = = = = = = 7,400 lbs. 18,175 psi 6,800 lbs. 16,701 psi 7,200 lbs. 17,683 psi

The average shear value for Pultex® Profiles is 17,520 psi. Converted to pounds, the total is7,133 lbs. The press tonnage required to punch fiberglass: .130 inches thick = 3.56 tons. Punching a 15/16-inch diameter hole in 10-gauge half-hard 1/4-inch thick aluminum requires 3.80 tons.

To determine the press tonnage values to punch Pultex® Profiles, follow this procedure: Multiply the profile material thickness by the hole circumference to be punched by the shear value. Example: a 13/16-inch hole in a pultruded profile .077 inches thick is .077 inches (thickness) x 2.553 inches (circumference) x 17,000 psi (punch shear) = 3,342 lbs. pressure. If 15 holes were going to be simultaneously punched, the number of holes would be multiplied by 3,342 pounds. In the above example, 50,130 pounds, or 25 tons of pressure, would be necessary for the multiple punch machine. Always use the 17,520 psi (120.8 MPa) shear value in the calculation. Equipment The following punching equipment is used routinely at Creative Pultrusions: Equipment (1) 3 Ton Press (1) 5 1/2 Ton Press Application 1 to 6,000 pounds Punching profiles of 1/8-inch thickness or smaller profiles from 1/8-3/16 inch thickness Punching profiles from 3/16 - 1/2 inch thickness

(1) 13 Ton Brake Press

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Design Note Most fabrication shops are already equipped to punch aluminum sheet metal and cold rolled steel. Their machinery can be used for punching Pultex® Profiles, if the punches are appropriate for fiberglass. Holddown and support equipment should be evaluated for appropriateness, i.e., extra support. Shear Angle in Punching Rule: Optimum benefits for punching will be achieved when the punch is specially designed. Only a small portion of the cutting edge should penetrate the material at any given time. During the punching cycle, the goal is to subject the minimum amount of fiberglass to the smallest fraction of cutting edge on an even basis. The punch should function as much like a scissor edge as possible. To design shear angle into a punch, the following criteria can be observed: • • • • • • Shear strength of material Thickness Degree of resiliency Production needs Amount of hole clearance for fasteners Type of fasteners (if any)

Round, flat-headed punches without shear edges are routinely used in punching small round holes on an industry-wide basis with success. Shear angle should be incorporated, if optimum benefits are desired. A shear angle that is equal to the material thickness will reduce the required tonnage by one-third. Providing a slighter shear angle is the most effective method. Shear angles are used, not only to reduce tonnage, but to obtain a cleaner punch hole. Doubling the shear angle to twice the material thickness of the profile is the recommended maximum angle. Shear angle should not exceed that limit.

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Routing is one of many techniques used in fabrication. Other Useful Guidelines for Punching 1. Some useful parameters are: • • • • Oversize all holes by .020 to .030 inches. The punched holes will range from .010 to .020 inches smaller than the punching die. The larger the hole, the “cleaner” the punch. Material thickness to be punched will range from .070 to .187 inches.

2. For riveting, punched holes occasionally have to be redrilled especially in parts with thickness of 1/8 inch or thicker. 3. Material Differences: • • Mat-reinforced materials can be punched with exactness, especially when bushings are used. Profiles with surfacing veils are punched from the non-visible to visible side.

4. A laminate .070 inches thick by 43 feet long, with a hole punched every 2 inches, has been punched successfully. 5. For materials 3/16-inch thick, rivet holes can be placed every 6-8 inches; for bolting, the holes should be 8-12 inches (203.2 mm – 304.8 mm). 6. The depth of a punch should be twice the thickness of the laminate. 7. When punching hollow profiles, use strong counter supports, such as mandrels or bottom carriage rests.

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Shearing Similar to punching, shearing is possible with Pultex® Profiles. Profiles of 3/16-inch or thinner have been sheared successfully in production. Shearing is very useful for large production, particularly in very thin laminates (.070 to .090 inches). Thicker profiles (.125 to .187 inches) can be sheared on flat sections, but shearing of profiles with multiple contours are best cut with a saw. The rules for punching also apply to shearing, especially those rules referring to angles. All shearing should be done perpendicular to any continuous fibers in the laminate. Shearing should be perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcements. Cuts must be clean. Consideration of the shear angle should be of primary importance before specifying this procedure. Small profiles with a thickness not exceeding 3/16 inches can be sheared if the punch and profile are designed together. Painting For most applications, internal coloration and a variety of surface treatments eliminate the need for secondary coating operations. Situations exist, however, when paints are used to improve the weathering properties or the appearance of a pultruded profile. For improved weathering, urethane coatings are recommended as they have superior ultraviolet resistance and adhere well to the pultruded substrate. Urethane-coated Pultex® Profiles have been exposed to advanced weathering, equivalent to 30 years of exposure, with no loss in insulation properties and only a slight loss in mechanical properties. Non-skid coatings are available for slip resistant surfaces. These coatings are available from several suppliers and in a wide range of colors. Surface Preparation Due to the fact that the pultrusion process requires internal mold releases, it is essential that, prior to any painting or coating, the surface be properly prepared. The mold releases are a form of wax that creates a film on the surface of the profile to be removed. It can be accomplished with several methods: • • Solvent-wiping is the simplest method of surface preparation. Several solvents will attack the mold release films. Some of these are toluene, xylene, acetone, or styrene. Sanding will also adequately prepare the surface; however, when you break the surface at times, you will expose minor imperfections that become quite visible when paint is applied. A sand and fill primer can be applied to help this situation.

Sand-blasting can be used as a surface preparation technique, but exhibits the same problems as sanding. It is best to follow the paint manufacturer's recommendations for the application of any type of coating.

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Joining Pultex® Structural Profiles Channel Joints

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Joining Pultex® Structural Profiles (cont’d) Tube Joints Fabricated Beams The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 18 .

Joining Pultex® Structural Profiles (cont’d) I-Beam Joints Platform Supports The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 19 .

Good shear values. BOLTS AND THREADED HOLE Possible assembly technique. Fastener Engaged BOLT AND NUT Used for fastening profiles together. silicon. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 20 . galvanized. Best to use washers to distribute load whenever possible. bronze. Steel. Use metal as backup to fiberglass. SUPERSTUD!™/NUTS! Threaded fiberglass rods with molded fiberglass nuts. Epoxies or other adhesives greatly improve joint strength. polyester and other materials available for a wide range of applications. special construction of Pultex® Profile required. Check with your supplier. Good for highly corrosion applications. Fiberglass nuts above are made by this technique. however. nylon.Mechanical Fastenings Application SCREW Used for fastening Pultex® profiles to metal.

Not recommended for attaching fiberglass to fiberglass.Mechanical Fastenings (cont’d) Application Fastener Engaged LAG SCREW Can be used to attach profiles to wood. Washer should be used to distribute load. SOLID RIVET Use with backup plate or washer. Stronger than pop-rivets because of solid shank. Requires accessibility from both sides of profile. Good for fiberglass to metal or with washer backup. BLIND RIVET Pull-up mandrel. TUBULAR RIVET Used in conjunction with washer or metal backup plate. Must have accessibility to both sides of profile. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 21 . Special tool required. Assembly from one side only. Steel or aluminum.

Good for insulating in mildly corrosive environment. Lower shear value than metal. DRIVE RIVET (Nylon) Installed with hammer. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 22 . Wide expansion provides good load distribution and prevents tear. DRIVE RIVET (Aluminum) Good for fiberglass to metal. Requires special tool for installation. T-RIVET (Aluminum) Good for metal to fiberglass or fiberglass to fiberglass with backup plate. Can also be removed from one side by driving out mandrel. Center core stays in place. Same as above. Can be installed with hammer.Mechanical Fastenings (cont’d) Application Fastener Engaged NYLON RIVET Crimp type rivet.

Mechanical Fastenings (cont’d) Application Fastener Engaged BLIND THREAD INSERTS Applies metal threads to profile. Good for products for which disassembly is required. BLIND THREAD INSERTS Better torque and shear strength. Electrical insulating properties. Hexagon shape available to prevent twist. Loads are more evenly spread on back surface. CLEVIS AND PIN (Metal) Can be used for some installations. Not normally a very tight fit. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 23 . Special tool required. CLEVIS AND PIN (Nylon) Used in some installations.

Notes The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 9 24 .

05 Design Criteria A. The design of fiber reinforced polymer composite products. including connections. Substitution of any component or modification of system will be made only when approved by the Architect or Engineer. so as to not delay the work. with adequate production capacity. 1. Drawings of all fiber reinforced polymer composite products will be submitted to the Engineer for approval in accordance with the necessary requirements of each specific project.02 Summary A. 1. In addition to requirements of these specifications.01 Related Documents A.06 Submittals A. B. comply with manufacturer’s instructions and recommendations for work. D. Manufacturer’s catalog of data displaying The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 10 1 . 1. Furnish all labor. Drawings and general provisions of Contract. as applicable. The following Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites • Flowgrip® Flooring Panel • Pultex® Structural Profiles ® • Pultex SuperStructural Profiles • Tuf-Dek™ Flooring Panel • Stair Treads • Supergrate™ Pultruded Grating • Supergrate™ Molded Grating 1.04 Quality Assurance A. will be in accordance with the governing building codes and standards.03 Scope of Work A. including General and Supplementary Condition Specifications apply to the Writing Specification Section. B. The material specified will be furnished by a reputable and qualified manufacturer of demonstrated ability who has routinely engaged in the manufacture of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites. 1. Qualifications are limited to experienced manufacturers and fabricators producing fiber reinforced polymer composite products similar to that indicated for this project. C. material and equipment to install the fiber reinforced polymer products as displayed on the drawings and as specified herein.Chapter 10 Writing Specifications for Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Profiles Writing Specifications for Pultex® Profiles and Fabrications Part 1 – General 1.

C. holes and abrasions of fiber reinforced polymer composite products will be sealed with a compatible resin coating to prevent intrusion of moisture where applicable. spacings and construction of products 2.) D. it will be the best of the respective types and applicable for the intended purpose. All material and equipment necessary for the fabrication and installation of the fiber reinforced polymer composite products will be stored before. and fabrications for installation and field assembly. A synthetic surface veil will be the outermost layer of the exterior surface. breaking. Part 2 – Products 2. which in the opinion of the Engineer. twisting. will be promptly removed from work site. Identify all materials. Material used in the manufacturing of fiber reinforced polymer composite products of the best quality and free from defects and imperfections that may affect the performance of the finished product. and the Contractor will receive no compensation for the damaged material or its removal. Location and identification mark 1.Submittals (cont’d) 1.07 Shipping and Storage Instructions A. with span length and deflection limits. sub-systems and structures will be factory-fabricated and assembled to the best practical sizes for transportation. or equipment. All systems. all cut ends. C. Any material. (Thermoset polyester resin and vinyl ester resins are available without flame retardant and UV inhibitor additives. Detail drawings displaying 1. bending.01 General A. Design tables. Dimensions of fiber reinforced polymer composite products 2. where quality is not specified. 2 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 10 . including ultraviolet damage. Sectional assembly 3. becomes damaged as to be unfit for use. After fabrication. Dimensions. including flammability and ultraviolet (UV) inhibitor additives. Construction materials C. All material will be of the type and quality specified. chipping or damage of any kind to the material. B. under various uniform and concentrated loads 3. The fiber reinforced polymer composite profiles will achieve a class 1 flammability rating (< 25) per ASTM E84 test method. All standard 1525 and 1625 fiber reinforced polymer composite products noted in the Summary Section will be manufactured using the pultrusion manufacturing process. with either thermoset polyester or thermoset vinyl ester resins. items. during. and after shipment in a manner to prevent cracking. B.

General (cont’d) E. Panels will be fabricated to the sizes shown on the drawings. Alum Bank. D. Grating will be Supergrate™. Pultex® SuperStructural Profiles. Flowgrip®. Creative Pultrusions. Pultex® Standard Structural Profiles. or approved equal 2. B. All exposed surfaces will be smooth and true-to-form. A minimum of four each per panel.. (Select One) Option 1: Color will be high visibility safety yellow. 2. will contain an ultraviolet inhibitor. The panels will be ______inches deep and sustain a deflection of no more than_____ inches under a uniform distributed load or point load over a span length of _____inches. C. Each product will be clearly identified with the applicable drawing number. Hold down clamps will be type 316L stainless steel. C. Inc. Reference “Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access Structure Products in the Industry”. Reference Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access Structure Products in the Industry. F. Pennsylvania. The top surface of all panels will have a nonskid grit affixed to the surface. Superstud!™/Nuts!. Supergrate™ and Tuf-dek™. Grating will be specified by loading requirements. (OSHA safety yellow) Option 2: Color will be gray. Fiber reinforced polymer composite products. (OSHA safety gray) The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 10 3 . Design A. page #11 – 18 and 20c and 20d.02 Gratings and Treads General A. G.. Grating will be transported from the manufacturer. B. Specify grating type by using Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access Structure Products in the Industry. Flowgrip® or Tuf-dek™. exposed to weather. Manufacturer’s: 1. palletized and banded with exposed edges protected by cardboard to prevent damage. as manufactured by Creative Pultrusions. Inc.

with antimony trioxide included to meet the flame rating of 25 or less in accordance with ASTM E84 testing and the self-extinguishing requirements of ASTM D635. E. D. Grating with plate will be bonded to the grating. Inc. Manufactured by the pultrusion process. Reference Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access Structure Products in the Industry. All cut and machined edges. Structural fiber reinforced polymer composite member composition will consist of a glass fiber reinforced polyester or vinyl ester resin matrix. and non-skid grit will be affixed to the top surface. approximately 50% resin-to-glass ratio. Grating will be the same as described above in this section. for additional information Reference Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access Structure Products in the Industry. A synthetic surface veil will be the outermost layer of the exterior surfaces. F. 4 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 10 . Alum Bank. UV inhibitors are added to the resin. The glass fiber reinforcement for the bearing bars will be a core of continuous glass strand rovings wrapped with continuous glass strand mat. 2. holes and abrasions will be sealed with a resin equal to the resin used in manufacturing the product. A synthetic surface veil will be the outermost layer of covering for the exterior surfaces.03 Fiberglass Grating and Stair Treads A. Pennsylvania. fire retardant thermoset polyester or fire retardant thermoset vinyl ester resin system. Structural profiles will be manufactured with a premium grade polyester or vinyl ester resin with fire retardant additives to meet Class I flame rating of ASTM E84 and the selfextinguishing requirements of ASTM D635. Plate will be Pultex® flat sheet as manufactured by Creative Pultrusions.05 Pultex® Structural Profiles A.04 Flowgrip® Flooring Panel or Supergrate™ Grating with Plate A. All panels will be fabricated to the sizes displayed on the approved drawings..Products A. Grating with plate will be manufactured with a premium grade polyester or vinyl ester resin with fire retardant additive to meet Class I flame rating of 25 or less as tested by ASTM E84 and the self extinguishing requirements of ASTM D635. C. The fiber reinforced polymer composite grating and stair treads will be fabricated from bearing bars and cross rods manufactured by the pultrusion process. 2. G. Grating with plate can be substituted with Flowgrip®. 2. B. All plate will contain a UV inhibitor. C. B. All structural profiles will contain a UV inhibitor. Fiberglass grating and stair treads will be manufactured with a premium grade chemical resistant.

All field cut and drilled edges.04 2.05 1. power. reference the Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profile Materials Properties Sheet. holes and abrasions will be sealed with a catalyzed resin compatible with the original resin as recommended by the manufacturer.Continuous glass strand rovings will be internally used for the longitudinal strength. Install items specified as indicated and in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. For properties. materials.03 2. All labor.03 1.05 General Gratings and Treads Fiberglass Grating and Stair Treads Flowgrip® Flooring Panel or Supergrate™ Grating With Plate Pultex® Structural Profiles The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 10 5 . B.06 1. equipment and appurtenances required for testing will be furnished by the Contractor at no cost to the Owner.02 1. Reference Solutions that Work---The Most Complete Line of Grating and Access Structure Products in the Industry. Continuous strand glass mats or stitched fabrics will be internally used for transverse strength. Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Rod and Bar Materials Properties Sheet and Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Flat Sheet Materials Properties Sheet.07 Related Documents Summary Scope of Work Quality Assurance Design Criteria Submittals Shipping and Storage Instructions Part 2 – Products 2.01 2. The Engineer will have the right to inspect and test all to-be-furnished materials under these specifications prior to transportation from the point of manufacture.01 Installation – All Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Profiles A.02 2.01 1. Superstud!™/Nuts! Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fastener System Materials Properties Sheet. B. Part 4 – Inspection and Testing A. Part 3 – Execution 3. The sealing of the edges will prevent premature fraying at the field cut edges.04 1. Part 5 – Subsection Part 1 – General 1.

Part 3 – Execution 3.01 Installation – All Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Profiles Part 4 – Inspection and Testing 6 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Chapter 10 .

Appendix A Clip Connection Test Procedures Double Cantilever Test The objective of the double cantilever test is to develop full section data to be used by engineers. and an identical support was placed at the top of the column beneath the load cell. The design was implemented to maximize the effects of shear and minimize the eccentricity in the connection. for the design of structural systems using Pultex SuperStructural Angles. The steel Wide Flange Section 8 x 31 column used in the connection was loaded in the main stiffness direction. Two hinge supports were placed directly below the bolts in the web of the beams. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Appendices 1 . Test Set-Up A double cantilever test setup was designed as displayed below.

the deflection was recorded.000 lbs. The bottom hinges were placed in the line of action of the beam-web bolts to eliminate eccentricity. The angles were clipped into steel beams and columns. The design loads were calculated by dividing the heel area of the angles by half of the total load. per minute. Experimental Results The tests were conducted using 4" x 4" x 3/8" Pultex® SuperStructural Angles. The tests were halted when the load would no longer increase. This computation provided a conservative load estimate because the side that failed first supported more than half the load.000 lbs. at a constant rate of 2. was applied. The failure mechanism observed was interlaminar peeling and shear through the heel of the angle.Test Procedure All hinges were made of steel plates and rollers.. 2 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Appendices . Tests were conducted at the University of Maine by Dr. After the connection was centered on the testing machine a small load of 100 lbs. The load was applied in increasing increments of 5.000 lbs. The load value recorded from the load cell was divided by 2 to calculate the force transferred to each connection. pultruded in polyester and vinyl ester resins. At every 5. Roberto Lopez-Anido and Creative Pultrusions’ full section testing laboratory.

Analysis The deflection of a simply supported beam with a concentrated center load can be modeled by the following equation: 1 1 P ⋅ L3 ∆= + ⋅ 48 ⋅ E ⋅ I 4 K G ⋅ A′ where ∆ A′ Aw E G Ixory k L P = = = = = = = = = (1) Deflection of the beam at its center kAw (Ref.) This equation can be rearranged into the following slope-intercept form: ∆ 1 1 1 1 = ⋅ ⋅ L2 + ⋅ P ⋅ L 48 E ⋅ I 4 G ⋅ A′ The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual (2) 3 Appendices . Table 2) Cross sectional area of web (in2)(Ref. Table 2) Span of beam (inches) Applied load (lbs. Table 2) Modulus of elasticity (psi) Modulus of rigidity (shear modulus) psi Moment of inertia about axis being tested (in4) Shear coefficient (Ref.Appendix B Computing Modulus (E) and Shear Modulus (G) ∆ (ASTM D198) Objective The Elastic Modulus and the Shear Modulus of a beam can be estimated by using a linear regression analysis of the three-point bending deflection equation and a deflection test as pictured above.

span. versus L 2 as displayed. equation (2) can be split into separate terms and rearranged into the following equations: E⋅I = 1 1 ⋅ 48 SLOPE 1 1 ⋅ 4 INTERCEPT (5) G ⋅ A′ = (6) Test the beam at a minimum of three different spans and gather load. L 2 ∆/(P*L) 1 1 ⋅ 48 E ⋅ I 2 2 2 1 1 • 4 GA′ L1 L2 L 2 L3 The Apparent Modulus can be calculated by finding the slope of the regression line and plugging it into equation (5). The graph of ∆ P⋅L . can be produced.where SLOPE = and 1 1 ⋅ 48 E ⋅ I 1 1 ⋅ 4 G ⋅ A′ (3) INTERCEPT = (4) By the method of super position. At least three points need to be used in order that test results can be checked for error by calculating the variance of the line. ∆/(P*L) vs. The Shear Modulus can be calculated from the y-intercept of the line and equation (6). 4 The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Appendices . and deflection data.

2nd ed. P. National Research Council.. 1989.. Hibbeler. Beer.C.” Diss. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers. 1966. 1992. 1. Barbero. and Design.Works Cited Bank. The Catholic University of America. New York: R. Julio F. Inc.. Philadelphia: 1989. Canada.R. Task Committee on Design of the Structural Plastics Research Council of the Technical Council on Research of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Cowper. Engineering Mechanics Statics and Dynamics. and John E. Task Committee on Design of the Structural Plastics Research Council of the Technical Council on Research of the American Society of Civil Engineers. E. Publishers. 1. 17. Ottawa. G. Davalos.C. Manufacturing.” National Aeronautical Establishment.D. 1984. No.. 1984. “Flexural and Shear Moduli of Full-Section Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Pultruded Beams. Structural Plastics Design Manual Vol. 1996.C. Vol.C. Johnson. L. Steel Structures Design and Behavior Emphasizing Load and Resistance Factor Design. Russell Johnston. J. R. New York: Marcel Dekker.. Ph. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Works Cited 1 . 3rd ed. “Bolted Connections for Pultruded Frame Structures.. Mechanics of Materials. 1993. P. L. Ever. New York: Harper & Row. Pizhong. 2. Jr.” ITEVA.D. 5th ed. Bank. Ferdinan P. 1990. New York: McGraw-Hill. PhD. Charles G. “Step-by-Step Engineering Design Equations for Fiber-reinforced Plastic Beams for Transportation Structures. “The Shear Coefficient in Timoshenko’s Beam Theory. Fiber Reinforced Composites Materials. Hibbeler.. Journal of Testing and Evaluation. Structural Plastics Design Manual Vol. West Virginia Department of Transportation. Inc.E. Qiao.. 1999. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.K. Salmon.” Diss. 2nd ed. Mallick.. Ph. Inc.

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x x 1. Size in In.91 1. INC.42 0. 6 7 7 8 8 x x x x x 4 4 4 4 4 x x x x x 1/4 1/4 3/8 1/4 3/8 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1.96 5.800 4 x** 2.com The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual 1 Product Availability List .55 0. Ft.59 900 2. Consult factory for **Stocked in Dark Gray and Yellow Only.500 1.07 1.62 +Stocked in Light Gray 24' 6".46 1/2 x 48 x 96 x x 47 4. Mill Run Square Tube Wt.56 1. 1-3/4 x 1/4 4 4 x4 1.93 9.92 0.creativepultrusions. 1-1/2 x 1 x 3/16 2 x 9/16 x 1/8 2-3/4 x 1 x 1/8 3 x 7/8 x 1/4 x**** 3 x 1 x 3/16 4 3 x 1-1/2 x 1/4 4 x 1-1/16 x 1/8 4 x 1/8 x 1-3/4 x 3/16 4 x 1-1/8 x 1/4 5 x 1-3/8 x 1/4 6 x 1-5/8 x 1/4 x 6 x 1-11/16 x 3/8 x** 7 x 2 x 1/4 8 x 2-3/16 x 1/4 8 x 2-3/16 x 3/8 x *** 10 x 2-3/4 x 1/8 10 x 2-3/4 x 1/2 11-1/2 x 2-3/4 x x 2.21 1-1/2 x 1/4 x 1. Mill Run Wt.500 1.300 1.000 1.16 2. +Stocked in Yellow 20' Length and Light Gray 24' 6". Ft.000 1.63 0.500 1.700 4 1.99 4 1.45 6.02 *Stocked in 20' and 25' Lengths Only.17 2.200 2.14 1. 1 x 1/8 1-1/4 x 1/4 1-1/2 x 1/8 1-1/2 x 1/4 1-3/4 x 1/8 1-3/4 x 1/4 2 x 1/8 2 x 1/4 2-1/8 x 3/16 2-1/2 x 1/4 3 x 1/4 3-1/2 x 3/8 4 x 1/4 5.500 2.700 0.25 2.31 2.800 x 1.900 0. 1.2 x 3/8 6 x 3/8 x 4 x **** x*** 1. I P I F R V F R Min.500 2.82 7.78 4.92 x 1.32 I-Beam 31' Lengths.28 1.500 2.Pultex® Fiberglass Standard Structural Profiles and Superstud!™/Nuts! Product Availability List All items are available upon request in standard resin series: Series 1500 Isophthalic Polyester (I) .75 3 x 1-1/2 x 1/4 1.500 2.900 0.17 1.67 x x 1.500 0.000 0.77 Size in In.99 10 x 3/8 400 9.200 1.17 x x 2.400 4 x 2 x 1/4 x 1.54 1.900 0.91 ***Stocked in 20'1".87 12 x 1/2 x x 1.57 1 x 48 x 96 20 9.000 1.63 2. Size in In.000 2. I P I F R V F R Min.500 0.12 0.66 4 1.79 3 x 1/4 x x 1. Mill Run Wt.900 0.68 2.08 1.08 2 x 1/4 x** ****Stocked in 20'1" Length Only.99 4. I P I F R V F R Min.84 4 Shapes contain internal webs.82 700 2.16 0.66 Also available in SUPURTUF Polyurethane Resin.000 1.53 x 8 x 3/8 x 400 7.500 0.500 x * x* 1.85 4. Channel I F R V F R Min.38 4 1.50 Lengths Only.42 24 x 4 x 1/2 500 11.500 2. ***Stocked in Dark Gray.64 6 x 3/8 x x 600 5. I P I F R V F R Min.06 1. Size in In.53 1.35 0.600 0.48 0.300 6 x 3 x 1/4 x x 800 6 x 3 x 3/8 x 800 8 x 4 x 3/8 x x 600 8 x 4 x 1/2 x 700 10 x 5 x 3/8 700 600 10 x 5 x 1/2 x* 12 x 6 x 1/2 400 *Stocked in 25' Lengths Only.000 x 800 700 x 700 700 700 x 0.500 1. Ft.46 0.03 2.48 6. 28' 6" and 31' Lengths.17 3/16 x 48 x 96 x 4 4 140 1.000 1. Mill Run Wide Flange Beam I P Wt.000 2.66 Slate Gray. 1.44 1-1/4 x 3/32 14 x 6 x 1/2 1-1/4 x 1/8 1.000 1.000 3. ****Stocked in 21' 1" Lengths Only.35 2.200 1.45 Minimum Mill Run is shown by sheets.500 0.85 1.76 0.000 0. Ft.06 7.00 1.51 2. 4 4 1.57 700 4.500 0.) Delivery: Stocked Items: 1-3 days Items Out of Stock: 2 weeks Non-Stocked Items: 2 weeks Equal Leg Angle Size in In.500 2.200 1.61 1-1/2 x 1/8 x x4 4 1.500 0.200 0.500 1.000 0.01 1.28 600 6.25 1.01 900 2.08 5. 1 x 1-1/2 x 1/8 1 x 2 x 1/8 1 x 2 x 3/16 1 x 2 x 1/4 1 x 3 x 1/8 1-1/4 x 3/4 x 1/8 1-1/4 x 2 x 1/4 1-1/2 x 2 x 1/8 1-1/2 x 2 x 1/4 1-1/2 x 3 x 1/8 1-1/2 x 3 x 3/16 1-1/2 x 3 x 1/4 1-5/8 x 2-5/8 x 1/8 2 x 3 x 3/16 2 x 3 x 1/4 2 x 3 x 3/8 2 x 4 x 1/4 2 x 4 x 3/8 3 x 4 x 1/4 3 x 4 x 3/8 3-1/2 x 5 x 1/2 3-1/2 x 11 x 1/8 4 x 6 x 1/4 4 x 6 x 3/8 4 x 6 x 1/2 2.54 Flat Sheet I P I F R V F R Min. Ft.51 x+ 1.55 0.800 1.74 1. Mill Run Wt.77 **Stocked in 20'1".57 0.98 1. **Stocked in Light Gray and Slate Gray.40 1.81 1-1/4 x 3/4 x 1/8 4 x 1/8 x 1-3/4 x 1/4 4-7/16 x 1-7/16 x 1/8 4-3/4 x 1-3/4 x 1/8 5 x 2 x 1/8 6 x 2 x 1/8 8 x 1 x 3/32 1.84 800 2.83 Size in In.400 1.48 0.27 0. Rectangular Box Beam Size in In. 28' 6" and 2-1/2 x 1/4 4 4 4 1.44 2.64 Lengths Only. Sq.39 3.Slate Gray (Dark Gray) Series 1625 Vinyl ester Fire Retardant (VFR) .46 1 x 1/8 1/2 1.74 6. Size in In.000 1. I-Beam I P I F R V F R Min.300 1. Mill Run Wt.200 2. PA 15521 USA Phone: 814-839-4186 Fax: 814-839-4276 Toll Free: 888-CPI-PULL (274-7855) Web site: www.21 0.69 1.500 0.37 0. Rectangular Tube Size in In. Mill Run Wt. pricing.52 CREATIVE PULTRUSIONS.64 5/8 x 48 x 96 40 5. 1/8 x 48 x 96 x x**4 x 188 1.800 0.93 700 3.000 800 1. Ft. Mill Run Wt.79 2.500 2.37 2.800 5.500 0.16 3.Green Series 1525 Isophthalic Fire Retardant (IFR) .07 400 12.78 1.200 1.44 4 x 1/4 x x* x * 6 x 1/4 x 700 3. P R R Run Ft. 3/4 x 3/32 2.000 2.98 0.000 1.500 0. 214 Industrial Lane Alum Bank. Yellow and Beige.000 2. 25'1" and 30'1" 2 x 1/8 1.500 1.600 x * x* 1. I P I F R V F R Min.000 0.000 0.22 Tube x x 800 3.28 I V Min. Square Tube Notes: * Stocked in Yellow Only.37 **Stocked in 25' Lengths Only.06 Round 1.500 0.000 1.500 1.700 0.38 2. 2-1/2 x 1/8 4 4 4 1. Unequal Leg Angle Size in In.300 1. 1. 1 x 1/8 x x 1 x 1/4 1-1/2 x 1/8 1-1/2 x 3/16 1-1/2 x 1/4 x x x 2 x 1/8 2 x 3/16 2 x 1/4 x x** x 3 x 1/8 x 3 x 3/16 3 x 1/4 x x x 3 x 3/8 x x x 4 x 1/4 x** x 4 x 3/8 x x 4 x 1/2 x x 6 x 1/4 6 x 3/8 x 6 x 1/2 x x **Stocked in Light Gray and 3.33 0. x 600 5.27 1/4 x 48 x 96 x x** x 3/8 x 48 x 96 4 x x4 63 3. Mill Run Wt.78 0.26 2.com E-mail: crpul@pultrude. 3 x 1/4 4 4 900 1.03 10 x 1/2 x* x** 300 14.44 I F F Mill Wt.000 800 3.Beige X = Stocked items (All items are stocked in 20' lengths unless otherwise noted.000 0. ** Stocked in Dark Gray and Yellow Only.69 94 2.500 0.34 24 x 3 x 1/4 600 5.000 1.200 1. I P I F R V F R Min.39 0.000 1.27 500 10.600 x+ x* 1. 4 4 4 2. Flat sheet is stocked in 4' x 8' sheets.300 3.000 1.27 0.28 1.29 800 3.000 0.000 x 4 1.500 1. Ft.26 4 * 8 x 1/2 x 400 9. 30'1" and 40'1" 1-3/4 x 1/8 4 1.50 0.000 2.77 3/4 x 48 x 96 30 6. Ft. Ft.000 1.

500 0.16 UNC 1/2" .10 1.90 0.24 0. Pulshaping™.400 0.62 0. x x 4 1.10 UNC 1" .000 4 2.27 1. Mill Run Wt.47 1.40 0.75 Isoplast™ Flanged Hex Nuts are also stocked in all sizes.000 0. 2 x 1-1/2 dia. Mill Run Wt.500 5/8 4 2. Shaping the Future™. SuperWale™.000 6.54 2.8 UNC 4x4 x x x x Fluted Ladder 0. **Stocked in Yellow 22' 4-1/2" Only.25 T-Sections 1.45 Rung 0.10 UNC 1" .21 *Stocked in Yellow Only.90 1. Ft. Flat Strip I P I F R V F R Min.37 0.000 1. Mill Wt.000 800 0.25 1.52 1.500 0.84 All Superstud!™ is stocked in 48" and 96" lengths and is made with Series 1625 (Vinyl ester) resin.000 6.10 UNC 1" .39 0. DYNAPUL™.00 12 x 12 x 1/4 1. Mill Run Wt. Mill Run Wt. *Stocked in Yellow Only. Superdeck™. Supergrate™.125 0.11 UNC 3/4" . Note: T-Sections are cut from I-Sections and can be quoted upon request.56 Superstud!™ 3/8" .69 1. SuperCap™.35 Square Tube with Round Hole 1 x 3/4 dia.72 4 4 4 x** 1. Flowgrip® and Pultex® are registered trademarks of Creative Pultrusions. Adhesive Epoxy Kits Size in In.81 1. PStocked Size in In. Isoplast™ 3/8" . Tuf-dek™.90 x** 1.000 3. Mill Run Wt. Ft.500 1.400 4 1. **Stocked in Yellow and Green Only. ***Stocked in NSF 61 White Only.32 Size in In.28 0.55 8-1/2 x 9-1/4 x 1. Ft.04 0.000 1 x 4 4 1. I V I F F P Stocked Min.300 1.10 0. Ft.13 UNC 5/8" .30 x* 2.76 1. 4x4 x x x x 1. 1/4 x 4 10.500 3.87 1.Solid Round Rod Series 1500 Size in In.05 0.400 3/4 x 2.02 x** 1. SuperLoc™.500 1.300 1.000 4 1. **Stocked in Dark Gray Only.000 1.200 1-1/2 x 900 2 4 600 All Rods Stocked in Natural Color 0. I P I F R V F R Min.11 UNC 3/4" .8 UNC x x x x x Sludge Flight 0. 5.000 1. Superstud!™.32 x 3/16 0.10 1. Superstud!™/Nuts!.64 *Stocked in Yellow Only. Pultrusion Dynamics™. SUPURTUF™. Special Shapes I P I F R V F R Min.000 0.17 0. Size in In.000 3/8 x 5.13 UNC 5/8" . Ft. Ft. TOPSCAN™ and TOPDIE™ are trademarks of Creative Pultrusions.000 4.95 1.200 1.72 Isoplast™ Flanged Hex Nuts Size in In. 4 x 1/2 x 1/8 Consult factory for other sizes. Special Shapes I P I F R V F R Min.300 0.67 Adhesive Epoxy Kits 1/2 Gallon Kit (includes 1 quart base and 1 quart hardener) x Solid Square Bar Size in In.11 UNC 3/4" .90 1.24 x .8 UNC Nuts! 3/8" .000 6. SuperRod™. I P I F R V F R Min.10 x*** 2. DLR: 4/2/09 1298-5Mr23 . ***Stocked in NSF 61 White Only. Inc.32 1/4 x 1/4 1x1 1-1/4 x 1-1/4 1-1/2 x 1-1/2 4 x * x 4 x** x*4 10. Door Frame Wt. Superstik™.16 UNC 1/2" .500 1-1/4 x 1.16 UNC 1/2" . 4 x* x* 2. Ft.500 3. Curb Angle 1 x 1-1/2 x 1/4 1-1/2 x 1-1/2 x 1/4 2 x 1-1/2 x 1/4 Gate Guide 2-1/2 x 2-1/4 x 1/4 10. 1/8 x 2-1/2 1/8 x 4 3/16 x 2-1/2 1/4 x 4 1/4 x 6 1/4x 9 3/8 x 3 3/8 x 6 1/2 x 2 4 x** x* 4 4 4 Toe Plate Note: Many other flat strips are available.21 8 x 1/8 x 2-1/2 0. **Stocked in Dark Gray Only. Inc.53 2.13 UNC 5/8" . Superplank™.08 6 x 1/8 x 2-1/2 0.59 U-Trough 0. Creative Pultrusions™. The New and Improved Pultex® Pultrusion Global Design Manual Product Availability List 2 Trademark of Creative Pultrusions.000 1/2 x 4 4 43. Superstud! ™/Nuts! Fasteners Size in In. Inc. Stocked 6 1. 6 x 1/2 x 1/8 *Stocked in Yellow 21' Lengths Only.13 x 3/16 0.10 1/4 1.000 1. Please specify square or hex when ordering.

Supergrate™.creativepultrusions. SuperCap™.5C October 2009 . Pultrusion Dynamics™. SUPURTUF™. Superstud!™. CPS034IMP-0404. SuperRod™. DYNAPUL™. Inc. Superdeck™. Pulshaping™. Superstud!™/Nuts!. Superplank™. Shaping the Future™. Superstik™. Inc.com E-mail: crpul@pultrude. SuperLoc™. INC.Revision 6 CREATIVE PULTRUSIONS. SuperWale™. Creative Pultrusions™. Tuf-dek™.The Pultex Pultrusion Design Manual ® of Standard and Custom Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles Volume 4 . 214 Industrial Lane Alum Bank. PA 15521 Toll-free: 888-CPI-PULL (274-7855) +1 814-839-4186 Fax: +1 814-839-4276 Web site: http://www. TOPSCAN™ and TOPDIE™ are trademarks of Creative Pultrusions.com Flowgrip® and Pultex® are registered trademarks of Creative Pultrusions.