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We have made an attempt to build an automatic machine which can sense the right / desired path, reach the destination and perform the desired operation. The basic working of the machine is based on the sensor circuit which is supported by the microcontroller. The machine consists of the sensor circuit placed at the base. The signals from the sensor board is given to signal conditioner circuitry and then to the microcontroller. The microcontroller is preprogrammed to react to different conditions. Depending upon the feedback from the sensor board the microcontroller diverts the machine to reach the destination. After reaching the destination the microcontroller gives signal to the winding motor to lift the tray consisting of 4 fuel balls and then put it in to the desired bucket. The machine is 1.5m in height, weighing approximately 10kg. It is power by a lead acid battery of 12 V, 4.5 Ahr.
Power Supply SENSOR CONDITIONING CIRCUIT 12v Lead Acid Battery.
MOTOR RELAY CARD
WHITE LINE SENSOR
Processor unit / The Brain
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INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________
The primary design criteria for this robot were as follows: - minimal cost - incorporate already-owned components - use cheap and easily-worked materials for platform - minimize weight to make use of cheaper servos - robustness - solid design and construction - able to be implemented in stages - modular design - room for expansion The objectives for this semester were: - design and construct the platform - implement a simple, neural netwok based learning routine. - implement minimal sensors for obstacle avoidance - if time allows, implement a more intelligent moving algorithm
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INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________
Microcontroller: Atmega16 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit Micro controller based on the AVR
RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the Atmega16 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed. The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general-purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC Micro controller. The ATmega16 provides the following features: 16K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash Program memory with Read-While-Write capabilities, 512 bytes EEPROM, 1K byte SRAM, 32 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, a JTAG interface for Boundary-scan, On-chip Debugging support and programming, three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, Internal and External Interrupts, a serial programmable USART, a byte oriented Two-wire Serial Interface, an 8-channel, 10-bit ADC with optional differential input stage with programmable gain (TQFP package only), a programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, and six software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the USART, Two-wire interface, A/D Converter, SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next External Interrupt or Hardware Reset. In Power-save mode, the Asynchronous Timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except Asynchronous Timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low-power consumption. In Extended Standby mode, both the main Oscillator and the Asynchronous Timer continue to run.
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the Atmel ATmega16 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology. in-circuit emulators. Software in the Boot Flash section will continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated. and evaluation kits. or by an On-chip Boot program running on the AVR core. macro assemblers. The On-chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed insystem through an SPI serial interface. The boot program can use any interface to download the application program in the Application Flash memory. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING -4- . By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip. The ATmega16 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C compilers. providing true Read-While-Write operation. by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. program debugger/simulators.
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Figure 1: Block Diagram SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING -5- .
and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface • Peripheral Features – Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare Modes – One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler. 1149. Compare Mode.1 Compliant) Interface – Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard – Extensive On-chip Debug Support – Programming of Flash. Low-power AVR® 8-bit Microcontroller • Advanced RISC Architecture – 131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution – 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers – Fully Static Operation – Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz – On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier • Nonvolatile Program and Data Memories – 16K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash Endurance: 10. 10-bit ADC 8 Single-ended Channels 7 Differential Channels in TQFP Package Only SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING -6- .000 Write/Erase Cycles – 1K Byte Internal SRAM – Programming Lock for Software Security • JTAG (IEEE std. Fuses. EEPROM.000 Write/Erase Cycles – Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program True Read-While-Write Operation – 512 Bytes EEPROM Endurance: 100. and Capture Mode – Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator – Four PWM Channels – 8-channel.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Features: • High-performance.
8 MHz for ATmega16L – 0 .7 . 10x.35 mA Power-down Mode: < 1 µA SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING -7- .5V for ATmega16 • Speed Grades – 0 .5V for ATmega16L – 4. Standby and Extended Standby • I/O and Packages – 32 Programmable I/O Lines – 40-pin PDIP. Power-down.5.1 mA – Idle Mode: 0. and 44-pad MLF • Operating Voltages – 2. 3V. ADC Noise Reduction. or 200x – Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface – Programmable Serial USART – Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface – Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator – On-chip Analog Comparator • Special Microcontroller Features – Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection – Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator – External and Internal Interrupt Sources – Six Sleep Modes: Idle. and 25 for ATmega16L C – Active: 1.16 MHz for ATmega16 • Power Consumption @ 1 MHz.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ 2 Differential Channels with Programmable Gain at 1x.5. 44-lead TQFP.5 . Power-save.
Pinouts ATmega16 SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING -8- .INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Figure 2.
they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. even if the clock is not running.PA0 ) Digital supply voltage. Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. even if the clock is not running.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Pin Description: Vcc GND Port A (PA7. PC3(TMS) and PC2(TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs. If the JTAG interface is enabled. Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). if the A/D Converter is not used. The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16. The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability.PD0 ) SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING -9- .PC0 ) Port D (PD7.. Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). As inputs.. As inputs.. As inputs. The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16. Ground Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter. Port B (PB7.. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low. even if the clock is not running. even if the clock is not running. Port pins can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). the pull-up resistors on pins PC5(TDI).PB0) Port C (PC7. Port C also serves the functions of the JTAG interface and other special features of the ATmega16.
Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 15 on page 36. it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. even if the ADC is not used.10 - . AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . It should be externally connected to VCC. AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ RESET XTAL1 XTAL2 AVCC AREF Reset Input. If the ADC is used. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset. even if the clock is not running.
wave generation. CPU accessible I/O Registers. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . A simplified block diagram of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is shown below in Figure. Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) • Variable PWM Period • Frequency Generator • External Event Counter • Four Independent Interrupt Sources (TOV1. The main features are: • True 16-bit Design (i.11 - . Allows 16-bit PWM) • Two Independent Output Compare Units • Double Buffered Output Compare Registers • One Input Capture Unit • Input Capture Noise Canceler • Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload) • Glitch-free. when using the register or bit defines in a program.e. However. are shown in bold. A lower case“n” replaces the Timer/Counter number. TCNT1 for accessing Timer/Counter counter value and so on). OCF1A. The device specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the “16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” are given below. including I/O bits and I/O pins..e. and signal timing measurement. and a lower case “x” replaces the output compare unit channel.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ 16-bit Timer/Counter: The 16-bit Timer/Counter unit allows accurate program execution timing (event management).. the precise form must be used (i. and ICF1) Overview Most register and bit references in this section are written in general form. OCF1B.
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ 16-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .12 - .
see “Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers”. cleared or toggle at a compare match.. If one or both of the COM1B1:0 bit are written to one.13 - .e. For details on clock sources and prescaler. For detailed timing information refer to “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” 16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description: Timer/Counter1 Control Register A – TCCR1A: • Bit 7:6 – COM1A1:0: Compare Output Mode for Channel A • Bit 5:4 – COM1B1:0: Compare Output Mode for Channel B The COM1A1:0 and COM1B1:0 control the Output Compare pins (OC1A and OC1B respectively) behavior. If one or both of the COM1A1:0 bits are written to one. i. while the Waveform Generation mode bits do.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Timer/Counter Clock Sources: The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. is defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM13:0) and1 Compare Output mode (COM1x1:0) bits. The Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting sequence. For non-PWM modes the COM1x1:0 bits control whether the output should be set. Modes of Operation The mode of operation. the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the output compare pins. The COM1x1:0 bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). The clock source is selected by the Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select (CS12:0) bits located in the Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCR1B). the OC1Aoutput overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. the OC1B output overrides the SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .
Compare Output Mode. Compare Output Mode. Fast PWM Note : A special case occurs when OCR1A/OCR1B equals TOP and COM1A1/COM1B1 is set. PWM mode. When the OC1A or OC1B is connected to the pin. non-PWM Table shows the COM1x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM13:0 bits are set to the fast PWM mode. the function of the COM1x1:0 bits is dependent of the WGM13:0 bits setting. Table 44 shows the COM1x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM13:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode (non-PWM). Table shows the COM1x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM13:0 bits are set to the phase correct or the phase and frequency correct.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. In this case the compare match is ignored. Phase Correct and Phase and Frequency Correct PWM SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . but the set or clear is done at TOP. Compare Output Mode. note that the Data Direction Register(DDR) bit corresponding to the OC1A or OC1B pin must be set in order to enable the output driver.14 - . However.
The FOC1A/FOC1B bits are lways read as zero.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Note: A special case occurs when OCR1A/OCR1B equals TOP and COM1A1/COM1B1 is set. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . Therefore it is the value present in the COM1x1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. for ensuring compatibility with future devices. • Bit 3 – FOC1A: Force Output Compare for Channel A • Bit 2 – FOC1B: Force Output Compare for Channel B The FOC1A/FOC1B bits are only active when the WGM13:0 bits specifies a nonPWM mode. an immediate compare match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit. these bits must be set to zero when TCCR1A is written when operating in a PWM mode.15 - . Note that the FOC1A/FOC1B bits are implemented as strobes. When writing a logical one to the FOC1A/FOC1B bit. However. The OC1A/OC1B output is changed according to its COM1x1:0 bits setting. A FOC1A/FOC1B strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC) mode using OCR1A as TOP.
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ • Bit 1:0 – WGM11:0: Waveform Generation Mode Combined with the WGM13:2 bits found in the TCCR1B Register. Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description(1) pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Note: 1. the functionality and location of these bits are compatible with previous versions of the timer. these bits control the counting sequence of the counter. Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC) mode. the source for maximum (TOP) counter value. The CTC1 and PWM11:0 bit definition names are obsolete.16 - . However. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . and three types of modes. see table Modes of operation supported by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter). and what type of waveform generation to be used. Use the WGM12:0 definitions.
a falling (negative) edge is used as trigger. if this interrupt is enabled. When the Noise canceler is activated. The Input Capture is therefore delayed by four Oscillator cycles when the Noise Canceler is enabled. For ensuring compatibility with future devices. this bit must be written to zero when TCCR1B is written. the input from the Input Capture Pin (ICP1) is filtered. • Bit 4:3 – WGM13:2: Waveform Generation Mode SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . • Bit 5 – Reserved Bit This bit is reserved for future use. The event will also set the Input Capture lag (ICF1).INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Timer/Counter1 Control Register B – TCCR1B • Bit 7 – ICNC1: Input Capture Noise Canceler Setting this bit (to one) activates the Input Capture Noise Canceler.17 - . The filter function requires four successive equal valued samples of the ICP1 pin for changing its output. the ICP1 is disconnected and consequently the Input Capture function is disabled. a rising (positive) edge will trigger the capture. and when the ICES1 bit is written to one. When the ICES1 bit is written to zero. • Bit 6 – ICES1: Input Capture Edge Select This bit selects which edge on the Input Capture Pin (ICP1) that is used to trigger a capture event. When a capture is triggered according to the ICES1 setting. and this can be used to cause an Input Capture Interrupt. the counter value is copied into the Input Capture Register (ICR1). When the ICR1 is used as TOP value (see description of the WGM13:0 bits located in the TCCR1A and the TCCR1B Register).
the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This feature allows software control of the counting. This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit counter. To ensure that both the high and Low bytes are read and written simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .18 - . Writing to the TCNT1 Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock for all compare units. combined TCNT1) give direct access. Modifying the counter (TCNT1) while the counter is running introduces a risk missing compare match between TCNT1 and one of the OCR1x Registers. Timer/Counter1 – TCNT1H and TCNT1L The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNT1H and TCNT1L.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ • Bit 2:0 – CS12:0: Clock Select The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter Clock Select Bit Description Clock Select Bit Description If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter1. transitions on the T1 pin will clock the counter even if the pin is configured as an output. both for read and for write operations.
This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. Input Capture Register 1 – ICR1H and ICR1L The Input Capture is updated with the counter (TCNT1) value each time an event occurs on the ICP1 pin (or optionally on the analog comparator output for Timer/Counter1). SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . The Input Capture can be used for defining the counter TOP value.19 - . The Input Capture Register is 16-bit in size. the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. To ensure that both the high and Low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers. the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP).INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Output Compare Register 1 A – OCR1AH and OCR1AL Output Compare Register 1 B – OCR1BH and OCR1BL The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value (TCNT1). or to generate a waveform output on the OC1x pin. A match can be used to generate an output compare interrupt. To ensure that both the high and Low bytes are read simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size.
• Bit 3 – OCIE1B: Timer/Counter1.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register – TIMSK Note: 1. is set. the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture Interrupt is enabled. The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the TOV1 Flag. Input Capture Interrupt Enable When this bit is written to one. The remaining bits are described in their respective timer sections. the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare A match interrupt is enabled. • Bit 4 – OCIE1A: Timer/Counter1. Output Compare B Match Interrupt Enable When this bit is written to one. located in TIFR. and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally enabled). is set. is set. • Bit 5 – TICIE1: Timer/Counter1. and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally enabled). located in TIFR. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . is set. • Bit 2 – TOIE1: Timer/Counter1. located in TIFR. The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the ICF1 Flag. but only Timer1 bits are described in this section. and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally enabled). The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF1A Flag. and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally enabled). Output Compare A Match Interrupt Enable When this bit is written to one. This register contains interrupt control bits for several Timer/Counters. located in TIFR. the Timer/Counter1 Overflow Interrupt is enabled. the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare B match interrupt is enabled.20 - . The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF1B Flag. Overflow Interrupt Enable When this bit is written to one.
Alternatively. OCF1A can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location. • Bit 3 – OCF1B: Timer/Counter1. OCF1A is automatically cleared when the Output compare Match A Interrupt Vector is executed. • Bit 5 – ICF1: Timer/Counter1. Output Compare A Match Flag This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT1) value matches the output Compare Register A (OCR1A). Input Capture Flag This flag is set when a capture event occurs on the ICP1 pin. the ICF1 Flag is set when the counter reaches the TOP value. When the Input Capture Register (ICR1) is set by the WGM13:0 to be used as the TOP value. but only Timer1 bits are described in this section. OCF1B can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location. • Bit 4 – OCF1A: Timer/Counter1. Output Compare B Match Flag This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT1) value matches the Output Compare Register B (OCR1B). ICF1 is automatically cleared when the Input Capture Interrupt Vector is executed. OCF1B is automatically cleared when the Output compare Match B Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . ICF1 can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR Note: This register contains flag bits for several Timer/Counters. The remaining bits are described in their respective timer sections. Alternatively.21 - . Note that a forced output compare (FOC1B) probe will not set the OCF1B Flag. Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC1A) strobe will not set the OCF1A Flag.
TOV1 can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.22 - . Overflow Flag The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM13:0 bits setting. the TOV1 Flag is set when the timer overflows. Refer to Table 47 on page 111 for the TOV1 Flag behavior when using another WGM13:0 bit setting. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . TOV1 is automatically cleared when the Timer/Counter1 Overflow interrupt vector is executed. In normal and CTC modes.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ • Bit 2 – TOV1: Timer/Counter1. Alternatively.
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ SENSORS : Sensors are used as the eyes of the robot. When sufficient amount of light falls on the IR receiver. IR led and IR receiver is placed side by side. The output is taken across the receiver and the ground. There are two types of the sensors used.23 - . IR led will emit the infrared light rays. These reflected rays will fall on the IR receiver. because black surface will absorb the maximum amount light rays falling on it. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . infrared sensors and colour sensors. Quad OP-AMP LM324 is used as a comparator. IR led is connected to VCC through resistance of small value. These rays will fall on the surface and reflected by the surface. They keep informing the position of the robot on the track. These sensors are placed at the bottom surface of the robot facing toward the ground. The reference voltage is generated with potentiometer. Inverting terminal of LM324 is connected to the reference voltage through the variable potentiometer of 10MΩ. This output voltage is not enough for the microcontroller to take the decisions. IR sensors include infrared transmitter (IR Led) and infrared receiver. IR receiver is connected to VCC through 10K resistance. So the signal conditioning is required. The reference voltage level is arranged in such a way that it is in between the two voltage levels that were get from the black and silver surface. When IR transmitter receiver is on the black surface most of the light will be absorbed by the surface and receiver is open and when they are on silver strip the receiver gets enough light and starts conducting. Supply voltage is 5V. it will start conducting. non-inverting terminal is connected to the output from the IR receiver. Sensing is based on the reflection of light from the surface. The circuit used for the IR detector is shown below. INFRARED SENSOR : Infrared sensors are operated in the infrared light rays. The signal conditioner includes a comparator circuit and a reference voltage. The working principle of IR sensor is that infrared rays will get reflected from the silver surface and will not get reflected from the black surface. When sensor is on the black surface receiver is open the voltage get pulled up to VCC and when it is on silver surface receiver will shorted and the voltage is pulled down to GND.
When visible light strikes an object and a specific frequency becomes absorbed.24 - . The only role that the object plays is that it might contain atoms capable of absorbing one or more frequencies of the visible light which shine upon it. each of which corresponds to a specific color. the color is in the light which shines upon it that ultimately becomes reflected or transmitted to our eyes. The color of an object is not actually within the object itself. On the other type of track its response is not good enough. We know that the visible light spectrum consists of a range of frequencies. that frequency of light will never make it to our eyes. Any visible light which strikes the object and becomes reflected or transmitted to our eyes will contribute to the color appearance of that object. So the color is not in the object itself. So if an object absorbs all of the frequencies of visible light except for the frequency associated with green light. but in the light which strikes the object.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ 5V V C C 120 120 10k LE D + O PAM P OU T IR LE D - T O M IC R O C O N T R O LLE R IR R E C E IV E R 10M V A R R E S IS T O R Circuit diagram of IR sensor Drawbacks of IR sensor: The response of IR sensors is good only on silver track on black surface. then the object will appear green in the presence of SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . COLOUR SENSOR: The color of the objects which we see are largely due to the way those objects interact with light and ultimately reflect or transmit it to our eyes. rather.
SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . or infrared light. LEDs can be built to emit green. They are much brighter than normal led. Unlike incandescent light sources. LEDs are not easily damaged by vibration and shock. Another virtue is the device’s low impedance. similar electrically to a diode. however. they will last for the entire useful life of a sensor. LED sensors can be totally encapsulated and sealed. Phototransistors used are L14G. And if an object absorbs all of the frequencies of visible light except for the frequency associated with blue light. except that it emits a small amount of light when current flows through it in the forward direction. Because LEDs are solid-state. in the area of light intensity: in general. Colour sensors are operated in the visible light rays. yellow. It is particularly sensitive to the wavelengths of light given off by ordinary incandescent light bulbs. In applications which sense color contrasts. then the object will appear blue in the presence of ROYGBIV. There is a tradeoff. blue-green. Laser diodes are a recent exception to this. making them smaller yet more reliable than their incandescent counterparts. red. the choice of LED color can be important.25 - . blue. Colour led used is ultra bright led. The Phototransistor has a high power output for a photo-electric device and gives good response to a rapidly fluctuating light source. and worry about filament sag is also eliminated. New sensor designs that incorporate laser diodes can produce many times the light intensity (and sensing range) of ordinary LEDs. Colour sensor includes a colour led and phototransistor.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ ROYGBIV. An LED is a solid-state semiconductor. and is well suited to operate with these easily available sources with good fidelity. LEDs produce only a small percentage of the light generated by an incandescent bulb of the same size.
When the base is illuminated with the correct wavelength of light.26 - . The main region for the electron-hole pair formation is the base-collector junction. Although any transistor will respond to light. electron-hole pairs are formed in the base which creates a base current. The photo-induced base current appears as though an external diode was connected between the base and collector of the transistor.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Phototransistor L14G Symbol of photo transistor Spectral Response of phototransistor A phototransistor is a transistor whose collector and emitter currents are directly related to the light incident on the base region of the transistor. with the current flow directly related to the brightness of the light. see Figur SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . the phototransistor has some features that make it more sensitive at certain wavelengths of light.
If the width of track changes we have to just change the distance ‘a’. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . ‘L’ denotes left. ‘B’ denotes back sensor. ‘R’ denotes right. According to this distance we have to change the reference voltage. ‘F’ denotes front. Colour sensors can be used to track any type of track. This arrangement is placed at the bottom of the robot facing towards track. The distance of the arrangement from the ground is critical. Led and phototransistor is arranged side by side. They are arranged in plus format as shown below. To track any type of path four sensors are more than enough. The robot will try to arrange itself in such a way that F and B will be on the track and L and R are off the track.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ The phototransistor and the equivalent circuit with a reverse biased diode The principle of operation of colour sensor is based on the amount of reflection of light from different colour surfaces.27 - .
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Arrangement of led and phototransistor F a L R Tx B Rx Arrangement of sensors Robot can get off the track due to some obstacle. With this arrangement of sensors. An array of sensors have been added beside the left and right sensor to increase the range of robot.28 - . For this extra sensors has been added to the above arrangement. to follow the path atleast one sensor has to be there on the track. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . If all the sensors are get off the track then robot may not follow the desired path.
These buffered signals are subtracted and the output is buffered. Transmitter is connected to the supply through resistor of 1KΩ. buffers and subtractor. This voltage is connected to the signal conditioning circuitry. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . Phototransistor is connected in series with 47KΩ resistor. Reference voltage level is adjusted in between the two voltage levels that are obtained from two different colours. Single conditioning circuitry includes reference voltage. Reference voltage and the output from phototransistor are buffered through unity gain amplifier.29 - . The output voltage is taken across the collector of phototransistor and GND.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ F B Modified arrangement of sensors The circuit diagram of the colour sensor is as shown below.
30 - .INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Circuit Diagram of colour sensor SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .
The right hand rule states that if you point your right hand fingers along the direction of current. The torque of a motor is generated by a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. B. Notice that the arrow shows the SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . the direction of force is along the thumb. The bar magnet represents the armature and the coil of wire represents the field. The arrow shows the direction of the armature's rotation. The inputs of the motor are connected to 2 wires and by applying a voltage across them. The piece connected to the ground is called the stator and the piece connected to the output shaft is called the rotor.31 - . the motor turns.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Motor: How does a motor work? Let's consider a permanent magnet brushed motor. and curl them towards the direction of the magnetic flux. I.
and the south pole of the field coil is repelling the south pole of the armature. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . The north pole of the field coil is repelling the north pole of the armature. (a) Magnetic diagram that explains the operation of a DC motor. (c) The rotating magnet is now shown as the armature coil.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ armature starting to rotate in the clockwise direction. (b) The rotating magnet is being attracted because the poles are unlike. The rotating magnet moves clockwise because like poles repel.32 - . and its polarity is determined by the brushes and commutator segments.
so the commutator has two segments. This presents another problem. This time when the armature gets to the point where it becomes locked up with the magnetic field. When the opposite poles are at their strongest attraction. its polarity can be changed by changing the direction of current flow through it.33 - . Since the armature in this diagram is a permanent magnet. Since the armature is now a coil of wire. since the armature will be rotating. This action switches the direction of current flow through the SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . it will have only two terminals. the commutator segment the negative brush rides on will also be negative. the negative brush begins to touch the end of the armature coil that was previously positive and the positive brush begins to touch the end of the armature coil that was negative. and its south pole moves directly in line with the field's north pole. This attraction becomes stronger until the armature's north pole moves directly in line with the field's south pole. The armature's magnetic field causes the armature to begin to rotate.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ As the armature begins to move. One commutator segment is provided for each terminal of the magnetic coil. it will need DC current flowing through it to become magnetized. A stationary set of carbon brushes is used to make contact to the rotating armature. the armature's polarity must be switched. they begin to attract. If the armature is an electromagnet. DC voltage is applied to the field and to the brushes. Since negative DC voltage is connected to one of the brushes. you can see that it would lock up during the first rotation and not work. the DC voltage wires cannot be connected directly to the armature coil. For the armature to continue its rotation. The brushes ride on the commutator segments to make contact so that current will flow through the armature coil. Since this armature has only one coil. As the two unlike poles near each other. the armature will be "locked up" and will resist further attempts to continue spinning. and the south pole of the armature is coming closer to the north pole of the field. For this reason the armature must be changed to a coil (electromagnet) and a set of commutator segments must be added to provide a means of making contact between the rotating member and the stationary member. the north pole of the armature comes closer to the south pole of the field.
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ armature, which also switches the polarity of the armature coil's magnetic field at just the right time so that the repelling and attracting continues. The armature continues to switch its magnetic polarity twice during each rotation, which causes it to continually be attracted and repelled with the field poles. This is a simple two-pole motor that is used primarily for instructional purposes. Since the motor has only two poles, the motor will operate rather roughly and not provide too much torque. Additional field poles and armature poles must be added to the motor for it to become useful for industry. You might be able to notice that the direction of rotation is changing every half cycle. To keep it rotating in the same direction, we have to switch the current direction. The process of switching current is called commutation. To switch the direction of current, we have to use brushes and commutators. Commutation can also be done electronically (Brushless motors) and a brushless motor usually has a longer life. The following diagram shows how brushes and commutators work.
SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING - 34 -
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________
SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING - 35 -
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________
Disassembly of motor and gearhead
SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING - 36 -
and power from the power controller. Q2 is OFF. The motor controller is capable of independently controlling each motor. Similarly when both A and B are "LOW" the motor is OFF. This circuit can control the two small DC motors.Q5 are OFF and Q4. The voltages at both the motor terminals are the same and hence the motor is OFF. forwards or backwards optionally at different speeds using the onboard commands from the uC.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Motor Controller: The motor controller is responsible for taking appropriate logic signals from the uC . Hence the bases of Q3 to Q6 are grounded. When A is LOW and B is HIGH. The bases of Q3 and Q4 are grounded and that of Q4 and Q5 is HIGH. Q1 saturates. When A is HIGH and B is LOW. in a stopped condition.Q6 are ON .37 - . Hence Q3. controlling both motors accordingly. in the robot. When both the points A & B are "HIGH" Q1 and Q2 are in saturation. the left terminal of the motor is more positive SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . Hence Q4 and Q5 conduct making the right terminal of the motor more positive than the left and the motor is ON.
Two such circuits are required to control the robot. Left Motor: OF Right Motor: OF Left Motor:OB Right Motor:OB Left Motor:OB Right Motor: OF Left Motor: OF Right Motor:OB Left Motor: OFF Right Motor: OFF STOP OF : On Forward OB : On Backward OFF : Switched Off SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . The diodes protect the transistors from surge produced due to the sudden reversal of the motor. These are the following action that the robot would result on the requisite motor status.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ than the right and the motor rotates in the reverse direction.38 - .
the behavior of the motor controlled by this model will be the same as the behavior of the motor controlled by a closed loop system! we can use feedback to control and regulate the speed of motors (or anything else that rotates). On either side of the disk are an infra red emitter and infra red detector. You will see a disk with holes around the edges. A card disk similar to the one on the right can attached to the drive shaft of the wheel and used to break an IR beam between the emitter and detector.. Let's say that you want your robot to travel at a steady speed that uses 60% power to the motors.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Shaft Encoder : The key question to be answered by the high-level control system for a motor is. when should the next step be taken? While this almost always depends on the application. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . DC motor control may be based on open loop or closed loop models. When there is a direct line of sight between them the detector is 'on' and produces a voltage (normally around 1 to 3 volts). producing 0 volts.39 - . As the disk rotates the path between the IR emitter and detector is made and broken. When you move the mouse. Shaft encoders use infra red emitters and detectors that are placed fairly close to each other (about half an inch or less). When the line of sight is blocked the detector doesn't pick up any infra red light so is 'off'. the mouse ball's rotation causes the perforated disk to rotate. causing the detector to create a string of electrical pulses. the similarities between different applications are sufficient to justify the development of fairly complex general purpose motor controllers. For a perfect example of how shaft encoders work take a look inside your mouse. A good feature of using shaft encoders to monitor wheel movement is that they are totally friction free. By monitoring the frequency of the pulses you can deduce how far the wheel has turned and the time it took. we will treat closed loop models briefly because they are somewhat simpler: So long as the model is sufficiently accurate.
each corresponding to an increment of rotation. the maximum error (if the encoder stops halfway between transitions) is only 0. a disc or plate containing opaque and transparent segments passes between an IR emitter and detector to interrupt a light beam. Multiturn devices are primarily used with measuring screws. Thus. Inaccurate readings often result when the code wheel stops on or near a slot's edge and vibrations move the code wheel back and forth. Incremental encoders are preferred when low cost is important. or where encoders may be temporarily shut down. and signal processor. Incremental encoders often have a third channel with a single segment slot or reference which is used to zero or home the device. The emitter and detector may need to be shielded with some black card or something similar to prevent them from detecting any ambient infra red. This suits them for low-speed applications. Absolute encoders are available in single and multiturn versions. Single-channel encoders.5 bit. as in highway bridges. Absolute encoders contain multiple detectors and up to 20 tracks of segment patterns. Rotary and linear optical encoders are common in position and motion sensing. are inherently less accurate than dual-channel versions and cannot register direction. or when only relative position is needed. Here. light detector.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ meaning that there is no loss of drive power when they are used. The advantage of Gray code over straight binary is that only one bit changes at a time. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . There are two basic encoder styles: absolute and incremental. the counter increments with each transition. For each encoder position. Tracks on absolute encoders often are arranged to produce a binary output called Gray code. this information is available even if the encoder is turned off and on. there is a different binary output -.40 - . also called tachometers. In absolute encoders. Their output typically consists of two square waves. If the slot edge interrupts the light beam. as in telescopes. All rotary encoders consist of a light source. code wheel.shaft position is absolutely determined.
and attenuates light reaching the detector. Most improvements in modular encoders concern the encoder optics and electronics. Eliminating the mask entails drawbacks as well. The key developments that make maskless encoders feasible are miniaturized LEDs and detectors and the use of special lenses. or gear train. The encoder shaft couples to the motor shaft with a belt. To solve these problems. motors may also be sized smaller and run hotter than would otherwise be acceptable. Eliminating the mask allows more space between the disk and detectors. high-resolution encoders that sometimes cost as much as the motor they attach to. until recently.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Other common encoder versions include standard. A large amount of play can break the code wheel or push it into the stationary parts of the encoder. Hollow shaft encoders are similar. can be adjusted to fit wheels having different resolutions. several manufacturers have designed encoders that need no mask. forcing the optics out of alignment. modular. It also increases the chance of interference with the spinning disk. Examining a modular rotary encoder used on a motor reveals a code wheel attached directly to the motor shaft.41 - . encoder light emitters (usually LEDs) and detectors were relatively large compared with the slots in the disk. It increases component and assembly costs. The biggest drawback is that detectors on maskless encoders work only with specific code-wheel resolutions. on the other hand. but the motor shaft fits into the encoder shaft bore. coupling. This makes the encoder sensitive to motor shaft runout and axial movement. and kit. But the mask presents problems. For example. As a result. Standard encoders are those that have their own shaft and bearing assembly. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . Encoders with masks. If the encoder also can withstand high temperatures (above 70°C). increasing the tolerance for phase error and edge jitter between channels. a stationary mask is placed between the detector and code wheel to increase accuracy by sharpening the edges of light pulses falling on the detectors. These problems beset even large.
Rotary shaft encoders are typically rated in output pulses per channel per revolution. for a motor with n steps per revolution SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .42 - . and the output of this encoder is used to directly generate the control vector for the motor driver.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ A shaft encoder is attached to the drive shaft of a permanent magnet DC motor. for this example to be useful.
PC mouse (top left). can give you two cheap but quite reliable encoders plus two infrared (IR) emitter-detector pairs SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Hacking a Mouse for Encoders Incremental optical encoders can be quite expensive. Taking apart the ubiquitous Rs. however.43 - . The bottom two photos are commercially available units. 250/.
You should see two black-colored plastic encoder disks.44 - . This particular mouse has 43 slot encoder disks. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . Each disk is surrounded by 4 LEDs (two IR emitters and two detectors).INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Cannibalizing the Mouse Figure 1 shows the internal circuit once the mouse's screws are removed.
The SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .5m . The dimensions of the robot is 40cm x 40cm x 1.45 - .8m on extension.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Signal conditioning for Shaft Encoder Output after signal conditioning General description: The robot is designed to track the path through colour sensors and deliver the balls into a predefined destination.5m which goes up to 1.The robot is designed with the height of 1.
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ main function of the robot is to track the path with the help of the sensors placed at the bottom of the robot and reach the destination. The trolly moves up and down on the specific path due to the guidance provided by the pulley. First we used the simple guides made up of Aluminium to guide the trolly.46 - . But it was not able to guide the trolly on a consistent path. Trolly contains 4 balls. The winding motor is connected to the trolly with preloaded balls through two strings. Thus we decided to use pulleys and fix the trolly to the sides of the frame. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . The diameter of each ball is 15cm and the dimensions of the trolly is 32cm x 32cm. When the destination is reached the microcontroller gives signal to winding motor to start. As the motor rotates it wounds the string which in turn pulls the trolly upwards.
To reinforce the structure we added two aluminium bars running down the length of the structure to help prevent the motors from breaking away from the frame. The wheels are placed on the rear axis and steering is achieved by differential steering i. The motors were placed centrally in the lower section. exactly opposite to the rear wheels. After many frustrating attempts to get the wheel to turn smoothly on every run. it was decided that two small castors should be fitted on the front side of the frame i. Design Considerations: Structural Integrity: In early runs it became evident that initial designs were not strong enough to handle the forces of the robot's frequent stops and starts at reasonable speeds. Mechanical construction: The robot is built around square aluminum frames connected by four vertical. Aluminum bars and fastened together with screws.e. each connected to a separate electric DC motor. steering is accomplished by adjusting the power and direction of the motors separately.47 - . Rear point of contact: The first design included two rear wheels on the frame to provide balance for the robot. The speed and direction of each wheel are controlled individually. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Construction and mechanics: Locomotion: The robot has two wheels.e. but it's behavior was not consistent enough to work with a robot operating with sensors. seen from the top together with the heavy batteries placed on the bottom frame to give us a low point of gravity. This gives us a good platform to build upon with good access to the components inside. This setup gives an easy control of the robots movements and at the same time is both efficient and easy to implement. It worked. The shape of the robot.
Motor Attachment: Initially we connected the motor to the axle of each wheel through a system of interlocking gears.48 - . The skid was also more likely to catch on floor imperfections at the lower speeds.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Wheels: The goal in choosing wheels was to find the pair that provided the most consistent performance on turns and the least drift in forward motion. however. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . wheels larger in both width and diameter seemed to provide the least consistent behavior. We found. We found that at higher speed settings the robots behavior was more predictable. The smaller treaded wheels were unreliable when dirty. Power/Speed: In our early trials we ran the motors at slower rates of speed. In general. but performed the best as long as dirt was wiped away often. it often took time for the motors to overcome the static friction. believing that the slower speeds would be more consistent in turns and would help prevent the robot from drifting. causing excess variation and drift in the robot's movement. Both of these factors contributed to inconsistencies between runs. Because of the skid however. Because the gears seemed unnecessary in our design and caused such slippages. that the gear teeth would slip every so often. Accordingly. So we decided to manufacture wheels of aluminium that were light in weight and also the diameter and width were according to our requirements. We also determined that turns were more consistent when the robot pivoted around it's center than around one of the wheels. turns were performed with the motors running in opposite directions rather than leaving just one wheel running. it was decided that the motors should connected to the wheel directly.
SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . Earlier it was found that the one battery was easily depleted in a few minutes of operation and low battery resulted in processor reset leading to erratic behavior. Two pin connectors were used to identify positive and negative so as to avoid mixing of the negative and positive terminals for the various modules as simple switch switches the supply on and off accordingly. To provide the supply two Batteries of 9v were used one for the motors and one for the circuit . The two 9V batteries are joined together by a tape and then there input is given to the power supply the status of the power supply is denoted by a simple green LED telling weather it is on or off.49 - . Power Supply 12V Batt ery + _ 1000 uF 7805 + 1000 uF To uC 12v Batt ery To the Motor Driver and Sensor Circuit A common ground was given to both supplies for there coexistence. The Power supply was simply fabricated on an all-purpose PCB which made the assembly easy.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Power Supply: Due to the digital nature of the circuit a 5V regulated power supply was needed .
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Programmer: A Programmer was required as the program which the uC needs to execute was to be loaded. A requisite hardware cable was built using an RS-232 port at one end and the IC at the Other End. The Pony Prog is capable of writing HEX code into the chip with many serial protocols. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . but which are costlier many programmers design their own software for DOS. Instead of using development board such STK500 or AVRISP Cable. First A Programming Hardware was considered by me to be built but due to lack of funds and in a way easier programmability using the ATMELS ISP interface An ISP cable was built. Serial Port Programmer: Pony Prog The Software Used to Load the program was Pony Prog which is available for free from the internet. The popular one is the Pony Prog by Claudio Lanconelli and AT-prog-30 by Johann Aichinger. Window or Linux platform.50 - . which allows programming of all AVR devices.
The programming cable is removed and then the uC starts to execute the Code. Working: It is very simple the programmer is switched on and the circuit is connected to and switched on. Due to the further complication of the circuit if they were used.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ The Programmer was built and tested the MISO. This software is available from http:/jaichi. PonyProg . MOSI and the SCK Pins were not used as required by the programming interface being used.virtualave.7 v or when Negative bias is applied at the Reset pin.Serial Device Programmer Version 1. Also Large number of writes and rewrites was to be avoided due to the limit set of approximate 1000 write/erase cycles .51 - .17h Parallel Port Programmer: AT-prog-30 AVR Programmer .net SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . This is done within a minute.Parallel Port Device Programmer. Special attention has to be paid to the reset function in the ATMEL series of the IC’s which is reseted when the voltage falls below 4. The program is executed the Intel hex file is loaded and the program is told it to upload it into the IC.
Parallel port (PIN) Reset –Pin5 Data Out – Pin2 Clock – Pin3 Data In – Pin10 GND – Pin25 Target MCU (PIN) ---------------------------------.MISO – Pin18 ---------------------------------.Reset – Pin1 -------------MOSI –Pin17 1KΩ --------------------------SCK – Pin19 1KΩ ----------------------------------------------. Connection configuration of the programmer is given below.52 - .INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ AT-prog-30 Parallel Port Device Programmer This is the simple parallel port programmer and can be made with a simple 5 wires and two 1KΩ resister used as the current limiters.GND – Pin10 SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .
AVR Studio 4 has a completely new modular architecture which allows even more interaction with 3rd party software vendors.53 - . It simulates not only the CPU. Simulator Overview: Description: This section describes how some of the functionality of AVR Studio's built in simulator varies from default behavior as described in the AVR Studio User's Guide. chip simulator and Incircuit emulator interface for the powerful AVR 8-bit RISC family of microcontrollers. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . which allows programming of all AVR devices. AVR Studio provides a project management tool. The simulator supports all existing new AVR devices. as well as the I/O ports. but nearly all the on-chip I/O modules and memory. source file editor. and the new JTAG interface on-chip emulator.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Software Used: AVR Studio is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for writing and debugging AVR applications in Windows 9x/Me/NT/2000/XP environments. AVR Studio supports the development board such STK500 or AVRISP Cable. In addition.
But the following should be noted: The memory contents will not be updated when the simulator is running.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Special care has been taken to ensure proper simulation of the device. A target Reset will NOT restore these initial memory settings. The simulator must break before new values can be written into the data area. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . The memory contents can not be modified when the simulator is running. The simulator must break before the memory window can be updated. Interrupts All interrupts are supported and setup as described in the part description . See below simulator option for an overview of the supported modules. the user has extended visibility of all the on-chip functions.54 - . Some I/O modules are not fully supported. the entire external memory is regular SRAM. Simulator modules: Most of the I/O modules are supported in simulation. Sleep does only support IDLE mode. this memory will be written to external memory when the project is opened. But as the device is simulated entirely inside the PC memory. IO locations are set to 0x00. Below is a short summary of different modules and how they will act in simulation Instruction Set All instructions are simulated including spm and sleep. and there are only small differences between simulated and actual behaviour. The full functionality of the memory/IO windows is supported by the simulator.xml file. SRAM and EEprom to 0xFF. the simulator will reset all program memories. If the object file contains initial data for the external memories. When simulating Target Devices supporting External Data Memories. The simulator does not connect to outside hardware and has to be stimulated from pre-calculated stimuli files. When AVR Studio is launched.
The SPI Data Register shows the SPI receive Register.55 - . Writing to the UART Data Register (UDR) will not initiate a data transfer. The Data Register must be written by the target application.xml file. the value read from the PINx register is the value generated by that I/O module. EEPROM The EEPROM is supported by the Simulator. Timers/Counters 0/1/2/3 Timers/Counters are supported by the Simulator. Pin change interrupts All external and pin change interrupts are supported by the Simulator. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . Editing the SPI Data Register will not initiate a data transfer. even if the SPI is enabled in Master mode. Asynchronous operation is not supported. UART/USARTS The UART/USART is supported by the Simulator. The UART/USART interrupt vectors and the Receive/Transmit pins are set up as described in the part description . which is significantly shorter than the actual device. including WE and WEE interrupts. The Timer/Counter interrupt vectors and the external counter(s) pin are set as described in the part description . This includes the 1. The Data Register must be written by the target application.5 clock cycle debouncing delay found in the standard port logic hardware in actual AVR parts. When an I/O module take control over a pin. External Interrupts. the write timeout has been set to 22 clock cycles. SPI The SPI is supported by the Simulator.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Ports Ports are simulated as on the real device. For simplicity.xml file.
Development Environment (Assembly): AVR Studio for windows version 4.10 SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ ADC/AC/TWI/USI These modules are not supported by the simulator at the moment.56 - . but the interrupts are initiated.
57 - .INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Circuit diagram of robot SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .58 - .
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ START IS PIND = 20 INPUT PORT C STATUS YES TURN 2 CLOCKWISE 2 NO NO IS PIND = 00 YES IS PIND = 30 INPUT PORT D STATUS NO YES TURN LEFT 2 1 NO NO IS PIND = 40 IS PIND = 10 IS PIND = 05 YES YES GO FORWARD GO FORWARD 2 2 YES GO FORWARD 2 NO IS PIND = 06 NO YES TURN CLOCKWISE 2 A A IS PIND = 07 YES TURN CLOCKWISE 2 NO YES IS PIND = 08 NO TURN ANTICLOCKWISE 2 IS PIND = 09 YES SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .59 IS PIND = CO = A0 D0 B0 TURN RIGHT 2 .
60 - .INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ NO YES GO FORWARD 2 NO YES GO FORWARD 2 NO YES TURN ANTICLOCK WISE 2 NO YES TURN ANTICLOCK WISE 2 NO B B IS PIND = E0 NO YES GO FORWARD 2 YES IS PIND = F0 NO GO FORWARD 2 GO FORWARD SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .
61 - .INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ 2 1 INITIALISE COUNTER AND SET COUNT VALUE 4 FETCH DATA FROM MEMORY YES IS DATA = 00 NO GO FORWARD 3 C C YES IS DATA =01 NO YES TURN ANTICLOCK WISE 3 IS DATA =02 NO TURN CLOCKWISE 3 TURN ON LIFT SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .
consideration. Printed circuit boards are used to note electrical currents and signals through copper tracks which are firmly boarded to an insulating base. Materials used for preparing PCB: SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . In this chapter. while preparing Art work are devises computer aided design of PCB is mentioned.62 - .INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ STOP 3 TAKE INPUT FROM PORT B IS COUNT = SET VALUE YES NO 4 INCREMENT MEMORY ADDRESS 2 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD Printed circuit boards are a piece of art. various steps in the design of PCB are The performance of an explained. The general electronic circuit depends upon the layout design of PCB.
preferred `acceptable' and `reject' properties. It is not used in high volume production because it cannot be regenerated and it attacks metal etc resistant. Production Of PCB: The conductor pattern which is on the master film is transferred on copper clad laminate by two methods :1) Photo resist Printing 2) Screen Printing Properties required for a good PCB's The boards must have good mechanical and electrical properties.63 - . (ii) resistance (iii) Current carrying capacity (iv) Inductance and Capacitance (v) Characteristic impedance (vi) Cross talk and ring. Basic properties are (i) Colour. Ferric chloride is recommended for etching small number of boards. Colour :The colour of the material commonly used is usually It should have `natural' which is a translucent yellowish green or an opaque pale yellowish brown for epoxy glass. resistant used. Ferric chloride is the electrochemical etchings used in the manufacturing of glass epoxy PCB.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ The base materials for PCB are paper phenol . Paper phenol is less costly and used in consumer electronics circuits. paper phenol is more resistant to moisture but difficult to machine & drill as compared to glass epoxy. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . The choice of etching should be such that it should match with the etc.
Characteristic Impedance: To achieve adequate transmission lines properties. it is very necessary that atoms of solder must come down within atomic distances from the surface. i) ii) Manual Soldering with iron. the proximity of earth plane.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Resistance & Current carrying capacity :Most of the tracks on boards used with integrated circuits will be carrying a few mill amperes only but power & earth most be distributed to all boards. There are basically two soldering techniques. A single isolated track can be run over an earth backing of more than three times the track width. relative positioning of the surfaces to be joined. The melting temperature of solder is below that of the metal joined so that its surface is only wetted without melting. the earth pale does not need to be continuous. It is necessary to use molten metal known as solder.64 - . For wetting of surface of metal to be joined. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . Inductance & capacitance: The inductance & capacitance of a track depend on its environment. connected via a metal shank to the bit. the presence of other tracks etc. During soldering.The iron consists of an insulation handle. Soldering : Soldering is a process used for joining metal parts. It is necessary that the surface should be clean for a good electric contact. Mass soldering. i) Iron soldering: . wetting of these surfaces with molten solder & cooling time for solidification is important.
65 - . The solder in form of wire is applied near the component to be soldered & heated with iron. To remove surpass solder from joint. Soldering with Iron: . To store & deliver molten solder & flux. Using EXPRESS SCH we drew a schematic circuit diagram for the project. iron is removed & the joint is cooled without disturbing.The surface to be soldered must be cleaned & fluxed. The surfaces to be soldered are filled. PCB DESIGN RULES Following steps were observed wile preparing PCBs for our . We used EXPRESS PCB program to draw PCB layout.project 1. After calculating the size of the PCB we placed all the components that needed to be in specific locations. The soldering iron is switched on & allowed to attain soldering temperature. 2. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . 3. It saves time while designing PCB and reduces the possibility of wiring errors.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ The function of the bit is to i) ii) iii) Store heat & deliver it to the component.
using wide traces that connect to common rails for each supply. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . a print out of the layout was taken to ensure that all components have enough space to rest with out touching each other. Then a print out of the entire PCB layout is taken.0 2.0 4. This silk screen is given to PCB manufacturer for actual PCB production.010 0. It is to be ensured that thers is sufficient space between two traces. Traces that carry significant current should be wider than signals traces.150 Current(ampere) 0.025 0. 10.0 8. 9. While placing traces it is always a good practice to make them as short and direct as possible.015 0. 5.100 0. The table below gives rough guideline of how wide to make a trace for a given amount of current.A silk screen(negative) for the same is produced on tracing paper paper (vinyl sheet) 11.4 0. After placing the components. Trace width(inch) 0.7 1.0 6.050 0. 7. After the components were placed the next step was to lay power and ground traces. It is essential while with Ics to have solid power and ground lines.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ 4.020 0.3 0. It is very important to avoid snaking or daisy chaining the power lines from part to part. Care was taken to place components in such a way so as to minimize trace length.66 - . 6.
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .67 - .
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ PCB layout of white line sensor SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .68 - .
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ PCB layout of conditioner circuit of white line sensor SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .69 - .
70 - .INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ PCB layout of microcontroller board SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .
INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Application : • • • It can place the pre loaded object to any desired predefined location at height higher than its own height. It can track any path of distinct colours without using cameras. It can work in an enviroment which is hazardous for human being. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .71 - .
effective. we found this experience a rewarding and educational one. and most importantly. implementation. we strove to produce a final product which was accurate. fulfilled the design goals. we acquired new technical skills while improving ours analytical and reasoning abilities The project met many of ours project goals. It emulates an actual insect in many respects.72 - . Faced with a delivery deadline and a limited budget. testing and demonstration of a working project proved to be very challenging. we are confident that our design could be further improved and streamlined for optimal performance. The difficulties in project management as well as those brought to light during experimentation provided an opportunity to work on ours problem-solving abilities . and the memory/thinking feature which stems from the fact that we used a microcontroller. Given time. no more complex than necessary. Despite the many problems encountered. It is highly reactive and mobile during the path tracking. including the shell “exoskeleton”.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Conclusions: The design. the ability to respond to stimuli immediately. Given a specific set of requirements. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .
however.detection of obstacles and target can be made more efficient with the use of cameras. Speed control : Speed control of a DC motor can be achieved using choppers. Reverse movement: The original design included driving the motor in both the forward and reverse directions. Algorithm : Detection can be made more accurate and precise using enhanced or modified algorithm. SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .73 - . and the following are some suggestions for any attempts at reproducing or improving upon the project described in this report Improve power efficiency: As a dual 12V battery drives all circuitry and the motor. it should be simple to add the reverse feature to the existing design. Motor Tracking : The Usage of stepper motors will greatly simplify the tracking and position detection of the robot rather that the currently tried out shaft encoder system. there are some areas that could be modified. This idea was rejected for the sake of simplicity. we found it had to be replaced frequently during testing.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Future modifications : We believe our design should contain many strengths. Sensing : Sensing . however.
st.Data sheets and avrasm for programming http://www.net .IR sensors and proximity detector.74 - .Various circuits SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .com/stonline/books/pdf/docs/2143.com .Atmel.Electronicsforu.INTELLIGENT PATH FINDER__________________________________________ Bibliography : BOOKS: Basics Of Robotics : Robot schilling Infra Red: .com .7805 5V Voltage Regulator – TO-220 package www.Documentation on various programming modes and interrupts Components : http://us.pdf .Seattleroboticssociety. ATMEL: http://www.com .avr-asm-tutorial.Documentation for IR ranging system http://www.
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