4/5/2011

1
ﮏﯿ

ﺎﻨ

دوآ هﺎﻣزآ ﮏﯿ

ﺎﻨ

دوآ هﺎﻣزآ ·· 22
نﺎﯾ

یزﺎﺳرﺎﮑ

آ نﺎﯾ

یزﺎﺳرﺎﮑ

آ
١
• We consider two broad categories of flow
visualization.
• The first is surface flow visualization and the
second is flow field visualization. Strictly
speaking, surface flow is also a flow field, but we
will use these terms to distinguish between on-
body and off-body fields.
٢
FLOW VISUALIZATION
Categories of flow visualization
• The methods considered for direct-surface flow
visualization include tufts, oil flow, ink dot,
china clay, and liquid crystals.
• The methods considered for off-body
visualization include smoke injected in several
ways, helium bubbles, and streamers.
٣
Met hods of Recordi ng Di rect Visual i zat i ons
• There are basically four methods of recording
direct visualizations. The first, historically most
important but least permanent, method is for
the engineer to observe with his or her eyes.
• Because of depth perception, one can see three-
dimensional patterns and one always sees an
evolution of the phenomena
٤
• Other common methods of recording the results
of flow visualizations are
• by film, either still or movie,
• by video recording using a standard VCR format,
and
• by digital recording of digitized video, either still
or movie.
٥
• These methods produce a two-dimensional
projection of a three-dimensional phenomenon.
• In principle, two or more cameras can be used to
obtain multiple two-dimensional projections
that contain sufficient information to
reconstruct the three-dimensional image.
٦
4/5/2011
2
SURFACE FLOW VISUALIZATION
• Information about the flow on the surface of an
object being studied is usually most critical.
Many times, the flow off the body is of interest
primarily in order to understand the flow
features on the surface.
٧
• Key aspects of surface flows that may be
investigated using visualization techniques
include stagnation point location, separation
lines, location of boundary layer transition,
characteristic unsteadiness, extent of separation
zones, and types of critical points and their
locations.
٨
Tuf t s
• The simplest and most frequently used method
for surface flow visualization is to attach tufts to
the surface of interest.
• The tufts must be of light, flexible material that
will align itself with the local surface flow as a
result of direct aerodynamic force.
٩
• The most commonly used material is light yarn
with weights and lengt hs chosen according to
model size and test speeds. Very small
monofilament has also been used. There are also
polyester and cotton sewing threads.
١٠
• The thread is a multiple-strand material and
tends to unravel with time.
• Tufts do affect the aerodynamic forces to some
extent as we will show, but there are many
situations in which the method is so easy and
economical that it is the first choice.
١١
At t achi ng Tuf t s
• Two basic methods of attaching tufts to a surface
are by scotch tape or by glue. When tape is used,
the tufts are usually made on a "tuft board." The
tuft material is strung back and forth around
pins, then the tape is applied to the tufts and the
tuft material is cut at the edge of the tape.
• The model surface is cleaned with naphtha or
other solvents to remove oil so that the tape will
hold under the adverse conditions of high-speed
flow.
١٢
4/5/2011
3
“ Tuf t Boar d"
١٣
• Tufts readily show where flow is steady and
where it is unsteady. Regions of complete
separation and buffeting flow are readily
identified. The resolution of the determination is
of the order of the spacing of the tufts.
• The possibility of significant influence of the
tufts themselves on the flow is very high and
must always be kept in mind. This can be
investigated by removing tufts upstream of
indicated flow separation.
١٤
١٥
Tuf t s Gl ued t o Wi ng
١٦
١٧
Flow Visualization Using Yarn Tufts
• To make the flow pattern downstream of the test
article visible, a tufted wire grid is useful, as
shown in Figure 5.17.
١٨
4/5/2011
4
Fl ow Fi el d Descr i pt i on Usi ng a Tuf t Gr i d
١٩
Mi ni t uf t s
• The glue technique is used for minitufts. These
tufts have the least effect on the aerodynamic
data and thus are often left on the model. The
tuft material is monofilament nylon that has
been treated with a fluorescent dye.
٢٠
Near sur f ace f l ow vi sual i zat i on usi ng f l uor escent
mi ni t uf t s appl i ed on a r ot at i ng sur f ace.
٢١
Fl uor escent Mi ni t uf t s
٢٢
• The minitufts are viewed and photographed in
ultraviolet light as this is the way to make the
small monofilament most visible.
• Threads can be similarly treated and can be
photographed in either ultraviolet or white light.
Minitufts provide the same type of information
as larger tufts. They can provide greater
resolution and have less influence on the flow.
٢٣
St r eam l i nes i n t he Fl ow Fi el d Shown by a Si ngl e
Tuf t Wand
٢٤
4/5/2011
5
Oi l Fl ow Vi sual i zat i on
• Oils and other viscous fluids are used to show
the surface flow. The selected material is usually
spread on the areas of interest with a paint
brush. It will then flow under the influence of
shear stress from the air stream and gravity.
Since inclined surfaces are almost always of
interest, the mixture needs to have viscosity
sufficient so that it will not flow rapidly under
the influence of gravity.
٢٥
• The flow speed of the air must then be sufficient
to impress shear stress large enough to cause the
oil to flow and reveal the surface patterns within
an acceptable time.
• This is typically of the order of 10's of seconds
after the tunnel is brought to speed. It is difficult
to use oil flow on vertical surfaces.
٢٦
Oi l Fl ow
٢٧
Oi l Mat er i al
• The most common material for oil flow is
petroleum lubricating oils. These materials are
messy to clean up afterward, both on the model
and more so in the tunnel.
• The color of the oil needs to contrast with the
color of the model surface. A widely used
method is to add a fluorescent dye to the oil and
illuminate it with ultraviolet lights, as is done for
the fluorescent minitufts.
٢٨
• A light blue works very well with a dye that
provides fluorescence in the yellow region of the
spectrum. This is the most commonly used
combination.
• Oil can be made white by mixing titanium
dioxide into it. This can be applied to a black
model and ordinary light used for viewing and
photography. This is sometimes preferable to the
installation of black lights and the subsequent
requirements on light management.
٢٩
Oi l Fl ow
٣٠
4/5/2011
6
٣١
Surface Oil Flow with Titanium Dioxide Over Single Delta Wing.
٣٢
Surface Oil Flow with Titanium Dioxide Over Double Delta Wing.
٣٣
Laser Light Sheet Flow Visualization Over Single Delta Wing.
٣٤
Laser Light Sheet Flow Visualization Over Double Delta Wing.
Sur f ace Fl ow Vi sual i zat i on Obt ai ned by Appl yi ng a
Cont i nous Oi l Fi l m Over a Body Sur f ace
٣٥
Chi na Cl ay
• China clay is a suspension of kaolin in kerosene.
The fluid is applied with a paint brush, usually
with the model set at the desired attitude.
• The tunnel is started as quickly as possible after
the model is painted. When the mixture has
dried, photographs can be taken after the tunnel
is shut down because the pattern does not
change rapidly with time.
٣٦
4/5/2011
7
China Clay
٣٧
Ef f ect s of Tuf t s, Mi ni t uf t s, Chi na
Cl ay, and Oi l
• As previously mentioned tufts can affect the
aerodynamic loads on a model. In Figure bellow
a lift curve near stall shows the effects of various
tufts on the data. The glued minitufts and No. 60
thread tufts consisted of about 900 tufts. The
two taped tufts consisted of about 300 tufts. The
data are an average of five runs for each set of
tufts.
٣٨
٣٩
• The minitufts and the glued No. 60 thread have
the minimum effect on lift. The effect of the tape
can be seen by comparing the two sets of No. 60
thread tufts.
• The six-strand floss tufts are similar to the tufts
made out of yarn.
• The three different tuft types were shown at a =
27.3° in previous figures.
٤٠
Boundary Layers and Surf ace Shear
St ress
• Often the most important information being
sought by flow visualization methods is a
definition of the locations of transition from
laminar to turbulent boundary layers and the
locations of any separation regions. In the
previous section, we have shown several results
that illustrate separated flows.
٤١
• The location of transition between laminar and
turbulent flow cannot be determined by tufts
and is difficult with china clay.
• However, oil flow, sublimation methods,
infrared images, and liquid crystals can be used
to locate transition.
٤٢
4/5/2011
8
Oi l Fl ow Det ect i on of Tr ansi t i on
• The basis for detecting boundary layer
transition by viewing oil flow patterns is the
increase in wall shear stress when a boundary
layer transitions from laminar to turbulent. The
result is that the oil is swept away faster in the
region where the boundary layer is turbulent.
Transition indicated by oil flow visualization is
shown in the following figure.
٤٣
٤٤
٤٥
Subl i mat i on
• In one sublimation technique a mixture of
naphthalene and a carrier such as fluorine,
acetone, or methyl ethyl ketone is sprayed on the
model using a standard air spray gun.
• Note that the last two can remove many paints.
The operator must wear a respirator mask when
doing this.
٤٦
• The mixture will leave the model surface white
and therefore works best on a black or dark
surface.
• The turbulent boundary layer will scrub the
mixture off.
٤٧
Li qui d Cr yst al s
• Liquid crystals that undergo changes in
reflective properties as they are exposed to shear
stress can be used as detectors of transition.
• This method has recently been developed as a
quantitative method as well as a method of
visualization.
٤٨
4/5/2011
9
Inf rared Thermography
• The basis for this technique is that a surface at a
temperature different from the tunnel stream
will have faster heat transfer from the region
under a turbulent boundary layer than from the
region under a laminar layer. The resulting small
temperature differences can be observed using
commercially available infrared cameras.
٤٩
• The results will vary with model structure and
heat transfer characteristics so it is advisable to
check results for a particular model type by
observing artificially tripped layers.
• It should be kept in mind that it is the relative
temperature, not the specific value of
temperature, that gives the indication of
transition.
٥٠
٥١
Comparison of velocity change in different wind tunnels.
٥٢

• The model surface is cleaned with naphtha or other solvents to remove oil so that the tape will hold under the adverse conditions of high-speed flow. • Key aspects of surface flows that may be investigated using visualization techniques include stagnation point location." The tuft material is strung back and forth around pins. • The tufts must be of light. • Tufts do affect the aerodynamic forces to some extent as we will show. There are also polyester and cotton sewing threads. then the tape is applied to the tufts and the tuft material is cut at the edge of the tape.4/5/2011 ١٠ ٧ SURFACE FLOW VISUALIZATION • The most commonly used material is light yarn with weights and lengths chosen according to model size and test speeds. location of boundary layer transition. ١١ ٨ • The thread is a multiple-strand material and tends to unravel with time. Many times. • Information about the flow on the surface of an object being studied is usually most critical. 2 . flexible material that will align itself with the local surface flow as a result of direct aerodynamic force. and types of critical points and their locations. Tufts • The simplest and most frequently used method for surface flow visualization is to attach tufts to the surface of interest. the tufts are usually made on a "tuft board. characteristic unsteadiness. but there are many situations in which the method is so easy and economical that it is the first choice. Very small monofilament has also been used. separation lines. extent of separation zones. ١٢ ٩ Attaching Tufts • Two basic methods of attaching tufts to a surface are by scotch tape or by glue. When tape is used. the flow off the body is of interest primarily in order to understand the flow features on the surface.

The resolution of the determination is of the order of the spacing of the tufts. a tufted wire grid is useful.4/5/2011 ١٦ ١٣ Tufts Glued to Wing “Tuft Board" ١٧ ١٤ Flow Visualization Using Yarn Tufts • Tufts readily show where flow is steady and where it is unsteady. 3 . ١٨ ١٥ • To make the flow pattern downstream of the test article visible. as shown in Figure 5. This can be investigated by removing tufts upstream of indicated flow separation. Regions of complete separation and buffeting flow are readily identified.17. • The possibility of significant influence of the tufts themselves on the flow is very high and must always be kept in mind.

4/5/2011 ٢٢ ١٩ Fluorescent Minitufts Flow Field Description Using a Tuft Grid ٢٣ ٢٠ • The minitufts are viewed and photographed in ultraviolet light as this is the way to make the small monofilament most visible. ٢٤ ٢١ Stream lines in the Flow Field Shown by a Single Tuft Wand Near surface flow visualization using fluorescent minitufts applied on a rotating surface. Minitufts provide the same type of information as larger tufts. Minitufts • The glue technique is used for minitufts. They can provide greater resolution and have less influence on the flow. The tuft material is monofilament nylon that has been treated with a fluorescent dye. These tufts have the least effect on the aerodynamic data and thus are often left on the model. • Threads can be similarly treated and can be photographed in either ultraviolet or white light. 4 .

both on the model and more so in the tunnel. the mixture needs to have viscosity sufficient so that it will not flow rapidly under the influence of gravity. ٢٩ ٢٦ • A light blue works very well with a dye that provides fluorescence in the yellow region of the spectrum. • The flow speed of the air must then be sufficient to impress shear stress large enough to cause the oil to flow and reveal the surface patterns within an acceptable time. It will then flow under the influence of shear stress from the air stream and gravity. • This is typically of the order of 10's of seconds after the tunnel is brought to speed. Since inclined surfaces are almost always of interest. • Oil can be made white by mixing titanium dioxide into it. This is sometimes preferable to the installation of black lights and the subsequent requirements on light management. • The color of the oil needs to contrast with the color of the model surface. as is done for the fluorescent minitufts. This can be applied to a black model and ordinary light used for viewing and photography. The selected material is usually spread on the areas of interest with a paint brush. A widely used method is to add a fluorescent dye to the oil and illuminate it with ultraviolet lights. • Oils and other viscous fluids are used to show the surface flow. This is the most commonly used combination.4/5/2011 ٢٨ ٢٥ Oil Flow Visualization • The most common material for oil flow is Oil Material petroleum lubricating oils. These materials are messy to clean up afterward. It is difficult to use oil flow on vertical surfaces. ٣٠ ٢٧ Oil Flow Oil Flow 5 .

China Clay ٣٦ ٣٣ • China clay is a suspension of kaolin in kerosene. When the mixture has dried. 6 . usually with the model set at the desired attitude.4/5/2011 ٣٤ ٣١ Surface Oil Flow with Titanium Dioxide Over Single Delta Wing. photographs can be taken after the tunnel is shut down because the pattern does not change rapidly with time. Laser Light Sheet Flow Visualization Over Single Delta Wing. ٣٥ ٣٢ Surface Flow Visualization Obtained by Applying a Continous Oil Film Over a Body Surface Surface Oil Flow with Titanium Dioxide Over Double Delta Wing. The fluid is applied with a paint brush. • The tunnel is started as quickly as possible after the model is painted. Laser Light Sheet Flow Visualization Over Double Delta Wing.

The two taped tufts consisted of about 300 tufts.4/5/2011 ٤٠ ٣٧ • The minitufts and the glued No. The effect of the tape can be seen by comparing the two sets of No. and liquid crystals can be used to locate transition. • However. • The six-strand floss tufts are similar to the tufts made out of yarn. 7 . we have shown several results that illustrate separated flows. • The three different tuft types were shown at a = 27. China Clay ٤١ ٣٨ Boundary Layers and Surface Shear Stress • Often the most important information being sought by flow visualization methods is a definition of the locations of transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layers and the locations of any separation regions. In the previous section.3° in previous figures. China Clay. The glued minitufts and No. sublimation methods. Effects of Tufts. infrared images. and Oil • As previously mentioned tufts can affect the aerodynamic loads on a model. 60 thread tufts consisted of about 900 tufts. The data are an average of five runs for each set of tufts. oil flow. Minitufts. ٤٢ ٣٩ • The location of transition between laminar and turbulent flow cannot be determined by tufts and is difficult with china clay. 60 thread tufts. In Figure bellow a lift curve near stall shows the effects of various tufts on the data. 60 thread have the minimum effect on lift.

٤٧ ٤٤ • The mixture will leave the model surface white and therefore works best on a black or dark surface. The operator must wear a respirator mask when doing this. or methyl ethyl ketone is sprayed on the model using a standard air spray gun. Oil Flow Detection of Transition • The basis for detecting boundary layer transition by viewing oil flow patterns is the increase in wall shear stress when a boundary layer transitions from laminar to turbulent. ٤٨ ٤٥ Liquid Crystals • Liquid crystals that undergo changes in reflective properties as they are exposed to shear stress can be used as detectors of transition. • This method has recently been developed as a quantitative method as well as a method of visualization. Transition indicated by oil flow visualization is shown in the following figure. The result is that the oil is swept away faster in the region where the boundary layer is turbulent. • Note that the last two can remove many paints. 8 . • The turbulent boundary layer will scrub the mixture off.4/5/2011 ٤٦ ٤٣ Sublimation • In one sublimation technique a mixture of naphthalene and a carrier such as fluorine. acetone.

not the specific value of temperature. that gives the indication of transition. ٥١ Comparison of velocity change in different wind tunnels. • It should be kept in mind that it is the relative temperature. The resulting small temperature differences can be observed using commercially available infrared cameras.4/5/2011 ٥٢ ٤٩ Infrared Thermography • The basis for this technique is that a surface at a temperature different from the tunnel stream will have faster heat transfer from the region under a turbulent boundary layer than from the region under a laminar layer. 9 . ٥٠ • The results will vary with model structure and heat transfer characteristics so it is advisable to check results for a particular model type by observing artificially tripped layers.

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