. Puhnan &• Sons. IVealdstone.First Edition Spring. Ltd.. Ltd. Plates printed by G. 1918 Text f^rlntrd by The Aberdeen University Press.

scratched with sharp instruments. I I . or in silhouette. The later development in Greece of understanding in drawing and modelling rising to a standard that has never been surpassed. or rudely carved in any It artist handy material. and Drawing. was in the magnificent civilisation of old Egypt that the conscious was born. although without arms and minus its Aphrodite. on cave interiors. The types of the period were rendered in paintings and sculpture with wonderful facility and spirit. Praxiteles. and Phidias. the most perfect sculptured representation of female loveliness. the inspiration of the immortals. Scopas. and decorative compositions produced which involved great skill in representing the figure in action and revealed such scholarly regard for form and line that much can still be gained by studying them. is but one manifestation of the supreme efforts made by the Greek sculptors of old to perpetuate an ideal of their favourite goddess. has ever since influenced years sculptors and painters by the opportunities of the beauties of the ideal human form. devoted to graceful pursuits. it affords for poetic representation The lovely Venus of Milo. cradled. The earliest manifestations of the desire to record things seen were crude attempts to represent figures by outline. four or five hundred before Christ. The manifestations in their games and arts were forms of worship. animals' horns and teeth. the ages the human form its and proficiency in has been the chief inspiration of representation an enviable distinction among his contemporaries.STUDIES OF THE HUMAN FIGURE INTRODUCTION Throughout the artist. Greek mythology. and their entire outlook concerned itself with beautiful things as homage to their mythical gods. as we understand it to-day. the sea-born This statue. The Greeks were a light-hearted and virile people. came through almost ideal conditions of life.

and working beside him for One some time I was greatly interested in his method and progress. anatomy is now Structure has been so tabulated and explained scientific cast. of the most able figure-draughtsmen and painters that I know obtained his mastery over anatomy in this way. diagrams. model. Thanks to the models and notes of the Renaissance painters and sculptors. or the perfect school of sculpture associated with the age could not have existed. is yet by far the most inspiring possesses. the infinite patience and labour involved in observing and memorising with thorough mastery the multitude of variations in surface form occasioned by the actions of the body. the while paying very special attention to the attachments . example of perfection in pose and form that the world Although owing generally accepted that it represents Aphrodite or Venus. observation — the attachments and play of muscles must have been underlaid stood. He did not attend the school lectures on anatomy. for the additions in every case lessen most obviously the dignity of the original. Instead. that the student may work from the surgery. If it is a fact that these Greek artists achieved their wonderful figure any way satisfying as a solution of the enigma of the v^ork without the help of dissected anatomy. there is no record of this attribution being authentic. he struck out a line for himself in studying in conjunction with the anatomical casts possessed Thompson's " " Anatomy inre- numerable quick sketches. or photograph. down by and to the investigations of modern the handmaid of drawing. to the universal worship of this goddess throughout the coasts and islands it is of the i^gean archipelago. and I am sure that he derived exactly the same amount of useful information from them as those of us who did. and many other designations have been given by antiquaries. would been a Herculean task for any man's lifetime. making the names he wished to know by Thompson.IMPORTANCE OF ANATOMY left foot. every bone and muscle affecting the charts. and ference to fitting by the school. drawing he is engaged upon. thus almost automatically obtaining a grip of from this vital subject concurrently with valuable practice in drawing. and follow and descriptions. Many suggested restorations also have been planned by later sculptors. none of which are in position of her arms. and certain formulae experts for their students' benefit. have Hence it is certain that some code of study must have been in use other than this individual .

written over with notes. underlying reason for everything. he carried out the same search from the living model. Before finally adopting water-colour painting as his profession he spent some few years in teaching. similar positions and get information from points of view other than those in At this stage from models posed by the masters. and done. as until all all surface sketches should be. most of his early sketches were diagrammatic. and out of their calculations would be wise to conit it as a material aid in is work. though always slight. is LIFE invaluable in studying their direction When familiar with the whole frame and superstructure of muscles as shown in these casts. and his work. with the sole idea of getting information.AN ORIGINAL METHOD. To-day it 3 . and jotting ference or similarity to his conclusions. The the artist the great teacher. Working at first with the anatomy book life the photographs. taking from two minutes to two hours according to his mood. a knowledge of which and movements in the actual model. and his instruction. As he became perfectly sure of the was that of a master. DRAWING FROM of the muscles. to interest first him and understand his artistic free-think- Many men who who have so a help in study seriously considered photography as at his instigation. and what it constantly conveys to the mind eye in any craft can soon portray or mould with his hands. based on personal experience and new methods. he insisted on making only pencil and chalk studies. making sketches on the same position as his former studies from the casts. have found far left it others sider extremely useful in numberless ways. and apparently executed with absolute ease. inimitable and satisfying in its slightest manifestation. and this period the it They were from generally would be easy to trace his sketches at way to complete mastery over the mechanical or constructional side of life-drawing. beautiful drawing gradually emerged from the chaos of notes and diagrams. In drawing from in class he attained complete knowledge of the form and action of muscles. down his impressions of any dif- he made many anatomical sketches from photographs of casts and living models. being most enthusiastic in his search for photographic Afterwards he would pose the art school models in subjects to anatomise. was of infinite value to a large number of students who were fortunate enough ing.

stained-glass. atlas and anatomical casts.PHOTOGRAPHS AS SUBSTITUTES FOR MODELS by no means the simple matter it was in ancient times to observe from life the undraped human figure. sculptor or decorator. It is impossible to visualise Many figures correctly without a record of some kind from life. posters. book-covers. In addition to their use as subjects to help in the study of anatomy. an inspiration to the thought. wood-carving. Even the rough accomplishment of this task will give a quite new 4 . and he will thus save a great amount of worry and expense. or of a standard anatomical book. painted decoration. stone-work. and in consequence his figures are simply conventions bearing small resemblance to actuality either in form or action. and the help of photography opens a collection of photographs great possibilities in this direction. but a competent one can use photographs in preparing drawings and cartoons for trade purposes that will be equal to any from actual models. prove painter. photographs are of use in suggesting poses as standards of comparison for proportion. seldom used a figures entirely from memory. while to the student it offers a fine series of figures to anatomise with the aid of collection of it is The the diagrams included. and to the man who can draw^ photographs give quite sufficent data from which to produce convincing drawings. certificates. pottery. reveal new pictorial possibilities of treating the figure. and the many other things in representation of the human figure is appropriate and desirable. male or female. for instance. which some A model (' photograph from a good pose given by a thoroughly well-chosen is anatomy a priceless possession to an expert draughtsman who understands It is more difficult for an sufficiently to interpret it intelligently. enamels. model. show-cards. they serve as a source of reference for designers in preparing hurried or finished drawings for press-work. Yerbury for this book will. Last but least. insomuch as is is It will constantly suggest new ideas and constantly available for study. untrained man to work from a photograph than from life. trade- not wrappers. photographs taken by Mr. while serving always as a reference for actual facts of form and lighting. draughtsmen and decorators are in the habit of drawing their Walter Crane. and as substitutes for or supplements to models for a in positions so strenuous or difficult that a model can only keep them few moments. testimonials.

VI I) give preparing preliminary studies in examples of some methods of most of the mediums that are in general use. The common-sense way is to work in many mediums one naturally selects that which gives best results. of course. one medium at the suggestion of a master. Mr. to recommend it to both the painter and decorator. little more it is possible to be a early studies dogmatic. are masterly drawings in a method that calls for searching and accurate drawing. for in- their studies in pencil. Puvis de Chavannes' a typical painter's study for a figure to be used in a large and composition. charcoal. which have inevitably suffered in reduction. to make to There is danger. It is difficult to advise generally antique and life.MEDIUMS FOR PRELIMINARY STUDIES conception of the road to competence in drawing. for the amount of knowledge that is gained is surprising in proportion to the work involved. and exclude anything smaller than an imperial sheet will comfort- About the make 5 . until The plates given here (plates I. facile students in and decorative pencil study is an admirable Mr. charcoal is best for large studies and pencil for small ones. and the possession and inevitable development of such knowledge renders work from the model infinitely easier and more valuable. or technique. lighting. but the many exceptions make it dangerous to call this a rule. records of figures for future use could hardly be more perfect in draw- ing. Walcot's supremely object lesson to. easily corrected method of rapid study that every student charcoal study is studies in oil and as and water colour by Harold Knight are quite large drawings. or brush. as may well be a totally unsympathetic medium some who would work If a student perfectly freely and successfully in chalk. Generally speaking. and they. and the use of charcoal on Michelet paper is an efl^ective The should try. in advising a it who are to carry whole body of workers them out. and Mason's three clialk studies. he may for ever fail to disadopts cover his best means of expression. in- somuch as they give every item of information that . Such studies are worth their is weight in gold. Arthur direct and fearless use of simple line. has much gives a very complete record of the model drawn from. on actual methods of drawing from or to lay down fixed rules without knowledge of the peculiarities of students stance. necessary in using them afterwards photographs are their only competitors size to in usefulness. lack colour.

chief objection to students working on a small scale is that drawing too easily slurred. an error in procedure tfiat was encouraged by the reverence in official teachers for laboured of the pitfalls One study from the antique as a preliminary to life-drawing. of the beginner in drawing the figure is the attempt at finish of parts before understanding pose and construction. as most modern schools are staffed with men who suffered under the old system even they triumphed over it. but some pluck and I determination are needed to work on this scale in an ordinary art school. a large sheet of stretched Whatman paper and come round once an evening for the next three.ADVICE TO THE BEGINNER One's notes and diagrams. free. Life-size is not too large. and . or heroic size both quite a small scale. remember two sisted students. now well known in the practical art world. and certain in construction as a result of the splendid practice their doubly heroic now work on work is afforded. who . be summed up in the make the beginner attend to the large fact 6 the smaller next. full-life. but their work is splendidly broad. and the patient disposition of the last generation of students. This method of teaching is happily almost a thing of the past. is McColl on : quoted business of a — his appointment to the Slade School professorship. the following " The effort to S. both factors in start a student with some stumps on It was so easy to encouraging laziness in teaching. real teacher of drawing may first. for drawings other than anatomical from the first on understanding the pictorial efforts should be concentrated and it is much easier to detect faults aspect of the figure in a large way. Many bril- The liant young producers of effective sketches from and lost life have mistaken the means for the end. or twelve months and make rude remarks about the depth of tone in the shading of surfaces or the disposition of high lights. and from some interesting if when com- ments by D. The practice must have originated in the grand capacity that statues have for keeping still. themselves in admiration of their own achievement. and the danger of clever tricks intensified. in- on working constantly in oils on canvas. when working on a large scale. six. Professor Brown of the Slade was a pioneer of the saner teaching head of the old Westminster School of Art. ably hold.

that would invalidate to what followed. ster " In Westminplace of this deplorable waste of time. so be easily obliterated and recommenced. the practice at the school was to allow the students to make a sufficient number of studies to familiarise from the antique. to attend to the big things first and let the small come in their order. discipline from a after study probably a sound view that the antique will be better appreciated alertness of observation to draw in life. After this preliminary practice the student was sent It is the life-room. set characteristic swing of those two lines. " these Now by the beginner. practice of a kind of graining. and which he with such insistence to which he has no difficulty in stating. and you have up a scaffolding on the smaller facts can be correctly hung. on which all its action depends. : angle correctly. the line of the body and that of the arms. it is but not the head . but He . the elementary fact in that with outstretched arms figure. and were never allowed to proceed when some radical point of drawing had been missed.ADVICE TO THE BEGINNER the smallest Supposing one has to draw the figure of a man standing the main. the smaller contours of the the still smaller contours of the several muscles and so forth. ought to be encouraged and urged by every device of teaching. that the twig becomes more import- ant than the tree. he sees the separate hairs. he does not see the statue ciated largest facts that control all others are the last to be appresees the flaw in the surface of the marble. ugly in itself as well as futile. is only available for a limited time. Instead of that he is induced to sit worrying for months over the texture of the of its ' Theseus ' before he has seized the character this pestilential forms. and it is a wholesome form that is and always insensibly altering in pose. and drew from the living model in the same fashion. the twigs but not the tree facts : surely a waste of time to allow him to state these with which he states is perfectly familiar. miss the elementary fact and no smaller fact can be rightly stated because But which all of this mistake." The influence of the manner and matter of 7 training on later work must . as to control over his hand. when he ought be learning. is expressed by two lines crossing one another. him with his materials and give him some These were made in charcoal on Michelet paper. Note that hit the last. and falls into the habit of this brainle ss industry. single limbs.

for in- making it The same view impossible for him to draw a natural and living face. later. that artists . XI. and need never come would be To out. and make do poses. or sculptor is knowledge of form is the essential preliminary to adventures in execution. but it is extremely comforting to find all it there if wanted. a For the figure draughtsman. and the absence of definite knowledge of any helpful facts in connection with an occupation is liable to handicap efforts that would otherwise succeed. will perhaps get expert in indicating what they schools Students who see. but will as find. with plates IX. from^ drawings (kindly lent by prominent art schools) on some of which the principal bones and muscles are named. a man's that if a little talising subconscious regret it work becomes. in the milder form that anatomical facts hamper the free expression and rhythm of an artist's impressions. held the opinion that a knowledge of human anatomy was not only unnecessary. without understanding why. a hard fact that renders futile much of the work executed where life-drawing is encouraged without anatomical training. it is wise to thoroughly equip and arm oneself with all available information. It can easily be filed in the brain for future reference. equipment only partially there is something missing in their do not hang together. there is generally the tanmore knowledge had been acquired keep this subconscious annoyance within bounds. will afFord sufiicient information to enable students to The following notes. painter. However good better. mentioning Albert Durer as an artist whose knowledge of the structure of the figure was so thorough that it obtruded detrimentally in his work stance.KNOWLEDGE OF FORM be great. is held by many successful and sincere art teachers to-day. because they are understood and shout painfully their need of structure. now a somewhat discredited mentor on art matters. XII. sooner or their figures Ruskin. and form con- trolled in by structure. and the effort to similar anatomical renderings of the photographic this will fix in the memory a fair working know- 8 . and it may be quite right in the case of painters of pictures. but for the any of the applied arts it is clearly necessary to have a working knowledge of anatomy and surface muscles if he would draw the figure easily and with conviction. in man engaged students' XIV. XIII. merely draw on the principle of putting down what they see. : his interest in the facial bones. but positively harmful to the artist or sculptor. X.

A Study in Charcoal on Michelei. .Plate I. by P^vts de Chavanues.paper.


Plati- II A Study in Oil Colours by Harold Knight. Nottingham School of Art. .




A Study


Oil Colours

by H. Ball, Nottingham School of Art,

ledge of the bones and muscles that determine surface form in the figure, and their behaviour in various positions and actions.



of the




the bony framework of the trunk,

lower limbs, upper limbs, neck and head shown in plates IX, XI, XIII, and XIV. The trunk is kept erect by the vertebral column and its supporting
muscles the erectores


lower limbs are connected with the trunk

by the pelvic girdle which is united with the vertebral column by the sacrum, a large wedge-shaped bone, built up by the union of the five lower vertebrae,

and articulating with the innominatum or haunch bone, on the outer edge of which is the acetabulum, or recess for the head of the thigh bone. The bones forming the pelvic girdle are separate in childhood, but with

growth unite and form the haunch bones, one for each leg, united at the back by an immovable joint to both sides of the sacrum, and further strengthened by the joint in front called the symphysis pubis. The bony basin formed by these two haunch bones and their union with the sacrum is called

The powerful muscles which the pelvis, and supports the internal organs. connect the pelvic girdle with the thigh bone have their attachments on the
outer edge of these

haunch bones.


action of the pelvis


largely instru-

mental in determining pose. The acetabulum is the deep, cup-shaped cavity which receives the head of the femur or thigh bone, and forms the movable hip joint.

The femur

the longest bone in the body, and obliquely with the haunch bone, gives




immense freedom of which
are limited

movement compared with
backward and forward

similar bones in animals,

to thigh bones, wide apart above, owing the width of the pelvis, slope inwards to proximity at the knees. The two bones of the leg are immovably united, as movement would



weaken them

in their task of supporting the body.


tibia or shin


alone enters into the formation of the knee joint, offering a broadened surface The lower leg for the articular surfaces or bone. conddyles of the thigh

muscles are attached to the fibula or supporting bone. The muscles of the calf are attached to the heel bone or os



the sole from the bones of the fore part of the foot form arches that protect undue pressure and give spring to the movements of the foot. The bones


though one joint on each side. The head its function in on the topmost cervical vertebra. between the upper end of the breast bone or sternum collar bone. or ulna. en- closing the brain. over the inner. is and the inner extremity of the its only connected indirectly with the trunk through articulation with the collar bone. by ways. supporting and All the bones forming these are immovably protecting the lower features. one. jointed in such a way that they in work one upon the other certain definite supination. action of nodding. The upper extremity of the humerus or upper-arm bone joins the shoulder girdle by means of a small and shallow socket on the shoulder blade. giving the joint great freedom but rendering it comparatively weak and easily dislocated in comparison to the more deeply inserted femur. called the atlas. surrounded by ligaments or bands which are lax and only slightly limit the possible range of movement. joined in such a way that a limited movement the girdle is connected with the skeleton of the trunk by is possible. called pronation and the rotation of the outer boac^ . in which its large rounded head partially rests. from supporting the globe-shaped head the condoyle of the ocrests . the skeleton of the face. the cranial box or calvaria. The shoulder girdle consists of a collar bone or clavicle and a shoulder blade or scapula on either side. though the blade bone is attached by shoulder blade to the chest wall. is and rocking to produce the a ring-shaped bone acting on the axis verte- The skull consists of two portions. cipital bone resting on its two articular surfaces. the movements being effected or radius. and the other. which consists of spread plates ID . The atlas bra immediately beneath it. and the big toes have no power of separation equivalent to the thumbs.DESCRIPTION OF BONES of the toes are short in comparison to the corresponding bones of the fingers. but a much more limited range of action. fibrous which has The freely greater strength. forearm has two bones. The under surface of the cranial box. a united with the exception of the mandible or lower jaw which articulates by movable joint with a hollow fossa on the under part of the temporal bone. is The numerous muscles The shoulder girdle articulated with the bone of the upper arm and plays an important part in giving freedom of movement to the limb.

and called orbiand orbicularis palpebrarum respectively the former being the . The portion round the ear is made up of the temporal bone. which they attach to ligaments. the back being rough and irregular. most of the other muscles of the II face. part which forms the arch supporting the lower teeth. forming the forehead. forming the back of the head. the frontal. or similar non-bony The centre for cularis oris muscles closing the mouth and eyes are circular. one on each side. the latter connected only . It affords attachments for many many muscles controlling the move- ments of the head. the actual connection being a short or long tendon. and a are The bones of the cranial vault portion of the sphenoid fills the gap between the temporal bone at the back and the frontal bone on either side. forming the outline of the orbits on the outer and lower side. and in front unites with the facial bones.BONES CONTROLLING FORM OF THE FACE of bone forming a dome-shaped roof. but there are A exceptions in parts. is called the base of the skull. having underneath it a hollow called the temporal fossa. only directly controls surface in influencing structure and form in those tiny portions of the its body by the muscles which control the beauty of its outward form. each half consisting of three parts. and the length of its lower border finishing at a point a little short of the ear. and at the back can be felt to be supported by an arch of bone called the zygomatic arch. The bony framework. though important pose. where it turns upward forming the angle^ and its con- tinuation above the ramus. cheeks. extending upwards on either side of the head. and lying between the outer portion of frontal bone above and the bones of the They control the prominence of the upper jaw below. its front determining the angle of the chin. tendinous sheaths. two parietals. is lodged the tem- The lower jaw is divided in two laterally. The most important bones controlling the form of the j&ce are the malar or cheek bones. united in the middle line in The body of the jaw. with holes. being that front. in which poral muscle controlling the lower jaw. not covered movements and largely determine muscle generally passes from an attachment to one bone to an attachment to another. and the occipital.

is made up of fibres which.MUSCLES OF THE FACE with two unimportant muscles. ii! in its action by fibres of the platysma. only slightly connected with the jaw bones. grouped under th| The name of the risorius muscle. The levator anguli oris and zygomaticus major and minor are elevators of the angles of the mouth. an upward extension of ling the skin of the nose. It is triangula and attached by its pointed extremity to the tissues of the mouth angle on it lower side. concerned with wrinkling the forehead. elevators of the upper lip. The lower depressed by the depressor labii inferioris. the first. which they widen. depressors of the mouth angles are the depressor anguli oris. and the levator labii superioris proprius. which arise. and causes the lips to protrude. while certain of its fibres. The orbicularis oris. beneath the depressor anguli oris in front of the lower jaw. the levator labii superioris et alae nasi. the pyramidalis nasi concerned with wrinkand the occipito-frontalis. The zygomatici. 12 1 . arising from the upper jaw bone in front. arise from the cheek fascia in front of the to the skin at the angles of the lip is cal and are attached mouth. elevators and depressors of the lips and angles . The former arises near th( The lower border of the lower jaw. anc the fibres of the platysma towards the angle. and passing downwards and outwards is inserted in the upper border and outer side of the angle of the mouth. on either side of the centre. two muscular slips arising from the outer surface of the cheek bone. close to the lower edge of the orbit and inserted in the tissues of the upper lip. are also inserted in the angles of the mouth which they draw upwards and outwards in smiling. the fibres of which pass to the lips and blend with the orbicularis at are There two the sides of the wings of the nostrils. and with the cheek muscles also closes the mouth. it passes upwards to insertion in the tissues of the and assiste lip. the levator anguli oris is attached to the front oi| the upper jaw bone under cover of the levator labii superioris proprius. turn upwards and downwards at The muscle blends at its outer border with the the angles of the mouth. blending with the orbicularis oris. I platysma myoides passes up from the neck to its connectioi! with the muscles of the lower lip. passing from side to side.| | or special elevator of the upper lip. narrows the mouth. brings the lips together. Square anj therefore sometimes known as the quadratus menti.

one of the latter fills the interval is between the ear and angle of aw. the blood vessels and vary glands . the posterior. closed this process passes underneath the zygomatic arch and forms the insertion for the temporal muscle. where it is attached to a rounded blunt formation of bone called the it mastoid process of the temporal bone. formed by the divergence of the two sterno mastoids. is the surface hollow known as the pit Sharply defined in the male. The action of the cheek muscles in laughing The ramus supports two processes. the condoyle at the back articulates with the temporal bone in front of the ear. in front and above. Iclosing The most important muscle influencing the drawing of the neck is the iskuU and acting iStemo mastoid. are the muscles the sali:ontrolling the tongue and floor of the mouth. giving fullness to the surpasses inwards and downwards to the hyoid bone. lip. Under cover of face as it another gland. The solid mass of muscle formed by the union of these two at- tachments passes upwards and backwards to the base of the skull immediately behind the ear. Covering the ramus of the jaw and concealing its outline is a powerful muscle called the masseter. this angle 13 . ibove the hyoid bone and below the border of the lower jaw. rising from a fixed attachment to the side of the with the temporal in elevating the inferior maxilla and so the jaw and controlling mastication. and fades at the mouth angle. in V rounded. The rom their origins in the breast bone. Above the interval between the sterno mastoids. behind and below.MUSCLES OF THE NECK The levator menti. dividing into two triangles. spreads. and is inIt raises the chin serted in the skin of the chin. jaw below the muscle arising from the front of the lower runs downwards and forwards. it is in the female softer and more this depression. and is separated by the coronoid When the jaws are notch from the coronoid process lying in front of it. and controls the lower and crying cause a deep furrow between the cheek and the nose wing. the inferior from the anterior surface of bone by a thick tendon and other fibres from the inner third of the bone. breast |the collar which has two origins. The sterno mastoid passes obliquely across the side of the neck. which sweeps downwards and outwards round the mouth. of the neck. a small teeth. the anterior.

passes downwards and connects with the spine of the seventh neck vertebra. which here only a thin layer. which occurs at the side. and forwards to the collar bone and acromion. and forwards. There are three muscles beneath the trapezius attached to the inner border of the blade bone the two rhomboids and the elevator of the angle ot the them as one whole it is attached scapula. The trapezius is named from comparable of the muscle. is inserted in the The space between the traouter third of the top edge of the collar bone. and passing downwards. — Considering muscle. pezius which in muscular men and thin women shows very clearly. thus the fibres arising from the occiput and neck pass downwards. line behind. Spreading from this extensive attachment the fibres are inserted into the outer third of the posterior border of the collar bone in front. the external jugular. f| The rounded form tullness of the of the back on either side of the middle line is is not due to the trapezius. but is caused by the underlying erectores spinas group. running from the angle of the jaw to a point above the collar bone. and the sterno mastoid constitutes the posterior triangle of the neck.MUSCLES OF THE BACK Behind and below the sterno mastoid are the superior fibres of the trathe muscle arising above from the base of the skull close to the middle pezius. just outside the origin of the sterno mastoid. and those springing from the lower thoracic spines ascend and incline outwards to the root of the spine of the shoulder blade. These muscles exercise some influence on the the relief surface. and the entire upper border of the acromion The method of process and spine of the shoulder blade at the side and back. outwards. inferior parts are attached to the top of the spine of the seventh neck vertebra and to the spines of all the thoracic vertebras and to ligaments connecting them. of the trapezius which covers them. along up to the lower half of the median ligament of the neck. and is to a tippet the four-sided figure formed by the sides hung over the shoulders down Its to the spine of the last thoracic vertebra. the middle line The elevation accentuating of the angle of the higher neck and is inserted into the inner border of the blade from the transverse processes of the bone . insertion involves much alteration in the direction of the parts of the muscle . outwards. scapula (levator anguli scapula) arises vertebras. The ileck has one prominent vein influencing surface form.

then pass forwards to their inThe upper fibres of the muscle rtion in the upper part of the humerus. w^hich. and directly oblique ibdominal muscle. though not surface form. the inferior angle of the blade iiss horizontally outside across the back. forming a fleshy prominence. also from the posterior end of the of the haunch bone.MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK above the level of the spine. giving it assists in The broad serratus magnus muscle arises by fleshy strips from the outer The fibres from the lowest five or six slips surface of the eight upper ribs. There two important muscles arising from the trunk and passing to heir attachments in the luscle of the back. fourth. of origin converge fan-w^ise to be inserted in the lov^er angle of the inner border of the blade bone. pointed processes called the fifth. bone of the upper arm. ower and anterior portion of the serratus magnus it influences form comprises the four slips which is superficial. and upwards and outwards are inserted by are a tendon into the caracoid pro- of the shoulder blade. under he great pectoral. middle line. Although covered by the trapezius. influences arise from the surfaces of and eighth ribs. The lower fibres and those from the last isponding in direction to the outline of the upper 'ngin^. seventh. it is overlapped by the trapezius. and in turn it The full attachment of the muscle to the aponeurosis inferior overlies the is shown this at- y a curved line le 1 drawn from the upper part of the muscles attachment near attachment to the iliac crest. sixth. the origin forming a fibrous layer constituting the At its origin from the lower six osterior layer of the lumbar aponeurosis. to its From of the arm-pit. 15 three ribs pass upwards. corarm when the limb is . loracic spines -ector spinae. its fibres arising from the third. ^he former has an extensive origin from the lower six thoracic spines and the Dines of the rest lumbar and sacral vertebrae. digi:ations. over chment the fibres i)ne. fleshy. which interlock with similar slips of origin of the external . The uperficial. and fifth ribs. a rounded form to the neck. its covering muscle being thin. become converge towards the posterior fold lick and influence the roundness of that fold. The )assing ess pectoralis minor has its origin in the front of the chest wall. the latissimus dorsi or broad and the pectoralis major or great muscle of the breast.

and being The fibres which spring of the humerus. its base corresponding to the surface on both The prominence formed by these fibres sides of the centre of the breast bone. anterior border of the inner half of pectoralis major. which pass upwards and when the limb hangs. corresponding to the breast bone. but attached humerus by insertion into the bicipital groove. the deltoid or great triangular shoulder muscle. arising from the back of the blade bone below the spine. It arises Of from both bones of the shoulder girdle. after interruption bones of the shoulder girdle. The or muscle of the breast. of which it may by he tlic considered a continuation downwards to the arm. which raises the arm. another group of muscles having their insertion in the humerus. its whole surface of the collar origin corresponding with the insertion of the trapezius. from the anterior bone in front. its in tront ot the running parallel to those of the teres minor. The remaining muscles of this group are the infra spinatus. springing 1 6 . edges to its number of ensheathing muscles attached Connected with the lumbar vertebrae arc from the spines airf sheets of condensed tissue called aponeuroses. is the principal. the lowest. The passing of the lower breast bone lie its fibres horizontally the arm increases the the upper fibres in passing from the chest to behind the arm-pit in front. and behind from outer margin the whole length of the lower border of the spine of the scapula. but the ribs and cartilages may be observed beneath it in poorly developed causes the median furrow. the muscle thickness of the fleshy fold at the hollow of inserted by a flat tendon in the outer lip of the occinarrowing. pital groove from the breast bone and ribs form a triangle.MUSCLES OF THE SHOULDER great the collar bone. above the shoulder from the point and of the acromion process of the shoulder blade. the apex of which overlies the front of the upper arm. arises from the converge in passand outward in front of the highest passing downwards ing to the upper arm. the teres from attachments along the external border of the blade bone (both of which are inserted in the great tuberosity of the humerus) and the teres major arising from the posterior surface of the lower angle of t^ arising minor blade bone. under the deltoid. Those springing from the outwards. fibres The abdominal by their wall consists of a boundaries. the lower line figures. The muscle when well developed conceals the framework of the thoracic wall.

. A Study in Pencil by Arthur Mason. Birmingham School of Art.Platk VI.


Fl. ^ .ATK VII.^ A Study in Pencil and Wash on Tinted Paper by W. . Walcot. }C>-^ \ ^' .


Plate VIII. . A Study from the Antique // is probably a sound view that the antique will be better appreciated AFTER study from life.

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r^oo<^eA {or ^es^ J X^j (ffhaer-bontt SCcfn/fo/aC .Afrc/c//e... 'process 81 ^ '(//net as j/o -- Maanc/i bone- f9rojoa/e) C<3rpus.Plate IX. Sl Vf)a/angeS (fo e yo'/n /r J - -r^_ by A Study of the Skeleton Wat kins. Martin s School of Art. St. John ../. London. Acromion.

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jaf. . •%f.Pecflmus ' ///<?c ffiine. . . Lotto tuMn/or af'- ^ ^ /So fefi^n. Ot/^ojuiorr oi £»tt mumh- — >^J'X '** I com a'af/ora/n. London. suScu/dneoc/f . St. Steeps cul//-<'' tensor if' am rat/ /ono. Zona i /ntter • --... - i/«/r>. " Lon<^ tyitnsbr of vf- foe. 2>&//-o/c(^- ^S 2J*.-Adejcjc/ir ion^af Jens«r Jssc jem..Gr^c/V/S ?er/onuS l^cfuS *&n>ortJ* l^s/u^ exfeme/f' /3anc/ J^/?kQ- Jnhema/ Cof^c/oy/c- 'So/euS' Qss/rocnemiui' Jib/3. Martin's School of Art. '.> A Study of the Muscles of the Body by John Watkins.Plate X.. ^2/io f3so4s ^.

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./i1andi6le Dorsa/ wmerus CJavicfe. VeriebrQA j Xtfna . Ms far Of Cheek Sdtit (tp) ' " .Demf30faJ JHone .. Iff 'C^ft>ufa FROM UFE ^ A Study of Back View of the Skeleton by Eugenie Richards. .. ' BACK VIEW is) i/nnominsfurn.. Nottingham School of Art..3rontal Bone ^ffjornatic /\rck Occjpjta/ Bona tttbrna Occip'ihl R-otohe. .Platk ThriofialBon XI.

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.. Nottingham School of Art. \ ' > • G!ufeafMe<//as sv^r/or ///sc '" "^"^ ^ I -Tensor fasc/ae femon'r 'Posterior sme .3nnaJar Jfaamen^ Op cahjp A Study of the Muscles of the Body by Eugenie Richards.''^>'i x>..Plate .. 7en<Jo Ac/?/7^r Sx/em^f . - Adduc/or msqnus 'JJio iihral band 'Vas/us extern us • • Semi/enc/jnos-us Gracifis 'Biceps orT/)^icf/L /^e3c^ cTf^u/a Semi mem^isn opus Jar/on us ^ or ham.^''\Pop///ejl pp3cff (]' i- Inner /)e3c/ ofass/^ocnemius' -. .PeroneuP JonacW 'eroneup £re\//f FROM LrF ^ ANATOMIZED . XII. r\'^' -^CK vary/ *^ '-^^x ^Lfinhar 7iponeuros/s .


I'lATI \I Studies of the Skeleton and Muscles by Ethel Marsh. Maidstone School of Art. .


Hj.atk XI\' Studies of Muscles and SKEij-rrox by R. Nottingham School of Art. Wtlson. . F.


it is attached to a part of the ilium imilio The mediately above the acetabulum. which reach a short way forwards on to the abdominal wall and processes. their fleshy fibres forming three muscular layers. Stretching from the higher level of the superior spine of the ilium to the pubic spine there exists a band of fibrous tissue called Poupart's ligament. convexity of the curve between its points of attachment is directed downward. from the side of the lower part of the sacrum. spreads fan-wise and is united with the thigh bone below along a rough line called the spiral line. and the transversalis. and the superficial fibres of the lower half are inserted by an The of the thigh.THE BUTTOCK MUSCLE In these spinas in a fibrous sheath. the coccyx. called the gluteal ridge. by In the female this layer fold is is much thicker than in the male. the great sacro sciatic ligament. corresponding to the furrow separating the lower abdominal region from the front of the thigh. the fibrous cord formed by the fusion of the aponeuroses of the flank muscles in the muscle divides on approaching the middle line. and enclosing the erectores are there again replaced by aponeuroses. The aponeurosis of the intermediate enclosing longitudinal fibres of the straight or rectus muscle at the side of the linea alba. or buttock muscle. certain muscles of the flank aponeuroses originate . the muscle. the middle line. the external oblique. femoral ligament is important in preventing excessive backward extension of the thigh on the trunk . and the and transversely of strongly marked in consequence. superficial. while the overhang of the gluteal projection The tensor fasciae femoris is the muscle separating the buttock region gluteal more 17 2 . The formed by the lower fibres of the sheet-like tendon of an abdominal muscle. has an extensive origin from the posterior fourth of the iliac crest. an outer layer of and its outline masked maximus is rest gluteus fat. greater length. and unites in front and behind with the aponeuroses of the inner and outer muscle respectively. The gluteus maximus. from the aponeurosis of the erector from the side of spinae muscle. aponeurosis into the fascia running down the outer side of the fibres of the lower half are attached by a flattened tendon to a The rough ridge on the back of the thigh bone. and from the surface of a ligament stretching from the sacrum to The fibres of the upper half of the ischium. is more pronounced. the internal oblique.

The gluteus medius is another fan-shaped muscle. The flexor group consists of the hamstring muscles on the back of the i8 . it reaches about three inches below it and blends with the fascia. chanter The powerful abductor of the thigh. they The adductor group includes the gracilis.MUSCLES OF THE THIGH from the anterior aspect of the thigh. and its fibres gathered inferiorly into a flattened tendon inserted into a line running obliquely downward and forward on the outer surface of the tro. The sartorius. the crureus. spreading over the outer surface of the iliac its superior attachment expansion of the haunch bone. originates above fi-om the anterior superior iliac spine and bone immediately below. . those it is a at The extensors are four in number. to the inner side of the sartorius to the lie the adductor muscles. the back the flexor group. and is inserted under the tuberosity sartorius into the inner aspect of the upper portion shaft of the tibia. and the rectus femoris superficial to haunch bone. stretching from the front of the pelvis upper part of the thigh bone. and becomes below a thin expanded tendon turning forward under the inner tuberosity of the tibia. arising close to and parallel with the symphysis by a thin tendon which draws the knees tofrom the bone. in straightening the leg. pubis . down and behind the most prominent part of the internal condoyle of passes the thigh bone and along the inner side of the knee. forming a band along the outer side of the thigh. the base of the depression forming immediately below the groin. with the internal and external vasti on either side. Its action is to flex Above and assist in the knee and hip joints. the longest muscle in the body. and act as powerful exten- sors of the knee. inserted into the subcutaneous surface of that bone close to the front tubercle. arising by tendons from the iliac portion of the All are inserted into the patella. passes obliquely across the front of the upper part of the thigh to the middle of the inner side. thigh muscles in front are known as the extensor group. its origin is tendinous from the anterior going downwards and backwards towards the extremity of the iUac crest trochanter. It curves aspect forward below the internal of the tibia. gether from the outspread position. in direction it coincides with the upper and inner of the thigh in profile from the front. the others. called the hollow of the thigh.

and the semi- originating from the tuberosity of the ischium and inserted in the leg bones. the extensor longus digitorum. or dorsal surface of pass to the upper which have insertions into the bases The form a fibres from the lower small slip called the quarter of the anterior surface of the fibula into the dorsal surperoneus tertius. The long extensor of the toes arises fi-om the external tuberosity of the tibia in front of the point of its articulation with the head of the fibula. from the anterior surface of the fibula. and from the mem- brane connecting the two bones which the back. partly from the fibula. arising from the lower two-thirds of the external surface of the fibula below the peroneus longus. Both act as extensors of the foot. two into the tibia or inner bone. turning the sole the prominence of the calf at back superficial muscles constituting border of the foot. which the four outer toes. Of the peroneal muscles two lie on the outer side of the long extensor of the toes. and from the adjacent surface of the interosseus membrane. arising is lies along the outer side of the its from the upper two-thirds of it and external tuberosity . comprising the biceps of the thigh. The of the fibula. 19 I . it inserted into the inner sur- face of the internal cuneiform bone and the base of the metatarsal bone. which passes by a tendinous insertion face of the metatarsal bone of the tensor arising from great toe has a special exthe middle three-fifths of the anterior surface of the shaft little toe. These are the peroneus brevis. arising from the head and half of outer surface of fibula attached to the under side of metatarsal upper of great toe. the front of the fibula unite in front in a tendon terior Those fibres from the adwhich arise from which passes down the an- edge of the muscle in the lower it leg. and assisting the peroneus tertius in raising the outer The outwards. membranosus.MUSCLES OF THE LEG thigh. and the other into the fibula or outer bone. and lie at separates the front muscles of the leg The tibialis anticus is the innermost of tibia. Under the anterior annular liga- ment divides into four slips. and attached to the fifth metatarsal bone. which arise partly from the tibia. and the peroneus tertius. the semi-tendinosus. forming expansions of the second and third phalanges of these toes. from the head of the fibula. all The muscles of the front of the leg are the tibialis anticus. from those which the group. and jacent surface of the interosseus membrane. and the peroneus longus. the extensor proprius hallucis.

evident in violent action. The most important muscle its is the triceps. of the back of the leg. have much influence on the drawing of the upper arm— the 20 . It is function being the extension of the forearm. passing from the os pedis. and pectoralis major. the teres major. The biceps cubiti has attachments. of the first phalanx of the great toe . also by a tendon to the back of of the radius . and separates the biceps and triceps. latissimus dorsi. The drawing of the arm is extremely important and should be specially studied. and is inserted by the tendo Achillis into the back of the Both muscles are extensors of the ankle. and occupies a position between the biceps and triceps above the brachialis anticus. and the inner side of the middle of the humerus. (2) the lower part of the tendons of the extensor brevis digitorum. the combined tendon of the soleus and gastrocnemius. is a this bicipital tuberosity tendon spreads over the fascia of the flexor muscles of the forearm. Three muscles previously dealt with. The proper adductor of the arm. it arises from and the gastrocnemius. the latter attachment giving it power to draw the In repose it is almost imperceptible. attached to the olecranon process of the ulna and to the scapula. by above the condoyles. it arises bones to the leg . below the coronoid process. The coraco brachialis is attached to the of the coronoid process of the apex scapula.MUSCLES OF THE are the soleus ARM . which arises under the external ankle and connects with the toe bases of the great and next three toes. receiving the fibres of the gasoccupies the lower half trocnemius in its surface. concalcis to the base necting with the tendons of the long extensor. as this limb is more often exposed than any part of the body in illustration. and those of the soleus on either side as they The upper of the calf approach the middle line surface muscles of the foot are (i) the abductor poUicis The important which fills the hollow under the internal ankle. OS calcis. but arm towards and behind is the trunk. two heads from the back of the thigh bones. brachialis anticus is attached to the lower anterior surface of the humerus. The soleus is the deeper and fibula and is inserted at the back of the head and upper fourth of tibia The gastrocnemius rests upon the soleus and has no attachment the OS calcis. anterior surface it . tendo Achillis. which covers the entire back part of the upper arm. one above the glenoid cavity and another on its apex of corocoid process of scapula.

extensor carpi radialis brevoir. fingers is due to the fat and fascia beneath the skin. external condoyle. Others are The extensor carpi radialis longoir. and the pectoral from the chest wall. nine with the movements of pronation and six thumb and fingers. two movements enabling the hand to rotate through an arc of half a circle. The flexor or front group consists of the pronator radii teres from the inner condoyle ridge to middle of outer side of the radius. part epicondjdoid ridge of the humerus and base of the styloid process of radius. One of the most important wrist muscles is the flexor carpi ulnaris as it influences form by giving the sharp line beneath the wrist on outer side of forearm. the extensor communis digitorum from external condoyle of humerus by four tendons to the last two bones of the fingers the extensor minimi digiti by tendon to the . four concerned with the supination. attached to the external condoyle of humerus. . The supinator radii longus is the chief muscle of the extensor group its attachments are to the of the upper . and the flexor digitorum sublimis from inner condoyle to sides of second phalanges of fingers. giving attachments only to the plate XII. attached to the lower part of of the humerus and base of the metacarpal bone of the first the ridge : — finger . hence the bony appearance of the hand in emaciated persons. bringing either the palm or knuckles upwards. the extensors pollicis. the flexor carpi radialis from inner condoyle to base of second metacarpal bone. the dorsal from the iliac crest.MUSCLES OF THE ARM major coming from the back of the scapula. from back of ulna and radius respectively to bases of three bones of the thumb . are all inserted in the humerus teres about the bicipital groove. The two groups of muscles of the forearm operate on the wrists and hands as flexors and extensors. the palmari longus from inner condoyle to fascia of palm. the anconeus from back of external condoyle to outer side of ulna. The muscular formation of the wrist and back of hand is shown in the diagram. The forearm has nineteen muscles. and the metacarpal bone of second finger . The form of the tendons of their controlling muscles in the arm and hand. The arms are capable of being turned round in the actions of pronation and supination. and with the wrist. The fingers have no muscles. 21 . thence to base of last two bones of little finger the extensor carpi ulnaris from external condoyle to back of base of fifth metacarpal bone .

and thus aid them to acquire the rudiments of power in expressing the figure. and peradventure the useful desire to pursue the subject further with the aid of such valuable text-books as Thompson's " Anatomy for Art Students.BOOKS ON ANATOMY to For the study of the musculation of the arm and hand I advise students and supine positions for reference. and trace the get plaster casts in prone various attachments and movements of muscles from them and the living arm. In closing these remarks I cherish the fond hope that the notes on and apply connection with the photographs." VanderpoeFs Figure." Hatton's " Figure " The Human Drawing. *l 22 i . until so thoroughly conversant with the formation that it becomes a simple matter to zn^LtomisG from memory the many photographic records of arms and hands here given." or other books dealing in anatomy will by them thoroughly their very brevity induce students to assimilate exhaustively with its many phases.

A study of the skeleton. MODEL No. Birmingham School of Art. VI. A study in oil colours by Harold Knight. A study in oil colours by H. St. showing ment and balance in an excellent silhouette of a figure from the side. VII. XV. VIII. Ball. Martin's School of Art. by Miss Ethel Marsh. Maidstone XIII. I. Birmingham School of Art. Frontispiece. by Puvis de Chavannes. Studies of the muscles and skeleton. Model No. A study from the antique. Nottingham School of Art. NottingSchool of Art. II. Nottingham School of Art. The composition of line is unusually of figure is on the right interesting. XIV. School of Art. V. St. Martin's XI. is an exquisite contemplative pose. by Miss Eugenie Richards. by John Watkins.DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF PLATES. 4. III. Studies of the skeleton and muscles. A arrested movecharming decorative pose. A study in pencil by Arthur Mason. F. PLATE A study in charcoal on Michelet paper. Birmingham School of Art. Nottingham School of Art. by W. the 23 . A A A study of the muscles of the body. X. and consequently greatly fore-shortened in com- parison with an erect position. by R. A study in pencil by Arthur Mason. School of Art. i. London. London. study of back view of the skeleton. A study in pencil by Arthur Mason. by John Watkins. Wilson. by Miss Eugenie Richards. Walcot. ham study of muscles of the body. A study in pencil and wash on tinted paper. leg. Nottingham School of Art. the body entirely at rest. IV. XII. IX. the whole weight other touching the ground with toes alone.

3. MODEL No. The first is poised on both feet. XXIII. useful as anatomical studies. A classic pose that should drape well. comparative anatomy study. i. is XXIV. i. Model No. two poses is am interesting 24 . XIX. A of anatomy. forward showing standing with the torso bent slightly useful the anatomy of the neck and shoulders. i and 3. 3. a pose indicating Sorrow. the torso slightly twisted. A A A pose useful for crafts or music.DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF PLATES PLATE XVI. Model No. is a caryatid pose. 3. MODEL No. two sides of XX. arrested movement. the latter a Hairdressing or purely decorative The of the torso in the pose. 5. are two arabesques of extremely graceful lines. useful pictorially for a carrying pose and decoratively an arabesque dancing figure. Models Nos. XXI. child of fifteen in a pose that shows well the leg. Model No. position showing of three supports. a pose of lovely contrasting lines. emblems can be placed XVII. 2. XXII. Note the marked contrast in the of subtlety and strong definition the figure. the allegorical representation of the hands in such positions that in them. A muscular female figure in pose that shows well the slope of the body above the waist when the arms arc support an object above the head. perfect as a composition in itself and useful in showing various movements of the limbs. back views of poses that are lovely in line. and the graceful taper of the arms. is The shoulder muscles well shown. Model No. Model No. 3. 4. Model No. XXV and XXVI. as a supporting figure in design. superlatively useful pose for the study and composition of line. XVIII. The former useful pictorially as Charity or Contemplation. the other stands on the right leg. effect when the main weight effect is on left Model No. used simul- taneously. Model No. lifted to Model No. i. the weight evenly distributed on both feet. i.

i. the left arm and hand is particularly graceful. A Model view. Model No. decoration work. high XXIX. XXXIII. A A A decorative pose of beautifully flowing lines. 3. XXXIV. complementuseful for sculpture or church ^5 . radiating from the hands clasping the right knee. Model No. right left XXXV. definite lines. Model No. 3. i. Model No. Model No. The left XXXVI. I. decorative or "announcement" pose of great ana- tomical possibilities. Model No. vigorous pose that shows the same effect as in 5. decoraVanity. Model No. a pose expressing sorrow or regret. tively. XXXI. contemplative or reading pose of simple flowing lines. 3. a pose of infinite usefulness. MODEL No. 5. pictorially. the chair back and the arm resting on corner of on corner of seat. A wonderful pose expressive of hope and vitality. putting on sandals. decorative pose with makes it variety of movement that interesting as an anatomical basis. and anatomically. 3. 3. Model No. Model No. is a sitting pose. The foreshortening is extremely well caught. XXXVII. is i. much XXX. A anatomical exercise. Plate XXIV. i. 3. Reading or bathing pose of simple MODEL No. XXXIX and XL. are two decorative kneeling and ary to each other. showing the effect of the use of the left arm as a support in resting on a scat. poses. but from a different point of XXVIII.DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF PLATES PLATE XXVII. XXXVIII. 3. 3. contemplative. Model No. A A useful decorative pose. a useful decorative pose giving the foreshortening of many parts of the body. Model No. and an anatomical rendering of the pose is an interesting task. giving a double thrust upwards to the shoulders. XXXII. A line decorative pose of sharp contrasts in direction of difficult and useful that is very effective. Model No. foot is resting on two levels.

interesting in the turn of the upper part of torso supported by right arm. Model No. and an interesting anatomical study. 3. MODEL No. Model No. figure in very or entreaty. coration. and useful both pictorially and in de- XLIII. is MODEL No. MODEL XLVI. No. 3. XLVI I. 3. A pose that shows usefully the poise of head and neck and soft contours of shoulders in female. well caught by the pose of exaltation a beautiful side view of a sacrificial pose. A A " contemplative or reading pose of pronounced decorative quality. XLIX. the latter useful for its sense XLIV. An in which the upper arms interesting decorative pose make a straight line. for its simplicity of line. anatomy is Model No. is a useful decorative pose. 5. A painter's or modeller's subject. XLV. XLII. useful for decorative work. combined action of kneeling and stretching with recumbent pose. MODEL No. I. 4. i. a beautiful finely body half turned. The pose is a development of that photographed in Plate XXXIII. of poised and graceful arrested action in kneeling." tail in and the modelled left arm and shoulder. 5. photograph. Model No. No. 5. 3. Model No. Model MODEL No.DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF PLATES PLATE XLI. Two recumbent poses that give a vivid idea of the unless the difliculty of drawing such thoroughly understood. I. Model No. Anatomically and lower legs an extremely useful exercise. with useful dethe foreshortening of the right arm and thighs. i. the shoulder muscles in the upper and the chest and abdominal muscles in the lower are plainly marked. 26 . A giving the true proportion for anatomical study. Waking. The left forearm and hand is beautifully shown in foreshortening. is a study in flowing lines. and both are valuable anatomical subjects. Two the former remarkable poses of pictorial interest. XLVIII.

A fine anatomical study of a man pulling up a length of rope. and is anatomically interesting owing to the curved thrusts of the whole body LII. 10. Ditto. Ditto." A LIX. 10. io. Ditto. The aspect of a body completely opposed to the direction of the legs. shortenings make a useful anatomical a man LX. excellent line compositions. LVI.DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF PLATES PLATE L. No. Model Na MODEL No. 2. and a useful and unusual con- templative pose of a looking at another. MODEL No. LXI. or poses that are useful as Model MODEL MODEL No. Models Nos. A beautifully balanced figure of a man with catapult with the muscles of the back and arm finely shown. LIII. In a decorative group that suggests sculpture. 'Various poses of 8. are decorative studies of brothers at play. A throwing pose in which the arms make an interest- ing decorative line. Ditto. LXIII. No. 8. 27 . development of the pose in Plate XLIL "The Vision. i. LVIII. woman holding one object and LI. LX and those on Plates LXI photograph on Plate and LXIII are 11. is on a staff. Model Model Model No. In an exquisite combination of line that offers suggestion to the sculptor and decorator. 6 and the 7. Model No. No. The first LXII. anatomical studies. MODELS Nos. harpooning. LVII. line in both models. 8 and 12. 10. 8. LIV. LXIV. young men. leaning The various foreto look over a precipice. A fine study of a well-developed male of twenty-four. 9. bending exercise. LXV.MODELNo. LV. or striking. No. is in which the anatomy of the torso evident. 8. An unusually beautiful pose of an athlete stretching forward on the right leg and thrusting both arms out and back. LXIX. giving some decorative their value as subjects to suggestions in addition to anatomise.^ 8. Model No. 9. a little group showing a charming caryatid pose in boy of five.

LXVII. A Greek study of an artist looking at a piece of craft work. an unusually -interesting study of arrested movement. Model LXX VI. LXXIII. i 2 (right) — a young stretching. 6. ^ 28 . Two from the same model. Model No. useful for the de- The uplifted arm is corator. 8. 8. and the flowing lines of the body and finely shown. or painter. Model No. 12. 10. legs suggest development of the underlying muscles that should be an interesting study. the lower an athlete commencing to run. 8 and 11. is boy of twelve climbing on to a sofa. Model No. a MODELS Nos. is man with a catapult: a vigorous standing pose. LXXIV. A beautiful semi-recumbent pose. Model listening. Two poses of a boy aged five years. both giving useful opportunities for poses tive anatomical study. LXX. n. a LXXVII. sculptor. Model No. 8 (left) A young man picking up a stick. are two decorative studies of young men in which the anatomy is well shown. No. and a good straightforward anatomical subject with the knee bones and thoracic muscles plainly marked. Model No. The upper indicaof grief or weariness. and which suggest sculpture. faun. monumental in its dignity. LXXII. Model No. and a splendid subject for an anatomical study. No. warning. Various studies of a boy looking up. 12. lifting and LXXV. LXVIII. beautiful as A a com- position and plainly showing the muscular developboy playing on a pipe ment. LXXI. Model No.DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF PLATES PLATE LXVI.

Platk LI 1 1. . Model No. 8.


LIV.ATF. . 9. Model No.Pl.


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Model No.ATI L\I.Pl. . 10.


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Plate LXI,

Model No.


Model No. 11. Model No.I'F. .ATK LXII. 8.


8. .atk LXfll Model No.Pf.


. Models Nos.Plate LXIV. 8 and 12.


Plate LXV. 8 and 12. . Models Nos.


Model No. 8. Model No.Plate LXVI. . 8.


12. Model No.Pi.ATi: LXVII. .




.Plate LXX. Model No. 10.




I'l.MI l. Model No. . 12.XXII.


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