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This NCCI gives the expression of the elastic critical moment for doubly symmetric crosssections. Values of the factors involved in the calculation are given for common cases. For a beam under a uniformly distributed load with end moments or a concentrated load at mid-span with end moments, the values for the factors are given in graphs.

Contents

1. 2. 3. 4.

Created on Wednesday, January 23, 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

2 2 4 12

Page 1

1.

General

For doubly symmetric cross-sections, the elastic critical moment Mcr may be calculated by the method given in paragraph 2. For cases not covered by the method given in paragraph 2, the elastic critical moment may be determined by a buckling analysis of the beam provided that the calculation accounts for all the parameters liable to affect the value of Mcr : geometry of the cross-section warping rigidity position of the transverse loading with regard to the shear centre restraint conditions The LTBeam software is specific software for the calculation of the critical moment Mcr. It may be downloaded free of charge from the following web site: http://www.cticm.com

Created on Wednesday, January 23, 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

2.

The method given hereafter only applies to uniform straight members for which the crosssection is symmetric about the bending plane. The conditions of restraint at each end are at least : restrained against lateral movement restrained against rotation about the longitudinal axis The elastic critical moment may be calculated from the following formula derived from the buckling theory :

M cr = C1 2 EI z k I w

2

(kL )2

(kL )2 GI t + (C z )2 C z + 2 g 2 g 2 EI z kw I z

(1)

where E G Iz It Iw is the Young modulus (E = 210000 N/mm2) is the shear modulus (G = 80770 N/mm2) is the second moment of area about the weak axis is the torsion constant is the warping constant

Page 2

k and kw are effective length factors zg is the distance between the point of load application and the shear centre.

Note : for doubly symmetric sections, the shear centre coincides with the centroid.

C1 and C2 are coefficients depending on the loading and end restraint conditions (see 3). The factor k refers to end rotation on plan. It is analogous to the ratio of the buckling length to the system length for a compression member. k should be taken as not less than 1,0 unless less than 1,0 can be justified. The factor kw refers to end warping. Unless special provision for warping fixity is made, kw should be taken as 1,0. In the general case zg is positive for loads acting towards the shear centre from their point of application (Figure 2.1).

Created on Wednesday, January 23, 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

S F

zg > 0

zg < 0

Figure 2.1

Page 3

In the common case of normal support conditions at the ends (fork supports), k and kw are taken equal to 1.

M cr = C1

2 EI z I w

L2 Iz

L2GI t 2 + (C2 zg ) C2 zg 2 EI z

(2)

When the bending moment diagram is linear along a segment of a member delimited by lateral restraints, or when the transverse load is applied in the shear centre, C2 zg = 0. The latter expression should be simplified as follows :

M cr = C1

2 EI z

L2

I w L2GI t + I z 2 EI z

(3)

For doubly symmetric I-profiles, the warping constant Iw may be calculated as follows :

Created on Wednesday, January 23, 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

I (h t f ) Iw = z 4 where h tf

(4)

3.

3.1

C1 and C2 factors

General

section properties, support conditions, moment diagram

EI w GI t L2

(5)

The values given in this document have been calculated with the assumption that = 0. This assumption leads to conservative values of C1.

Page 4

3.2

The factor C1 may be determined from Table 3.1 for a member with end moment loading.

M

-1 +1

Figure 3.1

Created on Wednesday, January 23, 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Table 3.1

C1 1,00 1,14 1,31 1,52 1,77 2,05 2,33 2,57 2,55

Page 5

3.3

Table 3.2 gives values of C1 and C2 for some cases of a member with transverse loading,

Table 3.2

Values of factors C1 and C2 for cases with transverse loading (for k = 1) Bending moment diagram

C1 C2

1,127

0,454

2,578

1,554

1,348

Created on Wednesday, January 23, 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

0,630

1,683

1,645

Note : the critical moment Mcr is calculated for the section with the maximal moment along the member

3.4

For combined loading of end moments and transverse loads as shown in Figure 3.2, values of C1 and C2 may be obtained from the curves given hereafter. Two cases are considered: Case a) end moments with a uniformly distributed load Case b) end moments with a concentrated load at mid-span The moment distribution may be defined using two parameters :

is the ratio of end moments. By definition, M is the maximum end moment, and so : -1 1 ( = 1 for a uniform moment)

is the ratio of the moment due to transverse load to the maximum end moment M Case a) =

qL2 8M

Page 6

Case b) =

FL 4M

>0 <0

if M and the transverse load (q or F), each supposed acting alone, bend the beam in the same direction (e.g. as shown in the figure below) otherwise

q

F L (b)

Created on Wednesday, January 23, 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

L (a)

Figure 3.2

Page 7

3.0

C1

2.5

2.0

1.5

0,3 1.4 0,4 0,5 0,6 1.3 0,8 1 1.2 1,2 2 1.1 1,5 0,7

0,2

0,1

Created on Wednesday, January 23, 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

M M

>0

5.0

-1,1

C1

4.5

-0,9

-1

4.0

-0,7

-0,8

3.5

-0,6

3.0

-0,5 -0,4

2.5

-0,3 -0,2 -1,2 -1,3 -1,4 -0,1 -1,5 -1,6 -1,7 -1,8 -2

2.0

1.5

1.0 -1 -0.8

M M

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

M

0.4

0.6

0.8

M

<0

Figure 3.3

Page 8

0.5

C2

0.4

2 1,5 0.3 0,9 0,7 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0.1 0,1 0,8 0,6 0.2 1,2 1

M M

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

>0

2.5

C2

2.0 -1,1

-1,2

0.5 -0,4 -0,3 -0,2 -0,1 0.0 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4

-0,5

M M

0.6

0.8

<0

Figure 3.4

Page 9

3.0

C1

2.5

2.0

1.5

0,5

0,4

0,3

0,2

0,1

M M

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

>0

4.0

C1

3.5

-1 -0,9 -0,8 -1,1 -1,2

3.0

-0,6 -0,5

-0,7

2.5

-0,4 -0,3 -0,2

2.0

0

-0,1

1.5

1.0 -1 -0.8

M M

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

<0

Figure 3.5 End moments and point load at mid-span Factor C1

Page 10

0.5

C2

2 0.4 1,5 1,2 1 0,9 0.3 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0.2 0,4 0,3

0.1

0,2

0,1

M M

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

>0

2.5

C2

2.0

-1,3 1.5

-1,2

1.0 -0,8 -0,7 0.5 -0,5 -0,4 -0,3 -0,2 0.0 -1 -0.8

M M

-0,9

-0,6

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

<0

Figure 3.6

Page 11

4.

1

References

ENV 1993-1-1

Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures Part 1.1 : General rules and rules for buildings. European Committee for Standardisation.

Theory of elastic stability. 2nd Edition. Mc Graw-Hill. 1961.

Djalaly, H.

Calcul de la rsistance ultime au dversement dans le cas de la flexion dvie. Revue Construction Mtallique n3-1974. CTICM.

Gala, Y.

Dversement lastique dune poutre section bi-symtrique soumise des moments dextrmit et une charge repartee ou concentre. Revue Construction Mtallique n2-2002. CTICM.

Page 12

Quality Record

Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. UK

Created on Wednesday, January 23, 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Date

2/3/05

2. France 3. Sweden 4. Germany 5. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by:

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