Rolling Element Bearing Analysis and Condition Assessment

By Ron Frend

FRANK VOWLES ENGINEERING
Background Bearing condition assessment is one of the most common subjects of training courses and technical papers in the PDM industry and is often the topic of conversation wherever maintenance decisions are being made. When you consider that the single most common failure of rotating machinery is the failure of these bearings and that the vast majority of machines are reliant on the health of their support bearings for correct operation this is perhaps no surprise. Due mostly to financial restraints and a lack of confidence in predictive techniques approximately two-thirds of rolling element bearing machine operators use corrective, run-to-failure maintenance. Preventive maintenance accounts for most of the remainder with only a small percentage using some form of predictive strategy. Our objective The primary objective of this course is to highlight technologies and methodologies that can improve your ability to diagnose bearing health. To highlight the impact of predictive technologies on operational and maintenance costs and recommend approaches that will maximize your effectiveness with the prediction of rolling element bearing failure.

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CONTENTS SECTION 1.0 UNDERSTANDING BEARINGS AND THEIR FAILURE MECHANISMS 1.1 TYPES OF ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS IN USE 1.2 LUBRICATION METHODS 1.3 BEARING FAILURE MECHANISMS 1.3.1 Fatigue Spalling 1.3.2 Lubricant Loss 1.3.3 Poor Assembly 1.4 BEARING LIFE ESTIMATION 2.0 TYPES OF MAINTENANCE USED IN INDUSTRY 2.1 COST OF MAINTENANCE 2.2 COMPARISON OF MAINTENANCE TECHNIQUES 2.2.1 Case history 1 : Comparison of maintenance techniques 3.0 RECOMMENDED PDM DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES 3.1 VIBRATION SENSOR TYPES AND MOUNTING EFFECTS 3.1.1 Vibration sensor types Accelerometers Velocity Sensors Displacement Sensors 3.1.2 Sensor Mounting Effects 3.2 VIBRATION BASED ROLLING ELEMENT BEARING ANALYSIS 3.2.1 Bearing failure characteristics 25 21 21 15 16 17 PAGE # 7 7 8 9

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3.2.2 Recommended Vibration based analysis techniques Demodulation theory The demodulation process Resonance sources Vibration case 1 AC motor bearing defect using demodulation Vibration case 2 DC motor bearing defect using demodulation Vibration case 3 Press bearing damage using demodulation Using wave audio with demodulation for bearing analysis The Application of Demodulation in a PDM approach to bearing analysis 3.2.3 Evaluation of Damage Severity Severity assessment using demodulation and velocity spectrum 3.3 DEMODULATION OF ULTRA SOUND DATA FOR BEARING ANALYSIS 3.4 OTHER TIME DOMAIN TECHNIQUES FOR BEARING ANALYSIS 3.4.1 Use of Kurtosis to identify bearing damage 3.4.2 Use of shock pulse monitoring to identify bearing damage 3.5 OTHER FREQUENCY DOMAIN TECHNIQUES FOR BEARING ANALYSIS 3.5.1 Use of Broad band Frequency domain bearing analysis 3.5.2 High-Frequency Resonance Techniques 3.6 THE USE OF OIL ANALYSIS FOR BEARING DIAGNOSIS 53 52 49 51

3.7 THE USE OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS FOR BEARING DIAGNOSIS 55 3.7.1 Factors that effect the collection of quality thermographic data

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3.1 CONSIDERATIONS FOR SELECTING THE TYPE OF MAINTENANCE 4.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 63 This document is protected under copyright.0 WHY PDM ? A MAINTENANCE SELECTION STRATEGY 4.2 Evaluation of Severity using temperature measurement Thermographic case 1: Spindle bearing over packed with grease Thermographic case 2: Over torqued bearing housing 4.2 Useful questions to answer in understanding the costs of PDM 61 61 5.1. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 4 .1.7.1 Useful questions to answer in evaluating the feasibility of PDM 4.

Ball Bearing Outer Ring Percent of Machines Subject to Different Types of Maintenance Maintenance Costs using corrective maintenance Maintenance Costs using preventive maintenance Maintenance Costs using predictive maintenance Types of accelerometer construction Piezoelectric Accelerometer Mounting Methods and Examples of Typical Frequency Responses Summary of common mounting techniques Ball Bearing Terminology Time and frequency domain data showing modulation Waterfall of frequency domain data showing modulation Time domain data showing start of demodulation process Time domain data showing rectification and smoothing Illustration of Time and frequency domain demodulated data. 4. Illustration of data from motor bearing Illustration of waterfall frequency domain data showing modulation Waterfall Trend and Spectral plot showing bearing defect Illustration of modulated and demodulated velocity spectrum Illustration of time domain data from DC motor bearing showing faults Illustration of demodulated spectrum showing bearing defect frequency Illustration of velocity spectrum indicating bearing defect frequency Time domain trace for press flywheel showing bearing damage Demodulated acceleration spectrum showing bearing defect on press flywheel This document is protected under copyright. 12. 7a. 11. 2. 5a. 5c 6. 9c. 9b.Ball Bearing Outer Ring Installation Damage Loose Fit .Ball Bearing Inner Race Courtesy of the Barden Corporation Loss of Lubricant . 10. 5b. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Title Most Commonly Used Bearings Lubrication Methods Used in Power Plant Machinery Failure Modes in Different Types of Power Plants Early Fatigue .ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 5 . 9a.Roller Bearing Courtesy of the Torrington Company Grease Life Expectancy for the type 206 and the type 9109 bearings Installation Damage Loose Fit .Ball Bearing Courtesy of the Barden Corporation Developed Fatigue on Roller Bearing Courtesy of the Torrington Company Loss of Lubricant . 3. 7b 8.

ultra sound measurement showing bearing fault Good V’s bad bearing shown using demodulated ultra sound Probability Density in Decibels of Normalized Acceleration of a good and bad bearing Trend of high frequency noise for a damaged bearing Microprobe Spectrum of a Bearing Metal Particle Trend of oil sample wear elements Example of hot V’s cold motor bearings Example bearing image 10 minutes after deliberate overpacking with grease Example bearing image 30 minutes after deliberate overpacking with grease Example bearing image 90 minutes after deliberate overpacking with grease Example spectrum from cool bearing Thermographic image showing location of vibration measurement points Example spectrum from hot bearing Simplified Maintenance Selection Diagram This document is protected under copyright. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 6 . 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46. Velocity spectrum showing bearing defect on press flywheel Demodulated acceleration spectrum obtained from recorded wave audio Velocity spectrum obtained from wave audio file Time waveform display of wave audio file Bearing Failure Sequence diagram general technologies Bearing failure sequence diagram for use with demodulated vibration data Demodulated. 38. heterodyned.28 29 30 31 32a 32b 33 34 35 36 37.

1.0 Understanding bearings and their failure mechanisms
In order to be effective with condition assessment for rolling element bearings it is essential to have a grasp of the primary bearing types and failure modes experienced in industry.. This section is intended to introduce the primary forms of failure. Once a course of diagnosis is embarked upon we have found that it is important once bearing failure has been suspected, that the bearing is removed from service and is dissected in order to visually confirm the suspected failure and build confidence in the adopted program The majority of this handbook references specific failure modes and characteristics that identify the existence of a particular failure mode, for this reason it is vital that theses failure modes can be visualized.

1.1 TYPES OF ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS IN USE
Three types of rolling element bearings are commonly used in industry, ball, roller, and tapered roller. Each of these types are more suited to different applications. For example, ball bearings are used predominantly for high speed applications where axial and radial load is required, deep groove bearings are suitable for grease-packed lubrication, and angular contact bearings are predominantly used in oillubricated systems. Furthermore, for high radial load applications cylindrical roller bearings are preferred and for a combination of high radial load and thrust load tapered rollers are the best choice. Outside of these general parameters, specific conditions exist that mandate the selection of a bearing type such as the avoidance of critical speed operations, since roller bearings generally show higher stiffness than ball bearings. Theses examples are not intended to act as selection criteria you must reference your bearing manufacturer to match the correct type of bearing for a specific application. The following figure illustrates the mechanics of both ball and roller bearings

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Figure 1 Most commonly used bearings Considering the variety of applications that require different operational survivability and performance, it is surprising that the ball bearing is so common. Its all round performance has shown it to the best choice for so many applications, in fact a recent EPRI study based on the utility industry shows, overall, 87% of all rolling element bearings are ball bearings, with only 7% being tapered roller bearings, and 6% are cylindrical roller bearings.

1.2 LUBRICATION METHODS
Since the most common type of bearing you will encounter is the ball bearing, the next most critical fundamental issue is the type of lubrication. As illustrated in Figure 2, a study performed recently in the utility industry found that most rolling element bearings are grease lubricated. The second most common being oil-ring lubrication , accounting on the average for 33% of all bearings. Forced-feed lubrication, although not the most common, is arguably the most effective. It, however requires the largest and most expensive support systems providing direct injection of oil into the bearing. In general it seems clear to state that: One, grease-packed ball bearings are by far the most common and appear to be the type of choice for most industries. Two, Forced feed or oil bath lubrication methods only seem to be found in larger, more expensive pieces of machinery.

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Figure 2 Lubrication Methods Used in Power Plant Machinery

1.3 BEARING FAILURE MECHANISMS
A great deal of bearing failure experience exists both in industry and with the bearing manufacturers, this experience indicates that there are six primary causes of bearing failure. Fatigue spalling Lubricant loss Poor assembly Contamination Brinelling Overheating. A detailed look at one industry, the utilities, indicates that fatigue spalling is the predominant failure mode constituting (19%) in nuclear utilities and (22%) in coal fired plants. The combination of loss of lubricant and overheating failures, common to grease-packed bearings, account for 21% of all failures. Specific operational conditions tends to effect theses percentages, a case in point being that 52% of all bearing failures in the oil and gas industries were caused by overheating and loss of lubrication, probably due to the average operational speed being higher. Likewise, unusually high contamination accounts for 25% of failures in the Gas/Oil power plants.

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For example. This phenomenon limits the number of cycles a bearing can survive. and wear. damages bearing surfaces and produces vibration patterns similar to those of fatigue etc. and poor assembly are by far the most common of all failure modes. the load is distributed over a different (often smaller) area and therefore greatly increases stress at that point. and other failure modes such as corrosion and electro-pitting. Fatigue Spalling Fatigue failure or spalling results from mechanical materialogical failure of the bearing. lubricant loss. overheating.Table 1 Failure Modes in Different Types of Power Plants FAILURE MODES (% of Machines) Plant Type Failure Mode Lubricant Loss Corrosion Electro-pitting Overheating Contamination Fatigue Spalling Brinelling Poor Assembly Others (unidentified) Nuclear 12 2 2 7 5 19 12 12 29 11 22 4 11 42 -7 Coal 11 Gas/Oil 34 17 -17 25 -Overall 15 4 1 6 10 17 7 10 30 ( Detailed information provided by EPRI bearing condition assessment survey ) The data in Table 1 above shows that fatigue spalling. abrasive contamination. This document is protected under copyright. and wear and/or fatigue will take place. or corrosion. balls. overheating results commonly from ineffective lubrication caused by either lubricant loss or overpacking. or brinelling. brinelling. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 10 . when independent. Surface fatigue is usually caused by scratches on races. Simply. a given load over a given area produces stress. These raised stress areas provide a start point for micro-crack formation that leads eventually to pitting. This fatigue may be initiated on the surface or beneath the surface. In either case. spalling. the function of the lubricant becomes greatly impaired. These marks produce “stress raisers”. Contamination. are either extensions of the major failure modes or. or rollers. a point on the bearing surface that experiences abnormally high stress due to the physical conditions at that spot. If a crack or contaminant is found at that location. contamination. Literally a stress related failure of the material which results from cyclic stresses due to operation at high loads. Brinelling. produce outward signals that are similar to those generated by the listed modes.

It is important to realize that the temperatures referenced here are the lubricant temperatures experienced at any point in the system and not necessarily the bearing temperature nor the lubricant at the point of measurement. continuous recirculation of the particles causes progressively higher wear. These material anomalies again provide for a point of crack formation if they fall within a high stress area. Note the difference in life for two bearings of different sizes running on the same shaft. since while oil oxidation rates double every 180°F. as is common in sealed and grease-packed bearings. Oil on the other hand is not as bad. and once a crack is formed beneath the surface. Loss of lubrication in the case of grease or oil systems is usually not necessarily the physical loss of lubricant but the loss of the oil or grease’s properties. inadequate oil lubrication or oil pump failure. it works its way outward and eventually develops into a spall. in oil-lubricated bearings. when oil temperatures exceed 2000°F there are no other significant temperature effects. growth in spalls. In these latter bearings. In order to avoid the temperature effect due to overpacking. which leads to reduction in grease This document is protected under copyright. foreign matter or coarse carbides introduced into the material at the time of formation. causing bearing wear. Figure 3 Fatigue . and eventual machine failure. We know that overpacking is the most common cause of raised bearing temperature. to the point where either the bearing becomes excessively loose and fails to support the load suitably or the induced damage leads to failure. both surface and subsurface fatigue flaws spread over the active bearing surfaces. this can be seen to have a very significant effect on bearing health. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 11 . bearing manufacturers usually suggest that bearings are packed with grease to between 15% to 20% of the bearing's free volume. However.Subsurface fatigue is usually caused by voids. Figure 6 shows an example of the life expectancy of one kind of grease.Ball Bearing Courtesy of the Barden Corporation Lubrication Loss Loss of lubricant is arguably the most common cause of bearing failure and occurs most frequently in grease-packed bearings. does produce similar results in oil-lubricated systems. or are trapped in the bearing. The metal contaminants or wear particles removed from the bearing during spalling either are washed out with the oil. Since the life of a grease lubricant is strongly temperature dependent and since grease loses half of its life for every 20°F rise in temperature. With time.

on the other hand. may generate high bearing temperatures when running at high speeds. This is the more normal failure we think of when we think of loss of lubrication and although it is common place. surprisingly it is not the most common. or bearings that have lost grease due to physical migration. usually simply wear into a condition of excessive looseness and fail without appreciable temperature increases. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 12 .life and eventual failure. Figure 4 Developed Fatigue on Roller Bearing Courtesy of the Torrington Company This document is protected under copyright. Under-packed bearings. Low speed. starved bearings on the other hand.

it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 13 .Figure 5 Loss of Lubricant .Roller Bearing Courtesy of the Torrington Company This document is protected under copyright.Ball Bearing Inner Race Courtesy of the Barden Corporation Figure 6 Loss of Lubricant .

12. and bearing cocking produce premature failures similar to those discussed under fatigue. if the effect is dramatic enough. Figure 7a shows the results of a loose ball bearing fit on the outer race. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 14 . Poor seating. inadequate balance. results in bearing life that is significantly reduced or. Figure 7b depicts a chipped-off inner race shoulder on a double roller bearing. however rotating loads and misalignment may also cause the cage to fail. The effect of any of the above. then bearing failure mostly occurs very shortly after installation.5 years 15 Months 45 Days Figure 7 Grease Life Expectancy for type 206 and the type 9109 Torrington bearings Poor Assembly The most common assembly problems that effect bearing health are :Inadequate alignment Cocking of the bearing retainer Poor seating of bearing races Lack of preload (as specified) Brinelling due to pounding Overpacking Contamination Inadequate balancing. This document is protected under copyright.

Installation Damage Loose Fit .Ball Bearing Outer Ring Courtesy of the Barden Corporation Figure 9 Installation Damage Loose Fit .Ball Bearing Outer Ring Courtesy of the Barden Corporation This document is protected under copyright. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 15 .Figure 8 .

0 3.04 This document is protected under copyright. Vibration (in/sec pk) 0. but the vibration caused by the bearings environment also has an effect on the bearings health.4 BEARING LIFE ESTIMATION Bearing life varies from application to application in accordance with some of the fundamental influences such as speed.21 0.4 0.0 Bearing Life (years) 8.6 1. The relationship can in fact be calculated as below: L = [C/(P + .5 2. We mean that a bearing subjected to vibration will last for less time than a bearing that is not.0 1.2 0. The subject of this course is to discuss the effect of various influences on bearing life. In the rest of this course we discus the use of vibration analysis to determine failure.94 1.70 1.60 3. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 16 . A bearings life from new can be estimated however by using the following equation: L = 16700 (C/P)^3 N where: N = rpm C = bearing life coefficient (obtained from the manufacturer) P = static load on bearing This equation as stated gives estimated life. temperature etc.12 0. load. Here we will show that not only does a bearing create vibration that can be used as an indicator of its health.15 0. and the measurement of the overall vibration level as an indicator of failure.0 0. and we do not mean to confuse this issue with the environments impact on the complexity of vibration spectrum.1. however theses discussions are based on the measurement of the vibration created by the bearing.00006773 x MVF)]^ 3 x (1 6667/RPM) where: L = bearing life P = bearing load F = frequency (cpm) C = load capacity M = mass of vibrating part V = velocity (in/sec) Using this equation examples of life can be shown that illustrate this relationship for a typical motor ball bearing.47 0. and vibration is one of the primary technologies discussed.

although becoming more widely understood is still only seen in specific industries with any great frequency. It has been seen that these factors include :Plant history and culture Criticality of plant or process Operational costs and or cost of down time Cost of maintenance Accessibility of plant or process Economic constraints There are three fundamental types of maintenance procedures. corrective or preventive. Predictive . the types of maintenance practiced on rolling element bearings are.the machinery runs until it breaks or wears out. TYPES OF MAINTENANCE (% of Machines) Plant Type Maintenance Preventive Corrective Predictive Above Combined Nuclear 22 56 8 14 Coal 33 67 Gas/Oil 43 57 5 10 Overall 27 58 This document is protected under copyright. and the practices considered are a matter of education. However. as the age of plants increase the benefits of PDM should be more plainly visible as plant failure rate increases.2. repairs are made or the entire machine is replaced.0 Types of Maintenance Used in Industry The type of maintenance adopted is dependent on several factors.. When you consider that the majority of fossil plant fall within the twenty to forty year age band. · · · Corrective . As shown in Figure 8. Depending on the state of the machine. in industries such as Pulp and Paper and Petrochem. The predominance of PDM in other industries outside of power generation is no different.machines are monitored regularly. decisions are made for maintenance. Preventive .specific time intervals for maintenance are prearranged. history has shown that practices in the most part follow experiences. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 17 . Based on the results. Predictive maintenance (PDM). In the nuclear power plants for example according to a recent EPRI study only about 8% of nuclear plants practice some form of PDM on capital or critical equipment with the other forms of power generation implementing far less PDM. with minor exceptions. it is not surprising that the cultural effects influence the type of maintenance performed. The use of appropriate information leads to determinations of the machine's state of health. based on past experience to minimize risk of on-line failure.

000 52. The actual spread between the least and most expensive maintenance is shown in the following table. gas/oil-fired plants report the highest maintenance costs.300 1.600 108. required labor hours. The highest costs for gas/oil-fired plants are due in most part because they are based on complex and or large machines.Figure 10 Percent of Machines Subject to Different Types of Maintenance 2. However it can be seen that costs are a function of downtime.000 232.275 1. even each plant. averaging $297 per MW-yr. extent of damage etc. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 18 . Maintenance Cost Summary Plant Type Nuclear No.800 $/MW-Year Cost 165 40 179 31 342 274 This document is protected under copyright. only that they have been prepared and therefore some kind of measure can be applied to the savings available through the implementation of specific practices. $82 per MW-yr. replacement parts.1 COST OF MAINTENANCE The actual costs of maintenance are difficult to detail since each industry. 1 2 Coal 1 2 Gas/Oil 1 2 Capacity (MW) 655 2. has its own mode of operation. and for coal-fired plants. Within the utility industry for example. however it is not so important what theses figures are. its own unique costs of labor etc. machine complexity.000 93. The average overhaul costs for nuclear plants are $90 per MW-yr.000 227.678 316 850 Annual Cost ($) 108.

PDM has the most promise. 2. This document is protected under copyright. the cost indicated may be unfairly compared to other industries due to the improved maintenance techniques practiced by many nuclear plants. PDM has potential for timely identification of flaws inherent in the machine design. it has been proven that even with limited resources. Furthermore. but also as a tool to streamline maintenance activity. to a certain degree. assembly and operation in addition to preventing expensive or even catastrophic failures. less obvious benefits of PDM. Although PDM does require investment in equipment and dedicated personnel. benefits can still be realized from prioritization of equipment and asset utilization.2 COMPARISON OF MAINTENANCE TECHNIQUES Comparison of Maintenance Techniques Contributing factors Initial Equipment Investment Prevention of failures After maintenance checkout Part requirements/Readiness Repair Costs Maintenance Period Downtime Corrective Low None None Poor High Time of failure Unscheduled Preventive Low None None Good Medium Preset Scheduled Predictive Moderate Good Good Good Minimized Maximized Fits Scheduled Differences between the various maintenance practices can be shown through the analysis of any one of many real world maintenance histories. is that it is built upon diagnosis which leads to thinking in terms of cause and effect relationships. When considering the pros and cons of each of the maintenance techniques implemented today. the way in which benefits can be realized when PDM techniques are used. records and therefore optics for your program. the nuclear plants seem to have the most detailed failure histories. but even in these cases. One of the primary. not unplanned maintenance.It is important to realize when reviewing data such as this that the figures are highly dependent on the detail of the plant maintenance logs. the costs reflected are based only on machinery overhaul. and this train of thought leads to better paper practices. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 19 . PDM surprisingly may lead to the reduction in overall maintenance costs not only in the cost of maintaining the plant. The following cases cited from actual experience demonstrate the extent and. In some cases the differences are more easily recognized such as in the case for Gulf Oil. For example.

000 to $60. within the last two weeks prior to failure. PDM reduced the number of overhauls from 13 to 6.100160s This document is protected under copyright.000 per year.000 per year (Figure 9a. saving 14 hours of cleaning time per overhaul (Figure 9b). to be on the safe side. PDM cost saving compared to corrective of $ 420 000 per year Figure 11 Maintenance Costs using corrective maintenance Source EPRI report TR . hence. retaining the 2-hour cleaning time (Figure 9c).100160s Figure 12 Maintenance Costs using preventive maintenance Source EPRI report TR .) Based on the data gathered over a period of one year. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 20 . preventive maintenance at four-week intervals was initiated. A 50-psi pressure rise was used as an indicator of removal for overhaul. This more than doubled the overhaul from 6 to 13 times per year but prevented severe plugging. This brought the maintenance cost down from the original $480. it was observed that the plugging pressure was gradually increasing and. The shortest period prior to the last two-week rise was four weeks. The cost and frequency of repairs when the equipment was subject to corrective maintenance was $480.Case history 1 : Comparison of maintenance techniques A heat exchanger that is prone to plugging regularly causes the shutdown of an oil production line (Gulf Oil Canada) with maintenance costs of 16 hours labor for a full cleaning. began to increase at a much faster pace.

To provide an example of what return on investment may be realized. the costs of maintenance can be reduced still further by the extension of maintenance time intervals. maintenance practice etc. The estimated cost of PDM equipment at this plant was $250. EPRI commissioned a study of a 465 MW plant and showed that PDM saved $465. by applying PDM techniques. its age. depending upon the type of plant. state of machinery.000. This document is protected under copyright.100160s Beyond the obvious savings that PDM offers in the direct reduction of machinery maintenance costs due to the early detection of failures. and operational costs estimated at a half a man-year was required for data acquisition and processing with a cost of $75.000/yr .000.Figure 13 Maintenance Costs using predictive maintenance Source EPRI report TR . it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 21 . These savings while not being readily calculable can be substantial. assuming a fault detection probability of 75% .

then emerging technologies gain greater and greater recognition. The voltage is proportional to acceleration.1. and the primary indicators are:Vibration analysis. Contact between the sensor and target is almost always required to obtain a reading except in the use of proximity or displacement sensors. then a new technology is developed. measurement and imaging Acoustic emission. 3. with the introduction of Lasers. but also a degree of knowledge of the fundamental parameters required in order to acquire good quality data. time/frequency domain and demodulation Temperature analysis. The sensors most frequently used are accelerometers. proximeters. or displacement. The crystals develop voltage when strained under the load produced by the accelerometer's spring/mass system in reaction to externally imposed excitation. velocity probes. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 22 . the analysis of oil contaminants Vibration analysis quite uniquely requires not only knowledge of the data analysis techniques. and Fotonic sensors in recent years. Tribology. low frequency audible and high frequency acoustic emission. However the main categories of applied technologies can today be discussed.0 Recommended PDM Diagnostic Techniques As industries experiences with maintenance technologies grows. It is important to have a brief understanding of theses sensors. Each type has its own attributes that allows for a good fit for a specific application. since the incorrect application will adversely effect data quality and your ability to acquire appropriate data for analysis:- Accelerometers The most common forms of accelerometer consists of a piezoelectric crystal. There are three fundamental different types designed for specific applications giving a variety of frequency responses.1 VIBRATION SENSOR TYPES AND MOUNTING EFFECTS 3. mounted and spring-loaded in a metallic retainer.3. An initial start point is to understand the methods employed to collect quality vibration data and to understand some of the limitations with sensors and mounting techniques. but also the data collection quality issues you have to understand in order to implement the approaches discussed. Within this course we define not only the techniques.1 Vibration Sensor Types Most of the sensors employed today sense either acceleration. Connector Retaining Ring Mass Piezoelectric Element Base Connector Preload Stud Mass Base Compressive Figure 14 Figure 14 Types of accelerometers Shear Flex This document is protected under copyright. velocity. It seems no sooner then a definition of maintenance technologies is made . sensitivities and environmental compliance.

accelerometers are used. Note that in figure 11a . Velocity Sensors The most common types of velocity sensors illustrated on the left (compared to the Peizo-Velocity type on the right) are constructed of a stationary coil wound around a guided rod. 3. as they are most commonly known.Accelerometers are by far the most widely used sensor for collection of vibration data and are generally good for most applications within a frequency range of 10’s Hz to 10’s kHz . Steep attenuation of the signal takes place above the 30 kHz natural (resonant) frequency. The response is fairly flat up to 10 kHz and becomes amplified between 10 and 30 kHz. Displacement sensors are almost exclusively found in the utility and petro-chem industries for the monitoring of turbine bearings. Voltage output ranges are also specific to the application and can vary from 10 mV/G up to several volts/G for seismic applications. For general machinery maintenance applications. or Velometers. Again displacement may be derived from an accelerometer signal with double integration. creating changes in the magnetic flux rate that are proportional to velocity.2 Accelerometer Sensor Mounting Effects Mounting the accelerometer on a machine requires specific attention if a clear indication of machine health is to be acquired. 100 mV/G is common with a frequency range of 2Hz to 10 kHz. The most common application for displacement is again for low speed machines were low frequency data qualify is essential. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 23 . the process of integration adversely effects the low frequency quality. The rod responds to forced vibration inputs transmitted through the housing. This document is protected under copyright. The effects of common sensor mounting methods are shown below and their effects on acquired data quality. Special applications outside of this usual range are addressed with special designs and can be used down to a fraction of a Hz and up to the high 10’s kHz. Low speed rollers in paper plants or conveying systems is a common application where frequency response is essential to 0. even though velocity is the most common measurement. since for other applications. These transducers sense changes in impedance or capacitance in the gap separating the sensor's tip from the target surface and convert these changes into voltage. Velocity transducers.1 Hz. with velocity acquired by integrating the signal from the accelerometer. the stud mounted sensor has a natural frequency of about 30 kHz. are applied when low frequency data quality is essential. Figure 15 Displacement Sensors Displacement Sensors Most displacement sensors are of the non contacting type.1. which is proportional to the change of the gap (or displacement).

as shown in Figure 11d may reduce the flat response to about 5 kHz. Although this kind of adhesion results in reductions in the frequency response as compared to ideal case it is useful for most PDM activities . Although the response is still comparable with that of a stud-mounted sensor. In Figure 11c. Soft glue.001 in. In most applications. Adhesive tape may produce radically different responses depending upon tape thickness and adhesive strength. as is apparent from Figure 11e. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 24 . the surface finish and flatness of the mounting surface must be very fine (16 rms. maximum and flat within 0. This document is protected under copyright. accelerometers are frequently temporarily affixed onto the surface with magnets. a stud is not used. the sensor is held onto the surface with beeswax. Cementing an accelerometer may produce reasonable results as long as the cement is hard. Contamination with dirt drastically alters the response characteristics.) to produce the desired effects.The stud-mounted sensor in Figure 11b produces similar response patterns.

Thin film of silicone grease Steel stud Max temp 1000°C (1800°F) Thin film of silicone grease Mica washer Steel stud Max temp 250°C (482°F) Thin layer of bees wax Max temp 40°C (100°F) Figure 11. Piezoelectric Accelerometer Mounting Methods and Examples of Typicalcement (super glue) Responses Frequency Methyl cyanoacrylate cement (super glue) soft glue Steel stud Max temp 80°C (178F) Methyl cyanoacrylate This document is protected under copyright. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 25 .

100 Hz + 4 0 + 3 0 + 2 0 + 1 0 0 -1 0 -2 0 1 .0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 L o g F re q u e n c y (H z ) Figure 16 Summary of common mounting techniques This document is protected under copyright.Thick double sided adhesive disk Double sided adhesive disk Thin double sided adhesive disk Max temp 95°C (200°F) Max temp 150°C (300°F) Hand held probe H a n d P ro b e D u a l R a il M a g n e t F la t M a g n e t M o u n tin g P a d A d h e s iv e M o u n t S tu d M o u n t Sensitivity Deviation (dB) ~ Ref. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 26 .

trending. and can be compared to the effect of driving along a road with a damaged surface. you feel a jolt. We have seen images of badly damaged surfaces. A number of characteristic frequencies are generated by a damaged bearing . We have discussed the failure mechanisms in some detail earlier and it can be seen that all modes of failure have one thing in common: the degradation of the bearing surfaces. max. Imagine you are riding on a roller or ball inside the bearing. yet it is important to realize that the process of failure is of course a gradual one. advances in the state of art of microprocessor and computer technology have brought about substantial refinement in the art of bearing failure diagnoses.same as cage frequency Ball pass with respect to the stationary outer race (BP/0) Ball pass with respect to a rotating inner race (BP/1) Ball rolling about its own axes with rotating inner race (BR) This document is protected under copyright. vibration meters became available. like any other technique. the regularity. it is important to understand the mechanisms that creates theses characteristics. Then each time you hit a flaw in the race. It is important to understand that as a bearing with a damaged surface rotates. This jolt and the regularity of it is at the fundamental basis of vibration based analysis of rolling element bearings. i. The bearing surfaces become visually damaged at a fairly early stage in the bearings life. 900 rpm and are not suitable for most of the vibration analysis techniques indicated for rolling element bearing analysis covered in this course. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 27 . and record keeping. is acceptable for most applications. and should still. there are a large number of people using hand held probes. The mechanism is simple. a method later augmented by the use of stethoscopes.Data quality has shown itself to be only one of the attributes to data collection that is considered at the time of purchase. When we use vibration analysis we commonly refer to time and frequency domain.e. The above summary indicates that whilst the most common technique. and are known as:Ball train (BT) . In the last two decades. the affected signals are tracked until trends develop that are indicative of a substantial change in the health of the monitored rolling element bearings. As time progressed. the use of magnets. Since the detection of rolling element bearing faults using vibration analysis.. Before the onset of the era of high technology. or frequency with which the roller or ball impacts on the defect indicate potential failure and allow us to determine the type of damage that exists. particularly if you are caught short without your high tech. monitoring of failure characteristics relies on the systematic checking of the presence of flaws indicative characteristics. As a rolling element bearing begins to fail. 3. 3. is based on identifying failure related characteristics in data.2 VIBRATION BASED ROLLING ELEMENT BEARING ANALYSIS The diagnostic techniques employed for vibration based monitoring and detection of rolling element bearing faults in the most part rely on the detection of characteristic frequencies that are generated by bearing failure mechanisms. skilled craftsmen could determine the state of a bearing merely by "listening" through a screwdriver pressed against the machine housing. It can be seen that hand held probes are only suitable for slow speed machines. Both methods are still. When indications of bearing deterioration appear. the discrete bearing characteristics grow in amplitude. Regardless of the technique used. be used when unusual noises emanate from a machine.2. but the major emphasis was placed on monitoring noise levels that were supposed to be indicative of the bearing condition. when attributes such as speed of the process are sold as being more important.1 Bearing Failure Characteristics The fact that rolling element bearings emit noise when in distress has been known perhaps since the invention of the bearing.

2/n) FR(O.(BD/PD) cos θ] BP/0 = nFR/2 [1 .5n + 1.2/n) When bearing geometry is not known but the number of balls or rollers can be counted. it is suggested that the approximate equations be used to establish the bearing frequencies of interest. approximated by approximated by approximated by approximated by FR(O.2n .2) FR(O.(BD/PD) cos θ] BP/I = nFR/2 [1 + (BD/PD) cos θ] BR = (FR PD)/2BD [1 .(BD/PD)2 COS2 θ] where BD PD θ n = ball (roller) diameter = pitch diameter = contact angle = number of balls (rollers).Shaft frequency of rotation (FR)..5 .1. The following equations are used to calculate these frequencies BT = FR/2 [1 . All the equations listed above show a direct dependence of the calculated frequency on the frequency of rotation. The following figure illustrates the bearing geometry used in the above equations Figure 17 Ball Bearing Terminology This document is protected under copyright.1.5n . it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 28 .1.2) FR(O.

You will see that some of the terminology is different. The example illustrated is for an SKF 32230. the meshing of a pair of gears generates what is called a gearmesh frequency and is simply the rotational speed of that gear times the number of teeth on that gear. Frequency domain on the other hand provides for the display of the frequency characteristics that make up the time domain signal as previously discussed. Simply.2. This is performed since industry has discovered that frequency related information can help identify the root cause of a machines problems. then simplifying This document is protected under copyright. both time and frequency domain techniques are utilized for rolling element bearing analysis. for example. Both of theses techniques can be used to identify failure data. however the basic bearing geometry information and characteristic frequencies are displayed.· In most cases this method for obtaining bearing defect frequencies is rarely used. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 29 . The analyst must focus on the timing of the events seen in the data in order to ascertain characteristics that indicate failure. in the case of the illustrated SKF Atlas program some 16000 bearings are included 3. Both techniques are characteristics related indicative features in bearing more so than interpreted. It can therefore be seen that if the rate of change of these characteristic frequencies themselves indicated a mechanism of failure. complex methods to visualize the machines operation and both contain all to that machines health. however a more useful technique has been developed that focuses on the the whole machine or at least reduces the data to a point that can more easily be We have discussed the use of FFT’s to reduce or simplify the time domain data to display the rates of change involved in the data set.2 Recommended vibration based analysis techniques As described in the previous section. Such bearing databases contain most common bearings. the use of time domain for data analysis focuses on the raw data as seen if you were to connect an oscilloscope directly to the sensor. or frequencies. using a mathematical technique called Fast Fourier Transformation or FFT. instead the bearing reference numbers are looked up in a bearing database such as shown in the following example.

Such parameters may be: sound. This type of modulation is commonly found in maintenance applications but consider the example below. This is in fact the case. Any parameter which gives an amplitude that varies with time can also be passed through a FFT to identify the frequencies of the amplitude variations. If the time domain signal has one or more frequency components which amplitude varies depending on the interaction of another component. The example below was taken from a large steam turbine running at 3600 rpm. ultra-sound or even electric current. and this technique is called Demodulation. however. Demodulation theory Before we look at any case histories using demodulation we should be clear exactly what is modulation. A signal may be said to be amplitude modulated if the amplitude of that signal is changing over a period of time because of the influence of another signal. Figure 18 Time and frequency domain data showing modulation This document is protected under copyright. then we may say that the one component is amplitude modulating the other. is not limited to vibration analysis. Predictive maintenance. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 30 .the data further prior to display would be useful. The demodulation of acceleration amplitude vibration data is now gaining greater acceptance as a valid predictive maintenance tool for the vibration analyst. The run speed signal is being modulated by a signal at 4 Hz which is probably a foundation resonance.

When we demodulate the above reading we are not interested in the 2 kHz frequency but we are interested in the outer race defect frequency which is: (1000/50*3. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 31 . process and displayed in a simplified form. In vibration terms. The bearing excitation resonance is shown as small. The demodulation process The time waveform of a machine with a bearing in the early stages of deterioration will look like the top plot in figure 16. This document is protected under copyright. demodulation is a way of extracting the rate of occurrence of high frequency resonance’s.F. high frequency pulses sitting on top of the high amplitude.T.07 x run speed).4 Hz. the modulation is at this frequency. The 2 kHz vibration is the resonance of the bearing which is being excited by the bearing outer race frequency (3. In other words the bearing outer race frequency is modulating the bearing resonance frequency. The excitation of the 2 kHz frequency by the bearing defect on the outer race causes the 2 kHz amplitude to be changed as seen in Figure 15.07) Hz = 61. low frequency vibration.Figure 19 Waterfall of frequency domain data showing modulation In figure 19 we see a vibration at 2 kHz which has been modulated slightly more than three times within the time period (50 ms which equates to 1 revolution of the inner race for this example). The demodulation process is based on the extraction of the modulating frequency to produce a time waveform which can be handled by the F. As can be seen from Figure 15.

To give the waveform shown in the lower plot of figure 16. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 32 . Figure 21 Time domain data showing rectification and smoothing This document is protected under copyright.Figure 20 Time domain data showing start of demodulation process The first stage in demodulation is to pass the signal through a high pass filter.

motor operating a belt driven fan.F.T. Figure 22 Illustration of time and frequency domain demodulated data. the carrier wave signal resonance could be coming from any part of the mechanical structure. The signal is NOW passed through the F. the machine structure will have its own resonance.5 to 4 kHz range (typically). Vibration case study 1: AC Motor bearing defect using demodulation Figure 19 shows the signal from the inboard bearing of a 35 H. In short. Resonance sources Since the purpose of demodulation is to extract health related variations in machine resonant frequencies. For vibration readings. To modify the signal so as to be suitable for F. which filter setting etc. the accelerometer which we will use to detect the signal will probably be sitting on top of a magnet which will give a structural resonance in the 1. conversion would give a single spike in the frequency domain at the resonant frequency which we have earlier said is not what we want.T.F. The bearing housing will have its own resonance. it is clear that when taking a demodulated reading we must first decide on were to measure.P. and we get a spike in the frequency domain at the bearing defect frequency.With the time domain signal in this format the F. while this is often the case it is not always so. The 2 upper plots are the time domain signal in two planes over a period of 640 mS. A. we must “envelope” each parcel of energy by first rectifying and then passing the signal through a smoothing R-C (resistance-capacitive) circuit.C. Note that the frequency spectrum shows spikes at 2 kHz and 3 kHz while the time domain plots show an “angel fish” pattern which is classic of a bearing defect. The lower plots show the time domain (left) and frequency domain (right) over a 50 ms period of the lower 640 ms plot. how the measure. Conventional thinking will tell you that the resonance frequency which we are using as the carrier wave is always the resonant frequency of the bearing.F. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 33 . This document is protected under copyright.T.

This leads us to the conclusion that this is the frequency of 2 and/or 3 kHz seen in the spectrum and one or both of these frequencies are the result of impacts and subsequent ring down and they are occurring at the resonant frequency of part of the mechanical structure. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 34 . This shows a detail of the one “angel fish” and the amplitude can be seen to be passing from positive to negative and back again many times during the life of the angel fish .Figure 19 Illustration of data from motor bearing Note also that the lower left portion of the plot is a zoom of the windowed part of the long time record. This document is protected under copyright.i.e. a high frequency oscillation.

Every time one of the bearing balls passes a defect on the outer race. The 2 kHz is the resonant frequency and the bearing defect frequency (outer race) is the modulating frequency. Note that the demodulated spectrum is clean and extremely easy to analyze.001G. This document is protected under copyright. The last spectrum in the waterfall is lower than the previous spectrum due to greasing of the motor bearings which lowered the amplitude at which the impacts caused the bearing to vibrate at resonance. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 35 . The spikes occur at the bearing defect frequency (outer race) with multiple harmonics but there is no sign of the resonant frequency because this high frequency has been removed during its use in the demodulation process. the ball impacts on the defect causing the 2 kHz vibration to suddenly rise and then ring down. This clearly shows the modulation of the 2 kHz frequency while the 3 kHz frequency is static. The frequency range of the spectrum is such that the frequency of the impacts is clearly visible but we do not need to see the resonant frequency.Figure 20 Illustration of waterfall frequency domain data showing modulation Figure 20 shows a time/frequency cascade of the same time interval cropped below 0. Figure 21 shows the demodulated spectrum on the left with waterfall plot on the right above the trend of the defect frequency. The modulation has been calculated to be equal to the bearing outer race defect frequency of the motor inboard bearing.

The motor drives a 600 ton press via vee-belts through a flywheel. Examination of the waveform does not give any form of angel fish pattern but we can see distinct high amplitude spikes at fairly regular intervals with a broad very high frequency band. The time between zero seconds and the first vertical bar is the time for one rev of the shaft (59 MS). Note that the overall swing is almost 20 G’s peak to peak which is excessive for a bearing of this type in this operation and the fault and alert levels have been exceeded. Vibration case study 2 : DC Motor bearing defect using demodulation The time waveform in Figure 23 was taken from the drive end bearing of a 100 HP DC motor running at 1009 rpm. Note that the demodulated spectrum is much cleaner and easier to analyze. oscillating around zero G’s at a fairly low amplitude. Time waveform data for the evaluation of bearing defects should always be collected as acceleration so a special time waveform was defined in the velocity reading for this point. This document is protected under copyright.Figure 21 Waterfall Trend and Spectral plot showing bearing defect Figure 22 Illustration of modulated and demodulated velocity spectrum Figure 22 shows a similar defect on another machine but here the velocity spectrum (left) is displayed beside the demodulated spectrum. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 36 . The reading was taken horizontally in the line of force of the drive belts.

This now tells us that we have a bearing defect on the outer race with significant impacting. but we do still do not know if the bearing is spalled. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 37 .A. This document is protected under copyright. Immediately we see the high amplitude spikes at 5250 cpm with multiple harmonics.Figure 23 Illustration of time domain data from DC motor bearing showing faults The frequency spectrum in Figure 24 is demodulated acceleration using the default high pass filter for the CSI 2120 data collector of 600 Hz. NU220 bearing. The spikes exceed the fault limit significantly and coincide exactly with the generated fault frequencies for the outer race defect frequency of the installed F.G. Do determine the extent of the damage of the bearing we now look to the velocity frequency spectrum.

a spike of this amplitude is considered severe and indicates that the bearing is spalled. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 38 .Figure 24 Illustration of demodulated spectrum showing bearing defect frequency The velocity spectrum below is unusual in that the bearing defect frequency is quite distinct although the amplitude is not what would normally be considered high for a non bearing defect. The bearing was changed with no production loss and no secondary damage to the motor. Figure 25 Illustration of velocity spectrum indicating bearing defect frequency This document is protected under copyright. For bearing damage evaluation. however.

Presses such as this operate in the region of about 6 cycles per minute and require massive flywheels to store the rotational energy for the short period of the hit . These flywheels are typically about 10 or 15 feet diameter and rotating at about 250 rpm and are supported by two taper roller bearings (usually Timken) on a quill shaft which has the main drive shaft mounted inside. stamping presses with a capacity of 5. Note that the duration of the waveform is 1000 MS which allows a view of about four revs of the flywheel. There are large repeatable vibrations every rev of the flywheel with higher frequency perturbations in between. Figure 26 Time domain trace for press flywheel showing bearing damage The illustration above shows the demodulated time waveform data from a damaged flywheel bearing on a Danly 600 ton press. This document is protected under copyright.Vibration case study 3 : Press bearing damage using demodulation In the automotive industry. The drive is via a clutch from the flywheel to the main drive shaft.000 tons or more are in general use.50 tons flywheel weight not being excessive. The case history presented here is typical of a flywheel bearing failure. being about 250 tons for a medium size press so the capacity for dampening the vibration is significant. The demodulated spectrum shows the effect of the FFT on the time waveform. The waveform is recorded after the demodulation circuit so appears to be DC negative. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 39 . The body of the press is also quite massive.

relatively. This indicates that the rollers are damaged and impacting on both races. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 40 . Figure 28 velocity spectrum showing bearing defect on press flywheel The velocity spectrum shows that the rollers are not only marked but have.Figure 27 Demodulated acceleration spectrum showing bearing defect on press flywheel The high frequency effect shows itself as being the ball (roller) spin frequency x 2. deep pitting. This document is protected under copyright.

particularly the use of fragile media. The clearance caused the overhanging flywheel bearing outer race and cone to be tilted on the inner race with the result that every time a roller came into contact with the outer race it “jogged” the flywheel causing a velocity vibration at the outer race frequency. A.C.C. with an sound card input impedance of over 80 kohm so signal quality may be considered to be unaffected. with out the need for tape. yes you can play back a digitized file. that is that you can play back a recording. the resultant waveform may be considered analog. It is worth remembering that in the days before data collectors.N.C. the use of amplitude demodulation. There is one fundamental difference between a recording and a data file. Recorded data has the benefit of being reanalyzed time and time again with different techniques applied. Although tape recording technology has changed a great deal in recent years. to the CSI 2120 accelerometer signal and recording directly to a sound card (Sound Blaster compatible 16 bit) on a lap top P. tape. for example. Not to suggest that lap tops will replace data collectors. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 41 . however you are limited by the data acquisition parameters used at the time of its collection. Apart from the excess clearance there was nothing wrong with the bearing. with the advent of the DAT recorders for example most people tend to have moved away from this technology. Sampling rates of up to 44 kHz (CD quality) with 16 bit resolution give outstanding clarity and a signal to noise ratio of 96 dB. yet of course it has its disadvantage. Using wave audio with demodulation for bearing analysis Most discussion about the use of vibration for bearing analysis immediately brings images of data collectors to mind. frequency range for example. The data shown below was collected from a 125 H.P.so high in fact that for all intents and purposes. Figure 29 demodulated acceleration spectrum obtained from recorded wave audio This document is protected under copyright. tape recording of data was common. but modern laptop PCs have the capability to record and playback time waveform data at very high sampling rates .The value of using demodulated data as well as velocity data was illustrated at one facility which removed a flywheel because of BPOR frequencies in velocity only to find that the bearing had a large clearance. induction motor by connecting a “Tee” B.

it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 42 . to collect wave audio in this way you need to use your laptop PC in the field. However. There is of course one significant draw back.Figure 30 velocity spectrum obtained from wave audio file Figure 31 Time waveform display of wave audio file A comparison of data quality between the above case histories illustrates that the use of wave audio provides for the same diagnostic capabilities as does a data collector. for This document is protected under copyright.

demodulated acceleration should be used . a machine which ramps the speed up and down during data collection) unless you also use a speed trigger. Experience has shown that the only true way of making a severity assessment is to compare the current health of a machine with its own history. being the loss of production.in conjunction with velocity.F. what is acceptable on a small electric motor is not what is OK for a steam turbine. along with other organizations have developed general purpose severity charts for this reason. However saying this. plus by using wave audio. Use your generated fault frequencies just as you would in velocity. 3. The biggest single disadvantage of such charts is the general categories of machinery they are applied to. we can ensure that the same period of time is used for all spectra and time waveform analysis. Do NOT use demodulated acceleration in cases where frequency analysis is inappropriate (for example. and reanalyze your data in different ways. Place the demodulation readings on your route and collect them with your normal route readings. rise with a rise in demodulation spectrum amplitudes as they are both looking at the same frequencies.D. When analyzing exceptions you will probably notice a correlation between the 1-20 kHz H. It is not usually necessary to take demodulated acceleration readings in more than one plane at each bearing as the resonant vibration is omni-directional. the single most important question is whether to pull that piece of equipment off line. and you will find the analysis much easier. this may be an alternative method to obtain the same information. the Rathbone chart is the most successfully used data chart in the absence of more specific information. The vibration institute. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 43 .applications that require a PC in the field. This document is protected under copyright. they are not perfect. However. It is obvious that all machines are not alike. as with more conventional recording. yet with one significant benefit. For this decision to be made correctly. machine history is not always available. The Application of Demodulation in a PDM approach to bearing analysis Whenever you are trying to detect rolling element bearing deterioration.3 Evaluation of Damage Severity Once a bearing or other defect is suspected. so what do we do?. You can record for extended periods of time. However. Set the Fmax in velocity and demodulated acceleration to slightly more than 4 x BPIR to ensure enough defect harmonics are captured for analysis and to give good definition of run speed (and harmonics) and sub-synchronous frequencies.2. It will not be necessary to go to high frequencies in velocity as the bearing resonant frequencies will now be detected by the demodulator. thereby removing the chance of transient effects on only some of the data. an accurate assessment of the severity of the fault must be made. The consequences of an incorrect decision are amongst other things.

The Rathbone chart above is the most commonly used in industry This document is protected under copyright. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 44 .

Other charts exist that are less frequently used. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 45 . applied to a different set of machine types This document is protected under copyright.

nothing beats your own experiences. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 46 . Regardless of the source of the chart. we have discussed the use of a machines own history. GM have developed there own experiences into severity charts that are tailored to the types of machinery they are use to .0 . This document is protected under copyright. there is middle ground.1993 illustrate this data.In the case illustrated above this chart is tailored for the comparison and severity assessment using acceleration amplitudes. well. the following examples for electric motors from GM standard specification V1. and in its absence the use of industry severity charts.

This document is protected under copyright. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 47 .

03 .075 .005 .04 .02 .04 .03 Fmax = 120 kcpm Fmax = 120 kcpm Running speed orders Standard motor . This document is protected under copyright. it could then be said that if the bearing is not hot. We have discussed the increase of bearing temperature close to the failure of a bearing (discounting overpacking etc.finish operations (g’s) Frequency Fmax = 120 kcpm Although more specific to a category of machine.03 .04 .03 . it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 48 .5g Standard motor & special motor .01 .005 0. then it is not close to failure.04 . Other methods of severity assessment are available based on the measurement of PDM related data.) well.01 0.02 Band limited overall amplitude acceptance limits Band 1 .25g Precision motor Fmax = 120 kcpm Running speed orders Precision motor .ulility operations Running speed orders Special motor .semi-finish operations Precision motor Line amplitude acceptance limits .Standard motor Line amplitude acceptance limits Special motor Line amplitude acceptance limits . this data is still very limiting with no machine history.04 . using a knowledge of the failure cycle of a bearing as a guide. however.03 .03 . Let us take a look at the failure cycle in more detail and use the following illustration as a guide.

along with spike energy and high frequency techniques.Figure 32a Bearing Failure Sequence diagram general techniques Stage 1 Over loading. Stage 2 The bearing races become marked and vibration spectrum analysis works well. over heating. It can be seen then that the presence of a characteristic indicator such as the presence of spikes at the defect frequencies in a velocity spectrum. Stage 3 The races become spalled high frequency works well. the temperature will rise. giving good indication by the use of Thermography. or the temperature starts to rise. under lubrication causes Elasto-Hydrodynamic problems. and spectral data will show defect frequencies Stage 4 Close to bearing failure. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 49 . Severity assessment using demodulation and velocity spectrum This document is protected under copyright. then these can be used to time remedial maintenance.

Demodulated acceleration will tell when a bearing is marked or suffering from lube problems but is not a good indicator of bearing damage in its own right so you should use demodulation in conjunction with velocity whenever possible. It is important to note that this rule of thumb includes demodulated acceleration readings and velocity readings.001G) then there will be a 5dB scatter in amplitude. and a l0dB rise equates to a ten fold increase in amplitude. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 50 .Figure 32b Bearing Failure Sequence diagram for the use with demodulated vibration data The most significant aspect of bearing analysis is when do you decide to replace a bearing. If the bearing starts to suffer from under lubrication then the demodulated amplitude will rise by 10 to 15dB without any increase in velocity at the bearing defect frequencies or defect frequency harmonics or sidebands (BDF/H/S) This document is protected under copyright. When a rolling element bearing is in good condition. Note that a 3dB rise in amplitude means that the linear rise is approximately double. if the amplitude is displayed in terms of G dB (re 0. is adequately lubricated. is operating within its design load parameters and is not over heated then there will be no significant spikes in the demodulated acceleration spectrum. The answer is not entirely straight forward as the amplitude will change depending on load and speed. a general rule of thumb is shown in Figure 32. however.

To enable the data collector to collect the signal from the UE2100. (BDF/H/S) now become pronounced. but the effect the impact or other mechanism has on the surface of the metal that then in turn excites the air and then to the mic. however it is adopted as a supporting technique or even primary if the source is difficult to measure with a none contact device. The UE2100 ultra sound gun. which was used for the measurements in this example. if we focus on audible data.p. and is challenged by exactly the same problems. the source is the same. OK. It has been known for years that you can hear a bad bearing. that a none processed spectrum or time waveform contains all machine operational characteristics and not just the one you are looking for. When you consider for a moment the transmission path of the effect to your instrument it becomes quite obvious. particularly at third or fourth harmonics (this may vary depending on application) with an amplitude of less than 0.05 i. This will have the effect of merging the defect spikes into the sidebands so as to cause "shoulders" around the defect frequencies. As the damage becomes more severe and approaches failure then the demodulated acceleration sidebands multiply and grow in width (often as the bearing speed becomes erratic with loss of bearing clearance). however most U/S units do not have any frequency analysis capability. The analyst in this case is looking for exactly the same information as when using vibration data. 3. limiting ourselves significantly. a 1/8” audio connector to BNC cable was used to take the headphones output from the UE2100 to the voltage input of the collector. Figure 33 shows the result of a 1 Heterodyne . However you may not realize it until you listen to a good and bad bearing with the intent on recognizing the differences. such as the spalling of bearing races or the impact of gears etc.s. At this stage there will still be no BDF/H/S in velocity.p. “1heterodynes” the ultra sonic frequencies to the audible range so that we hear the impacts of a bearing defect as they are converted from 33 kHz to between 5 and 8 kHz. If we could demodulate this data using the audible range as a carrier frequency we should be able to see the bearing defect frequencies in the spectrum. At the same time the BDF/H/S in velocity will rise with a typical amplitude of about 0.The poor lubrication will eventually cause microscopic fatigue failure of the races at particular spots. As the fatigued area develops into spalling then the spike will rise to a level of 20dB above the carpet level and will develop sidebands. If the bearing reaches this stage then plans should be made to change the bearing without delay. Most audible analysis is performed using microphones and standard analysis hardware such as a spectrum analyzer or data collector.3 DEMODULATION OF ULTRA SOUND DATA FOR BEARING ANALYSIS. This will result in minor impacting of the roller onto the corner of the fatigued spot which will give demodulated acceleration spikes of 15 to 20dB at the bearing defect frequency (possibly with harmonics). The damage will spread to other parts of the race and rollers causing random frequencies which will cause the carpet level to rise. as we know by now. yet the noise you and the microphone hears is not the source itself.01 i. Ultra sound analysis on the other hand is becoming more popular as an analysis tool. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 51 . Machine related faults are.Conversion of data at one frequency to a different frequency while maintaining its’ relationship to other frequencies This document is protected under copyright. With this kind of analogy it can be seen why acoustic analysis is not widely adopted as a primary form of analysis. That is. We also know that metal impacts create vibration and that this vibration is of the material undergoing the impact. Although audible effects are what seems to make most sense with us humans. The uniquely poor attribute of audio analysis is the nature of the measurement. related to mechanical events in most part. we are. The spikes in velocity.s. Unfortunately this is not the case with noise. The spectrum was set up to demodulate the data with a 1 kHz high pass filter. Therefore the direct measurement of the surface vibration is effected only by the transmission path through the metal to your point of measurement and the quality of the sensor and mounting method you have adopted.

Figure 34 shows this spectrum and a the same spectrum from a similar pump with a good bearing. but dedicated to very high frequencies. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 52 .demodulated spectrum of ultra sound taken on the top bearing of a vertical centrifugal pump with a known defect. Figure 34 Good V’s bad bearing shown using demodulated ultra sound With the ultra sound gun used in this way it becomes nothing more than a different type of vibration transducer. ultra sound measurement showing bearing fault The large spike is the BPOR frequency of the bearing. Figure 33 Demodulated. heterodyned. We have seen many times that the combination of This document is protected under copyright.

3. The appearance of faults distorts the curve shape. It is obvious that the time domain methods of identifying defect frequencies may be used quite separately to the use of frequency domain or demodulated analysis and may have its own application. Figure 35. However older techniques that continue to show results are still in use in industry. Probability Density in Decibels of Normalized Acceleration of a good and bad bearing 3.1 Use of Kurtosis to identify bearing damage In addition to the time waveform techniques discussed. In these cases a purely time domain approach make good sense and keeps the program cost way down. 3. Symmetrical deviation about a vertical line drawn through the center of the normal distribution curve is known as Kurtosis. however there is another family of instruments built around the use of the resonance of the sensor.4. other methods focused on the time domain are used.4 OTHER TIME DOMAIN TECHNIQUES FOR BEARING ANALYSIS We have focused on the use of frequency and time domain techniques used in conjunction in order to identify bearing failure. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 53 . Some investigators proposed to use the change in Kurtosis as an indication of impending bearing failure since it can be mathematically calculated and expressed easily. Shock Pulse or Spike Energy instrumentation is still common place and provides an inexpensive method of PDM. we have seen it applied to the diagnosis of machinery faults.4. a good bearing normally displays a normal Gaussian distribution. We have discussed the use of time domain analysis and even mathematical approaches. This method is based on the plotting of the probability density of a time signal. One such mathematical approach is refereed to as distribution analysis or the recognition of Kurtosis to indicate bearing defects.2 Use of shock pulse monitoring to identify bearing damage In recent years as technology has become more advanced and less expensive. The base usually broadens while the center of the curve peaks out beyond the rounded off peak of the normal distribution. Using Ultra sound as an input to a data collector that can demodulate. Curve B of Figure 35 shows a typical Kurtosis effect. Many organizations cannot afford complex instrumentation yet may use oscilloscopes or PC based data collection technologies.techniques may improve the benefit of their use. to amplify the signals This document is protected under copyright. This is shown by curve A in Figure 35. however there are other techniques adopted that focus entirely on the time domain. clearly provides good diagnostic data for the analysis of rolling element defects.

Although limited in diagnosis. 3. industry applied hardware Band pass filters. The simplest analogy that can be drawn to days technologies that indicates the limitation of these techniques is to consider the spectrum you are now used to seeing displayed in chunks of significant width. This can lead to erroneous decisions regarding the state of the bearing's health in the presence of other sources effecting the signal. The disadvantage of using this technique solely is that it only indicates failure close to failure and is very significantly effected by lubrication. 3. has been used to indicate bearing damage as shown in fig 36 by trending the overall high frequency noise level. and are particularly well suited to quality control applications. generally in the tens or low hundreds of Hz. rms.5. and the hardware is far less expensive. We have also discussed the regularity of ball or roller impacts with those pits generating characteristic frequencies known as bearing defect frequencies. The same effect that creates the defect frequencies also creates high frequency noise and that noise or broad band carpet level is most noticeable above 5 kHz in the early stage of damage and progressively lower and lower in frequency as the damage gets worst. The major disadvantage of this technique lies in its inability to identify the source of spike or peak activity. these techniques still find a place in today’s industry. until eventually the entire spectrum is dominated by broad frequency noise and all discrete frequencies are lost. creating a spectrum that is stepped. Weather you are looking at demodulated or regular spectral data those indicators are at relatively low frequencies. either by using inexpensive band pass filters attached to sound level meters or more expensively by setting an appropriate band on a data collector or spectrum analyzer. we have discussed the generation and growth of pits into spalls. or peak amplitude in the frequency range of that step. This document is protected under copyright. were the focus is accept or reject.5. for these reasons many successful QC applications are in place. and not what is wrong.1 Use of Broad band Frequency domain bearing analysis Prior to the advent of spectrum or FFT technologies. with the amplitude of each step being the average. however the information available for diagnosis is limited as in the case of shock pulse monitoring. Third Octave technologies successfully to the analysis of machinery health. This phenomena.2 High-Frequency Noise As a bearing deteriorates. Clearly a form of PDM is available base on theses techniques.. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 54 . This approach similar in nature to demodulation is arguably more sensitive than direct signal processing and can identify flawed bearings in both early and advanced stages of flaw development. In some respects the use of One Third Octave analysis for quality control of a manufactured machine is superior to time or frequency based analysis in the ease of application and simplicity of information. Octave.emanating from a faulty bearing.5 OTHER FREQUENCY DOMAIN TECHNIQUES FOR BEARING ANALYSIS 3.

There is a useful test that can be performed at the time of proposed removal of a grease lubricated bearing that has shown not be missed. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 55 . An example of a spectrum obtained with microprobe analysis is shown in Figure 37.6 THE USE OF OIL ANALYSIS FOR BEARING DIAGNOSIS In the case of oil-lubricated machines such as most gearboxes. A lot of today’s lubrication systems are equipped with magnets that catch the magnetic wear products. be it gear wear or bearing wear. or the magnet can be periodically pulled and inspected for wear debris. then the cause of the high frequency noise was insufficient lubrication. The debris can be analyzed later using ferrography. 3. As with most techniques that do not lend themselves to recommended first line PDM application this is a good supportive test. that is monitor the high frequency noise level. add grease to the bearing and see what happens to the noise level. A microprobe analysis employing an electron beam microscope is sometimes performed to identify the atomic content of the sample from which the source of the debris can be determined.Figure 36 Trend of high frequency noise for a damaged bearing The above figure illustrates the sudden rise in overall level within a 7 day period. metallic wear of any element. will be carried in the oil. where it will either settle or be caught in a filter as it recirculates. which will give warning when particles are caught. The magnets can be provided either with an external indicator light. a technique that separates and provides a count of magnetic particles. If the noise level was high and returns to a high value quickly after adding the grease then the bearing is definitely damaged. which if your measurement interval were longer would be ineffective. This document is protected under copyright. on the other hand is the noise level reduces and remains reduced.

since it can detect visual anomalies in the oil quality prior to any bearing or other damage having taken place. The indirect benefits come from the fact that a person is on the spot able to pass judgment with minimal training on oil quality and certainly to the level of oil or even absence of oil. but through the use of microprobe analysis to provide diagnostic information. Microprobe Spectrum of Bearing Metal Particulate More common than the analysis of particles directly from a magnet or other catching device is the deliberate sampling of the oil and the analysis of suspended particles. chromium for bearing wear etc. A lot of industries perform PDM using oil analysis as the primary tool and will continue due to the indirect benefits as well as the direct ones. oil analysis was the main stay of PDM. Oil sampling is performed on a regular basis just like route based data collection in vibration programs.Figure 37. Where water contamination is common this test on the spot has saved more drive trains then vibration or thermography combined. The technique relied on not only the trending of particulate count. Trend of oil sample wear elements This document is protected under copyright. Prior to vibration or thermographic analysis. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 56 . Figure 38. such as brass particles indicate bushing wear.

ice. e. within the domain of a less experienced individual. As the screwdriver has migrated to a data collector for collecting vibration spectrum. for example sliding down the banister of your staircase as a child is probably the best reminder."The study of' temperature distribution via infrared image. this form of predictive maintenance is widely adopted and successful. what’s more. We have used the expression Thermographic cameras as an analogy to the migration of screwdriver to data collector. put your hand on it and if it is hot. Like the screwdriver to the ear for vibration. Rates of change may indicate an appropriate time to replacement or overhaul. We call this device an infrared camera and we call the science of its use “Infrared Thermography”. Infrared = The next "section" above visible light in electromagnetic spectrum. then the hand has also been seen to migrate to the Thermographic camera. such as a hot bearing. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 57 . then there probably is something wrong. well look at the two pictures that follow. Temperature in the work place for the analysis of bearing health is also commonly used.g. we know that overpacking causes temperature rise. 3. We know that some objects do not have a lot of heat. which bearing do you think is the hot one? Figure 39 Example of hot V’s cold motor bearings Lets get back to basics and understand temperature measurement a little further."Heat" + graphy . This document is protected under copyright. the most common example is if a bearing sounds “funny”. The use of temperature as a diagnostic technique relies on the use of what is called Infrared Thermography. We know that as the rolling elements and bearing races deteriorate. With a device that could measure infrared radiation you could measure the amount of heat in an object. In grease-packed bearings. Some objects have a lot of heat. These indicators are obvious and may support a vibration based approach very simply.7 THE USE OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS FOR BEARING DIAGNOSIS Practical experience has taught us that temperature is a good indicator of friction. We now need to discuss the technology and its application to PDM. We are all used it the expression “A picture speaks a thousand words”. Thermography = Thermo . Feelings and subjective assessments are now removed and objective evaluation is straightforward and. What is not commonly known is that as an object gets hotter it emits more radiation in the infrared spectrum. Infrared Thermography has been seen to become a larger and larger part of PDM programs and perhaps the simplest to implement. friction increases and more heat is generated.As with other PDM techniques a trend of particulate count or metallic content can provide advanced warning of failure.

3. then.0. Reflectance . held or absorbed by the body. If these assumption hold true. polished aluminum.the amount of energy a body transmits. it does require for an understanding of them.1 Factors that effect the collection of quality thermographic data In order to collect quality thermographic data it is essential that some of the thermodynamic principles are understood and their effect on data quality.the visual optics selected for use Kirchoff Laws provide for E (Emissivity) = A (absorbency) were E = Emissivity R = Reflectance T = Transmittance Although good data collection does not require for a school book approach to be taken to the principles. 100% of the energy being emitted from a body is due to the amount of energy. and that E+ R + T = 1 This document is protected under copyright. For example.the amount of energy a body absorbs Temperature range . It is important to understand and adjust for the relative emissivities of the different materials that you are looking at. Ahsorbance . That there is no energy being transmitted through the object touching another etc. Emissivity or an objects ability to reflect and emit energy is probably the most important aspect to understand if accurate measurement of a bodies temperature is to be taken. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 58 .0 such as. Some surfaces are naturally reflective and therefore have a relatively low emissivity approaching 0. On the other hand some materials are more absorptive in nature and therefore have an emissivity approaching 1.7. Some of the terminology used by thermographers is as follows:: Emissivity . If emissivity is not adjusted for then the temperature reported by the camera will be inaccurate. we assume that the thermographer has seen to it that there is no energy being reflected onto the object being scanned.the amount of energy a body will reflect Transmittance .the rate at which bodies emit radiation relative to a perfect emitter of infrared energy.the range to which the camera is set Visual resolution .

They not only serve to make our target large enough in our image for our eyes to distinguish. Blinders placed too high or too low will obviously restrict the information we can gather at the upper and lower temperature ranges respectively.20°C 1 . it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 59 . This is not to say that emissivity is not an issue. Experienced Based standard Priority I Priority 2 Priority 3 Priority 4 Over 40°C 20 . One good rule of thumb is that for every 10°C rise over the maximum allowable temperature for an object .. it is important we understand why their selection will have a great impact on our outcome.91 .93 In predictive maintenance applications you do not need to be concerned with the actual. The clearer we see the individual component the better we can distinguish the source of the problem.Fortunately industry provides “look up” tables for the most common materials. The importance of high resolution will increase.68 . a knowledge of what your emissivity was set to last time.. leaving your Emissivity at about 0.81 . Visual resolution effects how clearly we look at our puzzle.09 . Heavily weathered aluminum Aluminum foil Roughened aluminum disk Common brick Polished copper Rusted iron Electricians’ black tape .03 . 3. however they are conservative standards and must be used with a significant experience factor. Blinders set too wide will gather more information than is readily comprehensible. examples of the most common are as follows.96 . Blinders set too narrow provide a "tunnel vision" that limits what we will see. but the minimum focusing distances are critical to afford us the opportunity to use the proper perspective. The wrong emissivity can lead to incorrect conclusions as to a machines condition.2 Evaluation of Severity using temperature measurement There are industry standards that can be applied for the assessment of severity of temperature change. as the size of the physical components we inspect continue to decrease. Industrial thermographers are usually only concerned with the delta temperature or how much hotter one object is with respect to another.7.. especially when looking at small or physically confined components.40°C 10 . accurate temperature.10°C This document is protected under copyright. The optics we choose are an important component of our visual resolution.28 . is usually all you need to know (90% of the time. Often when diagnosing a problem we have to distinguish a problem source with two or three possible sources located within a small area. and others can be estimated accurately enough.90 will generally be accurate enough). Chosen temperature ranges and sensitivities employed in an infrared detector act in similar fashion to physical blinders we would place on one's eyes. the life expectancy of that component is halved. Improper temperature ranges and sensitivities will prevent us from "Seeing the Forest for the Trees". The most common cause of problems getting overlooked is due to improper selection of temperature ranges and sensitivities. since the important thing is comparison. or for the other object of the same type.92 .

it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 60 .Thermographic case 1: Spindle bearing over packed with grease The following example illustrates the temperature effects due to the deliberate overpacking of a grease lubricated spindle. Figure 40 Example bearing image 10 minutes after deliberate overpacking with grease Figure 41 Example bearing image 30 minutes after deliberate overpacking with grease This document is protected under copyright.

. It also shows itself by a temperature rise induced by increased friction due to breakdown of the bearing races. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 61 . In this case the root cause for the bearing damage and heat generation was found to be an excessive torque applied to the mounting fixtures. As discussed previously bearing degradation shows itself with a broad high frequency increase in vibration amplitude as indicated in figures 43 and 45. Figure 43 Example spectrum from cool bearing This document is protected under copyright.Figure 42 Example bearing image 90 minutes after deliberate overpacking with grease Thermographic case 2: Over-torqued bearing housing Vibration spectrum are given collected from the hot and cold bearing on the spindle shown in the thermographic image figure 44.

it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 62 .Figure 44 Thermographic image showing location of vibration measurement points Figure 45 Example spectrum from hot bearing This document is protected under copyright.

This may be a complete set of machinery.Can I afford to implement PDM ? Equipment required . since the impact on both direct maintenance and operational costs may be huge. This is not a discussion that should be made in a vacuum. do equipment and or operator hazards exist? This document is protected under copyright.0 WHY PDM? MAINTENANCE SELECTION STRATEGY The appropriate selection of a maintenance strategy is crucial.Do I understand the requirements for equipment and resources? Machine location and environment . preventive maintenance should be considered. If practical. or individual components that operate on rolling element bearings.4.Is there anything about my machines that impact effectiveness or cost ? Information . A machine with a reasonably well predictable failure span can be subjected to preventive maintenance. Input from as many different sources as possible should be welcomed. will it work for me ? To answer this the following questions may be helpful. If not practical.Can I implement PDM at my plant? Cost . the question of whether PDM is practical must be asked. 4. The decision making process can conceptually be simply put as: “If the consequences and cost of failure are acceptable and no other adverse effects result. the equipment can be scheduled for corrective maintenance only”. coupling. and drive.1 CONSIDERATIONS FOR SELECTING THE TYPE OF MAINTENANCE The selection of maintenance strategy and approach is probably one of the largest decisions made by maintenance management. the extent to which the failure is predictable will determine the type of maintenance. The approach to this decision should be full informed and well structured. these are expressed diagramatically in figure 46. Once the machine is identified.1 Useful questions to answer in evaluating the feasibility of PDM In assessing the feasibility of PDM you are trying to answer the question. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 63 .Do I have process in place to collect the information I need for a decision ? The following questions should help answer theses main issues. 4. When the consequences of failure can be tolerated but the cost is unacceptable. Feasibility . such as a pump. transmission. its criticality to plant operation must be established. What does your maintenance history tell you about the expected machinery failure modes? Do you have a good understanding of PDM technologies and the type of failures they can predict? Are the primary failure modes identifiable with current technology? What percentage of the machine expected failures will PDM satisfy? Can the machine be properly prepared for instrumentation? How much data needs to be collected and of what type? Do you understand the equipment and resource requirements for interpreting machine data? Can the machine be subjected to invasive mounting if required? Do machine design attributes make correct sensor mounting unachievable? What are the environmental conditions. the economic aspects of PDM must be evaluated before a decision on the use of PDM is made. The maintenance search sequence starts with a selected piece of equipment.1. When the span between failures is known. The following aspects of the implementation of maintenance technologies should be useful in making a strategic decision. In general there are a number of rules of thumb that can be applied to guide the decision process.

it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 64 .A negative evaluation of any of the above questions would indicate that PDM is not appropriate. Figure 46.2 Useful questions to answer in understanding the costs of PDM This document is protected under copyright.1. Simplified Maintenance Selection Diagram 4.

Experience has shown that the degree to which this practice will be cost effective depends upon the particular plant setup. followed by tapered roller and cylindrical roller bearings. Loss of lubricant and overheating account for approach 25% of all failures. ball bearings are most widely used.? Are technologies in existence that can reduce new equipment costs. an examination of the economic viability of PDM is needed. PDM is practiced by only a small percentage of rolling element bearing operators. This significantly effects the implementation of expensive PDM.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The conclusion that can be drawn after evaluating PDM technologies for the analysis and condition assessment of rolling element bearings is very favorable. but also the financial commitment that is necessary both for implementation and for maintenance of the new strategy. oil lubrication is employed mostly in the larger and more important types of machinery such as turbo machinery in the utility and Petrochem industries. contamination. 5. and suggests the recommendation for implementation in industry. a sufficiently high failure rate and repair activity exists to justify the use of PDM monitoring techniques on machinery supported on rolling element bearings. The combined modes of fatigue spalling. equipment etc. A number of key reminders are worthy of repetition in conclusion : · • Of the different rolling element bearing types. however. You need to answer the question: “Can I afford it?”. if not do you understand the cost of training? Is the expertise available in-house to develop a PDM program? The above set of questions guides you to assess not only pay back. ? Will any existing equipment become overloaded with the new additions? Is the manpower in place sufficient to carry the expected PDM work load? How many machines are to be monitored and does this effectively satisfy your need for PDM? Do you know what equipment is necessary and what it will cost? Is the acquisition time and information achievable realistic to achieve your program goals? Is trained manpower available. These failure modes are usually common to grease-packed bearings. • The majority of the bearings are grease lubricated. and the rest are unexplained. since financial justification is made more difficult. such as networks etc. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 65 . data that has been collected from some industries clearly indicate savings in excess of the initial investment. • • • This document is protected under copyright. What is the cost of machine failure including cost of parts. Poor assembly accounts for 10%. The following questions will be helpful in making this decision. Poor record keeping makes the cost of failures difficult to estimate.Having satisfied the feasibility requirements. transportation and lost production? What is the effect on the work load of a change in maintenance strategy? What new or additional costs will be accrued by manpower. In the industries contacted during the preparation of theses materials and in the reference material utilized . and brinelling account for almost 50% of all failures. corrosion. labor.

The use of Thermography in PDM is indicating very good results and should be incorporated in standard programs. such as the use of demodulation. brinelling. Advanced signal processing techniques. are yielding early indications of failure and should be incorporated into PDM practices. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 66 . • • • • This document is protected under copyright. lubricant starvation. Inaccurate or poorly informed diagnoses caused by faulty data acquisition methods or procedures quickly result in a lack of confidence in any system.• The most common types of rolling element bearing flaws that developed during operation consist of fatigue spalling. Standard approaches covering data acquisition and recording should be developed as soon as practical good practices and record keeping is the key to a successful PDM program. Inexpensive yet limited PDM techniques exists that should not be overlooked for the implementation of PDM on tight budget.

L. W. and D. M. Chatou.Assessing Bearing Condition. P.. R. EPRI 5th Incipient Failure Conference “Demodulation of Time Waveform data” CSI National Users Group 1997 Reeves C.. and J. Badgley. and R. Vinson. Part I. "Vibrational Characteristics of Ball Bearings. Enteract 96 Jim Lancaster Andy Page R Billington Ron Frend Ron Frend Ron Frend “Infrared Trouble shooting” CSI Reliability 96 “Infrared Thermography A basic introduction to Industrial Applications” CSI Reliability 96 “The Application of Expert Systems for Machine Health Monitoring”. “Forcing Frequency identification of Rolling Element Bearings” Sound and Vibrations." Vibrations Darlow. Enteract ‘96 Potential Failure Analysis. R. A powerful tool to enhance your vibration program”. 7 8 9 R Billington R Billington Ron Frend “The Application of Expert Systems for Vibration Based Diagnosis”. Bergren.REFERENCES 1 2 3 4 5 6." Presented at the Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition Gupta. W. "Condition Monitoring and Diagnostics of Rolling Element Bearings by Vibration Analyses. 10 11. "Early Detection of Defects in Rolling Element Bearings. F. it may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Ron Frend Page 67 . J. "Continuous Vibration Signature Analysis Rotating Equipment Monitoring. Schiltz. CSI National Users Group 1995 The Application of Predictive Maintenance in Metal Stamping Plants. Winn. Conover.11 IRD Mechanalysis. Department of Surveillance. 136 Michael Shultz “Infrared.." Electricit6 de France.100160s “IRD Mechanalysis. "Diagnosing Faults in Rolling Element Bearings. Institute of Mining Mechanical and Mining Electrical Engineers Acceleration Amplitude Demodulation. Inc”. K. Wilcock. L. C. British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing “Expert Systems for the Predictive Maintenance Environment”. A. 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 This document is protected under copyright. S. M. Technical Paper No. F. France “Condition Monitoring Guidelines for Rolling Element Bearings” EPRI report TR . L." EPRI report CS-5378." Presented at the Joint ASLE/ASME Lubrication Conference Hamon.

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