Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. and laser range finding.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. which controls the data transfer.1. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. PIR sensors are used in many applications. Dept. In fact. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially.bell & ZIGBEE module. motion detection. The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. of ECE 7 VAST .The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). 3. such as night vision. PIR sensor .

The program is set such that LCD will clear .RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller.PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display. LCD display. of ECE 8 VAST . The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message.2.if the message bit is greater than 16 bit. Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3. Zigbee module and a buzzer .


transmitter section and recei er section are 4.4.C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.1 Dept C 0 .POWE SUPPLY Fig.1.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 11 VAST .2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 12 VAST .3 RECEIVER Dept.


The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors. Dept.3 Volts. In the case of +5 Volt.. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. LCD. It is compressed of three basic parts. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven. A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage. LM 78 5(U5). constitutes a feed back amplifier. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. but is often a separate unit a module. of ECE 14 VAST .3 V.e. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3. we can use fixed regulator ICs i.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller.1. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier.

The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2). 2mF or greater tantalum. or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator. A 47Mf (C13) and . The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. of ECE 15 VAST . with a minimum of external components required. The use of a suitable capacitor will. Acceptable values on generally . do not require any external feed back connections. A 47Mf (C14) and . The output of the IC gives us +12v. The simplicity and case of application is evident. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor. They therefore. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. output (Vo) and a ground terminal.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions. however. and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC.21 geF ceramic disks. in many applications no external components are required. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. . only three terminals are required for this type of generator.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value. As a result.A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. input (Vin).1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. Indeed.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection.25V between the output and Dept.

if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3.3V. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12.3v. of ECE 16 VAST . giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected. Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components.-12 or 6.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals.3V DC voltage. Usually. VREF is 1.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage.25v V = 1.

SELECTION OF R 1 . Use C4 = . We require C2 << C1 .2V. Dept. Vp=12+1. 63A. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1.Campus Automation I= . R2.3 V Then R2 = 33     std. f=5 Hz. C3. C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. Use 47 F standard.72 F.2=13. PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose.1 F std. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std. Hence C=477. std. of ECE 17 VAST .

and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. 5. communication ports. wide availability. extensive collection of application notes. timers/counters. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM.2.5.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus).1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . As li e normal microcontroller. PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. I/O ports. etc). large user base. availability of low cost or free development tools.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. The PIC has number of advanced features. Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word. etc. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. EEPROM. ROM. of ECE 18 VAST . This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus). Dept.

Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Two Capture (16bit/12. Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory). 5. Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar.2. eral Features 5.5nS). of ECE 19 VAST .56)volts.high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). Compare (16 bit/2 nS). and 8k×14 of flash memory. ± 5. Low power consumption (< . Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. PIC 16C77. Power on Reset (POR).3 Key Features Dept. High sink/source current (25mA).6mA typical @3v-4MHz. 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). Indirect.2. Wide operating voltage range (2. instruction cycle (2 nS). Low power. Eight level deep hardware stack. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources). PIC 16C76. Fully static design. relative addressing modes).2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Pulse Width Modules (1 bit). Commercial. Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby).Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions. All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles. industrial and extended temperature ranges. Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). Different types of addressing modes (direct.

PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module.4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. Power saving sleep modes. USART). 5. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. etc.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU. 1 Self programmable under software control. Selectable oscillator options. 3 timers. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory. ALU. Programmable code protection.2. Single 5V. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. 8KB.2.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation. of ECE 2 VAST .2. 5 input/output ports. accumulator. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). 2 CCP modules. Flash program memory (14 bit words). Data memory (bytes) is 368. control unit.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz.

of ECE 21 VAST . The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers). we must delete the old one at that time. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5. 5. Each time we write a new program to the controller. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space.2. The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others.7.2.2. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately). Dept. These RISC structure gives the following advantages.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections.7.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR).1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user. The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable. 5. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). As a result. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. In the PIC microcontrollers.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions.

it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). which gives only 128 addresses. and BANK4). This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. of ECE 22 VAST . 5. The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. these banks may vary. BANK 2.2. BANK 1.7. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. Instead.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1.1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2. RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes. Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words.

bidirectional port.RC-0 to RC-7. 5. of ECE 23 VAST .). PORT D (RD). All write operations are read-modify-write operations.. ´PORT B´ .e.. These ports are used for input/ output interfacing.) 5. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i. The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A. Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins.e. etc. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7). a write to a port implies that the port pins are read. rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump. the value is modified and then written to the port data latch.2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept.8. In this controller.Impedance mode). TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B.1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7.8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports. and PORT E (RE). PORT C (RC). They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A). Therefore. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output. put the corresponding output driver in a High.2. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7). ³PORT C´. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶. (If we want to set PORT A as an input.RD-0 to RD-7). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). PORT B (RB). just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input.

8. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i.2. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. 5. This will end the y y Mismatch condition. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD.change comparison). Four of the PORTB pins. RB7:RB4.. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). The user. of ECE 24 VAST . Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers.e.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset. have an interrupton.e.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). 5. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs.8.e. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression.2. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB.. bidirectional port.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC.change feature. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. in the Interrupt Service Routine. bidirectional port. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. Clear flag bit RBIF.. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM.

8.. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. 5. When the I2C module is enabled. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. these pins will read as µ0¶s. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. In this mode. of ECE 25 VAST . These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. When enabling peripheral functions. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. ZIGBEE etc.8. or with SMBus levels. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). should be avoided. IR. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). XORWF) with TRISC as the destination. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. BCF. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. the input buffers are TTL. even when they are being used as analog inputs. Also.. In this mode. In this mode. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers.2. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. read-modify write instructions (BSF. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i.e. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept. the input buffers are TTL. Bluetooth. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. 5.e. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). When selected for analog input.2. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. 5. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.

The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. such as CRT terminals and personal computers.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. one stop bit & no parity bit. of ECE 26 VAST . Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size. etc. serial EEPROMs. 5.

The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. For this reason.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. during reset. The use of an RCR network. These are given in appendix.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. During normal operation this pin should be high. When reset it is low. of ECE 27 VAST .5 is suggested.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path.2. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event. 5. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept.6. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD. as shown in Fig.5.

13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware). ‡ Dept.5. Small instruction set.3 5. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3.2. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices.2. Program memory is not accessible. Operations and registers are not orthogonal. of ECE 28 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. The PIC requires external clock generator.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation. 5.

Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802. However. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance.4 has been developed by IEEE. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life. electrical meters with in-home-displays. such as wireless light switches with lamps. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications.15. 5. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application. of ECE 29 VAST . ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs.5. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used.15. such as Bluetooth. For such wireless applications.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology.42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). a new standard called IEEE 802. The new standard is also called ZigBee.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards.

and secure networking.15. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. bees around Dept. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. Using this silent. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. lives in a hive that contains a queen. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. 5. Typically. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. 5.3. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". distance. she is able to share information such as the which the connections are wireless. which was used as the basis for a new standard. The survival. provided they are within physical range of one another.4 GHz in digital modes.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today . long battery life. The domestic honeybee. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. success. In addition. a few male drones. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. a colonial insect.3.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . IEEE 802. and thousands of worker bees.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. of ECE 30 VAST . This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. In the ideal scenario. but powerful communication system.

802. As per its main role. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.15. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission.3. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products. the IEEE 802.3.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity.15. the bandwidth it occupies.15. and the IEEE 802. and networking features unique to this protocol.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). As a few examples. not a single technical standard.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members. others are industry standards. 802.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.15. PC peripherals.15.4 radio. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.4 protocol on which it was built. cost-effective. 5. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. of ECE 31 VAST .3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable.4 IEEE 802. industrial communication and wireless technology.15. We will define the frequencies used. The current list of application profiles either published.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5.15. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. ultra-low cost. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.4 Dept.

4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier.15. Most recently.15.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world).15.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth.400-2.15. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802. simple connectivity and battery application in mind.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge.5 Components of the IEEE 802. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States.8MHz. The relationship between IEEE 802. As amended by NIST. In the 2.4 IEEE 802.480 GHz.15. The 802.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations.15. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use. 5.15.4 devices. The 802. 802. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that. and requires the most memory and computing power. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified. It can function as a network coordinator.4. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.405 to 2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate. The ZigBee 1. Dept.15. of ECE 32 VAST . the 2. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802. Home Automation.15. such as IEEE 802.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. was announced 2 November 2007.4(x) and IEEE P1901. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels.4 GHz. The first ZigBee Application Profile. the Smart Energy Profile 2.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.3. At 2.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802.15.4 GHz band.

First. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. general. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less.280 of the Radio Regulations.800 GHz bands. For many people. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. Third. 2. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2.4. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In . since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. which are typically around three seconds. of ECE 33 VAST . as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz.45 GHz. even those that use the ISM frequencies. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. and 5.150. 5. and medical diathermy machines. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation.6 ISM Band The industrial. wireless mesh networking standard.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity.450 GHz bands. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment.450 GHz. scientific and medical purposes other than communications.3. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. IEEE 802.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost. low-power.15. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating. It is generally found in network-edge devices. Second. and 5. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules. However. Dept. microwave ovens. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. 5. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. 915 MHz and 2. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range.138. In the United States of America.3. 5.

the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). such as multi-casting. a router can act as an intermediate router. ZigBee 2007. resulting in long battery life. while Dept. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE). and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. of ECE 34 VAST . stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. passing on data from other devices.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device.3. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. now the current stack release. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library".Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004. contains two stack profiles. it cannot relay data from other devices. for home and light commercial use. It is able to store information about the network. y 5. average power consumption can be very low. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. A ZED requires the least amount of memory. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. ZigBee Pro offers more features.3. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.1%) 5.

In beaconing networks. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. In beaconenabled networks. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. The applications running on those devices work the same. receives an acknowledgment. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. Nodes may sleep between beacons.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. Due to differences in routing options. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. regardless of the stack profile beneath them. Beacon intervals may range from 15. 5. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. and returns to sleep. requiring a more robust power supply. sends a command to the lamp. if not the ZigBee Coordinator. In non-beacon-enabled networks. In most large network instances. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network.36 ms * 214 = 251. However. while others spend most of their time sleeping. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life.36 milliseconds to 15. Dept. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. In general. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. The switch then wakes up.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected.3. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. since it is connected to the mains supply. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. However. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. In this type of network. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. of ECE 35 VAST . the network will be a cluster of clusters.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s.

devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). or half a symbolperiod. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA.3. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once.4 GHz (worldwide). the nodes talk in the same way that people converse. The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. 12. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL). and do not use CSMA. The raw. which by definition do not use CSMA. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. where ch = 11. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band.4 GHz band. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding..4 GHz band. In the 2.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. That is. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. of ECE 36 VAST . The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense.15. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK). over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2. these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time. 5. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule.. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as.11)) MHz. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). Finally. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW). By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth.. Dept.0. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch .. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter)..26.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2. it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream.3.5 5. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. Fig 5. but they are less severe. Fig. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. but the distance was too great between the points. In other words. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together).4 radio.6 As an example.15.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption.3. of ECE 37 VAST . in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B.5. 5. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 . Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept.

y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. of course. >65.3. secondary battery lasts same as master. Although. Can be used indoors and outdoors. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. Furthermore. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second).  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range.15. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. with low latency available. y Very high QoS and very low. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. Default baud rate is 9600bps.000 nodes.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee). The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power. No configuration is required out of the box. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. very long primary battery life. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept. guaranteed latency. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi. 5. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires. of ECE 38 VAST . Thus.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module.

Quite simply. XBee also allows invisible operation. it replaces the serial communication cable.3. Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). pin 2 (transmit).4 PIR Sensor Fig.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig. 5. pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. These are quite attractive specs. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine. This can be very handy.5.5. 5. That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet. of ECE 39 VAST . .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping. The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network.8 Dept.

depending on how the device is calibrated.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. Also.4. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. which is usually a thin sheet. 5. night vision. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. 5. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light. and libraries. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor.5 V. Dept. such as VCRs and DVD players.4. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat).5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. and laser range finding.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous. install. They can be expensive to purchase. motion detection. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. hospitals.4.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. such as night vision. and calibrate as well. 5. Because of these properties.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. In fact. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. and can accept 30-V inputs. and heatseeking missiles. 5. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from.4. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away. 5. of ECE 40 VAST . they also have several disadvantages.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. PIR sensors are used in many applications.

1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F. receiver. of ECE 41 VAST . and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. Terminals. 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0. .1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept.5.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current .28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1. . The driver. and Computers 5. Modems. Battery-Powered Systems.

It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. or electroluminescent. and two polarizing filters. fluorescent. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1.1 Font Dept. fax machines. a cloth. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. 5.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. An LCD is a small low cost display. which is one row of eight characters. and 20x4. for example. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin.6.Campus Automation Fig 5. 16x2. of ECE 42 VAST . This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. laser printers. which may be LED. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. industrial test equipment.

of ECE 43 VAST .2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5.6. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character.6. 5. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept. as they are stored in volatile memory.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on.

RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. Register Select (RS).10 1. Dept. Ground 2. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. µreceive¶ and common ground. CTS. As the name indicates. the data is transmitted serially. Read/Write (R/W). R/W=1: Read 5. The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. The two pins are TXD & RXD. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. The three links provides µtransmit¶. RI. VCC (+3.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. DSR. DTR. 5.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. RS=1: Data 5. of ECE 44 VAST . R/W=0: Write. RS=0: Command. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). and RTS.000bps. There are other lines on this port as RTS.3 to +5V) 3. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links.

Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions.11 5. 5. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is.5.1 Pin out Diagram Fig.7. user data is sent as a time-series of bits. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. of ECE 45 VAST . or character encoding. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232. In addition to the data circuits.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept.

The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. The USART communication is used for transmitting data.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.8. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5.In the receiver side a ZigBee module. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data. of ECE 46 VAST . The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator.8. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side. a PIC and an LCD display are used. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data. The data is send as RS232 protocols.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message.

3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. of ECE 47 VAST . 5. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. Dept. which is Usually a thin sheet.8.


ss=0 Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept.1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize LCD. of ECE 49 VAST .mm=0.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1 FLOWCHART 6.1.TIMER Initialize time hh=0.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept. of ECE 50 VAST .

1. of ECE 51 VAST .2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.

1).h> #include <lcd. if(hh==24) { hh=0.h> unsigned int hh=00. } else { output_bit(pin_b6.1 Transmitter section #include <string.0).h> #include <stdlib.count=1. } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++. of ECE 52 VAST .c> #include <stdio. } Dept.2 Firmware 6. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11

1). printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(10.":%02u".Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++. if(mm==60) { mm=0."%02u". printf(lcd_putc. if(hh==24) { hh=0.hh). mm++. lcd_gotoxy(7. ss=ss+1. if(mm==60) { mm=0. if(ss==60) { ss=0. lcd_gotoxy(5.2). } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy( printf(lcd_putc.2). of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST . } } count=0. hh++.2). Dept.":%02u".

ss=ss+3.1). output_bit(pin_b7. setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8).0). enable_interrupts(GLOBAL). printf(lcd_putc.1)."alarm"). lcd_gotoxy(7. printf(lcd_putc. set_timer1(0xfffe). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1). while(1) { f=getc()."CLOCK"). } } } } count++. putc(f). lcd_gotoxy(7.1). of ECE 54 VAST . delay_ms(30).Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc."CLOCK"). } void main() { char f. lcd_putc('\f'). output_bit(pin_b7. lcd_init().

1).´%c´. printf (lcd_putc. } } } Dept. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶). of ECE 55 VAST . c=getc(). lcd_intit().Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.2. } else { go to l1. i=0.h´ #include<lcd.c> Void main() { Char c. lcd_goto(1. int i=0.2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam.c). l1:while(1) { i++.


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 57 VAST .

2 PCB LA OUT Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7. of ECE 58 VAST .


but the distance was too great between the points. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. simple connectivity and Dept. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. and networking features unique to this protocol.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.4 protocol on which it was built. and the IEEE 802.15.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).15. Routers or Coordinators. the frequency.15. PC peripherals. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example. others are industry standards.4 802. Routers can also be used as End Devices.15. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal.4 radio.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers. Here defined are the frequencies used. 802.15.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.15. As a few examples. the bandwidth it occupies. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason. industrial communication and wireless technology.15.4 was developed with lower data rate. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. of ECE 60 VAST . This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical. the IEEE 802. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices. 802.

Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to).8MHz.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it. of ECE 61 VAST . the 902-928 MHz or the 2.15. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram. the 2.Campus Automation battery application in mind. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.400-2.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.15. Instead of using a reset switch. Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept.4 devices. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. when I need to reset the XBee. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections. 8.

you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to. You should see a screen like the one shown below. If you¶re not sure. of ECE 62 VAST . Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software.

5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. Select ³ZNet 2.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept. of ECE 63 VAST . The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed. click on the ³Read´ button. Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4.

A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. of ECE 64 VAST . 8. If those commands returned the correct information. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. then congratulations. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. and click the ³Write´ button again. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. change the desired settings. The XBee will respond with ³OK´. If any of those commands did not return the correct information.

Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB. of ECE 65 VAST . We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output. The driver. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.5 V. receiver. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. and can accept 30-V inputs. Dept. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply.

5. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. However. for small scale operations. 8. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing.5. grease. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made.Campus Automation 8. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. etc. of ECE 66 VAST .1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. Locating holes.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black. quick drying enamel paint. 8. slants and holes should be traced. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts.5. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. using a thin Dept. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. deciding the diameter of various holes. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations. Preparing the PCB drawing 2.

This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. or IDE. 8. and then the IC¶s are soldered. Depending on the wiring diagram. Dept.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. After drying. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. turpentine or acetone. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. of ECE 67 VAST . the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated.5. the resistors are taken care at first. If etching takes longer. The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. The PCB may then be washed and dried. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals".

build tools and real time debugger. of ECE 68 VAST . which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. a context sensitive C aware editor. debug and document project code. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler. built-in functions and standard C operators. analyze.5. y Dept.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete. This suite includes an IDE for project management. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers.helping developers create...Campus Automation 8.


when the observer is far away from the display. of ECE 70 VAST . Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule. 9. y ZigBee module is very costly. Hardware implementation is simpler.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell. y The bell rings at the end of each hour. Dept.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear.


Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes. of ECE 72 VAST .1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers. y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. y y Dept.

of ECE 73 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept.

Dept. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. of ECE 74 VAST .

of ECE 75 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 76 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 77 VAST .

of ECE 78 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 79 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 80 VAST .

T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. CK: synchronous clock input. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. Dept. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. INT: external interrupt. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. PGD: Serial programming data. PGC: serial programming clock. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. Vpp: programming voltage input. CS: Select control for parallel slave. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). THV: High voltage test mode controlling. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. of ECE 81 VAST . SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



of ECE 86 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 87 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept.

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