Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. PIR sensors are used in many applications. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. which controls the data transfer. motion detection. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. of ECE 7 VAST . In fact. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). and laser range finding.1. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.bell & ZIGBEE module. The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. such as night vision. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. 3. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section. PIR sensor . Dept. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer.

The program is set such that LCD will clear .if the message bit is greater than 16 bit. of ECE 8 VAST . The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message.2.PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display. LCD display. Zigbee module and a buzzer . Dept.RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3.


4.1. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.POWE SUPPLY Fig.1 Dept C 0 .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept. of ECE 11 VAST .

3 RECEIVER Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 12 VAST .


3 Volts. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier. Dept. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. In the case of +5 Volt.3 V. but is often a separate unit a module.e. It is compressed of three basic parts. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3. LM 78 5(U5). LCD..Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. constitutes a feed back amplifier. of ECE 14 VAST . A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage. we can use fixed regulator ICs i. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller.1. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load.

only three terminals are required for this type of generator.25V between the output and Dept. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. do not require any external feed back connections. 2mF or greater tantalum. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2).A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC. A 47Mf (C14) and . The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor. The output of the IC gives us +12v. They therefore. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. output (Vo) and a ground terminal. As a result. and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. however.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value. in many applications no external components are required. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals. The simplicity and case of application is evident. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator.21 geF ceramic disks. with a minimum of external components required. The use of a suitable capacitor will. A 47Mf (C13) and . Acceptable values on generally .1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . Indeed. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. input (Vin). .1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. of ECE 15 VAST .

Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. of ECE 16 VAST . Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components.3v.25v V = 1.3V. giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply. VREF is 1.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3.3V DC voltage.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals.-12 or 6. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3. Usually. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12.

C4 is used for reducing noise at the output.3 V Then R2 = 33     std. C3.2V.Campus Automation I= . PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. Hence C=477. of ECE 17 VAST . C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose.1 F std. We require C2 << C1 . V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1. Vp=12+1.2=13. Use 47 F standard.72 F. SELECTION OF R 1 . f=5 Hz. 63A. std. Dept. R2.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. Use C4 = . Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std.

extensive collection of application notes.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word.2. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. The PIC has number of advanced features. etc). etc. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. large user base. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM. wide availability. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1. 5. EEPROM. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus). The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . timers/counters.5. of ECE 18 VAST . PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. ROM. I/O ports. communication ports.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. Dept. availability of low cost or free development tools. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus). As li e normal microcontroller.

Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. and 8k×14 of flash memory. Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. Compare (16 bit/2 nS).56)volts. Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). PIC 16C76. Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources). Low power. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). eral Features 5. relative addressing modes). Two Capture (16bit/12.high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM.3 Key Features Dept. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby).5nS). Power on Reset (POR).2. Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Different types of addressing modes (direct. 5. Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory). High sink/source current (25mA). PIC 16C77. ± 5. Commercial. Pulse Width Modules (1 bit).Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions.6mA typical @3v-4MHz. Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. industrial and extended temperature ranges. instruction cycle (2 nS). 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). Eight level deep hardware stack. WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). Low power consumption (< . of ECE 19 VAST . All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles.2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Wide operating voltage range (2. Indirect. Fully static design.2.

accumulator. 5 input/output ports. Single 5V. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. 1 Self programmable under software control. of ECE 2 VAST .4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. Data memory (bytes) is 368. 2 CCP modules. 3 timers. Flash program memory (14 bit words). Selectable oscillator options. USART).2.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory. Programmable code protection. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. control unit. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). ALU. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5. 8KB.2.2. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. 5. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP. etc. Power saving sleep modes.

Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. These RISC structure gives the following advantages. The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable.1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR). The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution.2. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. As a result. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. In the PIC microcontrollers. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately). RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers). 5.2. Each time we write a new program to the controller.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions. The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple.7. of ECE 21 VAST . 5. we must delete the old one at that time. Dept.7.2. y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others.

A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write).2. of ECE 22 VAST . The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. Instead.1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s).3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). these banks may vary. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes. The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept.7. RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2. There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. BANK 1. BANK 2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. and BANK4). which gives only 128 addresses. The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. 5. it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5.

Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer.2. and PORT E (RE). The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Therefore.RC-0 to RC-7. PORT C (RC). In this controller. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. put the corresponding output driver in a High. ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7).8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read.. of ECE 23 VAST . just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶. They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A). TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B. These ports are used for input/ output interfacing. ´PORT B´ .e.2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch.Impedance mode). PORT D (RD). just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.). Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input. 5. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins. the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations.) 5. (If we want to set PORT A as an input. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump.8.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7.1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide.RD-0 to RD-7). The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A.. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. bidirectional port. PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5.e. All write operations are read-modify-write operations. ³PORT C´. etc. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.2. PORT B (RB).

Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. 5. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators.. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin)..change feature.e.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature.e. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. in the Interrupt Service Routine. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). of ECE 24 VAST . bidirectional port. The user. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. Clear flag bit RBIF. This will end the y y Mismatch condition. bidirectional port. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. Four of the PORTB pins. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i.change comparison). The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature.. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB. RB7:RB4. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins.e. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers.8. have an interrupton.2. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. 5. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i.8. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups.2.

.e. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). read-modify write instructions (BSF. these pins will read as µ0¶s. the input buffers are TTL. BCF. When the I2C module is enabled. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). In this mode. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. of ECE 25 VAST . PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels.. should be avoided. even when they are being used as analog inputs.e. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. IR. 5.8. In this mode. In this mode. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled. the input buffers are TTL. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i.8. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. 5. When enabling peripheral functions. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Also. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. When selected for analog input.2. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin.2. Bluetooth.2. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i. ZIGBEE etc. or with SMBus levels. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices.

etc. of ECE 26 VAST . 5. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices. The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. serial EEPROMs. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. such as CRT terminals and personal computers.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit.2. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits. one stop bit & no parity bit.

Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event.6. The use of an RCR network.5. as shown in Fig. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. When reset it is low.5 is suggested.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. These are given in appendix. During normal operation this pin should be high. during reset. of ECE 27 VAST . 5.2. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. For this reason.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path.

Small instruction set. ‡ Dept.2. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices. 5.5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware). The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3. of ECE 28 VAST . Program memory is not accessible.2. The PIC requires external clock generator.3 5. Operations and registers are not orthogonal.

The new standard is also called ZigBee. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. For such wireless applications. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life. electrical meters with in-home-displays. 5. a new standard called IEEE 802. of ECE 29 VAST . up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept.15. such as Bluetooth. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small.5.42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs).11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. However. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards. such as wireless light switches with lamps.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance.15.4 has been developed by IEEE.

preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . success.3. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development. and secure networking. provided they are within physical range of one another. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today . The survival. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". Using this silent. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. In the ideal scenario.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. and thousands of worker which the connections are wireless.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. Typically. which was used as the basis for a new standard.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. a few male drones. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. IEEE 802. distance. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems.3. of ECE 30 VAST .15. but powerful communication system. lives in a hive that contains a queen. long battery life. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. 5. she is able to share information such as the location. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. bees around Dept. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. The domestic honeybee.4 GHz in digital modes. a colonial insect. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. 5. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. In addition.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace .

and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products. As a few examples. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.4 IEEE 802. industrial communication and wireless technology. the bandwidth it occupies. the IEEE 802. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.4 protocol on which it was built.15. cost-effective. The current list of application profiles either published. 5.15. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.3.15. As per its main role.4 Dept. others are industry standards. 802. and the IEEE 802. of ECE 31 VAST . not a single technical standard.15. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).15.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5. 802. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. We will define the frequencies used. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. PC peripherals. and networking features unique to this protocol.15.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity.4 radio. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee. ultra-low cost.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.15. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard.3.

At 2. and requires the most memory and computing power. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.4 GHz band. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY. The ZigBee 1.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard. It can function as a network coordinator. the 2.15. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance. simple connectivity and battery application in mind.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types.480 GHz. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified.4 IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802. 5.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels.15. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth. As amended by NIST. The 802.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge. was announced 2 November 2007. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802.15. of ECE 32 VAST .11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance.15.15. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world).15. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.400-2. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier.3. Most recently.5 Components of the IEEE 802. The 802.15. Home Automation.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. the Smart Energy Profile 2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2.8MHz.405 to 2.4(x) and IEEE P1901. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use. In the 2. The relationship between IEEE 802.15.4.4 GHz. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that. Dept. The first ZigBee Application Profile.15. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007. such as IEEE 802.4 devices. 802.

these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. even those that use the ISM frequencies.800 GHz bands. For many people. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. and medical diathermy machines.280 of the Radio Regulations.3. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. In the United States of America.15. Third. wireless mesh networking standard. Dept. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. First. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency. 5. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. scientific and medical purposes other than communications.450 GHz bands. low-power. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. and 5. Second. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity.450 GHz. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less.150. IEEE 802.6 ISM Band The industrial. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In . 5.4. microwave ovens. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications.45 GHz.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. of ECE 33 VAST . in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz.138. which are typically around three seconds. 2. and 5. However. It is generally found in network-edge devices. 915 MHz and 2.3. 5. general. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost.

It is able to store information about the network.3. ZigBee Pro offers more features. ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router).8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro).1%) 5. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library".3. average power consumption can be very low. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. while Dept. A ZED requires the least amount of memory. y 5. of ECE 34 VAST . ZigBee 2007. for home and light commercial use. stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). it cannot relay data from other devices.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE). a router can act as an intermediate router. resulting in long battery life. contains two stack profiles. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0. such as multi-casting. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. now the current stack release.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time. passing on data from other devices. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks.

5. sends a command to the lamp. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. However. since it is connected to the mains supply. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. of ECE 35 VAST . thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network.36 milliseconds to 15. In general. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. Nodes may sleep between beacons. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. regardless of the stack profile beneath them. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. The applications running on those devices work the same. and returns to sleep. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. while others spend most of their time sleeping. In this type of network.36 ms * 214 = 251. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. Beacon intervals may range from 15. Due to differences in routing options.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. In beaconing networks. the network will be a cluster of clusters. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. However. requiring a more robust power supply. In beaconenabled networks. The switch then wakes up. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing.3. In non-beacon-enabled networks. receives an acknowledgment. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15). In most large network instances. Dept. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. if not the ZigBee Coordinator. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks.

Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time. The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK.. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. Dept. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch . Finally. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse.4 GHz band.15.0.4 GHz band. with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth. 12. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. of ECE 36 VAST . The raw. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. In the 2. which by definition do not use CSMA. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW)..4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard.11)) MHz. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. 5. these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems..4 GHz (worldwide). the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL). The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY).26. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK). it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. That is. and do not use CSMA.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. or half a symbolperiod. where ch = 11.. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit.. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter).3. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period.

4 radio. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination.5. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept. Fig.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream. but they are less severe.5 5. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together). In other words.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption.3.6 As an example. of ECE 37 VAST . but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. Fig 5.15. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. but the distance was too great between the points.3.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 . Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. 5.

y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. guaranteed latency. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802. Thus. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee). y Very high QoS and very low. Default baud rate is 9600bps.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second).  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. of course. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default. Furthermore. >65. 5. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept. with low latency available. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module.3. Can be used indoors and outdoors. secondary battery lasts same as master. Although. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks.15. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. very long primary battery life. of ECE 38 VAST . No configuration is required out of the box. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power.000 nodes.

of ECE 39 VAST . .8 Dept.3. pin 2 (transmit). That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet. These are quite attractive specs. XBee also allows invisible operation. This can be very handy. Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features. 5.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4. The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. 5. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine. pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. Quite simply.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). it replaces the serial communication cable.4 PIR Sensor Fig.5.5.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig.

PIR sensors are used in many applications. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). Because of these properties.4. and laser range finding. 5.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. hospitals. depending on how the device is calibrated. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. such as VCRs and DVD players. and libraries. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. They can be expensive to purchase. such as night vision. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away. 5. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding. In fact.4.4. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. 5. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from. 5.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor.4. motion detection. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. and can accept 30-V inputs. and heatseeking missiles.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. install. of ECE 40 VAST . PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. Also. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. night vision. they also have several disadvantages.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous. which is usually a thin sheet.5 V. Dept. 5. and calibrate as well. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light.

 Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. Terminals. receiver. and Computers 5. 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current . The driver. of ECE 41 VAST . . .5.1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept. Modems.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F. Battery-Powered Systems.28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1.

for example. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. 5.1 Font Dept.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. laser printers. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction.6. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins.Campus Automation Fig 5. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. which is one row of eight characters. fax machines. a cloth. fluorescent. of ECE 42 VAST . or electroluminescent. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). industrial test equipment. An LCD is a small low cost display. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. which may be LED. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. and 20x4. and two polarizing filters. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. 16x2. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters.6. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character. of ECE 43 VAST .6. as they are stored in volatile memory. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept. 5. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters.

this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. Register Select (RS). The three links provides µtransmit¶. As the name indicates. µreceive¶ and common ground. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20. RI. DSR. CTS. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. Dept. RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. The two pins are TXD & RXD. Ground 2.10 1. and RTS. the data is transmitted serially. of ECE 44 VAST . The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). R/W=0: Write. There are other lines on this port as RTS. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4. VCC (+3. The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. Read/Write (R/W). R/W=1: Read 5. DTR.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. RS=0: Command. 5. RS=1: Data 5.000bps.3 to +5V) 3.

5.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. user data is sent as a time-series of bits. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits.5. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. or character encoding. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream.11 5. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. In addition to the data circuits. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse.1 Pin out Diagram Fig. of ECE 45 VAST .7.

Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept.8.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. a PIC and an LCD display are used. The USART communication is used for transmitting data.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5.8. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data.In the receiver side a ZigBee module. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data. The data is send as RS232 protocols. 5. of ECE 46 VAST .

As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. of ECE 47 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. Dept.8. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. which is Usually a thin sheet. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . 5.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm.


of ECE 49 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1.1 FLOWCHART Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Initialize time hh=0.1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize LCD.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept. of ECE 50 VAST .

2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1. of ECE 51 VAST . of ECE 52 VAST . if(hh==24) { hh=0.c> #include <stdio.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1 Transmitter section #include <string.count=1. } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++. } else { output_bit(pin_b6. } Dept.h> unsigned int hh=00.0).2 Firmware 6.2.1).h> #include <stdlib. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.h> #include <lcd.

":%02u".2).1). } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7.hh). lcd_gotoxy(5. printf( if(hh==24) { hh=0. mm++. if(ss==60) { ss=0.Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++. ss=ss+1. printf( if(mm==60) { mm=0. of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST ."%02u". if(mm==60) { mm=0.":%02u".2). lcd_gotoxy(10. } } count=0. hh++. printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(7.2). Dept.

delay_ms(30)."CLOCK"). lcd_gotoxy(7.0). output_bit(pin_b7. lcd_init()."alarm")."CLOCK"). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. } void main() { char f. printf(lcd_putc. set_timer1(0xfffe). lcd_gotoxy(7. of ECE 54 VAST . setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8). printf(lcd_putc. lcd_putc('\f').1).Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc. enable_interrupts(GLOBAL). putc(f). ss=ss+3. output_bit(pin_b7. while(1) { f=getc().1). } } } } count++.1). enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1).

lcd_intit(). c=getc().h´ #include<lcd. of ECE 55 VAST .2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. } } } Dept. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶).1). int i=0. i=0. } else { go to l1.´%c´.c> Void main() { Char c. l1:while(1) { i++.2.c). printf (lcd_putc. lcd_goto(1.


1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7. of ECE 57 VAST .

of ECE 58 VAST .2 PCB LA OUT Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.


Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission.4 protocol on which it was built. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. 802. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. of ECE 60 VAST . 802. industrial communication and wireless technology.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers. Routers can also be used as End Devices. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal.15. but the distance was too great between the points.4 radio. the bandwidth it occupies. As a few examples. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. and the IEEE 802.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical.15. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. the IEEE 802. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. Routers or Coordinators.4 802. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.4 was developed with lower data rate. others are industry standards.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). the frequency.15.15. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. Here defined are the frequencies used. simple connectivity and Dept.15. and networking features unique to this protocol.15.15. PC peripherals.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.

400-2.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2.8MHz. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram.4 devices. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.15. the 2. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. when I need to reset the XBee. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to).15. of ECE 61 VAST . While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept.Campus Automation battery application in mind. 8. Instead of using a reset switch. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. of ECE 62 VAST . If you¶re not sure. you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. You should see a screen like the one shown below. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to.

It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. click on the ³Read´ button. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees.5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. Select ³ZNet 2. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. of ECE 63 VAST . Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee.

of ECE 64 VAST . y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. change the desired settings. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. If those commands returned the correct information. then congratulations. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. The XBee will respond with ³OK´.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. and click the ³Write´ button again. If any of those commands did not return the correct information. 8. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept.

The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below. and can accept 30-V inputs.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. of ECE 65 VAST . and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. The driver. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. Dept.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first.5 V. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. receiver.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output.

5. grease.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. slants and holes should be traced.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing. deciding the diameter of various holes.5. Locating holes. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired. for small scale operations. quick drying enamel paint.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper.5. etc. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black. using a thin Dept. 8.Campus Automation 8. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. of ECE 66 VAST . There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations. However. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. 8. Preparing the PCB drawing 2.

It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint. and then the IC¶s are soldered. Dept. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. If etching takes longer.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. Depending on the wiring diagram.5. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). or IDE. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. turpentine or acetone. the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. the resistors are taken care at first. This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. 8. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. of ECE 67 VAST . It is called an Integrated Development Environment. The PCB may then be washed and dried. After drying. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching.

which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. debug and document project code. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. of ECE 68 VAST . integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler... built-in functions and standard C operators. build tools and real time debugger.5. y Dept. a context sensitive C aware editor. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers.helping developers create.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete.Campus Automation 8. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another. This suite includes an IDE for project management. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers. analyze.


y ZigBee module is very costly. when the observer is far away from the display.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule. 9. y The bell rings at the end of each hour. Dept. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear. of ECE 70 VAST .1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller. Hardware implementation is simpler.


y y Dept. of ECE 72 VAST . y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers.1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes.

of ECE 73 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept.

Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. of ECE 74 VAST . It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy. Dept.

of ECE 75 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept.

of ECE 76 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 77 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 78 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 79 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 80 VAST .

INT: external interrupt. TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. THV: High voltage test mode controlling. Vpp: programming voltage input. PGC: serial programming clock. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. CS: Select control for parallel slave. of ECE 81 VAST . CK: synchronous clock input. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. PGD: Serial programming data. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 86 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept. of ECE 87 VAST .

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