Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. which controls the data transfer.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. of ECE 7 VAST . and laser range finding. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially.bell & ZIGBEE module. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. Dept. In fact. such as night vision. motion detection. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). PIR sensors are used in many applications. 3. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock .1. PIR sensor .

of ECE 8 VAST .2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3. Zigbee module and a buzzer . Dept.PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display. The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message.RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller. LCD display.if the message bit is greater than 16 bit. The program is set such that LCD will clear .


4.POWE SUPPLY Fig.C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.1 Dept C 0 .1. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.

2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 11 VAST .

3 RECEIVER Dept. of ECE 12 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.


3 Volts. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. we can use fixed regulator ICs i. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. Dept. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3.3 V. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors.1. A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3. constitutes a feed back amplifier.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature.e. It is compressed of three basic parts. LCD.. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. In the case of +5 Volt. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven. LM 78 5(U5). but is often a separate unit a module. of ECE 14 VAST . The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit.

As a result. The use of a suitable capacitor will. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC. 2mF or greater tantalum.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals. with a minimum of external components required. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current.25V between the output and Dept. A 47Mf (C14) and . The output of the IC gives us +12v. The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. A 47Mf (C13) and . The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. The simplicity and case of application is evident.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. Indeed. input (Vin).21 geF ceramic disks. only three terminals are required for this type of generator. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. of ECE 15 VAST . output (Vo) and a ground terminal. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2). or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . .A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose. in many applications no external components are required.1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. do not require any external feed back connections. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions. Acceptable values on generally . however. and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator. They therefore.

OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below. Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals. VREF is 1.3v. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply.-12 or 6.3V. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3.25v V = 1. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary. of ECE 16 VAST . SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components.3V DC voltage. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. Usually.

V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3.Campus Automation I= .3 V Then R2 = 33     std. R2.2V. Dept.2=13. f=5 Hz. of ECE 17 VAST . C3. SELECTION OF R 1 . std. Use 47 F standard. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std. C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose.1 F std. PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. 63A. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std. Hence C=477. Use C4 = . We require C2 << C1 .72 F. Vp=12+1.

This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus).1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. I/O ports. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . Dept. availability of low cost or free development tools. extensive collection of application notes.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. As li e normal microcontroller. ROM.2. PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1.5. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. large user base. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus). etc). of ECE 18 VAST . communication ports.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. EEPROM. 5. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. etc. wide availability. timers/counters. The PIC has number of advanced features. Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM.

Low power. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. eral Features 5. Compare (16 bit/2 nS). Fully static design. Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. relative addressing modes). PIC 16C76. Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). High sink/source current (25mA). 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). Indirect. 5. WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory). Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. Commercial. Eight level deep hardware stack. ± 5.2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar.3 Key Features Dept. Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources). 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). Wide operating voltage range (2. industrial and extended temperature ranges. PIC 16C77. Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. Two Capture (16bit/12. and 8k×14 of flash memory. Different types of addressing modes (direct.2.high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz).6mA typical @3v-4MHz. Pulse Width Modules (1 bit). Low power consumption (< . All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions.5nS). instruction cycle (2 nS). Power on Reset (POR).2.56)volts. of ECE 19 VAST .

2. 2 CCP modules. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. control unit. Flash program memory (14 bit words).DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation. ALU.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz. Single 5V. Selectable oscillator options. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. Programmable code protection.4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). 3 timers. 5. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept. USART). A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. 5 input/output ports. Power saving sleep modes. accumulator. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory. 8KB.2. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5. Data memory (bytes) is 368.2. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP. etc. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU. 1 Self programmable under software control. of ECE 2 VAST .

2. Each time we write a new program to the controller. we must delete the old one at that time. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers). Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one. These RISC structure gives the following advantages. 5. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed.7.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR). The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. Dept. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions. of ECE 21 VAST .2. As a result. In the PIC microcontrollers. The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable.2. y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others.1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately). this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose.7.

Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept.7. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes. BANK 2. these banks may vary. and BANK4). The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2. Instead. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. BANK 1.1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address. Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. of ECE 22 VAST . A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). which gives only 128 addresses. it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers.2. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK .

The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. bidirectional port. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). and PORT E (RE). They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A).. ´PORT B´ . The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output.2. Therefore.RD-0 to RD-7).Impedance mode).1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide.e.RC-0 to RC-7.2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional.) 5. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.2. PORT D (RD). ³PORT C´. 5. put the corresponding output driver in a High.e.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer. TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7). rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports.. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶. (If we want to set PORT A as an input. In this controller. PORT B (RB). whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All write operations are read-modify-write operations.8.). etc. of ECE 23 VAST . the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. PORT C (RC). ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7). These ports are used for input/ output interfacing. Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input. The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read. Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin.

5. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept. RB7:RB4.8.change feature.8. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up.e. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. This will end the y y Mismatch condition.e. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. of ECE 24 VAST . The corresponding data direction register is TRISC.. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. 5. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep.. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).change comparison). Clear flag bit RBIF. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). The corresponding data direction register is TRISB.. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD.e. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). Four of the PORTB pins.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). in the Interrupt Service Routine. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. bidirectional port. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset. bidirectional port.2. have an interrupton. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. The user. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB.2.

PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. these pins will read as µ0¶s. the input buffers are TTL. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. 5. When the I2C module is enabled.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. read-modify write instructions (BSF. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. or with SMBus levels. the input buffers are TTL. should be avoided.2. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules.8.e. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).2. IR. When enabling peripheral functions. Also. 5. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. When selected for analog input.. In this mode. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination.8. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). of ECE 25 VAST .. BCF. In this mode. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. In this mode. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data.2. ZIGBEE etc. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs.e. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. Bluetooth. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). even when they are being used as analog inputs. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs.

The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. one stop bit & no parity bit. etc. 5. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. such as CRT terminals and personal computers. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices. serial EEPROMs. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. of ECE 26 VAST . such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size.

The use of an RCR network.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD. of ECE 27 VAST . When reset it is low. These are given in appendix. 5. during reset.5 is suggested. During normal operation this pin should be high. For this reason. as shown in Fig. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event.5.2. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept.6.

5. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3. Operations and registers are not orthogonal. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware). ‡ Dept.2.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator.3 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. of ECE 28 VAST . Program memory is not accessible. 5. The PIC requires external clock generator.2. Small instruction set.

The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications. of ECE 29 VAST . ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802. The new standard is also called ZigBee. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. a new standard called IEEE 802. However. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life.15. For such wireless applications. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms. electrical meters with in-home-displays. 5. such as Bluetooth.5.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance.15. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards.42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs).4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used.4 has been developed by IEEE. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. such as wireless light switches with lamps.

of ECE 30 VAST .2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. distance. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. The survival. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. In the ideal scenario. Typically. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle.15.3. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. Using this silent. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. 5. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. she is able to share information such as the location. and secure networking. and thousands of worker bees.4 GHz in digital modes. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. IEEE 802.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . 5. a few male drones. long battery life. lives in a hive that contains a queen. but powerful communication system. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. The domestic honeybee. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. In addition.3. bees around Dept. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today .in which the connections are wireless. provided they are within physical range of one another. which was used as the basis for a new standard.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". a colonial insect. success.

3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable. 802. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members. of ECE 31 VAST .11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. cost-effective.4 Dept. PC peripherals. As a few examples.3. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. As per its main role.4 IEEE 802. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1. industrial communication and wireless technology.15. and the IEEE 802.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5.4 protocol on which it was built. not a single technical standard.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. ultra-low cost.3. the bandwidth it occupies.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. 802. others are industry standards.4 radio.15. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity.15. and networking features unique to this protocol. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. We will define the frequencies used. The current list of application profiles either published. the IEEE 802.15. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802.15. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee.15.15. 5.

The 802. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.4 GHz. At 2.4 GHz band.15.15. Dept. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use.15.5 Components of the IEEE 802. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world).4.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. such as IEEE 802. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY.15.15. was announced 2 November 2007.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. simple connectivity and battery application in mind.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance.400-2. Most recently.480 GHz.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802.15. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN.4 IEEE 802.15.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802. In the 2. The relationship between IEEE 802.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge. the Smart Energy Profile 2. The 802. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States.3. As amended by NIST. 5. the 902-928 MHz or the 2. It can function as a network coordinator. 802.15. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels.405 to 2. and requires the most memory and computing power. Home Automation. The first ZigBee Application Profile. the 2.4 devices. of ECE 32 VAST .15. The ZigBee 1.4(x) and IEEE P1901.8MHz.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth.15.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that.

The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries.4. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity.6 ISM Band The industrial. and medical diathermy machines. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. 5. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. microwave ovens.150. However. which are typically around three seconds.3. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays.138. Second. even those that use the ISM frequencies. and 5.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost.3. Third. 2. 915 MHz and 2.15. general. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. wireless mesh networking standard. Dept. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating.45 GHz. and 5. IEEE 802. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range. low-power. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation. scientific and medical purposes other than communications.280 of the Radio Regulations. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In .450 GHz bands. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. In the United States of America. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. 5.800 GHz bands. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules.450 GHz. It is generally found in network-edge devices. For many people. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. 5. of ECE 33 VAST . First. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands.

the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. It is able to store information about the network. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. ZigBee Pro offers more features. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE). ZigBee 2007. average power consumption can be very low. a router can act as an intermediate router. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0. y 5.3. stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time. now the current stack release.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). A ZED requires the least amount of memory.1%) 5. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. contains two stack profiles. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. it cannot relay data from other devices. such as multi-casting.3. while Dept. passing on data from other devices. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library". The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). resulting in long battery life. of ECE 34 VAST . for home and light commercial use.

while others spend most of their time sleeping. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. Dept. of ECE 35 VAST . if not the ZigBee Coordinator. In beaconenabled networks. sends a command to the lamp. In beaconing networks.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. and returns to sleep.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash.36 ms * 214 = 251. The switch then wakes up. Beacon intervals may range from 15. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. In general. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. However. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15).65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. Due to differences in routing options.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. In most large network instances. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. receives an acknowledgment.3.36 milliseconds to 15. 5. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. since it is connected to the mains supply. In non-beacon-enabled networks. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. However. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. In this type of network. regardless of the stack profile beneath them. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. requiring a more robust power supply. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. The applications running on those devices work the same. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. Nodes may sleep between beacons. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. the network will be a cluster of clusters.

although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL). and do not use CSMA.. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). Dept. with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter). Finally.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2..3. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band. of ECE 36 VAST . it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time.. That is. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. 12. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW).4 GHz band. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule.4 GHz (worldwide). FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch . The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY).4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. where ch = 11. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. 5. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA. these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. or half a symbolperiod.15. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802.26. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. In the 2. which by definition do not use CSMA.11)) MHz. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA)... which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK). 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once.4 GHz band. The raw.0.

The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination.5 5. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream.5. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. Fig 5. but they are less severe. but the distance was too great between the points. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together).15.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption.3. 5. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. Fig.6 As an example.4 radio.3. of ECE 37 VAST . Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. In other words.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 .

Although. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. >65. with low latency available.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. 5. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee). Thus. very long primary battery life. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires. guaranteed latency.15. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept. No configuration is required out of the box.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. Default baud rate is 9600bps. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi.000 nodes. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. of ECE 38 VAST . secondary battery lasts same as master. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. of course. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. Can be used indoors and outdoors.3. Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802. y Very high QoS and very low. Furthermore. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation.

5.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping.5. 5. This can be very handy. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine. .8 Dept. it replaces the serial communication cable. Quite simply. pin 2 (transmit). These are quite attractive specs. 5.4 PIR Sensor Fig. Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features.3. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. XBee also allows invisible operation. of ECE 39 VAST . That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4.

and calibrate as well. such as night vision. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding.4. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. They can be expensive to purchase. which is usually a thin sheet. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light. 5. such as VCRs and DVD players. 5.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. 5. and libraries. install. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. Also. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.5 V. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away.4. and can accept 30-V inputs. Dept. Because of these properties. In fact. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. of ECE 40 VAST .2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. depending on how the device is calibrated. they also have several disadvantages. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. night vision. and heatseeking missiles. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from. PIR sensors are used in many applications.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. and laser range finding.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply.4.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous. hospitals. motion detection. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. 5.4. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat).

The driver. Terminals. Battery-Powered Systems.  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. . and Computers 5. receiver.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F.28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1. Modems.1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. . and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.5.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current . 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0. of ECE 41 VAST .

fluorescent. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. fax machines. and 20x4. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power.1 Font Dept.Campus Automation Fig 5. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). which is one row of eight characters. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1. for example.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). 5. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. or electroluminescent. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. laser printers. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers.6. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. 16x2. An LCD is a small low cost display. and two polarizing filters. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. industrial test equipment. of ECE 42 VAST . light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. a cloth. which may be LED.

5. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5.6. as they are stored in volatile memory. of ECE 43 VAST . A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands.6. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found.

RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment).10 1. DTR. VCC (+3. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4. As the name indicates. RS=0: Command. DSR. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. RI. There are other lines on this port as RTS. RS=1: Data 5. the data is transmitted serially. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers.3 to +5V) 3. R/W=0: Write. of ECE 44 VAST . Register Select (RS). RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. CTS. and RTS. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. µreceive¶ and common ground. Ground 2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. The three links provides µtransmit¶. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links.000bps. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20. The two pins are TXD & RXD. Read/Write (R/W). Dept. 5. R/W=1: Read 5.

user data is sent as a time-series of bits.5. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. 5.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept.1 Pin out Diagram Fig.7. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is. In addition to the data circuits. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. or character encoding.11 5. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. of ECE 45 VAST . Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits.

Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side. 5. a PIC and an LCD display are used.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC.8. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector.8.In the receiver side a ZigBee module. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message. of ECE 46 VAST .In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. The USART communication is used for transmitting data. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC. The data is send as RS232 protocols. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission.

The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. which is Usually a thin sheet. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. of ECE 47 VAST .8. Dept.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. 5.


1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize LCD.1 FLOWCHART Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept.TIMER Initialize time hh=0. of ECE 49 VAST .mm=0.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept. of ECE 50 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. of ECE 51 VAST .1.2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.

h> unsigned int hh=00. of ECE 52 VAST . } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++.2 Firmware 6. if(hh==24) {> #include <stdlib.count=1.1 Transmitter section #include <string. } else { output_bit(pin_b6.c> #include <stdio. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.h> #include <lcd. } Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1).0).

mm++. if(ss==60) { ss=0. hh++. Dept.2). } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7. ss=ss+1. printf(lcd_putc."%02u". lcd_gotoxy(7. if(hh==24) { hh=0. of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST . printf(lcd_putc.1). lcd_gotoxy(5.":%02u".2).hh). } } count=0. lcd_gotoxy(10. printf(lcd_putc. if(mm==60) { mm=0.Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) {":%02u". if(mm==60) { mm=0.2).ss).

setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8). ss=ss+3. putc(f)."alarm").1). set_timer1(0xfffe). delay_ms(30). output_bit(pin_b7. lcd_gotoxy(7. enable_interrupts(GLOBAL). of ECE 54 VAST . } void main() { char f.1).Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc. while(1) { f=getc(). lcd_gotoxy(7. } } } } count++.1). printf(lcd_putc. } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept."CLOCK"). lcd_putc('\f'). lcd_init(). printf(lcd_putc. enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1). output_bit(pin_b7."CLOCK").0).

} } } Dept. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶).2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam. c=getc().c> Void main() { Char c. of ECE 55 VAST . l1:while(1) { i++. i=0.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.´%c´. int i=0. lcd_goto(1. } else { go to l1.c). printf (lcd_putc. lcd_intit().2.h´ #include<lcd.1).


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 57 VAST .

2 PCB LA OUT Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7. of ECE 58 VAST .


others are industry standards.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.15. the bandwidth it occupies.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). simple connectivity and Dept. and the IEEE 802. As a few examples. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B. the IEEE 802. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example. PC peripherals.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. Routers or Coordinators.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.4 protocol on which it was built. 802.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission.15.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.15.4 802. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points.15. Here defined are the frequencies used. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.15. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.15. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination.15. the frequency. 802. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices. but the distance was too great between the points. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.4 radio. industrial communication and wireless technology. Routers can also be used as End Devices.4 was developed with lower data rate. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. of ECE 60 VAST . in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. and networking features unique to this protocol.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8.

I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections. the 902-928 MHz or the 2. Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.8MHz. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. the 2. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to).5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it.Campus Automation battery application in mind. 8.400-2.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. Instead of using a reset switch.4 devices. of ECE 61 VAST . when I need to reset the XBee.15.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.15.

Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to. of ECE 62 VAST . If you¶re not sure. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept. You should see a screen like the one shown below. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software.

you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. of ECE 63 VAST . Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. click on the ³Read´ button. The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´.5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. Select ³ZNet 2.

first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. change the desired settings. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. 8. then congratulations. and click the ³Write´ button again. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. of ECE 64 VAST . The XBee will respond with ³OK´. If any of those commands did not return the correct information. If those commands returned the correct information.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator.

Dept. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. of ECE 65 VAST . Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. The driver.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. and can accept 30-V inputs.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.5 V.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. receiver.

Campus Automation 8. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. 8. slants and holes should be traced. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black. of ECE 66 VAST . deciding the diameter of various holes.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts. quick drying enamel paint. Locating holes. Only the connecting lines in PCBs.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. etc. grease.5. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made.5. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. Preparing the PCB drawing 2. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing.5.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. 8. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired. for small scale operations. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. However. using a thin Dept. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations.

The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). 8. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. Dept. the resistors are taken care at first. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. Depending on the wiring diagram. and then the IC¶s are soldered. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. of ECE 67 VAST . The PCB may then be washed and dried. If etching takes longer. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. or IDE. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. turpentine or acetone. It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE.5. the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated. After drying. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices.

helping developers create. This suite includes an IDE for project management.Campus Automation 8. build tools and real time debugger.5.. built-in functions and standard C operators. which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. debug and document project code. y Dept. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler. of ECE 68 VAST . analyze. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers.. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another. a context sensitive C aware editor. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs.


y ZigBee module is very costly. of ECE 70 VAST . Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell. Hardware implementation is simpler. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule. Dept.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear. y The bell rings at the end of each hour. 9. when the observer is far away from the display.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9.


y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. of ECE 72 VAST . y y Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes.1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept. of ECE 73 VAST .

1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly. The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. Dept. of ECE 74 VAST . It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today.

of ECE 75 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 76 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 77 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 78 VAST .

of ECE 79 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 80 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). DT: these are synchronous data terminals. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. Dept. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. CS: Select control for parallel slave. PGC: serial programming clock. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. INT: external interrupt. Vpp: programming voltage input. THV: High voltage test mode controlling. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). of ECE 81 VAST . SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. PGD: Serial programming data. CK: synchronous clock input. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 86 VAST .

of ECE 87 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept.

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