Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer. PIR sensor . 3. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. and laser range finding. In fact. The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. PIR sensors are used in many applications.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. such as night vision. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat).bell & ZIGBEE module.1. of ECE 7 VAST . which controls the data transfer. motion detection. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3. Dept.if the message bit is greater than 16 bit.2. The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message. LCD display. Zigbee module and a buzzer .PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display. of ECE 8 VAST .RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller. The program is set such that LCD will clear .


C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.4.POWE SUPPLY Fig.1. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.1 Dept C 0 .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept. of ECE 11 VAST .

3 RECEIVER Dept. of ECE 12 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.


In the case of +5 Volt. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven. but is often a separate unit a module. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3.e. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3. A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage.. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature. Dept. we can use fixed regulator ICs i. of ECE 14 VAST . LCD. It is compressed of three basic parts. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit.3 Volts.3 V. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors.1. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal. constitutes a feed back amplifier. LM 78 5(U5).

in many applications no external components are required. output (Vo) and a ground terminal. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. Acceptable values on generally . The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2). however. 2mF or greater tantalum. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. . and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. The simplicity and case of application is evident. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor. As a result. They therefore. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value.21 geF ceramic disks.A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. input (Vin).1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions.25V between the output and Dept. The output of the IC gives us +12v. A 47Mf (C14) and . or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte .1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. do not require any external feed back connections.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals. The use of a suitable capacitor will. Indeed. only three terminals are required for this type of generator. of ECE 15 VAST . The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. with a minimum of external components required. The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. A 47Mf (C13) and .

3v. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage. VREF is 1.25v V = 1. of ECE 16 VAST . SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A. giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals.3V DC voltage. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3.-12 or 6. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected.3V. Usually.

f=5 Hz.1 F std.2V. Use C4 = .72 F.2=13. C3. C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose. We require C2 << C1 . Vp=12+1. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1. std. SELECTION OF R 1 . PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. of ECE 17 VAST .3 V Then R2 = 33     std. Use 47 F standard. R2.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. 63A. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std. Dept. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std.Campus Automation I= . Hence C=477. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output.

PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. availability of low cost or free development tools. The PIC has number of advanced features. As li e normal microcontroller. etc). etc. wide availability. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1. communication ports. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. timers/counters. Dept.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. of ECE 18 VAST .2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies.2. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below.5. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. ROM. EEPROM. extensive collection of application notes. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus). I/O ports.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus). PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. 5. large user base.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig.

WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory).5nS).2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Low power consumption (< . 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave).56)volts.6mA typical @3v-4MHz. Eight level deep hardware stack.2. industrial and extended temperature ranges. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources).Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions. All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles. Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). Low power. ± 5. Compare (16 bit/2 nS). eral Features 5. Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. Different types of addressing modes (direct. Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. Commercial. and 8k×14 of flash memory. Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). relative addressing modes). of ECE 19 VAST . Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. Fully static design. PIC 16C77. PIC 16C76. High sink/source current (25mA). Pulse Width Modules (1 bit). Two Capture (16bit/12.high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. Wide operating voltage range (2. Indirect. Power on Reset (POR).2. 5. instruction cycle (2 nS). Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar.3 Key Features Dept.

5 input/output ports. 5. Data memory (bytes) is 368.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU. Power saving sleep modes. Single 5V. 8KB. Selectable oscillator options. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. USART). up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators. 1 Self programmable under software control. control unit. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP. Flash program memory (14 bit words). a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. Programmable code protection. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability.2.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation. etc. ALU. accumulator. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5. 2 CCP modules.2.2.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5. of ECE 2 VAST . 3 timers.4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory.

7. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction. As a result. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions. The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable. 5.1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user.2. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers).2.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR). RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). of ECE 21 VAST . This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. Each time we write a new program to the controller. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5.7. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed. y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others. These RISC structure gives the following advantages. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. 5. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one. we must delete the old one at that time. Dept. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately). In the PIC microcontrollers.2.

There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address. it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers. Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. and BANK4). BANK 1. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. 5. A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). Instead.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). of ECE 22 VAST . RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. these banks may vary.1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. BANK 2.2. The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s).7. which gives only 128 addresses.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2.

Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i. These ports are used for input/ output interfacing.Impedance mode). Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin.RD-0 to RD-7). The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A. the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read. (If we want to set PORT A as an input. PORT B (RB). just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7). and PORT E (RE). ´PORT B´ .2. rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations.). etc. put the corresponding output driver in a High. In this controller.2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional. bidirectional port. PORT C (RC).1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept.RC-0 to RC-7. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump. ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7). of ECE 23 VAST . Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶.e. Therefore. 5.. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5.2. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).) 5. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports..e. PORT D (RD). They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A). All write operations are read-modify-write operations.8. ³PORT C´. TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA.

change comparison). bidirectional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC..2.8. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. 5. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. This will end the y y Mismatch condition... 5. RB7:RB4. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB. in the Interrupt Service Routine.e. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). bidirectional port. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). Four of the PORTB pins. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature.change feature.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. have an interrupton. The user. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept.8. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>).2. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. Clear flag bit RBIF. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. of ECE 24 VAST . any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators.e.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB.e. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output.

PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).8. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. In this mode.8. 5. IR. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. the input buffers are TTL. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). Bluetooth. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. even when they are being used as analog inputs. ZIGBEE etc. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>).9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. of ECE 25 VAST . ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O.2. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept. 5. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i. Also.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. the input buffers are TTL. these pins will read as µ0¶s. should be avoided. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation.e. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. When enabling peripheral functions. or with SMBus levels. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination. In this mode. When the I2C module is enabled. 5.e. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i. BCF.. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. read-modify write instructions (BSF. When selected for analog input. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled.. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. In this mode. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>).2.

2. one stop bit & no parity bit. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits. The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. such as CRT terminals and personal computers. 5. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices. of ECE 26 VAST . Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. serial EEPROMs. etc.

5.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device.2. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept. The use of an RCR network. as shown in Fig. during reset. of ECE 27 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD. When reset it is low. 5.5 is suggested. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. For this reason. These are given in appendix. During normal operation this pin should be high.6.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path.

Operations and registers are not orthogonal. Small instruction set. Program memory is not accessible. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator. The PIC requires external clock generator. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig.5.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware).3 5. of ECE 28 VAST . ‡ Dept.2. 5.2. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3.

For such wireless applications. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small.15. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used.42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. However.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. of ECE 29 VAST . consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards. such as Bluetooth. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. The new standard is also called ZigBee.5. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application. 5. such as wireless light switches with lamps.4 has been developed by IEEE. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802. electrical meters with in-home-displays. a new standard called IEEE 802. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications.15. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used.

which was used as the basis for a new standard. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in".4 GHz in digital modes. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. and secure networking. success. In addition.3. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. a colonial insect. lives in a hive that contains a queen. 5.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. a few male drones. The domestic honeybee. and thousands of worker bees. 5. but powerful communication system. distance. of ECE 30 VAST .in which the connections are wireless. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. she is able to share information such as the location. long battery life.15.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. The survival. In the ideal scenario. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. bees around Dept.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . Typically. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today .3. provided they are within physical range of one another. IEEE 802.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. Using this silent.

IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. and networking features unique to this protocol.3. The current list of application profiles either published.15. not a single technical standard. and the IEEE 802. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1. PC peripherals. the bandwidth it occupies.15. industrial communication and wireless technology. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. We will define the frequencies used.15. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products. others are industry standards. As a few examples. As per its main role.15. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802.3. the IEEE 802. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard. 802.4 Dept. of ECE 31 VAST . it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee.4 IEEE 802. cost-effective.15.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. ultra-low cost.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5. 5. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.15.4 radio.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity. 802.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.15. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).4 protocol on which it was built.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members.

was announced 2 November 2007.400-2.4. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world).4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations.15. The first ZigBee Application Profile. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802.4 IEEE 802. The relationship between IEEE 802.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. such as IEEE 802. 5. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use.15. Most recently.15.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier. the 2.15.15. The 802. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that. simple connectivity and battery application in mind.4 GHz band. The 802. At 2. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.3.15.405 to 2.4(x) and IEEE P1901. As amended by NIST. 802. the Smart Energy Profile 2.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. In the 2. Dept.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance.4 GHz.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance.15. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN. and requires the most memory and computing power.15. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States.5 Components of the IEEE 802.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007.15.8MHz. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. of ECE 32 VAST .4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802. The ZigBee 1.15. It can function as a network coordinator.480 GHz. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth.4 devices.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802. Home Automation.

of ECE 33 VAST . since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. and medical diathermy machines. general. wireless mesh networking standard. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation.450 GHz bands.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost. In the United States of America. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries.15. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range.3.4. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. 5. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. IEEE 802. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment.6 ISM Band The industrial. However.800 GHz bands.3. It is generally found in network-edge devices. and 5. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. and 5.450 GHz. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices.280 of the Radio Regulations. low-power. which are typically around three seconds. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands.150. 2. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. scientific and medical purposes other than communications. 5. Third. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. Dept.138. First. 915 MHz and 2.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. For many people. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In . even those that use the ISM frequencies. Second. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating.45 GHz. microwave ovens. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity. 5.

of ECE 34 VAST .1%) 5. ZigBee 2007. now the current stack release. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC.3. contains two stack profiles. such as multi-casting. average power consumption can be very low. ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). A ZED requires the least amount of memory. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0. passing on data from other devices.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. it cannot relay data from other devices. It is able to store information about the network. while Dept. the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library".3. and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). y 5. ZigBee Pro offers more features. a router can act as an intermediate router. for home and light commercial use. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE). The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. resulting in long battery life.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004.

However. receives an acknowledgment. requiring a more robust power supply. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. In beaconenabled networks.36 ms * 214 = 251. the network will be a cluster of clusters.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. if not the ZigBee Coordinator.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. Due to differences in routing options. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. since it is connected to the mains supply.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. 5. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15). low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. In beaconing networks. The applications running on those devices work the same. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash. In most large network instances. of ECE 35 VAST . neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. Nodes may sleep between beacons. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected. The switch then wakes up. In general. regardless of the stack profile beneath them. In non-beacon-enabled networks. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network. while others spend most of their time sleeping. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. Beacon intervals may range from 15. However. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles.36 milliseconds to 15. sends a command to the lamp. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. Dept. and returns to sleep. In this type of network. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown.3.

In the 2. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL). This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator..11)) MHz.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch .4 GHz band.. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter). The raw.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. where ch = 11.26. Dept. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS).. Finally.. with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK). Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time.0. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. which by definition do not use CSMA. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands.4 GHz band. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. 12.3. or half a symbolperiod. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW). The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. That is. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule. and do not use CSMA. 5.15. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense.4 GHz (worldwide). of ECE 36 VAST . these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems..

but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B.3. Fig. but they are less severe.3.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together).5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves.15. but the distance was too great between the points. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. In other words.5 5.4 radio.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 . 5.6 As an example. of ECE 37 VAST . Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept. Fig 5.

The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power.3. y Very high QoS and very low. very long primary battery life. 5. Although.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. >65. No configuration is required out of the box. Can be used indoors and outdoors. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. Default baud rate is 9600bps. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. Furthermore. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications.15. guaranteed latency. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept.000 nodes. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee). Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). with low latency available. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. Thus.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. secondary battery lasts same as master. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi. of ECE 38 VAST . Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802. of course.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation.

The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. This can be very handy.5.3.4 PIR Sensor Fig.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig. pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. These are quite attractive specs.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping. Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features. XBee also allows invisible operation. That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet. 5.8 Dept. .5.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). 5. it replaces the serial communication cable. pin 2 (transmit). Quite simply. of ECE 39 VAST .

5. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. They can be expensive to purchase. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away.4. such as night vision. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. and heatseeking missiles. Dept. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. and calibrate as well. and laser range finding. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light. such as VCRs and DVD players. PIR sensors are used in many applications.4. 5. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices.5 V. and can accept 30-V inputs. and libraries. In fact.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous. depending on how the device is calibrated. install. 5. 5. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. Because of these properties. hospitals.4. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. of ECE 40 VAST .3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor. night vision.4. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). which is usually a thin sheet. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from. 5. motion detection. they also have several disadvantages. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. Also.

Battery-Powered Systems. 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0.5.1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept.  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. Terminals.28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1. . of ECE 41 VAST . . and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. receiver.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current . Modems.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F. The driver. and Computers 5.

In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. fax machines. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. laser printers. and two polarizing filters. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. for example. 16x2. industrial test equipment. An LCD is a small low cost display. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. which is one row of eight characters. or electroluminescent.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5.1 Font Dept. which may be LED. and 20x4. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. a cloth. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. 5. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. of ECE 42 VAST .Campus Automation Fig 5.6. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. fluorescent.

The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. 5. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands.6. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters.6. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5. of ECE 43 VAST . and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix. as they are stored in volatile memory. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters.

3 to +5V) 3. Read/Write (R/W). Ground 2. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. Dept. 5. of ECE 44 VAST . The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. DTR.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. CTS.10 1. RS=1: Data 5. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. Register Select (RS). As the name indicates.000bps. DSR.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. There are other lines on this port as RTS. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. and RTS. The two pins are TXD & RXD. R/W=1: Read 5. µreceive¶ and common ground. R/W=0: Write. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. the data is transmitted serially. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20. VCC (+3. The three links provides µtransmit¶. RS=0: Command. RI.

11 5. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. In addition to the data circuits. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. or character encoding.5.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept. of ECE 45 VAST . user data is sent as a time-series of bits.1 Pin out Diagram Fig. 5. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232.7.

The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. The USART communication is used for transmitting data. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. of ECE 46 VAST . The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message. a PIC and an LCD display are used. 5.In the receiver side a ZigBee module.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC.8. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission. The data is send as RS232 protocols. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5.8.

The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. Dept.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. which is Usually a thin sheet. 5. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . of ECE 47 VAST .8. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material.


TIMER Initialize time hh=0.1 FLOWCHART Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept. of ECE 49 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept. of ECE 50 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1.2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept. of ECE 51 VAST .

h> #include <stdlib.2 Firmware 6.h> unsigned int hh=00. if(hh==24) { hh=0. of ECE 52 VAST . } else { output_bit(pin_b6.0).1 Transmitter section #include <string.1). } Dept.c> #include <stdio. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.h> #include < } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11

":%02u".2).2). } } count=0. if(mm==60) { mm=0. printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(7.1). ss=ss+1. lcd_gotoxy(10. hh++. lcd_gotoxy(5."%02u". if(ss==60) { ss=0.Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++.2). of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST .ss). if(hh==24) { hh=0. } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7.hh). Dept. printf(lcd_putc. printf(lcd_putc. if(mm==60) { mm=0. mm++.":%02u".mm).

1).1). lcd_putc('\f').1). setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8). lcd_gotoxy(7."alarm").0). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. lcd_init(). ss=ss+3. output_bit(pin_b7. printf(lcd_putc."CLOCK"). printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(7. delay_ms(30). } } } } count++. } void main() { char f. enable_interrupts(GLOBAL). set_timer1(0xfffe).Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc. of ECE 54 VAST . output_bit(pin_b7. putc(f). enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1)."CLOCK"). while(1) { f=getc().

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.´%c´. lcd_goto(1.2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam.h´ #include<lcd. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶). lcd_intit().c).1). } else { go to l1.c> Void main() { Char c. of ECE 55 VAST . printf (lcd_putc. l1:while(1) { i++. i=0. } } } Dept.2. c=getc(). int i=0.


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 57 VAST .

of ECE 58 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.2 PCB LA OUT Dept.


15. and the IEEE 802. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example.15. Here defined are the frequencies used. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. but the distance was too great between the points. simple connectivity and Dept.4 radio.15.15. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B.4 802. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. As a few examples. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.4 protocol on which it was built. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. others are industry standards. and networking features unique to this protocol.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. Routers can also be used as End Devices. the bandwidth it occupies. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical. Routers or Coordinators.4 was developed with lower data rate. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason.15. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. 802. 802. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. PC peripherals. the frequency.15.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. industrial communication and wireless technology.15. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. the IEEE 802.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). of ECE 60 VAST .4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers.

Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept. when I need to reset the XBee.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it. 8. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.15. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections.4 devices. Instead of using a reset switch.8MHz.Campus Automation battery application in mind. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board. the 2.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. of ECE 61 VAST . Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to). use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer.15. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.400-2.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram.

you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. of ECE 62 VAST . Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. You should see a screen like the one shown below. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to. If you¶re not sure.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept.

It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept.5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. click on the ³Read´ button. Select ³ZNet 2. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. of ECE 63 VAST . Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee. The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode.

Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. of ECE 64 VAST . then congratulations. The XBee will respond with ³OK´. and click the ³Write´ button again. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. change the desired settings. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. If those commands returned the correct information.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. 8. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. If any of those commands did not return the correct information.

and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. and can accept 30-V inputs. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. receiver. Dept.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first.5 V. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. of ECE 65 VAST . The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output. The driver. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB.

grease. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired. slants and holes should be traced. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. for small scale operations. Preparing the PCB drawing 2. quick drying enamel paint. 8. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made.5. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error.5.Campus Automation 8. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1. using a thin Dept. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. Locating holes. etc. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. However. deciding the diameter of various holes. of ECE 66 VAST . With fine emery paper or sand paper on this.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. 8. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted.5.

turpentine or acetone.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. or IDE. It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. 8. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. After drying. Depending on the wiring diagram. of ECE 67 VAST . Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. The PCB may then be washed and dried.5. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. the resistors are taken care at first. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated. The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). and then the IC¶s are soldered. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. If etching takes longer. Dept.

5.. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. of ECE 68 VAST . which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. y Dept. This suite includes an IDE for project management.Campus Automation 8. built-in functions and standard C operators. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs. debug and document project code. analyze. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another..helping developers create. build tools and real time debugger.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete. a context sensitive C aware editor.


9. y The bell rings at the end of each hour.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule. y ZigBee module is very costly. when the observer is far away from the display. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear. of ECE 70 VAST . Dept. Hardware implementation is simpler.


y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes.1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. y y Dept. of ECE 72 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept. of ECE 73 VAST .

Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly. The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required. of ECE 74 VAST .

of ECE 75 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 76 VAST .

of ECE 77 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 78 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 79 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 80 VAST .

OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. PGC: serial programming clock. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. of ECE 81 VAST . PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. CS: Select control for parallel slave. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. THV: High voltage test mode controlling. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. INT: external interrupt. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). PGD: Serial programming data. Dept. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). CK: synchronous clock input. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. Vpp: programming voltage input.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 86 VAST .

of ECE 87 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept.

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