Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





which controls the data transfer. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . In fact. and laser range finding. PIR sensors are used in many applications. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). such as night vision.bell & ZIGBEE module. Dept. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. motion detection.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. PIR sensor . PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them.1.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer. 3.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. of ECE 7 VAST .

Dept.2.if the message bit is greater than 16 bit. LCD display. The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message.RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller. Zigbee module and a buzzer . of ECE 8 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3. The program is set such that LCD will clear .PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display.


4.POWE SUPPLY Fig.1 Dept C 0 .1. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.

2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 11 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 12 VAST .3 RECEIVER Dept.


constitutes a feed back amplifier. It is compressed of three basic parts. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. LM 78 5(U5).3 Volts. but is often a separate unit a module. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. LCD. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. In the case of +5 Volt. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature. A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage. of ECE 14 VAST . The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven.3 V.e. we can use fixed regulator ICs i.1. Dept..

do not require any external feed back connections. A 47Mf (C14) and . improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions. They therefore. however. A 47Mf (C13) and . Acceptable values on generally .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC.21 geF ceramic disks. and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. . A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. of ECE 15 VAST . in many applications no external components are required. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2).1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. The use of a suitable capacitor will. The simplicity and case of application is evident. output (Vo) and a ground terminal.25V between the output and Dept. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals. The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit.A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose. 2mF or greater tantalum. As a result. with a minimum of external components required. input (Vin). Indeed. The output of the IC gives us +12v. The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . only three terminals are required for this type of generator.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals.25v V = 1. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A. Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3.3v. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply. of ECE 16 VAST . C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage.3V. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components.-12 or 6. Usually. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12. giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. VREF is 1.3V DC voltage. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3.

Use 47 F standard. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std. R2.1 F std. Hence C=477.72 F. Vp=12+1. 63A. PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. C3. C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose. SELECTION OF R 1 . f=5 Hz.3 V Then R2 = 33     std.2=13. Dept.Campus Automation I= .25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1. Use C4 = .2V. of ECE 17 VAST . We require C2 << C1 . std. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std.

timers/counters.2.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. extensive collection of application notes. etc.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. As li e normal microcontroller.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1. Dept. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus). 5. wide availability. ROM. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM.5. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . large user base.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. of ECE 18 VAST . A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. The PIC has number of advanced features. Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus). PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. I/O ports. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. etc). PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. EEPROM. availability of low cost or free development tools. communication ports.

Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources).3 Key Features Dept. Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Commercial. Different types of addressing modes (direct. industrial and extended temperature ranges. Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. Eight level deep hardware stack. All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles.6mA typical @3v-4MHz. Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). PIC 16C77. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). and 8k×14 of flash memory.2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. High sink/source current (25mA).5nS). Pulse Width Modules (1 bit).56)volts. WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). of ECE 19 VAST . Fully static design.2. 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. instruction cycle (2 nS). Low power consumption (< . Wide operating voltage range (2. ± 5. Low power. 5. Power on Reset (POR). Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions. 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory).2. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. Two Capture (16bit/12. relative addressing modes). Compare (16 bit/2 nS). Indirect. Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory).high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. eral Features 5. PIC 16C76. Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz).

1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. Power saving sleep modes. 2 CCP modules. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. 5. 8KB. control unit. USART).Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU. Data memory (bytes) is 368. etc. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept.4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. Selectable oscillator options. 5 input/output ports. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5. accumulator. Flash program memory (14 bit words). Programmable code protection. 3 timers. 1 Self programmable under software control. Single 5V.2. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. ALU. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory.2.2. of ECE 2 VAST .

The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC.1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers).2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR). Dept. we must delete the old one at that time. 5. of ECE 21 VAST . 5. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack.2. In the PIC microcontrollers.2. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). Each time we write a new program to the controller.7. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed.2. The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately).7.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions. These RISC structure gives the following advantages. As a result. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction.

of ECE 22 VAST . The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers.1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address. RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. which gives only 128 addresses. A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). BANK 1. 5. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes. The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. Instead. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept. BANK 2. these banks may vary.7. Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. and BANK4).

The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump.2. (If we want to set PORT A as an input.2.. PORT B (RB). The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A. rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. In this controller.1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. etc.2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional.RC-0 to RC-7. These ports are used for input/ output interfacing.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7.e. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. Therefore. put the corresponding output driver in a High. of ECE 23 VAST . the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A).RD-0 to RD-7). 5. and PORT E (RE). ³PORT C´. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7). ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7).8.8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports. PORT C (RC). Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output. Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer.). ´PORT B´ . PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5.e. TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B. bidirectional port.) 5.. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.Impedance mode). All write operations are read-modify-write operations. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. PORT D (RD). Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read.

Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept.8. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i..3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. The user. bidirectional port. of ECE 24 VAST .2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. RB7:RB4. bidirectional port. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature.8. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators.e. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared.. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. Clear flag bit RBIF. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. This will end the y y Mismatch condition. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups.2. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. 5. have an interrupton.change feature.e. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC.change comparison).2. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). in the Interrupt Service Routine. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. Four of the PORTB pins. 5.e. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM.

In this mode. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings.e.e. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data.8. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled. When selected for analog input. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i. In this mode. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI).2.8. the input buffers are TTL. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. even when they are being used as analog inputs. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. When the I2C module is enabled.2. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. When enabling peripheral functions. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. or with SMBus levels. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins.. of ECE 25 VAST . 5. the input buffers are TTL. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. read-modify write instructions (BSF. should be avoided. In this mode. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers.2. these pins will read as µ0¶s. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). Bluetooth. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). ZIGBEE etc. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs.. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination. 5. BCF. 5. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. IR. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept. Also. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. serial EEPROMs. The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. of ECE 26 VAST . etc.2. one stop bit & no parity bit.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices. 5. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. such as CRT terminals and personal computers. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit.

Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD. During normal operation this pin should be high.5 is suggested. as shown in Fig.2. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. For this reason. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path.5. When reset it is low. These are given in appendix. of ECE 27 VAST . during reset.6. The use of an RCR network.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device.

The PIC requires external clock generator. Small instruction set. of ECE 28 VAST .2. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator. 5.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware). Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices. Operations and registers are not orthogonal. Program memory is not accessible. ‡ Dept. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig.5.3 5.

a new standard called IEEE 802. such as Bluetooth.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. The new standard is also called ZigBee. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. of ECE 29 VAST . ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small. Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms.4 has been developed by IEEE.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards.15. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards.15. such as wireless light switches with lamps. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802.5.42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. For such wireless applications. However. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. 5. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. electrical meters with in-home-displays. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer.

The domestic honeybee. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. Using this silent. provided they are within physical range of one another. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. lives in a hive that contains a queen. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development.3.3. a colonial insect. success. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate.4 GHz in digital modes. In the ideal scenario. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today . Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. a few male drones. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. bees around Dept. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. IEEE 802.15. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. she is able to share information such as the location. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. 5.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . of ECE 30 VAST . The survival.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . long battery which the connections are wireless. but powerful communication system.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. In addition. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. which was used as the basis for a new standard. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. distance. and secure networking. Typically. and thousands of worker bees.

industrial communication and wireless technology.15. not a single technical standard. As per its main role. and the IEEE 802.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.4 Dept. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. the bandwidth it occupies. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. ultra-low cost. cost-effective.4 radio. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard.3.3.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable. and networking features unique to this protocol. As a few examples.4 IEEE 802. others are industry standards. The current list of application profiles either published.15. PC peripherals. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group. of ECE 31 VAST . 802.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). the IEEE 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members.15. 802.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. We will define the frequencies used. 5.4 protocol on which it was built.

While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.15.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802. Dept. The 802.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge.4 GHz band. 802.4 devices. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States. and requires the most memory and computing power.405 to 2. The ZigBee 1. Most recently.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2.480 GHz. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802. the Smart Energy Profile 2.4(x) and IEEE P1901.15. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance. the 2. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations.4 IEEE 802.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance. Home Automation.4 GHz.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier.15.4.400-2. At 2. the 902-928 MHz or the 2. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types. As amended by NIST. In the 2. The first ZigBee Application Profile.15. simple connectivity and battery application in mind.15. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world). 5.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels. such as IEEE 802.5 Components of the IEEE 802. The relationship between IEEE 802. It can function as a network coordinator. of ECE 32 VAST . Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY. The 802. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard.8MHz. was announced 2 November 2007.15.15.

Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity.3. Second.450 GHz bands. However. and medical diathermy machines. IEEE 802. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. scientific and medical purposes other than communications. low-power. and 5. 915 MHz and 2. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries.3. For many people.6 ISM Band The industrial.45 GHz. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. microwave ovens. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost.450 GHz. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less. First. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. Third. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. 5. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity.800 GHz bands. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In . 2.280 of the Radio Regulations. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. 5. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. and 5. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range. which are typically around three seconds.138. wireless mesh networking standard. Dept. even those that use the ISM frequencies. In the United States of America. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating.15. of ECE 33 VAST .4. It is generally found in network-edge devices.150. general. 5. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation.

9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. A ZED requires the least amount of memory. it cannot relay data from other devices.1%) 5.3. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library". including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. such as multi-casting. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE). and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0. ZigBee Pro offers more features. y 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time. the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. of ECE 34 VAST . ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). ZigBee 2007. for home and light commercial use. contains two stack profiles. average power consumption can be very low. The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. now the current stack release. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally.3. It is able to store information about the network. passing on data from other devices. resulting in long battery life. while Dept. a router can act as an intermediate router.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. In most large network instances. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network. The switch then wakes up. In beaconenabled networks. In beaconing networks. the network will be a cluster of clusters. In non-beacon-enabled networks. of ECE 35 VAST . the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. The applications running on those devices work the same. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. if not the ZigBee Coordinator.3. regardless of the stack profile beneath them. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. Nodes may sleep between beacons. Beacon intervals may range from 15. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15).36 ms * 214 = 251.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. and returns to sleep. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected. Due to differences in routing options.36 milliseconds to 15. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. However. In this type of network. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing. In general. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. Dept. receives an acknowledgment. requiring a more robust power supply. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. while others spend most of their time sleeping. sends a command to the lamp. However. 5.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. since it is connected to the mains supply.

The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter). This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. Finally.. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA. The raw.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. In the 2. or half a symbolperiod. with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth. 12. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK).11)) MHz. where ch = 11.0. and do not use CSMA.4 GHz band. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator.26. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2.. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA).15. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense. Dept. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch .4 GHz (worldwide).4 GHz band. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). which by definition do not use CSMA. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW). That is.. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. of ECE 36 VAST ..3. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA.. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. 5. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL).

but they are less severe.6 As an example. Fig 5. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream. but the distance was too great between the points.3.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption. 5.5 5.15.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 . but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios. In other words.5. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points.4 radio.3. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together). the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. Fig. of ECE 37 VAST . in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B.

Can be used indoors and outdoors. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). secondary battery lasts same as master. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications. Thus. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept.3. with low latency available. No configuration is required out of the box. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default. y Very high QoS and very low. of ECE 38 VAST .4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. guaranteed latency. Default baud rate is 9600bps. very long primary battery life. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. Furthermore.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. >65. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. of course.15. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee).14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires.000 nodes. 5. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. Although.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping.5. pin 2 (transmit). 5. These are quite attractive specs. of ECE 39 VAST . Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features.4 PIR Sensor Fig. 5.8 Dept. pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine. it replaces the serial communication cable. Quite simply. This can be very handy.3. That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet. The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply).15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig.5. XBee also allows invisible operation.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4. .

it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. 5. and heatseeking missiles. night vision. 5. of ECE 40 VAST . and libraries. Also. Because of these properties. motion detection.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. They can be expensive to purchase. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light. which is usually a thin sheet. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. and can accept 30-V inputs. 5.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. Dept.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. 5.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. In fact. 5.4. install. and laser range finding. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot.4. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). hospitals. and calibrate as well. they also have several disadvantages.4. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. such as VCRs and DVD players.4. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. such as night vision.5 V. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. PIR sensors are used in many applications. depending on how the device is calibrated. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material.

1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current . 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0. Modems. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.5. and Computers 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. Battery-Powered Systems.  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. of ECE 41 VAST .1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept. .28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1. receiver. . The driver. Terminals.

Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. or electroluminescent. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. An LCD is a small low cost display. and two polarizing filters. industrial test equipment.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5.Campus Automation Fig 5. 16x2. and 20x4. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. which may be LED.6. of ECE 42 VAST . laser printers. a cloth. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. fluorescent.1 Font Dept. for example. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. 5. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. which is one row of eight characters. fax machines. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display.

and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters.6.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on. 5. of ECE 43 VAST .6.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character. as they are stored in volatile memory.

The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. RS=0: Command. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). R/W=0: Write. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4. VCC (+3. As the name indicates. The two pins are TXD & RXD.3 to +5V) 3. the data is transmitted serially. RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. Dept. RS=1: Data 5. µreceive¶ and common ground.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. RI. Ground 2. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. DSR. of ECE 44 VAST . Read/Write (R/W). The three links provides µtransmit¶. R/W=1: Read 5. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. 5. CTS. DTR. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20.10 1. and RTS. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. Register Select (RS). Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. There are other lines on this port as RTS.000bps.

1 Pin out Diagram Fig. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232.7.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept. or character encoding. In addition to the data circuits. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is. of ECE 45 VAST . user data is sent as a time-series of bits. 5.5. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions.11 5. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner.

8. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission.8.In the receiver side a ZigBee module.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. of ECE 46 VAST . PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side. 5.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC. The data is send as RS232 protocols. a PIC and an LCD display are used. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. The USART communication is used for transmitting data. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data.

3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. Dept. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . of ECE 47 VAST .8.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. which is Usually a thin sheet. 5.


1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize LCD.1.1 FLOWCHART 6. of ECE 49 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Initialize time Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept. of ECE 50 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. of ECE 51 VAST .2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.1.

} Dept.1 Transmitter section #include < } else { output_bit(pin_b6. if(hh==24) { hh=0. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.2.2 Firmware 6.c> #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> unsigned int hh=00.1).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.h> #include <lcd. } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { of ECE 52 VAST .count=1.0).

":%02u". printf(lcd_putc.2). lcd_gotoxy(7. if(ss==60) { ss=0.2)."%02u". } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7.":%02u". lcd_gotoxy(10.2). of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST .Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { if(mm==60) { mm=0. hh++. Dept. if(mm==60) { mm=0. ss=ss+1. lcd_gotoxy(5. if(hh==24) { hh=0. printf( } } count=0. printf(lcd_putc. mm++.hh).1).

lcd_gotoxy(7. ss=ss+3. while(1) { f=getc()."CLOCK").1). lcd_putc('\f'). output_bit(pin_b7. output_bit(pin_b7. lcd_gotoxy(7. printf(lcd_putc. setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8).0). printf(lcd_putc. } } } } count++. } void main() { char f. enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1). lcd_init().1)."CLOCK"). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. set_timer1(0xfffe). delay_ms(30). enable_interrupts(GLOBAL). putc(f). of ECE 54 VAST .1)."alarm").Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc.

if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶). c=getc(). } } } Dept. printf (lcd_putc. } else { go to l1. lcd_intit(). of ECE 55 VAST .c> Void main() { Char c. i=0.2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam.´%c´. l1:while(1) { i++.h´ #include<lcd.2.1).c).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. int i=0. lcd_goto(1.


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 57 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.2 PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 58 VAST .


Routers or Coordinators. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. the bandwidth it occupies. Here defined are the frequencies used.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. Routers can also be used as End Devices. the frequency. but the distance was too great between the points.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices. PC peripherals. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B.4 802.15.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example.15. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802.15.15. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal. simple connectivity and Dept. and networking features unique to this protocol.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. others are industry standards. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. As a few examples. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. and the IEEE 802. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. industrial communication and wireless technology. the IEEE 802.15. 802. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.4 was developed with lower data rate. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.15.4 radio.4 protocol on which it was built. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason. 802. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. of ECE 60 VAST .15.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.

I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground.400-2. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.15.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.Campus Automation battery application in mind. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram. of ECE 61 VAST . Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer. the 2. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.8MHz.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to).4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.4 devices.15. 8.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. Instead of using a reset switch. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it. when I need to reset the XBee.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. You should see a screen like the one shown below. you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. of ECE 62 VAST . After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept. If you¶re not sure. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to.

Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. click on the ³Read´ button. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator).You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. of ECE 63 VAST . Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using.5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept. Select ³ZNet 2. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee.

3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. and click the ³Write´ button again. If any of those commands did not return the correct information. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. then congratulations. of ECE 64 VAST . change the desired settings.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. If those commands returned the correct information. 8. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. The XBee will respond with ³OK´.

Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below.5 V. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. and can accept 30-V inputs. Dept. The driver.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. receiver. of ECE 65 VAST . Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB.

slants and holes should be traced. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired. using a thin Dept. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing.5.5. 8. However. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. quick drying enamel paint.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. etc. grease.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. Preparing the PCB drawing 2.5. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. 8. deciding the diameter of various holes. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. Locating holes.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. of ECE 66 VAST . for small scale operations.Campus Automation 8. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations.

the resistors are taken care at first. The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. After drying. Depending on the wiring diagram. turpentine or acetone. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. or IDE. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. and then the IC¶s are soldered.5. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint. Dept. 8. the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. of ECE 67 VAST . because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. If etching takes longer.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. The PCB may then be washed and dried. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE.

allowing access to hardware features directly from C. y Dept.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete.5. analyze. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs.. a context sensitive C aware editor. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another. built-in functions and standard C operators.helping developers create.. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers. debug and document project code. build tools and real time debugger. This suite includes an IDE for project management. which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. of ECE 68 VAST . The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler.Campus Automation 8. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers.


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell. y The bell rings at the end of each hour. when the observer is far away from the display.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller. Dept. Hardware implementation is simpler. of ECE 70 VAST . 9. y ZigBee module is very costly.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule.


1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers. y y Dept. of ECE 72 VAST . y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept. of ECE 73 VAST .

This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required. The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module. Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly. of ECE 74 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept. of ECE 75 VAST .

of ECE 76 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 77 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 78 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 79 VAST .

of ECE 80 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

THV: High voltage test mode controlling. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. Dept. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. PGC: serial programming clock. Vpp: programming voltage input. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. of ECE 81 VAST . TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. CK: synchronous clock input. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). CS: Select control for parallel slave. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. INT: external interrupt. PGD: Serial programming data. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



of ECE 86 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept. of ECE 87 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.

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