Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





1. motion detection. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. PIR sensor . Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat).TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock .The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. Dept. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer. and laser range finding.bell & ZIGBEE module. 3. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. In fact. which controls the data transfer.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section. PIR sensors are used in many applications. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. of ECE 7 VAST . such as night vision.

2. Zigbee module and a buzzer . of ECE 8 VAST . LCD display.PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display.if the message bit is greater than 16 bit.RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller. The program is set such that LCD will clear .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3. The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message. Dept.


1.C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.POWE SUPPLY Fig. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.1 Dept C 0 .4.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept. of ECE 11 VAST .

3 RECEIVER Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 12 VAST .


The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven. Dept. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load.3 V. of ECE 14 VAST . A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. In the case of +5 Volt.3 Volts.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal.. LCD. LM 78 5(U5). together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. we can use fixed regulator ICs i.1. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier. constitutes a feed back amplifier. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit.e. but is often a separate unit a module. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. It is compressed of three basic parts.

The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. The use of a suitable capacitor will.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals. The output of the IC gives us +12v. Acceptable values on generally . improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions.25V between the output and Dept. in many applications no external components are required. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. only three terminals are required for this type of generator.1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. They therefore. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. The simplicity and case of application is evident. .21 geF ceramic disks. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. with a minimum of external components required. input (Vin).A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose. A 47Mf (C13) and .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value. The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2). however. A 47Mf (C14) and . 2mF or greater tantalum. do not require any external feed back connections. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. output (Vo) and a ground terminal. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. Indeed. or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . of ECE 15 VAST . As a result.

Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter.25v V = 1. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept.3V DC voltage. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply.3v. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3. of ECE 16 VAST . Usually.-12 or 6. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage. VREF is 1. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals.3V. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12. giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3.

63A. f=5 Hz. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std. SELECTION OF R 1 . Hence C=477.Campus Automation I= . Use 47 F standard.3 V Then R2 = 33     std.1 F std.2=13. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1.72 F. R2. std.2V. of ECE 17 VAST . Dept. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output. Use C4 = . C3. C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose. Vp=12+1.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. We require C2 << C1 .

ROM. large user base.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. wide availability. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM. I/O ports. As li e normal microcontroller. Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus). This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus). The PIC has number of advanced features.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. 5. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. communication ports. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. availability of low cost or free development tools. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . EEPROM. PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. of ECE 18 VAST .2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability.5. etc. etc). Dept. extensive collection of application notes. timers/counters.2.

2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. High sink/source current (25mA). Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. PIC 16C77. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). Indirect. Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B.56)volts.5nS).3 Key Features Dept. Pulse Width Modules (1 bit). Eight level deep hardware stack.high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). Power on Reset (POR). Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). eral Features 5. and 8k×14 of flash memory.2. Compare (16 bit/2 nS). Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). Wide operating voltage range (2. Commercial. Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources). Fully static design. Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory). Low power consumption (< . industrial and extended temperature ranges. Different types of addressing modes (direct. Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). PIC 16C76. All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions. instruction cycle (2 nS). Two Capture (16bit/12. ± 5.2. Low power. relative addressing modes). 5.6mA typical @3v-4MHz. of ECE 19 VAST .

3 timers.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation. 5.2. of ECE 2 VAST . 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. 1 Self programmable under software control. Single 5V. accumulator.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz. 5 input/output ports. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5.2. control unit. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators. Flash program memory (14 bit words). EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. ALU. Power saving sleep modes.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept.2. USART). Programmable code protection. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible. Selectable oscillator options. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP. 2 CCP modules.4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5. etc. Data memory (bytes) is 368. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. 8KB.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory.

7. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. 5. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed. The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction.1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. of ECE 21 VAST . The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately).2. In the PIC microcontrollers.7.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR). This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. 5.2. Each time we write a new program to the controller. Dept. As a result. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers).2. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. These RISC structure gives the following advantages. The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one. y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others. we must delete the old one at that time. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5.

There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. BANK 1. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address. BANK 2. The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. 5. RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept. This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. Instead. The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2. of ECE 22 VAST .3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s).2. Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. and BANK4). Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. these banks may vary. A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write).7.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. which gives only 128 addresses. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes.1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5.

All write operations are read-modify-write operations.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7.RC-0 to RC-7. of ECE 23 VAST . etc. PORT C (RC).8. PORT D (RD). TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B. the value is modified and then written to the port data latch.).e. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output.2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. ³PORT C´. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. In this controller. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7). These ports are used for input/ output interfacing.e. Therefore. (If we want to set PORT A as an input.) 5.RD-0 to RD-7). PORT B (RB). ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7).. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i. bidirectional port. Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch.1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. and PORT E (RE). put the corresponding output driver in a High. PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A). 5. rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations.. Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input. ´PORT B´ . The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A.8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports.Impedance mode).2.

The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs.e. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB.. Four of the PORTB pins. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. 5. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). This interrupt-on-mismatch feature.change feature. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression.2. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).. have an interrupton. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. 5.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature..change comparison). This will end the y y Mismatch condition. in the Interrupt Service Routine. RB7:RB4.8. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM.e.8.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. Clear flag bit RBIF. bidirectional port.e.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF.2. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. bidirectional port. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. of ECE 24 VAST . Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. The user. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset.

These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF.2. In this mode. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. 5. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings.2. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination. read-modify write instructions (BSF. these pins will read as µ0¶s. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept.e. 5. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. Also. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.8. the input buffers are TTL. even when they are being used as analog inputs. the input buffers are TTL. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs.2. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. BCF. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. When enabling peripheral functions. of ECE 25 VAST .. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs.e. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. In this mode. or with SMBus levels. When selected for analog input. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). 5. ZIGBEE etc. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. should be avoided. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. Bluetooth. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). In this mode. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>).. When the I2C module is enabled. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers.8. IR. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O.

such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits. 5. of ECE 26 VAST . serial EEPROMs. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size. such as CRT terminals and personal computers. one stop bit & no parity bit.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. etc. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin.2.

11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. The use of an RCR network.6. When reset it is low. For this reason.5. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event. during reset. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD.2.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. of ECE 27 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. as shown in Fig. 5. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept.5 is suggested. These are given in appendix. During normal operation this pin should be high.

5. Operations and registers are not orthogonal.3 5.2. ‡ Dept. Small instruction set.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware).2.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices. The PIC requires external clock generator. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3. Program memory is not accessible. 5. of ECE 28 VAST .

ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance. 5.5. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications. However.15. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802. such as Bluetooth. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking.15. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes.4 has been developed by IEEE. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. The new standard is also called ZigBee.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life. such as wireless light switches with lamps. electrical meters with in-home-displays. of ECE 29 VAST .42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used. Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. a new standard called IEEE 802. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards. For such wireless applications. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802.

A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today . The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. provided they are within physical range of one another. Using this silent. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. IEEE 802. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . Typically. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. of ECE 30 VAST . The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle.4 GHz in digital modes. distance. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. and thousands of worker bees. In addition. The domestic honeybee.15.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. 5. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. lives in a hive that contains a queen. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development. which was used as the basis for a new standard. she is able to share information such as the which the connections are wireless. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate. In the ideal scenario. a few male drones.3. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. bees around Dept.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace .3. The survival. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". a colonial insect. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. long battery life. success. 5. but powerful communication system. and secure networking.

of ECE 31 VAST . IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. not a single technical standard. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. 5.15. the IEEE 802.15. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products. industrial communication and wireless technology. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard.15. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. and networking features unique to this protocol.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.3.4 IEEE 802. ultra-low cost. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. PC peripherals. The current list of application profiles either published. 802.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members. and the IEEE 802. 802. others are industry standards.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.3.15.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.4 Dept.4 protocol on which it was built. cost-effective. the bandwidth it occupies. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.4 radio. As a few examples.15.15.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.15. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group. We will define the frequencies used. As per its main role.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee.

15.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types. the Smart Energy Profile 2. As amended by NIST. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY.15. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that.480 GHz.15. 5. simple connectivity and battery application in mind. and requires the most memory and computing power.15. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world). Most recently. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels. of ECE 32 VAST .4 GHz. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use. Home Automation. 802.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2. The 802.5 Components of the IEEE 802. such as IEEE 802.4.4(x) and IEEE P1901.4 IEEE 802.3. The ZigBee 1. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802.4 GHz band.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate.15. was announced 2 November 2007. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN. In the 2.15.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.15.400-2. the 902-928 MHz or the 2. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified. The first ZigBee Application Profile.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. the 2.8MHz.15.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier.15. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth.405 to 2.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard. The relationship between IEEE 802. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.15. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007. At 2. Dept.4 devices. It can function as a network coordinator. The 802.

Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less.450 GHz. IEEE 802. wireless mesh networking standard. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation.15. which are typically around three seconds. For many people. 2.450 GHz bands. In the United States of America. low-power.6 ISM Band The industrial. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range.3. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In .Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. First. Dept.3. Second. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz.800 GHz bands.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost. scientific and medical purposes other than communications. and medical diathermy machines. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands. of ECE 33 VAST . 5. However. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency.4. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules. and 5. It is generally found in network-edge devices. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. 5. 915 MHz and 2.138. Third.280 of the Radio Regulations. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. 5. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. microwave ovens. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. general. and 5. even those that use the ISM frequencies.45 GHz. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays.150.

ZigBee Pro offers more features. A ZED requires the least amount of memory.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004. It is able to store information about the network. passing on data from other devices. it cannot relay data from other devices. of ECE 34 VAST .3. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. resulting in long battery life. ZigBee 2007. the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.1%) 5.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. average power consumption can be very low.3.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time. such as multi-casting. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. while Dept. and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). a router can act as an intermediate router. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. now the current stack release. y 5. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library". ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). contains two stack profiles. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE). stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). for home and light commercial use.

ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. However. In beaconenabled networks. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes.36 milliseconds to 15.3. The switch then wakes up. In this type of network. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. Due to differences in routing options. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. In non-beacon-enabled networks. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. Beacon intervals may range from 15.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. Nodes may sleep between beacons. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. and returns to sleep. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. In beaconing networks.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. In most large network instances. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash. the network will be a cluster of clusters. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15). In general. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. Dept. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. of ECE 35 VAST . 5. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network.36 ms * 214 = 251. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. However. if not the ZigBee Coordinator. since it is connected to the mains supply. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. which can conflict with the need for low product cost.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. requiring a more robust power supply. regardless of the stack profile beneath them. sends a command to the lamp. The applications running on those devices work the same. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network. receives an acknowledgment. while others spend most of their time sleeping.

Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time... 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands.. these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band.15. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch .. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK). In the constellation diagram shown on the right. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2.. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro.3. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL). over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. Finally. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator.11)) MHz. with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. The raw.26. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). 5. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. Dept. and do not use CSMA. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. which by definition do not use CSMA.4 GHz band. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). where ch = 11. That is. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. 12. In the 2.4 GHz band.4 GHz (worldwide). or half a symbolperiod. of ECE 36 VAST . the nodes talk in the same way that people converse. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW).4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter). The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK.0.

6 As an example. In other words. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. Fig 5. but they are less severe.3. but the distance was too great between the points. 5. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together).4 radio. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept.5 5. Fig. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 .3. of ECE 37 VAST .15.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption.5.

Can be used indoors and outdoors.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. very long primary battery life. guaranteed latency.3. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee).  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. Thus. of course. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept. of ECE 38 VAST . with low latency available. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power. No configuration is required out of the box. Furthermore. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi.000 nodes. 5. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2.15.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. Default baud rate is 9600bps.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. Although.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. secondary battery lasts same as master. y Very high QoS and very low. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. >65. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost.

For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features. pin 2 (transmit). Quite simply.3. The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4. 5. of ECE 39 VAST . This can be very handy. 5. That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet.4 PIR Sensor Fig. These are quite attractive specs.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig.8 Dept.5. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine. XBee also allows invisible operation.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping. pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. . it replaces the serial communication cable.5.

such as VCRs and DVD players. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. night vision. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. they also have several disadvantages. 5. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous.5 V. such as night vision. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors.4. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.4.4. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor. PIR sensors are used in many applications. and laser range finding. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. 5. 5. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices. hospitals.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. install. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). and calibrate as well. which is usually a thin sheet. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. motion detection. In fact. and can accept 30-V inputs. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material.4.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. of ECE 40 VAST . They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away. and heatseeking missiles. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from. Dept. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. They can be expensive to purchase. 5. Also.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. 5.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. Because of these properties. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. depending on how the device is calibrated. and libraries.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light.

1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F. . . Modems. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1. Terminals.5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0. of ECE 41 VAST .1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept.  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. Battery-Powered Systems. receiver. and Computers 5.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current . The driver.

or electroluminescent. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector.Campus Automation Fig 5. for example. and 20x4. An LCD is a small low cost display. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights. and two polarizing filters. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). 16x2. laser printers. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO).6. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. which may be LED. fluorescent. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. which is one row of eight characters. a cloth. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. 5. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. of ECE 42 VAST . industrial test equipment. fax machines. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing.1 Font Dept. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1.

and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept. as they are stored in volatile memory. of ECE 43 VAST .6. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands.6. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix. 5. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix.

µreceive¶ and common ground. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications.10 1. DSR. The two pins are TXD & RXD. 5. VCC (+3. RI. As the name indicates. RS=1: Data 5. There are other lines on this port as RTS. and RTS. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. of ECE 44 VAST . RS=0: Command. Register Select (RS). The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20. Read/Write (R/W). The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively.3 to +5V) 3. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. The three links provides µtransmit¶. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. R/W=0: Write. CTS. Dept. Ground 2.000bps.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. DTR. R/W=1: Read 5. the data is transmitted serially.

the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. 5. or character encoding.1 Pin out Diagram Fig.7. user data is sent as a time-series of bits.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept. of ECE 45 VAST . The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. In addition to the data circuits. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions.11 5. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is.5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232.

of ECE 46 VAST .2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.8. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept. a PIC and an LCD display are used.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC. The data is send as RS232 protocols. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator.In the receiver side a ZigBee module. 5. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device.8. The USART communication is used for transmitting data. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC.

8.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. which is Usually a thin sheet. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . of ECE 47 VAST . As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. 5.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception.


1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize LCD.1 FLOWCHART 6.1. of ECE 49 VAST .ss=0 Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Initialize time hh=0.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept. of ECE 50 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1. of ECE 51 VAST .2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.

ss=00.2 Firmware 6.c> #include <stdio.0). } Dept.h> unsigned int hh=00.h> #include <stdlib.1 Transmitter section #include <string. of ECE 52 VAST .1). #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6. } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++.h> #include <lcd.2. } else { output_bit(pin_b6.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. if(hh==24) {

printf(lcd_putc. printf(lcd_putc. mm++.2).2). lcd_gotoxy(10. } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy( Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++. if(mm==60) { mm=0. Dept. printf(lcd_putc. ss=ss+1. } }"%02u". lcd_gotoxy(7. lcd_gotoxy(5.1).":%02u". of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST . if(hh==24) { hh=0.":%02u".2). if(ss==60) { ss=0. if(mm==60) { mm=0. hh++.

putc(f). lcd_gotoxy(7.0). set_timer1(0xfffe). ss=ss+3. enable_interrupts(GLOBAL)."CLOCK"). setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8). enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1).1).1). of ECE 54 VAST ."alarm"). lcd_gotoxy(7. printf(lcd_putc. delay_ms(30). printf(lcd_putc. output_bit(pin_b7. } void main() { char f. output_bit(pin_b7. } } } } count++. lcd_putc('\f')."CLOCK"). lcd_init(). while(1) { f=getc(). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.1).Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc.

2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam. i=0.h´ #include<lcd.c> Void main() { Char c. lcd_intit().c). if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶). lcd_goto(1.1).2. of ECE 55 VAST . } } } Dept. printf (lcd_putc.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.´%c´. c=getc(). int i=0. } else { go to l1. l1:while(1) { i++.


1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7. of ECE 57 VAST .

of ECE 58 VAST .2 PCB LA OUT Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.


PC peripherals. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal.4 protocol on which it was built. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B.4 802. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. As a few examples. the bandwidth it occupies.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). the IEEE 802.15.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. industrial communication and wireless technology.15.15.15. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. others are industry standards.4 radio. Here defined are the frequencies used. 802. of ECE 60 VAST . the frequency. and the IEEE 802. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points.4 was developed with lower data rate. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason. simple connectivity and Dept. Routers can also be used as End Devices.15. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices. and networking features unique to this protocol. but the distance was too great between the points. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical. Routers or Coordinators. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8.15. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.15. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. 802.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers.

I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground. when I need to reset the XBee.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to). the 902-928 MHz or the 2. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board.8MHz. Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram.Campus Automation battery application in mind. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections.15.4 devices. of ECE 61 VAST . 8.15. Instead of using a reset switch.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.400-2. the 2.

Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept. If you¶re not sure.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. You should see a screen like the one shown below. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to. of ECE 62 VAST .

click on the ³Read´ button.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed. The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept. of ECE 63 VAST . Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using.5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee. Select ³ZNet 2. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier.

3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. change the desired settings. The XBee will respond with ³OK´. of ECE 64 VAST . Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. If any of those commands did not return the correct information. and click the ³Write´ button again. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. If those commands returned the correct information. 8. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. then congratulations.

5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first. Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB. of ECE 65 VAST . We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output.5 V. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below. receiver.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. Dept. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. The driver.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. and can accept 30-V inputs. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.

taking a photographic negative of the drawing. for small scale operations. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations. using a thin Dept.Campus Automation 8. Preparing the PCB drawing 2. However. quick drying enamel paint. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. deciding the diameter of various holes. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts.5. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. slants and holes should be traced. of ECE 66 VAST . Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1.5. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. 8. Locating holes. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. 8. etc.5. grease.

the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. Depending on the wiring diagram. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. turpentine or acetone. of ECE 67 VAST . The PCB may then be washed and dried. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. and then the IC¶s are soldered. Dept.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers.5. After drying. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". or IDE. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. the resistors are taken care at first. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. If etching takes longer. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint. 8.

This suite includes an IDE for project management.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. y Dept. build tools and real time debugger. analyze. built-in functions and standard C operators.Campus Automation 8..5. a context sensitive C aware editor. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers.helping developers create. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another.. of ECE 68 VAST . debug and document project code. which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs.


Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule. y ZigBee module is very costly. when the observer is far away from the display. Hardware implementation is simpler. of ECE 70 VAST .2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. Dept. 9.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller. y The bell rings at the end of each hour. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell.


y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. y y Dept.1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. of ECE 72 VAST . The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers.

of ECE 73 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept.

It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required. The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. of ECE 74 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today. It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. Dept. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy.

of ECE 75 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept.

of ECE 76 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 77 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 78 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 79 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 80 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. INT: external interrupt. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. PGD: Serial programming data. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. PGC: serial programming clock. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. THV: High voltage test mode controlling. Dept. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. CS: Select control for parallel slave. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. of ECE 81 VAST . PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. Vpp: programming voltage input. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. CK: synchronous clock input. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



of ECE 86 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept. of ECE 87 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.

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