Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





which controls the data transfer. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. 3. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. Dept.bell & ZIGBEE module.1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. In fact. of ECE 7 VAST . PIR sensors are used in many applications.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). PIR sensor .The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. motion detection.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. such as night vision. and laser range finding.

Zigbee module and a buzzer . Dept. of ECE 8 VAST .PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3. The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message.2. The program is set such that LCD will clear .if the message bit is greater than 16 bit. LCD display.RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller.


1.C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.POWE SUPPLY Fig.4.1 Dept C 0 . transmitter section and recei er section are 4.

of ECE 11 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.

3 RECEIVER Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 12 VAST .


POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors. of ECE 14 VAST . It is compressed of three basic parts. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load. constitutes a feed back amplifier. LCD. LM 78 5(U5).. we can use fixed regulator ICs i.e. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit.3 Volts. A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. Dept. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3.3 V. but is often a separate unit a module. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier. In the case of +5 Volt.1.

and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. A 47Mf (C13) and . As a result. The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte .25V between the output and Dept. The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions. only three terminals are required for this type of generator. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. input (Vin). A 47Mf (C14) and . From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC. do not require any external feed back connections. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator. in many applications no external components are required. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor.1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. The output of the IC gives us +12v. The use of a suitable capacitor will.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. Indeed. of ECE 15 VAST . 2mF or greater tantalum.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value. . Acceptable values on generally . output (Vo) and a ground terminal. The simplicity and case of application is evident. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. with a minimum of external components required. however.21 geF ceramic disks. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. They therefore. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2).1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection.A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose.

giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage. Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals. Usually. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output.3V DC voltage. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected. of ECE 16 VAST . C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3. VREF is 1. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components.3V. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3.-12 or 6.25v V = 1.3v.

3 V Then R2 = 33     std. Use C4 = . Dept.2V. std. SELECTION OF R 1 .2=13. Vp=12+1. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std.72 F.1 F std. R2. C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose. PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1. Hence C=477. C3. 63A. Use 47 F standard. of ECE 17 VAST . f=5 Hz. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output. We require C2 << C1 .Campus Automation I= .25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3.

etc. availability of low cost or free development tools. timers/counters. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM. wide availability. The PIC has number of advanced features. ROM. extensive collection of application notes. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. I/O ports. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus). communication ports.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. 5.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. etc).5.2. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus). Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1. EEPROM. of ECE 18 VAST . PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. As li e normal microcontroller. Dept.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. large user base.

Power on Reset (POR). industrial and extended temperature ranges. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. ± 5.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions.56)volts.2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. 5. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). Commercial.5nS). Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). Two Capture (16bit/12. eral Features 5.6mA typical @3v-4MHz. Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. of ECE 19 VAST . WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). PIC 16C76. Indirect. Wide operating voltage range (2. Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR).3 Key Features Dept.high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. instruction cycle (2 nS). Low power consumption (< .2. 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). High sink/source current (25mA). All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles. Eight level deep hardware stack. Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. and 8k×14 of flash memory. Pulse Width Modules (1 bit).2. PIC 16C77. relative addressing modes). Fully static design. Low power. Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory). Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Different types of addressing modes (direct. Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. Compare (16 bit/2 nS). Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources).

DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation. 1 Self programmable under software control. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible. Single 5V. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Data memory (bytes) is 368.2. accumulator. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. Selectable oscillator options. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5.2. Flash program memory (14 bit words).2. USART). 5. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. ALU. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability.4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5. Power saving sleep modes. of ECE 2 VAST . Programmable code protection. 2 CCP modules. control unit. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. 5 input/output ports. etc. 3 timers. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept. 8KB. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators.

1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user. These RISC structure gives the following advantages.2. The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. Dept. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle).2. 5. y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections. we must delete the old one at that time. Each time we write a new program to the controller.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR).7.7. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. of ECE 21 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately). RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed. In the PIC microcontrollers. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers).2. 5. The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5. The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. As a result.

5. which gives only 128 addresses. The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2.1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. BANK 2. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address. Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. these banks may vary. RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept. A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers. This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory.2. of ECE 22 VAST . Instead. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes.7. BANK 1. and BANK4).

Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B.8.e. All write operations are read-modify-write operations. ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7). Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i. These ports are used for input/ output interfacing. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read. Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input.8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports.e. 5. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. PORT B (RB). The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump.).2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. put the corresponding output driver in a High. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output.) 5. ³PORT C´.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer.Impedance mode). In this controller.2. ´PORT B´ . The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7).. PORT D (RD). put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). (If we want to set PORT A as an input. bidirectional port. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶. Therefore. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i. They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A). and PORT E (RE). The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A..1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide.RC-0 to RC-7.RD-0 to RD-7). rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7.2. etc. PORT C (RC). of ECE 23 VAST .

Clear flag bit RBIF.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. The user. This will end the y y Mismatch condition. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up.change feature.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. Four of the PORTB pins. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>).. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature. bidirectional port. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep.8. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature.e. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i.e. of ECE 24 VAST . The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset.2. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. bidirectional port. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. in the Interrupt Service Routine. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF.2. have an interrupton.8.. RB7:RB4. 5. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs.e. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). 5.change comparison). together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins..

8. should be avoided. When enabling peripheral functions. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). In this mode.. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). 5. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. of ECE 25 VAST . the input buffers are TTL. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI).. even when they are being used as analog inputs. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i. When the I2C module is enabled. 5. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept.e. In this mode. IR. or with SMBus levels.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5.2. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit.e. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. these pins will read as µ0¶s.2. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices.8. When selected for analog input. the input buffers are TTL. 5.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. read-modify write instructions (BSF. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. BCF. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i. Bluetooth. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. ZIGBEE etc. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output.2. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. In this mode. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Also.

such as CRT terminals and personal computers. etc. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. one stop bit & no parity bit. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit. 5. serial EEPROMs. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices.2. The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. of ECE 26 VAST . Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin.

11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. during reset. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. of ECE 27 VAST . Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. For this reason. The use of an RCR network. 5. as shown in Fig. During normal operation this pin should be high.5 is suggested. When reset it is low.5. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept.6.2. These are given in appendix.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device.

2.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware). Small instruction set. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation. of ECE 28 VAST . Program memory is not accessible.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator. ‡ Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. Operations and registers are not orthogonal. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3. 5.3 5. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices. The PIC requires external clock generator.5.2.

of ECE 29 VAST . Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards. However.15. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. For such wireless applications.4 has been developed by IEEE. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small.15. The new standard is also called ZigBee.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology.42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. 5. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life. such as Bluetooth. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802. such as wireless light switches with lamps. electrical meters with in-home-displays.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance.5. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. a new standard called IEEE 802.

a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. Using this silent.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . provided they are within physical range of one another. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. In the ideal scenario. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern.4 GHz in digital modes. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today . a few male drones. of ECE 30 VAST . The domestic honeybee. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. IEEE 802. 5. The survival. a colonial insect.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. which the connections are wireless. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". and secure networking. lives in a hive that contains a queen. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. In addition.3. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. but powerful communication system. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. 5. long battery life. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. distance.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate. and thousands of worker bees. success. she is able to share information such as the location. bees around Dept. which was used as the basis for a new standard. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems.15.3.

0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5.4 IEEE 802. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.15.15. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. 802. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802. the IEEE 802.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity.4 Dept.3. We will define the frequencies used. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. not a single technical standard.15. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. and networking features unique to this protocol. 5.3.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. cost-effective.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. of ECE 31 VAST . The current list of application profiles either published. industrial communication and wireless technology.4 radio. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). ultra-low cost.15. 802. the bandwidth it occupies.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members. and the IEEE 802. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. As a few examples. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.15. others are industry standards.15. PC peripherals.4 protocol on which it was built. As per its main role.15.

15.4 devices.4. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth. simple connectivity and battery application in mind. was announced 2 November 2007. The ZigBee 1. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types. the Smart Energy Profile 2.15. The relationship between IEEE 802.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier. 802.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2.400-2.480 GHz. The 802.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.4 GHz band.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world). the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007. As amended by NIST.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance. The 802.3. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802.4 IEEE 802.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. 5. It can function as a network coordinator.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. Most recently.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802.15. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that. and requires the most memory and computing power. In the 2.405 to 2.15.4(x) and IEEE P1901.4 GHz. of ECE 32 VAST . Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified. such as IEEE 802. Dept. the networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge.15. The first ZigBee Application Profile.15. Home Automation.8MHz. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.5 Components of the IEEE 802. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.15. At 2.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate.15. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY.

3. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less.280 of the Radio Regulations. Third. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation. and 5. However.4. 5. First.3. even those that use the ISM frequencies.138. It is generally found in network-edge devices. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. 2. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In .Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. of ECE 33 VAST .7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost. 915 MHz and 2.800 GHz bands. IEEE 802. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. Second. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. In the United States of America. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. 5. and 5. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity.15. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. which are typically around three seconds. wireless mesh networking standard. low-power.150. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. microwave ovens.450 GHz. and medical diathermy machines.450 GHz bands. general.45 GHz. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules.6 ISM Band The industrial. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. scientific and medical purposes other than communications. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. Dept. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. 5. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands. For many people.

ZigBee 2007. contains two stack profiles. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life.3. It is able to store information about the network. while Dept. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE). now the current stack release. a router can act as an intermediate router.1%) 5. y 5. average power consumption can be very low. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library". passing on data from other devices. stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. ZigBee Pro offers more features.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time. resulting in long battery life. of ECE 34 VAST . There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. such as multi-casting. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). A ZED requires the least amount of memory.3. for home and light commercial use. The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. it cannot relay data from other devices.

sends a command to the lamp.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. and returns to sleep.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. However. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. The applications running on those devices work the same. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. while others spend most of their time sleeping. since it is connected to the mains supply.3. In most large network instances. of ECE 35 VAST . receives an acknowledgment. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. In non-beacon-enabled networks. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15). nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. Due to differences in routing options. However. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life.36 ms * 214 = 251. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. The switch then wakes up. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. In beaconenabled networks. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. regardless of the stack profile beneath them.36 milliseconds to 15. the network will be a cluster of clusters. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. In beaconing networks. requiring a more robust power supply. Beacon intervals may range from 15. Nodes may sleep between beacons. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash. Dept. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. if not the ZigBee Coordinator. In general. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. In this type of network. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393.

Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. In the constellation diagram shown on the right.4 GHz (worldwide). which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. which by definition do not use CSMA. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once. of ECE 36 VAST .. In the 2. 12.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. and do not use CSMA. The raw.15.3. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). the nodes talk in the same way that people converse. 5. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter).11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. Dept. or half a symbolperiod. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW). 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands.4 GHz band.. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL). By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro. Finally. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802.. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band. That is.26. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense.. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2. The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems.11)) MHz. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK). with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch .4 GHz band.0.. where ch = 11. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time. it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time.

but the distance was too great between the points. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept.4 radio.3.6 As an example. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination.5. Fig.15. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream. but they are less severe.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 .13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK.5 5. 5. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. of ECE 37 VAST . In other words. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together).3. Fig 5.

ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default.3. Thus. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. >65.000 nodes.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power.15. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee). guaranteed latency. 5.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. very long primary battery life. of ECE 38 VAST . it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. No configuration is required out of the box. Default baud rate is 9600bps. secondary battery lasts same as master. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. Although. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. Can be used indoors and outdoors. Furthermore. y Very high QoS and very low. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. of course. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. with low latency available.

So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. XBee also allows invisible operation.5. These are quite attractive specs. That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet. . Quite simply.8 Dept. pin 2 (transmit).15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig. 5. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping.4 PIR Sensor Fig. Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features. it replaces the serial communication cable. This can be very handy.3. pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4. of ECE 39 VAST .5.

PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. 5. and heatseeking missiles. and libraries. and laser range finding. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. Also.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from. 5. install. Dept. hospitals. and can accept 30-V inputs. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. night vision. They can be expensive to purchase. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. motion detection. which is usually a thin sheet.4.4.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. they also have several disadvantages.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. depending on how the device is calibrated.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. and calibrate as well.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages.4. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. Because of these properties. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them.4. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away. 5.5 V. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). 5. such as night vision. PIR sensors are used in many applications. of ECE 40 VAST . PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. such as VCRs and DVD players. 5. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor. In fact.

The driver.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current .  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0. and Computers 5.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F.28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1. Battery-Powered Systems.5. Modems. of ECE 41 VAST . .1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept. . Terminals. receiver.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.

and two polarizing filters. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. which may be LED. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems.6. of ECE 42 VAST .1 Font Dept. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. fax machines. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. fluorescent. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. and 20x4. An LCD is a small low cost display. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. laser printers. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. or electroluminescent. industrial test equipment. 5.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. 16x2. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. a cloth.Campus Automation Fig 5. for example. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1. which is one row of eight characters.

and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on.6. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept.6. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters. of ECE 43 VAST . 5. as they are stored in volatile memory.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. CTS. Ground 2. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. DTR. R/W=0: Write. RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20. R/W=1: Read 5. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). The two pins are TXD & RXD. VCC (+3. Dept. µreceive¶ and common ground. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. RI. RS=1: Data 5. Read/Write (R/W). Contrast adjustment (VO) 4.000bps. 5. and RTS. the data is transmitted serially. As the name indicates. There are other lines on this port as RTS. The three links provides µtransmit¶.3 to +5V) 3. The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. RS=0: Command. of ECE 44 VAST . It is commonly used in computer serial ports. DSR.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port.10 1. Register Select (RS).

Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is. 5.11 5.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept. user data is sent as a time-series of bits. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse.7.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits. or character encoding. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE.5. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. In addition to the data circuits.1 Pin out Diagram Fig. of ECE 45 VAST .

of ECE 46 VAST . 5.In the receiver side a ZigBee module. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module.8. a PIC and an LCD display are used. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. The data is send as RS232 protocols.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message. The USART communication is used for transmitting data. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5.8. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.

it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. which is Usually a thin sheet.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. 5.8.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. Dept. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock .The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. of ECE 47 VAST .


1 FLOWCHART 6.1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize Initialize time hh=0.1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept. of ECE 49 VAST .

of ECE 50 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept.

1.2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept. of ECE 51 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Transmitter section #include <string.2 Firmware 6.count=1.h> #include <lcd. if(hh==24) { hh=0.2. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.h> unsigned int hh=00. } of ECE 52 VAST .c> #include <stdio. } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++.0). } else { output_bit(pin_b6.h> #include <stdlib.1).

Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++.hh).1). if(hh==24) { hh=0. mm++.2). lcd_gotoxy(10. ss=ss+1. Dept.2). if(ss==60) { ss=0. lcd_gotoxy(7. lcd_gotoxy(5. of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST . if(mm==60) { mm=0. hh++.2).mm). if(mm==60) { mm=0. printf(lcd_putc. printf(lcd_putc.":%02u". } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy("%02u". printf(lcd_putc. } } count=0.":%02u".

delay_ms(30)."CLOCK").1). ss=ss+3. } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. lcd_gotoxy(7. enable_interrupts(GLOBAL).1). lcd_init(). } } } } count++. setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8). while(1) { f=getc(). lcd_gotoxy(7."CLOCK"). output_bit(pin_b7. enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1).1). printf(lcd_putc. printf(lcd_putc. set_timer1(0xfffe). } void main() { char f.0). lcd_putc('\f')."alarm").Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc. of ECE 54 VAST . output_bit(pin_b7. putc(f).

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. i=0.c> Void main() { Char c.2. of ECE 55 VAST . c=getc(). l1:while(1) { i++. printf (lcd_putc. } } } Dept.c). lcd_goto(1. lcd_intit().h´ #include<lcd. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶).1).´%c´. } else { go to l1.2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam. int i=0.


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7. of ECE 57 VAST .1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept.

of ECE 58 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.2 PCB LA OUT Dept.


4 protocol on which it was built.15. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason.15. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission.15. the frequency.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).15. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination.4 was developed with lower data rate.4 radio. and the IEEE 802. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. Here defined are the frequencies used.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. the IEEE 802. of ECE 60 VAST .11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. PC peripherals. industrial communication and wireless technology. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8.15. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal. simple connectivity and Dept. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B. Routers can also be used as End Devices. but the distance was too great between the points. As a few examples. 802. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.15. others are industry standards. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. the bandwidth it occupies. and networking features unique to this protocol.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. Routers or Coordinators. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers.15.4 802. 802. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical.

PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to). when I need to reset the XBee. the 902-928 MHz or the 2. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections. Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.15.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.15.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2.400-2.8MHz. of ECE 61 VAST . Instead of using a reset switch. 8.4 devices. the 2.Campus Automation battery application in mind.

of ECE 62 VAST . If you¶re not sure. you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. You should see a screen like the one shown below. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software.

5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. Select ³ZNet 2. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). click on the ³Read´ button.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed. Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. of ECE 63 VAST .

you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. 8. change the desired settings. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. of ECE 64 VAST . If those commands returned the correct information. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. and click the ³Write´ button again. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. The XBee will respond with ³OK´.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. then congratulations. If any of those commands did not return the correct information.

Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. and can accept 30-V inputs. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below.5 V. Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. receiver. The driver. of ECE 65 VAST . These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.

The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1.Campus Automation 8. deciding the diameter of various holes.5. slants and holes should be traced. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing. Preparing the PCB drawing 2. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. Locating holes.5. quick drying enamel paint. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. 8. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. for small scale operations. etc. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. However.5. 8. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. using a thin Dept. grease. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black. of ECE 66 VAST .

After drying.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. If etching takes longer. The PCB may then be washed and dried.5. the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated. Dept. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. or IDE. The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. 8. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". of ECE 67 VAST . because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. the resistors are taken care at first. and then the IC¶s are soldered. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. turpentine or acetone. Depending on the wiring diagram.

of ECE 68 VAST . debug and document project code.. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler. y Dept.helping developers create. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs. which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. analyze. a context sensitive C aware editor. built-in functions and standard C operators. This suite includes an IDE for project management. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. build tools and real time debugger. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers.Campus Automation 8.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete.. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers.5.


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. Hardware implementation is simpler. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell. 9. y The bell rings at the end of each hour.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear. y ZigBee module is very costly. Dept. when the observer is far away from the display. of ECE 70 VAST .


y y Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers.1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes. of ECE 72 VAST .

of ECE 73 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept.

Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. of ECE 74 VAST . The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly. It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module.

of ECE 75 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 76 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 77 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 78 VAST .

of ECE 79 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 80 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. CS: Select control for parallel slave. THV: High voltage test mode controlling. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). Vpp: programming voltage input. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. PGC: serial programming clock. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. of ECE 81 VAST . T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. CK: synchronous clock input. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. INT: external interrupt. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. PGD: Serial programming data. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). Dept. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode).

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 86 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST. of ECE 87 VAST .Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept.

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