Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. PIR sensors are used in many applications. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . PIR sensor . PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. motion detection. such as night vision. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). which controls the data transfer. of ECE 7 VAST . PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. Dept.1. In fact. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. 3.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section. and laser range finding.bell & ZIGBEE module. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.

PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display. of ECE 8 VAST . LCD display. The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message. Zigbee module and a buzzer .RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3.2. Dept.if the message bit is greater than 16 bit. The program is set such that LCD will clear .


1.4.POWE SUPPLY Fig. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.1 Dept C 0 .C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.

2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 11 VAST .

3 RECEIVER Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 12 VAST .


Dept.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller. In the case of +5 Volt. constitutes a feed back amplifier. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. LM 78 5(U5). The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load.1. LCD. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. It is compressed of three basic parts.3 V. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors.. of ECE 14 VAST . A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal.3 Volts. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. but is often a separate unit a module. we can use fixed regulator ICs i. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3.e. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3.

The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. of ECE 15 VAST . only three terminals are required for this type of generator. . Acceptable values on generally . The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2).21 geF ceramic disks. input (Vin). A 47Mf (C14) and . however.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. output (Vo) and a ground terminal. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC. and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. Indeed. do not require any external feed back connections. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. 2mF or greater tantalum. with a minimum of external components required. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. The output of the IC gives us +12v. The use of a suitable capacitor will.1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value.25V between the output and Dept. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. They therefore. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions.A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals. The simplicity and case of application is evident. A 47Mf (C13) and . in many applications no external components are required. or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . As a result.

C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A.3V DC voltage.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply.-12 or 6. Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3.3V.25v V = 1.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals. Usually.3v. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12. of ECE 16 VAST . SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components. VREF is 1. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3. giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes.

Dept. Use 47 F standard.1 F std. 63A. Use C4 = .Campus Automation I= .2V. of ECE 17 VAST . PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std. Vp=12+1.72 F. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1.3 V Then R2 = 33     std. C3. f=5 Hz. Hence C=477. R2. SELECTION OF R 1 . std. C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose.2=13. We require C2 << C1 . Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std.

I/O ports. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus). As li e normal microcontroller.2. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus). etc). extensive collection of application notes. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. wide availability. EEPROM. Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM. large user base.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. availability of low cost or free development tools. PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost.5.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. of ECE 18 VAST . etc. 5. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. timers/counters. The PIC has number of advanced features. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . communication ports. Dept. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. ROM. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5.

Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory). Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Low power.3 Key Features Dept.5nS). Two Capture (16bit/12. Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). of ECE 19 VAST . industrial and extended temperature ranges. 5. Commercial. PIC 16C76. 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). eral Features 5. Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. relative addressing modes). Indirect. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. Wide operating voltage range (2.2. Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). Low power consumption (< . Power on Reset (POR).2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. PIC 16C77.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions. All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles. Compare (16 bit/2 nS).high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). High sink/source current (25mA). WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). instruction cycle (2 nS). Fully static design. Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. ± 5.2. Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources). Pulse Width Modules (1 bit). and 8k×14 of flash memory.56)volts. Different types of addressing modes (direct.6mA typical @3v-4MHz. Eight level deep hardware stack.

accumulator. of ECE 2 VAST .2.2. etc.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz. Programmable code protection. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible. Data memory (bytes) is 368. 2 CCP modules. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU.2. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. 8KB. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation. Single 5V. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory. Selectable oscillator options. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC).4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. ALU. 1 Self programmable under software control. USART). 3 timers. Flash program memory (14 bit words). A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. control unit. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept. Power saving sleep modes. 5 input/output ports. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. 5. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5.

2. As a result. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction. These RISC structure gives the following advantages. Dept. Each time we write a new program to the controller.2.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections. we must delete the old one at that time. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers). The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately). The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one.1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed. of ECE 21 VAST .2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR). The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution.7. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. 5. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. In the PIC microcontrollers. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others. 5.7.2.

which gives only 128 addresses.2. The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. 5. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. these banks may vary. BANK 1.1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access.7. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). of ECE 22 VAST . it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address. The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2. BANK 2.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). Instead. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. and BANK4). RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes.

1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A). the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. etc. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. PORT D (RD)..RD-0 to RD-7). The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read. rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations. ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7). PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5. of ECE 23 VAST .. bidirectional port. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. These ports are used for input/ output interfacing. TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B. In this controller.) 5. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. (If we want to set PORT A as an input. PORT B (RB). Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i. All write operations are read-modify-write operations. ´PORT B´ . put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).e. ³PORT C´. and PORT E (RE).).2. 5.2.8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports. put the corresponding output driver in a High.RC-0 to RC-7. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output. The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7).Impedance mode).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer.2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional. Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch.e. Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins. PORT C (RC). Therefore.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7.8.

e.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature.e. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. have an interrupton. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC.e. in the Interrupt Service Routine. bidirectional port. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output.. 5. The user. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature..8. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature.2.2.change feature. 5. This will end the y y Mismatch condition. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. RB7:RB4.8. Four of the PORTB pins. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. of ECE 24 VAST . Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB. Clear flag bit RBIF. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD.. bidirectional port. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM.change comparison). Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>).

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i. 5. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. Also. these pins will read as µ0¶s. the input buffers are TTL.8. In this mode. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). 5. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept.2. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. When enabling peripheral functions. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled. In this mode. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. When selected for analog input. In this mode. Bluetooth.2.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. should be avoided. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. read-modify write instructions (BSF.e.8.e. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination. of ECE 25 VAST .. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. even when they are being used as analog inputs. the input buffers are TTL. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). ZIGBEE etc. When the I2C module is enabled. BCF.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. 5. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. IR. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings.2.. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. or with SMBus levels.

such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits. such as CRT terminals and personal computers. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices. one stop bit & no parity bit.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. of ECE 26 VAST . The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin. serial EEPROMs. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. 5. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. etc.2.

2.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. When reset it is low.5 is suggested. as shown in Fig. These are given in appendix.6. 5. The use of an RCR network. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept.5. during reset.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. of ECE 27 VAST . Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. For this reason. During normal operation this pin should be high. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD.

Operations and registers are not orthogonal. Small instruction set.3 5. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation. ‡ Dept. Program memory is not accessible.5. 5.2. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. of ECE 28 VAST .2.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator. The PIC requires external clock generator.

The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. electrical meters with in-home-displays. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance.15.5. For such wireless applications. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance. The new standard is also called ZigBee. However. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802.4 has been developed by IEEE.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. such as Bluetooth.42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. of ECE 29 VAST . a new standard called IEEE 802. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. 5. Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used. such as wireless light switches with lamps.15.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs.

when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. 5.3. 5. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. of ECE 30 VAST . The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. and secure networking. a colonial insect. and thousands of worker bees. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. The domestic honeybee. In addition.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. which was used as the basis for a new standard. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. but powerful communication system.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today .in which the connections are wireless. distance.15. Using this silent. long battery life.4 GHz in digital modes. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. bees around Dept. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. IEEE 802.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. success. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. lives in a hive that contains a queen. she is able to share information such as the location. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. In the ideal scenario.3. a few male drones.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . provided they are within physical range of one another. The survival. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. Typically.

ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.4 protocol on which it was built.15. cost-effective. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard. and the IEEE 802. ultra-low cost.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5. not a single technical standard.4 IEEE 802. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1.4 Dept. 5. industrial communication and wireless technology.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).15. the IEEE 802. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity.4 radio. The current list of application profiles either published.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. As a few examples.15. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. and networking features unique to this protocol.15. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee.3.15.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable. others are industry standards.15.15. PC peripherals.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members. 802. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.3. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. of ECE 31 VAST . the bandwidth it occupies. As per its main role. We will define the frequencies used. 802. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.

15. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN.5 Components of the IEEE 802. 802.15. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY.4 GHz band. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. Home Automation.4(x) and IEEE P1901. In the 2. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that.4.3.15. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802. the 902-928 MHz or the 2. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world). 5. Dept. It can function as a network coordinator.8MHz. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth.15. of ECE 32 VAST . the 2.15. was announced 2 November 2007.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. The relationship between IEEE 802. the Smart Energy Profile 2. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types. At 2.15. simple connectivity and battery application in mind.15.4 GHz.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance. The 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate.405 to 2. and requires the most memory and computing power.400-2.15. The 802.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified.480 GHz. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations. The first ZigBee Application Profile.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard.4 IEEE 802. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier. As amended by NIST.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2.15. Most recently. The ZigBee 1.4 devices.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance. such as IEEE 802.15.

The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating. and 5. In the United States of America. and 5. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In .15. 5. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. Dept.6 ISM Band The industrial. It is generally found in network-edge devices. general. For many people.450 GHz bands. Second. IEEE 802. which are typically around three seconds. even those that use the ISM frequencies.3.3. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations.150. low-power. 2.138.450 GHz. scientific and medical purposes other than communications.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost.800 GHz bands.4. However. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less. of ECE 33 VAST . 5. and medical diathermy machines. microwave ovens. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range.45 GHz. 915 MHz and 2. 5. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. Third. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands.280 of the Radio Regulations. wireless mesh networking standard. First.

A ZED requires the least amount of memory. resulting in long battery life. average power consumption can be very low. such as multi-casting. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. It is able to store information about the network. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time. while Dept. ZigBee Pro offers more features. of ECE 34 VAST . stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). a router can act as an intermediate router. y 5. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0. now the current stack release.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. contains two stack profiles.1%) 5. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC.3. ZigBee 2007. The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. passing on data from other devices. for home and light commercial use. ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library". it cannot relay data from other devices.3. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE).9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally.

In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15). ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. 5. receives an acknowledgment. In most large network instances.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. sends a command to the lamp. while others spend most of their time sleeping. The applications running on those devices work the same. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. of ECE 35 VAST . thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. The switch then wakes up. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. Due to differences in routing options. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. However. since it is connected to the mains supply. regardless of the stack profile beneath them. In general. requiring a more robust power supply. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing. In this type of network. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. if not the ZigBee Coordinator. However. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used.36 ms * 214 = 251. In beaconenabled networks.36 milliseconds to 15. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. Beacon intervals may range from 15.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. Dept. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. Nodes may sleep between beacons. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. the network will be a cluster of clusters.3.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. and returns to sleep. In beaconing networks. In non-beacon-enabled networks. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster.

The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as..26. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. and do not use CSMA. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. where ch = 11. Finally. which by definition do not use CSMA.4 GHz band. That is.. it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit.. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter).11)) MHz. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2.4 GHz (worldwide). It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK).15.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2. 12. The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL).3. 5. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start.4 GHz band. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse.. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems. The raw.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. of ECE 36 VAST .0. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro.. In the 2. Dept. or half a symbolperiod. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW). 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch . The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time.

5. In other words.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption. 5.4 radio.15. but the distance was too great between the points. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept. Fig. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK.3. but they are less severe. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination.6 As an example. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream. of ECE 37 VAST . Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves.5 5. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together).12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 .3. Fig 5.

it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi. Furthermore. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. guaranteed latency. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee). very long primary battery life.000 nodes. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second).4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. >65. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. secondary battery lasts same as master. Thus. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default. of course.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires. 5. with low latency available. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. of ECE 38 VAST .4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation.3.15. Although. No configuration is required out of the box. y Very high QoS and very low.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802. Default baud rate is 9600bps. Can be used indoors and outdoors. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept.

7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). of ECE 39 VAST . These are quite attractive specs.5. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine.8 Dept.4 PIR Sensor Fig. it replaces the serial communication cable. 5. 5.3.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig. . pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping. This can be very handy. The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features. XBee also allows invisible operation.5. Quite simply. pin 2 (transmit).

In fact.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. depending on how the device is calibrated. hospitals.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. motion detection. and heatseeking missiles. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. Also.5 V. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages.4. which is usually a thin sheet.4. and libraries. and calibrate as well. 5. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. Dept. 5.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. they also have several disadvantages. and laser range finding.4. They can be expensive to purchase. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away. install. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. such as night vision. PIR sensors are used in many applications. night vision. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light. of ECE 40 VAST . Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). and can accept 30-V inputs.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. Because of these properties. 5. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. 5. 5. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices.4. such as VCRs and DVD players.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.

Modems. of ECE 41 VAST . Battery-Powered Systems. and Computers 5. The driver.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current .1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F. . . Terminals.5. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. receiver.28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1.

It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. which may be LED. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins.Campus Automation Fig 5. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. An LCD is a small low cost display. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. 5. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. a cloth. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. fluorescent. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. 16x2. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. laser printers.1 Font Dept. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. of ECE 42 VAST . These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1. and two polarizing filters. industrial test equipment. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. for example.6. which is one row of eight characters. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. fax machines. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). or electroluminescent. and 20x4.

as they are stored in volatile memory.6. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands. 5.6. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on. of ECE 43 VAST .

Dept.10 1. R/W=1: Read 5. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. RS=0: Command. Ground 2. RI. As the name indicates. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4. DTR.000bps. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively.3 to +5V) 3. RS=1: Data 5.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. Read/Write (R/W). The two pins are TXD & RXD. R/W=0: Write. Register Select (RS). The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. CTS. the data is transmitted serially. DSR. µreceive¶ and common ground. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). The three links provides µtransmit¶. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. VCC (+3. There are other lines on this port as RTS. and RTS. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. of ECE 44 VAST . The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20.

5. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is. 5. user data is sent as a time-series of bits.1 Pin out Diagram Fig. In addition to the data circuits. of ECE 45 VAST .8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232.7. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse.11 5. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. or character encoding.

5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5.In the receiver side a ZigBee module. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data.8. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. a PIC and an LCD display are used. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. The data is send as RS232 protocols. The USART communication is used for transmitting data. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data. of ECE 46 VAST .In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC.8. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side.

It consists of a LCD display to show the clock .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. Dept. which is Usually a thin sheet.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. of ECE 47 VAST .8. 5.


1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize LCD.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1 FLOWCHART Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Initialize time hh=0.1. of ECE 49 VAST .

of ECE 50 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept.

of ECE 51 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.1.

2. } else { output_bit(pin_b6.1).ss=00. } Dept.0).h> #include <lcd.h> unsigned int hh=00. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.c> #include <stdio. } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++. of ECE 52 VAST .2 Firmware 6.h> #include <stdlib.1 Transmitter section #include < Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. if(hh==24) { hh=0.

ss=ss+1. printf(lcd_putc.2). printf(lcd_putc.1). of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST ."%02u". if(mm==60) { mm=0.":%02u".Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++. if(ss==60) { ss=0.":%02u". lcd_gotoxy(5.hh).2). if(hh==24) { hh=0. lcd_gotoxy(7.2). lcd_gotoxy(10. Dept. } } } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7. if(mm==60) { hh++. mm++. printf(lcd_putc.

Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc. putc(f). output_bit(pin_b7. lcd_gotoxy(7. set_timer1(0xfffe). lcd_gotoxy(7. enable_interrupts(GLOBAL). } } } } count++.1). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept."CLOCK"). } void main() { char f. of ECE 54 VAST . lcd_putc('\f').1). printf(lcd_putc. output_bit(pin_b7.1). delay_ms(30). printf(lcd_putc. enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1). setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8). lcd_init(). ss=ss+3.0). while(1) { f=getc()."alarm")."CLOCK").

lcd_intit().2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶). printf (lcd_putc. i=0.c> Void main() { Char c.´%c´.1). } } } Dept. l1:while(1) { i++.h´ #include<lcd. c=getc().c).2. int i=0. lcd_goto(1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. } else { go to l1. of ECE 55 VAST .


of ECE 57 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept.

of ECE 58 VAST .2 PCB LA OUT Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.


802.15. others are industry standards. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example. industrial communication and wireless technology.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.4 was developed with lower data rate. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical. PC peripherals. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. of ECE 60 VAST .4 radio.15. but the distance was too great between the points. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. Routers can also be used as End Devices.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8.15. and networking features unique to this protocol. 802.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.4 protocol on which it was built. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B. simple connectivity and Dept.15. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points.15. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).15.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. Routers or Coordinators. the bandwidth it occupies. the IEEE 802.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B.4 802. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason. As a few examples.15. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. Here defined are the frequencies used. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. the frequency. and the IEEE 802. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices.

400-2. the 2. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board.15.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2.Campus Automation battery application in mind.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. Instead of using a reset switch. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.15.8MHz. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. when I need to reset the XBee. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to). Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept.4 devices. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections. of ECE 61 VAST .5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it. 8.

of ECE 62 VAST . You should see a screen like the one shown below. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. If you¶re not sure. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept.

click on the ³Read´ button. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee. Select ³ZNet 2. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. of ECE 63 VAST . This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed.5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process.

then congratulations. 8. of ECE 64 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. If those commands returned the correct information. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. If any of those commands did not return the correct information. and click the ³Write´ button again.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. The XBee will respond with ³OK´. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. change the desired settings. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab.

Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. and can accept 30-V inputs. of ECE 65 VAST . and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.5 V. receiver.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output. Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. Dept. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. The driver. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8.

Locating holes. quick drying enamel paint. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations. 8. of ECE 66 VAST . With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. slants and holes should be traced.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers.5.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing. However. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired.5. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts. grease. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. for small scale operations.Campus Automation 8. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. 8. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black. taking a photographic negative of the drawing.5. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. using a thin Dept. etc. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made. deciding the diameter of various holes. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. Preparing the PCB drawing 2.

of ECE 67 VAST . Dept. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. Depending on the wiring diagram. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. the resistors are taken care at first. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. If etching takes longer.5. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint. turpentine or acetone. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. or IDE. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated. After drying. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. and then the IC¶s are soldered. The PCB may then be washed and dried. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. 8. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried.

allowing access to hardware features directly from C. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler..5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete.. a context sensitive C aware editor. built-in functions and standard C operators. This suite includes an IDE for project management. debug and document project code.Campus Automation 8. build tools and real time debugger. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers.helping developers create.5. analyze. of ECE 68 VAST . y Dept. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs. which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert.


9. y ZigBee module is very costly.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear. when the observer is far away from the display. y The bell rings at the end of each hour.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule. Hardware implementation is simpler. Dept. of ECE 70 VAST .


1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. of ECE 72 VAST . y y Dept. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers. y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept. of ECE 73 VAST .

The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly. It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. of ECE 74 VAST . Dept.

of ECE 75 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept.

of ECE 76 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 77 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 78 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 79 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 80 VAST .

CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. INT: external interrupt. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. PGD: Serial programming data. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. Vpp: programming voltage input. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). CS: Select control for parallel slave. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). CK: synchronous clock input. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. Dept. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. of ECE 81 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. PGC: serial programming clock. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). Vref (+/-): reference voltage. THV: High voltage test mode controlling.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



of ECE 86 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept. of ECE 87 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful