Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. of ECE 7 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section. and laser range finding.bell & ZIGBEE module.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. In fact. which controls the data transfer. PIR sensor .PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. PIR sensors are used in many applications. such as night vision. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot.1. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer. Dept. The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. motion detection. 3.

Zigbee module and a buzzer . of ECE 8 VAST . Dept. LCD display.2.RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller.PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3. The program is set such that LCD will clear .if the message bit is greater than 16 bit. The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message.


POWE SUPPLY Fig.4. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.1 Dept C 0 .1.

2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 11 VAST .

of ECE 12 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.3 RECEIVER Dept.


A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage.3 Volts. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller.3 V.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. but is often a separate unit a module. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit. of ECE 14 VAST . LCD.1. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3. Dept. It is compressed of three basic parts. In the case of +5 Volt. constitutes a feed back amplifier. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven.. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors.e. LM 78 5(U5). The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier. we can use fixed regulator ICs i. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature.

Indeed. They therefore. of ECE 15 VAST . The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. The use of a suitable capacitor will. with a minimum of external components required. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor.21 geF ceramic disks.25V between the output and Dept. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value.A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose. The output of the IC gives us +12v. do not require any external feed back connections. A 47Mf (C13) and . As a result. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. A 47Mf (C14) and . Acceptable values on generally . The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm.1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. in many applications no external components are required. The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. The simplicity and case of application is evident. however. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions. output (Vo) and a ground terminal. and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . . input (Vin). The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2). only three terminals are required for this type of generator. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. 2mF or greater tantalum. The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3.3V.-12 or 6.3V DC voltage. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3. Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter.25v V = 1. VREF is 1. giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A.3v. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected. Usually. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below. of ECE 16 VAST .

63A. Hence C=477. of ECE 17 VAST . C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose.2V. C3. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output. SELECTION OF R 1 . Vp=12+1.Campus Automation I= .2=13. std. Dept. R2. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1.1 F std. f=5 Hz. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std.3 V Then R2 = 33     std. PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. We require C2 << C1 .72 F.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. Use C4 = . Use 47 F standard. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std.

extensive collection of application notes. of ECE 18 VAST . Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM. Dept. wide availability. large user base. EEPROM. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. timers/counters. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus). PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. I/O ports. The PIC has number of advanced features. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies.5.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. communication ports. etc). ROM. As li e normal microcontroller. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . 5. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. etc. availability of low cost or free development tools. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus).2. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications.

Commercial. Power on Reset (POR). 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). Eight level deep hardware stack. Low power. Indirect. Different types of addressing modes (direct.high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. High sink/source current (25mA). Pulse Width Modules (1 bit). Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. of ECE 19 VAST . 5. PIC 16C76. eral Features 5. WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. Low power consumption (< . Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer.56)volts. industrial and extended temperature ranges. Wide operating voltage range (2.2. and 8k×14 of flash memory. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory).2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar.6mA typical @3v-4MHz. ± 5. All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby).5nS). Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR).3 Key Features Dept. Compare (16 bit/2 nS).Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions. 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). relative addressing modes). Two Capture (16bit/12. instruction cycle (2 nS). Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources).2. Fully static design. Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. PIC 16C77. Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz).

accumulator.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU. Flash program memory (14 bit words). 5 input/output ports. control unit. Data memory (bytes) is 368. 2 CCP modules.2. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP. etc. ALU. Single 5V. of ECE 2 VAST . Power saving sleep modes.4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder.2. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. 3 timers. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5.2. 8KB. Programmable code protection. USART). programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. Selectable oscillator options. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible. 5. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. 1 Self programmable under software control.

y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others. As a result. Dept.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions.7.7. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). of ECE 21 VAST . The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. In the PIC microcontrollers. 5. These RISC structure gives the following advantages. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. we must delete the old one at that time. 5.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR). They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers).1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user. Each time we write a new program to the controller. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections. The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable.2. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed.2. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately). The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one.

of ECE 22 VAST . RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. these banks may vary. There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. BANK 1. This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). BANK 2. A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. Instead. which gives only 128 addresses. 5. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes. and BANK4).1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register.2. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address.7. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2.

1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. PORT D (RD). The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump.. These ports are used for input/ output interfacing. Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7). the value is modified and then written to the port data latch.RC-0 to RC-7.e. and PORT E (RE). The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i. All write operations are read-modify-write operations..8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports. PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7.RD-0 to RD-7). whereas writing to it will write to the port latch.Impedance mode).2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional. ´PORT B´ . bidirectional port. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin.) 5. etc. Therefore. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶.e.2. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output. (If we want to set PORT A as an input.2. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. PORT B (RB).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer.8. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read. PORT C (RC). of ECE 23 VAST .). They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A). put the corresponding output driver in a High. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7). Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input. In this controller. rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations. ³PORT C´. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i. 5.

The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).8. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept. 5. in the Interrupt Service Routine.8.2. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. bidirectional port. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i. have an interrupton..change feature.e.change comparison). Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB.. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB.2. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset.. RB7:RB4. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. 5. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD.e. This will end the y y Mismatch condition.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. of ECE 24 VAST . The user. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature. Clear flag bit RBIF.e. Four of the PORTB pins. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. bidirectional port. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep.

(USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. 5. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. When enabling peripheral functions. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. the input buffers are TTL. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. read-modify write instructions (BSF.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. of ECE 25 VAST .2.e. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation.8. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions.2. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. or with SMBus levels. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. even when they are being used as analog inputs. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination. Bluetooth. In this mode. ZIGBEE etc. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5.. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. In this mode. 5.2. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). In this mode. BCF. IR. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input.e. 5. should be avoided. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>).. these pins will read as µ0¶s.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. When selected for analog input. When the I2C module is enabled. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.8. the input buffers are TTL.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). Also. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin.

2. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit. one stop bit & no parity bit. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices. 5. such as CRT terminals and personal computers. of ECE 26 VAST .10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. serial EEPROMs. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. etc.

For this reason. of ECE 27 VAST . Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD. during reset. 5. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses.2.6. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event. When reset it is low. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. These are given in appendix. as shown in Fig.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. The use of an RCR network.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. During normal operation this pin should be high.5 is suggested.5.

The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices. ‡ Dept. Operations and registers are not orthogonal.5.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator. The PIC requires external clock generator. 5. Small instruction set. of ECE 28 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig.2. Program memory is not accessible.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware).2.3 5.

electrical meters with in-home-displays.15. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs. 5. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth.5. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802. For such wireless applications. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. such as wireless light switches with lamps.15. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. However. Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802. such as Bluetooth.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. of ECE 29 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance.4 has been developed by IEEE. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking.42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs).4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. a new standard called IEEE 802. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards. The new standard is also called ZigBee. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes.

a few male drones.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . In the ideal scenario. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today . bees around Dept. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. 5. 5. long battery life. she is able to share information such as the location. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. a colonial insect. distance. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. but powerful communication system. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. Using this silent. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development. In addition. and thousands of worker bees. provided they are within physical range of one another.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. IEEE 802.15. success. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. The domestic honeybee. Typically. and secure networking.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in".or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation.4 GHz in digital modes. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. which was used as the basis for a new standard. of ECE 30 VAST . and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony which the connections are wireless. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. lives in a hive that contains a queen. they can communicate as if connected by a cable.3.3. The survival.

While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. As a few examples.3.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5. As per its main role. and the IEEE 802. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.4 IEEE 802. not a single technical standard.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.4 radio.15. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.15. the bandwidth it occupies.4 Dept. the IEEE 802. The current list of application profiles either published. 5. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.15. cost-effective.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). and networking features unique to this protocol.15.15.4 protocol on which it was built.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee.15. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices.15. 802. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity. industrial communication and wireless technology. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard. of ECE 31 VAST .3. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products. ultra-low cost. PC peripherals. others are industry standards. We will define the frequencies used. 802.

In the 2.4 devices.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance. Home Automation. At 2. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge.15. The ZigBee 1. of ECE 32 VAST . and requires the most memory and computing power. the Smart Energy Profile 2.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.5 Components of the IEEE 802. simple connectivity and battery application in mind.480 GHz. the 902-928 MHz or the 2. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that.15.8MHz.15. The 802.15. was announced 2 November 2007.15. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth.4 GHz band.400-2. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world).15.15.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802. As amended by NIST. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types. 5. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. the 2. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY.4.3. 802.405 to 2. The relationship between IEEE 802.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier. The first ZigBee Application Profile.4 GHz.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2. Dept.15.15.4 IEEE 802.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations.15. such as IEEE 802. The 802. It can function as a network coordinator.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. Most recently.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate.4(x) and IEEE P1901. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels.

138. and 5. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating.15. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands. In the United States of America. 5.6 ISM Band The industrial. Third. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5.280 of the Radio Regulations.450 GHz bands. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less.3. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. It is generally found in network-edge devices. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation. even those that use the ISM frequencies. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. First. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. and medical diathermy machines. of ECE 33 VAST . Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. However.450 GHz. low-power. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz.4. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. general. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In . The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost. and 5. wireless mesh networking standard. microwave ovens. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity. 5. 5. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. 2.45 GHz.150. For many people.800 GHz bands. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. Dept. Second. scientific and medical purposes other than communications. which are typically around three seconds. 915 MHz and 2.3. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. IEEE 802.

3. A ZED requires the least amount of memory. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE). ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. contains two stack profiles. average power consumption can be very low.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. a router can act as an intermediate router. and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). y 5. It is able to store information about the network. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. ZigBee Pro offers more features. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. for home and light commercial use. now the current stack release. it cannot relay data from other devices.1%) 5. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time.3. ZigBee 2007. such as multi-casting. of ECE 34 VAST . the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library". passing on data from other devices. resulting in long battery life. while Dept.

the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. In general. the network will be a cluster of clusters. The switch then wakes up. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. and returns to sleep.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. sends a command to the lamp.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash. However. Due to differences in routing options.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. receives an acknowledgment. if not the ZigBee Coordinator. Nodes may sleep between beacons. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. while others spend most of their time sleeping. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. of ECE 35 VAST . The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. In non-beacon-enabled networks.36 milliseconds to 15. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393.36 ms * 214 = 251. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. 5. In beaconenabled networks. requiring a more robust power supply. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. However. In this type of network. In most large network instances.3. In beaconing networks. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. since it is connected to the mains supply. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. regardless of the stack profile beneath them. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15). ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. The applications running on those devices work the same. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. Beacon intervals may range from 15. Dept. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown.

and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL).. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems.4 GHz band. and do not use CSMA.. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. or half a symbolperiod. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK). Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro.4 GHz (worldwide). By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands.15..4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. The raw. which by definition do not use CSMA. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. where ch = 11. it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice.4 GHz band. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch . The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW).26. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse. of ECE 36 VAST . When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter).11)) MHz. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2.. with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. That is. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). Finally. 12. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°.0.3. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. Dept.. In the 2. 5. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule.

4 radio. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept. Fig 5. but the distance was too great between the points.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream.3. 5.5.6 As an example. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. of ECE 37 VAST . The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together). the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. Fig. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. but they are less severe.5 5.15.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 .13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption. In other words.3. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points.

Although. with low latency available.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. Can be used indoors and outdoors. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). secondary battery lasts same as master. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. No configuration is required out of the box. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2.3. of ECE 38 VAST . >65. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. of course. y Very high QoS and very low. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee).Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications. guaranteed latency.15. Default baud rate is 9600bps. Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802.000 nodes. Furthermore. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. very long primary battery life. 5. Thus.

5.5. pin 2 (transmit). That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping. XBee also allows invisible operation.8 Dept. of ECE 39 VAST . Quite simply. Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features.4 PIR Sensor Fig. it replaces the serial communication cable. The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. 5.3.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig.5.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine. pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. This can be very handy. These are quite attractive specs.

5.4. Because of these properties. In fact. and heatseeking missiles. of ECE 40 VAST .4. depending on how the device is calibrated. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. 5. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light. and libraries. motion detection. Dept. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. they also have several disadvantages. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. and calibrate as well. 5. 5. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. such as night vision.5 V. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). They can be expensive to purchase. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. hospitals. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. install. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception.4. such as VCRs and DVD players. and can accept 30-V inputs. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. which is usually a thin sheet. 5.4. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. Also. night vision. PIR sensors are used in many applications.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. and laser range finding.

.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. of ECE 41 VAST .28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1.  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F.5. Modems. receiver. 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0. Terminals.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current . The driver. Battery-Powered Systems.1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept. and Computers 5. .

16x2. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes.Campus Automation Fig 5. which may be LED. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. of ECE 42 VAST . the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. 5. fax machines. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. and 20x4. industrial test equipment. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. which is one row of eight characters. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). or electroluminescent. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. for example. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. and two polarizing filters.6. a cloth. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters.1 Font Dept. laser printers. An LCD is a small low cost display. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. fluorescent. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using.

as they are stored in volatile memory.6. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found.6. of ECE 43 VAST . and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on. 5. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters.

and RTS. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. of ECE 44 VAST . The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. As the name indicates. RS=1: Data 5. Register Select (RS).3 to +5V) 3. The two pins are TXD & RXD. VCC (+3. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20. RS=0: Command. CTS. Read/Write (R/W). Dept.000bps. Ground 2.10 1. RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. the data is transmitted serially. RI. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. R/W=1: Read 5. 5. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. R/W=0: Write. There are other lines on this port as RTS. DSR. DTR. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. µreceive¶ and common ground.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. The three links provides µtransmit¶. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment).

of ECE 45 VAST . Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232. or character encoding. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions.5. In addition to the data circuits.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is. 5.1 Pin out Diagram Fig. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE.11 5.7. user data is sent as a time-series of bits.

PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept. a PIC and an LCD display are used.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data.8. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. The data is send as RS232 protocols.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side. of ECE 46 VAST . Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data.In the receiver side a ZigBee module. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission. The USART communication is used for transmitting data.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter.8. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. 5.

5. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. of ECE 47 VAST .The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. Dept. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material.8. which is Usually a thin sheet.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock .


1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1 FLOWCHART 6. of ECE 49 VAST Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept.TIMER Initialize time hh=0.

of ECE 50 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.1. of ECE 51 VAST .

} if(hh==24) { hh=0.1 Transmitter section #include <string.2 Firmware 6. } else { output_bit(pin_b6. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.c> #include <stdio.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.h> #include <lcd.h> unsigned int hh=00. of ECE 52 VAST .0). } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++.h> #include <stdlib.

of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST .1). } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7.2). Dept. mm++. lcd_gotoxy(5. lcd_gotoxy( } } count=0. printf( lcd_gotoxy(10. printf(lcd_putc.Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++."%02u".2). ss=ss+1. printf(lcd_putc.hh). if(mm==60) { mm=0. if(ss==60) { ss=0.":%02u". if(mm==60) { mm=0.":%02u". if(hh==24) { hh=0. hh++.

printf(lcd_putc. of ECE 54 VAST ."CLOCK"). } void main() { char f. while(1) { f=getc(). set_timer1(0xfffe). output_bit(pin_b7. } } } } count++. output_bit(pin_b7. enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1).0). putc(f). lcd_gotoxy(7. ss=ss+3.Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc."alarm").1).1). setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8)."CLOCK").1). lcd_init(). printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(7. delay_ms(30). enable_interrupts(GLOBAL). lcd_putc('\f'). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

2.h´ #include<lcd. int i=0. c=getc().´%c´.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1). lcd_intit().c).c> Void main() { Char c. i=0. l1:while(1) { i++.2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam. lcd_goto(1. } } } Dept. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶). } else { go to l1. of ECE 55 VAST . printf (lcd_putc.


1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 57 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.

of ECE 58 VAST .2 PCB LA OUT Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.


This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission.4 was developed with lower data rate.4 802.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical. and the IEEE 802. the IEEE 802. the bandwidth it occupies.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.15. Here defined are the frequencies used.4 protocol on which it was built.15. Routers or Coordinators.15. of ECE 60 VAST . ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. but the distance was too great between the points. 802. the frequency. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. simple connectivity and Dept. others are industry standards.15.4 radio. industrial communication and wireless technology. As a few examples. 802. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers. and networking features unique to this protocol.15.15. PC peripherals. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example. Routers can also be used as End Devices. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8.15.

I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board. when I need to reset the XBee. the 902-928 MHz or the 2. 8.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. Instead of using a reset switch.8MHz. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802.15.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram. Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept. of ECE 61 VAST .15. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to).400-2.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it.Campus Automation battery application in mind. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground. the 2.4 devices. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer.

Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to. of ECE 62 VAST . If you¶re not sure.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. You should see a screen like the one shown below. you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee.

click on the ³Read´ button. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed. Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´.5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. of ECE 63 VAST . Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. Select ³ZNet 2.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee.

then congratulations. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. of ECE 64 VAST .3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. The XBee will respond with ³OK´. If those commands returned the correct information. If any of those commands did not return the correct information. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. and click the ³Write´ button again. change the desired settings. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. 8.

Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB.5 V.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first. receiver. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output. The driver. Dept.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. and can accept 30-V inputs.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. of ECE 65 VAST . Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below.

The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired. etc. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. taking a photographic negative of the drawing.Campus Automation 8. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. Locating holes. slants and holes should be traced. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. of ECE 66 VAST .2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. Preparing the PCB drawing 2. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing. deciding the diameter of various holes. 8. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made.5. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black. for small scale operations.5.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. 8. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts. grease.5. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. using a thin Dept. quick drying enamel paint. However.

and then the IC¶s are soldered. Dept.5. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. the resistors are taken care at first. After drying. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). of ECE 67 VAST . the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. The PCB may then be washed and dried. or IDE.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. If etching takes longer. 8. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. turpentine or acetone. Depending on the wiring diagram. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint.

y Dept. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete. which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs. This suite includes an IDE for project management.Campus Automation 8. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another.. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers.5.helping developers create.. debug and document project code. build tools and real time debugger. a context sensitive C aware editor. of ECE 68 VAST . built-in functions and standard C operators. analyze.


Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell. Dept. y ZigBee module is very costly. 9. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. Hardware implementation is simpler. of ECE 70 VAST . when the observer is far away from the display.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller. y The bell rings at the end of each hour.


y y Dept. y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. of ECE 72 VAST .1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers.

of ECE 73 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept.

It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly. of ECE 74 VAST . Dept. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today. The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept. of ECE 75 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 76 VAST .

of ECE 77 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 78 VAST .

of ECE 79 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 80 VAST .

SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. CS: Select control for parallel slave. INT: external interrupt. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. THV: High voltage test mode controlling. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. Dept. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. CK: synchronous clock input.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. PGC: serial programming clock. Vpp: programming voltage input. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. of ECE 81 VAST . T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. PGD: Serial programming data. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 86 VAST .

Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST. of ECE 87 VAST .

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