Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





PIR sensor . Dept. In fact. 3. such as night vision. and laser range finding. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer. of ECE 7 VAST . It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. PIR sensors are used in many applications. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. which controls the data transfer.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat).The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port.1.bell & ZIGBEE module. motion detection.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3. The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message. Dept. The program is set such that LCD will clear . of ECE 8 VAST .RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller.if the message bit is greater than 16 bit. Zigbee module and a buzzer .2. LCD display.PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display.


1. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.4.1 Dept C 0 .C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.POWE SUPPLY Fig.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 11 VAST .2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.

3 RECEIVER Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 12 VAST .


together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. Dept. LCD.3 V. It is compressed of three basic parts. we can use fixed regulator ICs i. but is often a separate unit a module.1. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal. of ECE 14 VAST . In the case of +5 Volt. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. constitutes a feed back amplifier. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven. LM 78 5(U5).3 Volts. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3. A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage..e.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller.

As a result.21 geF ceramic disks. The use of a suitable capacitor will. Acceptable values on generally . or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . of ECE 15 VAST .A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals.A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose. The output of the IC gives us +12v. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. with a minimum of external components required. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor. output (Vo) and a ground terminal. .1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. 2mF or greater tantalum. however. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. Indeed. A 47Mf (C13) and . do not require any external feed back connections. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions. only three terminals are required for this type of generator. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. A 47Mf (C14) and . The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2). input (Vin). The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc.25V between the output and Dept. They therefore. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. The simplicity and case of application is evident. in many applications no external components are required.

Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals. Usually. giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. of ECE 16 VAST .25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12.3V DC voltage.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary. VREF is 1. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below.25v V = 1. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3.3v.3V.-12 or 6. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components.

f=5 Hz.2=13.Campus Automation I= .1 F std. std. of ECE 17 VAST . Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std. We require C2 << C1 . SELECTION OF R 1 . C3.2V. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std. Use 47 F standard. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output. PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. R2. Hence C=477. Dept. Use C4 = . Vp=12+1. 63A.72 F.3 V Then R2 = 33     std. C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose.

EEPROM. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. timers/counters. PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. extensive collection of application notes. 5. etc. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. I/O ports. large user base. wide availability.5. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1.2. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. The PIC has number of advanced features. etc). As li e normal microcontroller.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. ROM. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. of ECE 18 VAST . Dept. availability of low cost or free development tools. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus). communication ports. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus).

2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Pulse Width Modules (1 bit). Commercial. Eight level deep hardware stack. 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave).2. Low power consumption (< . Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory).Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions. PIC 16C76. Different types of addressing modes (direct. Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. instruction cycle (2 nS). Two Capture (16bit/12. Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). eral Features 5. Fully static design. Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles. 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). of ECE 19 VAST . Power on Reset (POR).6mA typical @3v-4MHz. industrial and extended temperature ranges. Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources). Indirect. Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. and 8k×14 of flash memory.56)volts.5nS). High sink/source current (25mA).high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. Compare (16 bit/2 nS). Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. Wide operating voltage range (2. relative addressing modes). Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). Low power. ± 5.2. PIC 16C77. WR and CS controls (4 /46pin).3 Key Features Dept. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. 5. Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar.

1 Self programmable under software control. Data memory (bytes) is 368. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory.2. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC).Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz. control unit. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. Programmable code protection. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP. Flash program memory (14 bit words).DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5.2.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory. 5 input/output ports. accumulator. 2 CCP modules. 8KB. etc. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5. ALU. Power saving sleep modes. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. 5. Single 5V. 3 timers. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept. of ECE 2 VAST .4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit.2. Selectable oscillator options. USART).

7.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers). As a result. 5.1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user. we must delete the old one at that time. Dept. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack.2. The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR).2. 5. of ECE 21 VAST . They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5. These RISC structure gives the following advantages. In the PIC microcontrollers. y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others. The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately).7.2. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed. The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction. Each time we write a new program to the controller.

There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. BANK 1.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). Instead. which gives only 128 addresses. Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address. The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. of ECE 22 VAST . The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes.1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. and BANK4). these banks may vary. 5. The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix.7. BANK 2.2. A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept. it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers.

2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional.8. ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7). etc.e.RD-0 to RD-7).Impedance mode). These ports are used for input/ output interfacing. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin.2..RC-0 to RC-7. In this controller. Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. ´PORT B´ . (If we want to set PORT A as an input.) 5. rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i. TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7). Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output. ³PORT C´. PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5.8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. Therefore. They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A). put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). and PORT E (RE). The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. All write operations are read-modify-write operations.1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. PORT C (RC). just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶.e. PORT B (RB). PORT D (RD).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer. 5. of ECE 23 VAST .). Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input.. the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. put the corresponding output driver in a High. bidirectional port. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i. The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A.2.

of ECE 24 VAST . bidirectional port. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD.e. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i.8. bidirectional port. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. RB7:RB4. 5. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output.2.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). This will end the y y Mismatch condition. Clear flag bit RBIF.. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs.change comparison).e.2. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature. Four of the PORTB pins. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i.. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB.. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>).8.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide.change feature.e. in the Interrupt Service Routine. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. 5. The user. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. have an interrupton. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared.

e.2. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs.2. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. the input buffers are TTL. should be avoided. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs.. Bluetooth. In this mode. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin.8. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. 5. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept. of ECE 25 VAST . When enabling peripheral functions.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. 5..4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. the input buffers are TTL. or with SMBus levels.2. In this mode. In this mode. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).e. even when they are being used as analog inputs. ZIGBEE etc. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). read-modify write instructions (BSF.8. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. When the I2C module is enabled. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. 5. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). BCF. Also. IR. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). these pins will read as µ0¶s.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. When selected for analog input.

The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit. such as CRT terminals and personal computers.2. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits. one stop bit & no parity bit. of ECE 26 VAST . 5.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. etc. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size. serial EEPROMs. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection.

2. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD. These are given in appendix. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. during reset. During normal operation this pin should be high.5. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. The use of an RCR network. of ECE 27 VAST . 5.6. For this reason.5 is suggested.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept. When reset it is low. as shown in Fig.

2.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware). Operations and registers are not orthogonal.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. of ECE 28 VAST . Small instruction set.5. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3. ‡ Dept.3 5. The PIC requires external clock generator.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices.2. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation. Program memory is not accessible. 5.

lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802. 5. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. The new standard is also called ZigBee.4 has been developed by IEEE. For such wireless applications. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. a new standard called IEEE 802.5. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small. of ECE 29 VAST .42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms.15. such as Bluetooth.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs. such as wireless light switches with lamps. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life.15. However. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. electrical meters with in-home-displays.

The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. but powerful communication system. distance. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks.3. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. bees around Dept.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . and secure networking. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. she is able to share information such as the location. provided they are within physical range of one another.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. Typically.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. and thousands of worker bees. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee which the connections are wireless. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. In addition.3. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. 5. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle.15. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". a colonial insect. IEEE 802. which was used as the basis for a new standard. In the ideal scenario. Using this silent.4 GHz in digital modes. lives in a hive that contains a queen. The survival.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . 5. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. of ECE 30 VAST . success. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. a few male drones. long battery life. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. The domestic honeybee.

15. The current list of application profiles either published. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. We will define the frequencies used. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5.4 Dept.15. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. industrial communication and wireless technology.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).4 radio. and networking features unique to this protocol. and the IEEE 802. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products.15. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. 802. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members. of ECE 31 VAST .11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. others are industry standards. the IEEE 802.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.3. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802. 5. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard. cost-effective. As per its main role. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee. ultra-low cost. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.4 IEEE 802. PC peripherals. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1. 802. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group. As a few examples. Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable. not a single technical standard.4 protocol on which it was built. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.15.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. the bandwidth it occupies.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity.

Most recently.15. 5. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types. The 802. and requires the most memory and computing power. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge.15. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.400-2.5 Components of the IEEE 802. the 2.15. simple connectivity and battery application in mind.4 devices. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802. The relationship between IEEE 802.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels. The ZigBee 1. 802. such as IEEE 802. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.15.15. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007.15.480 GHz. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth.4(x) and IEEE P1901.4. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2.4 GHz. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that.4 IEEE 802. It can function as a network coordinator.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard. Dept. was announced 2 November 2007. In the 2.405 to 2. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world). standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. the Smart Energy Profile 2. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY.15. As amended by NIST.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate.4 GHz band. of ECE 32 VAST .11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance.8MHz.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. The 802. Home Automation. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified. The first ZigBee Application Profile.15. At 2.

and medical diathermy machines. Second. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. 915 MHz and 2. 5. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range. wireless mesh networking standard. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands.450 GHz bands. First. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz.800 GHz bands. and 5. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. microwave ovens. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation.15. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules. It is generally found in network-edge devices. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. which are typically around three seconds. and 5. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. IEEE 802. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. low-power. For many people.138. 5. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In . Third. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment.6 ISM Band The industrial. Dept. However.150. In the United States of America.4. scientific and medical purposes other than communications. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway.45 GHz. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications.280 of the Radio Regulations. of ECE 33 VAST .450 GHz.3.3. 5. even those that use the ISM frequencies. 2.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost. general.

ZigBee 2007. such as multi-casting.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004. ZigBee Pro offers more features. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. contains two stack profiles. for home and light commercial use. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. now the current stack release. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). a router can act as an intermediate router. resulting in long battery life. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE). while Dept. y 5. of ECE 34 VAST . A ZED requires the least amount of memory. passing on data from other devices. average power consumption can be very low. It is able to store information about the network. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library". stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time.3. it cannot relay data from other devices.3. and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro).1%) 5. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete.

requiring a more robust power supply. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. The applications running on those devices work the same. The switch then wakes up. In most large network instances. 5.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. However. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. In general. and returns to sleep. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. In beaconing networks. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. of ECE 35 VAST . Dept. if not the ZigBee Coordinator. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. while others spend most of their time sleeping. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. regardless of the stack profile beneath them.36 milliseconds to 15. However. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15).65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network. Due to differences in routing options. since it is connected to the mains supply.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. Nodes may sleep between beacons. sends a command to the lamp. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. In this type of network. In non-beacon-enabled networks. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. Beacon intervals may range from 15.3. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. In beaconenabled networks. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. the network will be a cluster of clusters. receives an acknowledgment.36 ms * 214 = 251.

The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW). while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. The raw.4 GHz (worldwide). these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems.. Dept. 5. it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time.. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro.0. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA.4 GHz band. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands.. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period..11)) MHz. 12. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch . and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band.15. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL). It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK). devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter). multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. of ECE 36 VAST .11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit.3. The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2. In the 2.26. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once. which by definition do not use CSMA. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. where ch = 11. or half a symbolperiod.4 GHz band. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. Finally. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. That is.. and do not use CSMA.

in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together). but they are less severe. 5.5 5. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. but the distance was too great between the points.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 .15. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept.4 radio. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points.6 As an example.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. In other words.5.3.3.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream. of ECE 37 VAST . the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. Fig 5. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios. Fig.

with low latency available. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. secondary battery lasts same as master.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802. >65.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. guaranteed latency. Can be used indoors and outdoors. very long primary battery life. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle.3. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee). Thus. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost.000 nodes. y Very high QoS and very low. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. 5. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. No configuration is required out of the box. of ECE 38 VAST . Furthermore.15. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. of course. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). Default baud rate is 9600bps. Although.

The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. XBee also allows invisible operation.5. Quite simply.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig. of ECE 39 VAST . it replaces the serial communication cable. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply).7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4.8 Dept.4 PIR Sensor Fig. pin 2 (transmit). 5. That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet. 5. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine. This can be very handy. Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features.3.5. .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping. These are quite attractive specs.

They are used on television sets and television accessory devices.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. motion detection.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. of ECE 40 VAST . and libraries. install. they also have several disadvantages.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away. and heatseeking missiles. and can accept 30-V inputs. 5. In fact. such as VCRs and DVD players. Because of these properties.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. which is usually a thin sheet. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. They can be expensive to purchase. and calibrate as well. such as night vision. and laser range finding. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. 5. 5.5 V.4. 5. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light. hospitals. 5. PIR sensors are used in many applications. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). night vision. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels.4. Dept. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor.4. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from. depending on how the device is calibrated.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. Also.4.

.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current . and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. The driver. receiver. .28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. and Computers 5. Terminals.  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. Battery-Powered Systems.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F.5. of ECE 41 VAST . Modems. 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0.1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept.

6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. fax machines. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters.6. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other.Campus Automation Fig 5. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display.1 Font Dept. laser printers. which is one row of eight characters. 5. or electroluminescent. a cloth. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. for example. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. 16x2. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. of ECE 42 VAST . Character LCDs can come with or without backlights. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board).9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. An LCD is a small low cost display. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. fluorescent. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. industrial test equipment. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). and two polarizing filters. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. which may be LED. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. and 20x4.

and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix. 5. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters.6. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5. of ECE 43 VAST .3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters. as they are stored in volatile memory.6.

VCC (+3. As the name indicates. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports. CTS.10 1. There are other lines on this port as RTS. 5. R/W=1: Read 5. Dept. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. Ground 2.3 to +5V) 3. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively.000bps. Register Select (RS). The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. RS=1: Data 5. RI. DTR. The three links provides µtransmit¶. and RTS.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. R/W=0: Write. µreceive¶ and common ground. DSR. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. of ECE 44 VAST . The two pins are TXD & RXD. Read/Write (R/W). Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. the data is transmitted serially. RS=0: Command. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost.

the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE.1 Pin out Diagram Fig. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. or character encoding.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232. user data is sent as a time-series of bits. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. of ECE 45 VAST .5. 5. In addition to the data circuits.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept.7. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse.11 5. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits.

1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5. a PIC and an LCD display are used. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept. The USART communication is used for transmitting data. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator.In the receiver side a ZigBee module.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. of ECE 46 VAST . The data is send as RS232 protocols. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message.8. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data.8. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. 5.

It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. Dept. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. which is Usually a thin sheet. of ECE 47 VAST .8.


TIMER Initialize time hh=0. of ECE 49 VAST Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept.1 FLOWCHART 6.1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept. of ECE 50 VAST .

1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept. of ECE 51 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1 Transmitter section #include <string.count=1. } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++. } Dept.h> unsigned int hh=00.0).2 Firmware 6.1). of ECE 52 VAST .2. } else { output_bit(pin_b6.h> #include <> #include <lcd. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(> #include <stdio. if(hh==24) { hh=0.

ss).":%02u". hh++. } } count=0. lcd_gotoxy(5. if(hh==24) { hh=0. printf(lcd_putc. } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7.":%02u". lcd_gotoxy(7. if(ss==60) { ss=0. of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST . lcd_gotoxy(10.2). printf(lcd_putc."%02u". printf(lcd_putc. if(mm==60) { mm=0. if(mm==60) { mm=0.hh). mm++. Dept.2).1).2).Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++.

"CLOCK"). output_bit(pin_b7. lcd_gotoxy(7. enable_interrupts(GLOBAL). enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1). lcd_gotoxy(7. ss=ss+3."CLOCK"). putc(f)."alarm").Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc. printf(lcd_putc.1). while(1) { f=getc().0). lcd_init(). lcd_putc('\f'). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.1). set_timer1(0xfffe). delay_ms(30). output_bit(pin_b7. of ECE 54 VAST .1). setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8). printf(lcd_putc. } void main() { char f. } } } } count++.

2.´%c´.c). lcd_intit(). } } } Dept.h´ #include<lcd. int i=0. i=0.2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶).c> Void main() { Char c. l1:while(1) { i++.1). c=getc(). printf (lcd_putc. of ECE 55 VAST . lcd_goto(1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. } else { go to l1.


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 57 VAST .

2 PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 58 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.


802. Here defined are the frequencies used. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.4 protocol on which it was built. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices. 802.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers.15. PC peripherals.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. Routers can also be used as End Devices. As a few examples.4 802. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal. the IEEE 802. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example.15. the frequency. industrial communication and wireless technology. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason. the bandwidth it occupies.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. and the IEEE 802. simple connectivity and Dept. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. of ECE 60 VAST .15. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. Routers or Coordinators.15.4 radio.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. others are industry standards. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.15.4 was developed with lower data rate. and networking features unique to this protocol. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B.15. but the distance was too great between the points.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).15.

use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer.Campus Automation battery application in mind. 8.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram.15. of ECE 61 VAST .8MHz. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground. the 2.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.15. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board. when I need to reset the XBee. Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept.400-2.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it.4 devices. Instead of using a reset switch. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802. the 902-928 MHz or the 2. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to).

After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to. of ECE 62 VAST . If you¶re not sure. You should see a screen like the one shown below. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares.

This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. of ECE 63 VAST . Select ³ZNet 2. click on the ³Read´ button. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button.5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed. Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier.

you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. 8. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. then congratulations.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. change the desired settings. and click the ³Write´ button again. of ECE 64 VAST . If any of those commands did not return the correct information. If those commands returned the correct information.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. The XBee will respond with ³OK´.

and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. and can accept 30-V inputs.5 V. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. The driver.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output. Dept. of ECE 65 VAST . The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. receiver. Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply.

Preparing the PCB drawing 2. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired. However.5.5. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black. deciding the diameter of various holes. Only the connecting lines in PCBs.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. slants and holes should be traced. for small scale operations. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. using a thin Dept. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. of ECE 66 VAST . etc. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made.5.Campus Automation 8. Locating holes. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. quick drying enamel paint. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. 8. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. 8. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing. grease.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. or IDE. The PCB may then be washed and dried. 8. of ECE 67 VAST . This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. turpentine or acetone. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. After drying. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. If etching takes longer. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. Depending on the wiring diagram. Dept. and then the IC¶s are soldered. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated.5. The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. the resistors are taken care at first.

y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another. build tools and real time debugger. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete. of ECE 68 VAST . analyze. built-in functions and standard C operators.5. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs.. debug and document project code..Campus Automation 8. y Dept. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler. which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. a context sensitive C aware editor.helping developers create. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. This suite includes an IDE for project management.


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. Hardware implementation is simpler. Dept. of ECE 70 VAST . when the observer is far away from the display. y The bell rings at the end of each hour. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule. 9. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell. y ZigBee module is very costly.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller.


of ECE 72 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. y y Dept. y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers.1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes.

of ECE 73 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept.

The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today. Dept. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. of ECE 74 VAST . It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept. of ECE 75 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 76 VAST .

of ECE 77 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 78 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 79 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 80 VAST .

INT: external interrupt. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. Dept. CK: synchronous clock input. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). RD: Read control for parallel slave port. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. of ECE 81 VAST . PGD: Serial programming data. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. PGC: serial programming clock. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. CS: Select control for parallel slave. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). THV: High voltage test mode controlling. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. Vpp: programming voltage input. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



of ECE 86 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept. of ECE 87 VAST .

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