Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section.1. PIR sensors are used in many applications. 3. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. PIR sensor .TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. Dept. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. and laser range finding. motion detection. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot.bell & ZIGBEE module. such as night vision. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . In fact.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. of ECE 7 VAST . which controls the data transfer. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section.

LCD display. of ECE 8 VAST .if the message bit is greater than 16 bit.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3.RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller. The program is set such that LCD will clear .2. The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message.PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display. Zigbee module and a buzzer . Dept.


POWE SUPPLY Fig.C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.4.1 Dept C 0 .1.

of ECE 11 VAST .2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.

of ECE 12 VAST .3 RECEIVER Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.


GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3. In the case of +5 Volt. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier. It is compressed of three basic parts. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. LCD. but is often a separate unit a module. LM 78 5(U5). of ECE 14 VAST . A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load.3 Volts. A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors. Dept. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5..e. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal.1. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller. constitutes a feed back amplifier.3 V. we can use fixed regulator ICs i.

The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals. A 47Mf (C13) and . The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. do not require any external feed back connections. or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. in many applications no external components are required. Acceptable values on generally .25V between the output and Dept. As a result. The use of a suitable capacitor will. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value.1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection.A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose.21 geF ceramic disks. The output of the IC gives us +12v. The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. only three terminals are required for this type of generator. 2mF or greater tantalum. of ECE 15 VAST . input (Vin). A 47Mf (C14) and . The simplicity and case of application is evident. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator. output (Vo) and a ground terminal. . From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. however. Indeed. They therefore. with a minimum of external components required. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2).

giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2.3V. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below.3v. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary. of ECE 16 VAST .3V DC voltage. Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3. VREF is 1. Usually.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals.25v V = 1.-12 or 6.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected.

25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. SELECTION OF R 1 .72 F. 63A. f=5 Hz. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1. We require C2 << C1 .1 F std. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output. Dept. of ECE 17 VAST . C3.Campus Automation I= . Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std. Hence C=477. Use C4 = . R2. C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose.2=13. Vp=12+1. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std. Use 47 F standard. PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose.2V. std.3 V Then R2 = 33     std.

2. wide availability. PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. timers/counters. communication ports. extensive collection of application notes. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. availability of low cost or free development tools. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus).2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. large user base. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. EEPROM. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. The PIC has number of advanced features. I/O ports. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. of ECE 18 VAST . As li e normal microcontroller. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus). 5. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM. etc. ROM. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability.5. etc). Dept. Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word.

Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory). relative addressing modes).56)volts. PIC 16C76.2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Two Capture (16bit/12.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). Fully static design. WR and CS controls (4 /46pin).6mA typical @3v-4MHz. Compare (16 bit/2 nS). industrial and extended temperature ranges. Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). Different types of addressing modes (direct. of ECE 19 VAST . Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. High sink/source current (25mA). Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B.2. Eight level deep hardware stack.2. 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). 5. Indirect. Power on Reset (POR). 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). Pulse Width Modules (1 bit). Commercial. Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources). All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles. ± 5. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. eral Features 5. Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. PIC 16C77.high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar.3 Key Features Dept.5nS). Low power. Low power consumption (< . instruction cycle (2 nS). Wide operating voltage range (2. and 8k×14 of flash memory.

Power saving sleep modes. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5. Programmable code protection. accumulator. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible.2. of ECE 2 VAST . Single 5V. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. 2 CCP modules. etc.4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. Flash program memory (14 bit words). a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept. 5. control unit. 3 timers.2. USART). Selectable oscillator options. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC).Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory. Data memory (bytes) is 368. 8KB. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. ALU. 1 Self programmable under software control.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation.2. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP. 5 input/output ports.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256.

5. 5. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle).1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user. Dept. Each time we write a new program to the controller.2.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections.7.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple.2. The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable. As a result. of ECE 21 VAST . y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers). In the PIC microcontrollers. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately).2. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR). The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5. we must delete the old one at that time.7. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed. These RISC structure gives the following advantages. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space.

RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. these banks may vary. BANK 2. 5. The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. Instead. which gives only 128 addresses. of ECE 22 VAST . There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory.1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2.2. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept. and BANK4).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers.7. This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. BANK 1.

´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7). Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i. The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A. (If we want to set PORT A as an input. etc.. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read. Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input.8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports. PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5. bidirectional port. put the corresponding output driver in a High. They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A).Impedance mode). 5. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. In this controller. of ECE 23 VAST . Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. ´PORT B´ .2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional. PORT B (RB).) 5.8.). Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin.e. PORT C (RC). ³PORT C´.RD-0 to RD-7). TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B. Therefore.e. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump. All write operations are read-modify-write operations. and PORT E (RE). ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7). The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i. These ports are used for input/ output interfacing.2.1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. PORT D (RD). rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch.2.. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶.RC-0 to RC-7.

The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Four of the PORTB pins. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM.8. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>).change comparison).e. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. of ECE 24 VAST . bidirectional port. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. RB7:RB4. have an interrupton. bidirectional port. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. in the Interrupt Service Routine. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset.change feature. Clear flag bit RBIF. 5. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output.e. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. 5. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. The user.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. This will end the y y Mismatch condition. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB..e.2. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs.8..

the input buffers are TTL. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. 5.8. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. When selected for analog input.2. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).e. should be avoided. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. read-modify write instructions (BSF. ZIGBEE etc. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. BCF. 5. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. In this mode. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. Also. 5. the input buffers are TTL. or with SMBus levels.e.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i. When the I2C module is enabled. In this mode. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. these pins will read as µ0¶s. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.8.2. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled.. In this mode. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). IR. Bluetooth. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. even when they are being used as analog inputs.. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. of ECE 25 VAST .9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>).2. When enabling peripheral functions.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5.

where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit. serial EEPROMs. such as CRT terminals and personal computers. one stop bit & no parity bit.2. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. of ECE 26 VAST . etc. The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. 5.

of ECE 27 VAST . The use of an RCR network.5 is suggested.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. During normal operation this pin should be high.2.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. 5. For this reason. during reset. When reset it is low. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event.6. These are given in appendix. as shown in Fig. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD.5.

Small instruction set. The PIC requires external clock generator.3 5. Operations and registers are not orthogonal. of ECE 28 VAST .5. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation. Program memory is not accessible. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3. ‡ Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. 5.2. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices.2.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware).12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. For such wireless applications.5.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs. such as Bluetooth. electrical meters with in-home-displays. such as wireless light switches with lamps. a new standard called IEEE 802. of ECE 29 VAST . Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept.4 has been developed by IEEE. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used.42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). The new standard is also called ZigBee. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802. However.15. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application. 5.15. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications.

Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. 5. which was used as the basis for a new standard. long battery life. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members.3. lives in a hive that contains a queen.4 GHz in digital modes. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. In the ideal scenario.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . a few male drones. provided they are within physical range of one another. but powerful communication system. she is able to share information such as the location. IEEE 802. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today . when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. and thousands of worker bees. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. distance.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. a colonial insect. The domestic honeybee.15. and secure which the connections are wireless. of ECE 30 VAST . Using this silent. The survival. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. 5. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development. In addition. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. bees around Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members.3. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. Typically. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. success.

or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1. cost-effective.15. The current list of application profiles either published. of ECE 31 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members.4 IEEE 802.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. the IEEE 802. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard. 5.15. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission.4 protocol on which it was built. PC peripherals. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. 802.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. and the IEEE 802. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group. As a few examples. industrial communication and wireless technology. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products.3.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5.15. ultra-low cost.4 radio. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. others are industry standards. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.3. and networking features unique to this protocol. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802. 802.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.15. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.4 Dept. As per its main role. the bandwidth it occupies. We will define the frequencies used.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee. not a single technical standard.15.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable.15.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.15.

As amended by NIST.5 Components of the IEEE 802.4(x) and IEEE P1901. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels.405 to 2.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard.15. such as IEEE 802. It can function as a network coordinator. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007.4 GHz.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802.8MHz. Home Automation. 802.15. simple connectivity and battery application in mind. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802.4 devices. Most recently. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations. of ECE 32 VAST . The relationship between IEEE 802. The first ZigBee Application Profile. The ZigBee 1.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2. the Smart Energy Profile 2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate. 5.15.15. the 2. the 902-928 MHz or the 2. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier.4 GHz band. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States.15. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance. GHz.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. Dept. The 802.15.400-2. At 2.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. and requires the most memory and computing power.4 IEEE 802. was announced 2 November 2007.4. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world). In the 2.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.15.15. The 802.

the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation. 2. Third. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. 5. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. IEEE 802.800 GHz bands. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. In the United States of America. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. For many people. Second.45 GHz. microwave ovens. even those that use the ISM frequencies. and 5. First. Dept. scientific and medical purposes other than communications. 915 MHz and 2. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity.3.4. However. It is generally found in network-edge devices. low-power.138.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. and 5. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. general.450 GHz. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In . Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating. wireless mesh networking standard.6 ISM Band The industrial.15. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment.450 GHz bands.150. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range.280 of the Radio Regulations. which are typically around three seconds. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. of ECE 33 VAST . and medical diathermy machines.3. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency. 5.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost. 5.

while Dept. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. passing on data from other devices. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library". y 5. for home and light commercial use. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE).8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0. a router can act as an intermediate router. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. ZigBee Pro offers more features. resulting in long battery life. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. such as multi-casting.3. of ECE 34 VAST . The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. A ZED requires the least amount of memory. ZigBee 2007.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time. contains two stack profiles.1%) 5. It is able to store information about the network. now the current stack release. it cannot relay data from other devices. ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life.3. and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). average power consumption can be very low. the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee).

In beaconenabled networks. Due to differences in routing options. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. Dept. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. and returns to sleep. if not the ZigBee Coordinator. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. regardless of the stack profile beneath them. the network will be a cluster of clusters. while others spend most of their time sleeping. In most large network instances.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. The applications running on those devices work the same. requiring a more robust power supply.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15).3. receives an acknowledgment. However.36 milliseconds to 15. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. However.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. In this type of network. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. Beacon intervals may range from 15. of ECE 35 VAST . since it is connected to the mains supply.36 ms * 214 = 251. 5. The switch then wakes up. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. sends a command to the lamp. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. In general. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. In non-beacon-enabled networks. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. In beaconing networks. Nodes may sleep between beacons. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing.

40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band.0.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. and do not use CSMA. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. The raw. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK). where ch = 11. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator.15. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2.3. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time.4 GHz band. Dept. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense. of ECE 36 VAST .. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro. The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit..26. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW).4 GHz (worldwide). which by definition do not use CSMA. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. or half a symbolperiod.4 GHz band. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once. it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter).11)) MHz. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. That is. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. 12. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. Finally. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL). 5. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch .. In the 2. with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth.. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as..

but the distance was too great between the points.4 radio. 5. Fig 5. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together). Fig. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves.15. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept.3. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios.6 As an example.5 5.5. of ECE 37 VAST . In other words. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. but they are less severe.3.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 .

Default baud rate is 9600bps. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. No configuration is required out of the box. >65. Thus. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. of ECE 38 VAST .Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. Can be used indoors and outdoors. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. y Very high QoS and very low. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. with low latency available.3.000 nodes.15. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. very long primary battery life. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). guaranteed latency. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default. Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802. Furthermore. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee). 5. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept. Although. secondary battery lasts same as master.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires. of course.

For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). of ECE 39 VAST . pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. pin 2 (transmit). Quite simply. Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features. The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine.5. These are quite attractive specs. it replaces the serial communication cable. XBee also allows invisible operation.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig. 5.8 Dept. 5.3.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4.5. That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet.4 PIR Sensor Fig. This can be very handy. .

They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away. 5. Also. and libraries. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices. and can accept 30-V inputs. and heatseeking missiles. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. motion detection. and laser range finding. They can be expensive to purchase. night vision. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from. 5. hospitals. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. such as VCRs and DVD players. of ECE 40 VAST .2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. PIR sensors are used in many applications. depending on how the device is calibrated.4.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote.4. install. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. such as night vision. which is usually a thin sheet.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). In fact. 5. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. 5.5 V. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor. Dept. 5. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. they also have several disadvantages. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.4. and calibrate as well. Because of these properties.4.

5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. Terminals.1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F. of ECE 41 VAST . . 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0.28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1. . Battery-Powered Systems. The driver.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current .  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. and Computers 5. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. Modems. receiver.

the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). fax machines. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. which is one row of eight characters. for example. laser printers. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. of ECE 42 VAST . It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. or electroluminescent. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. which may be LED.1 Font Dept. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. and 20x4. and two polarizing filters. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. An LCD is a small low cost display. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. 5.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5.Campus Automation Fig 5. fluorescent. a cloth. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters.6. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. 16x2. industrial test equipment. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights.

of ECE 43 VAST . There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters.6. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on. 5. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found.6. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters. as they are stored in volatile memory.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character.

Dept. There are other lines on this port as RTS. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment).7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. The three links provides µtransmit¶. 5. DTR.000bps. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4. µreceive¶ and common ground. and RTS. RI. The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers.3 to +5V) 3. of ECE 44 VAST . Ground 2. VCC (+3. Register Select (RS). Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20. The two pins are TXD & RXD. CTS. R/W=0: Write. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively.10 1. Read/Write (R/W). RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. RS=1: Data 5. RS=0: Command. As the name indicates. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. R/W=1: Read 5. the data is transmitted serially. DSR.

user data is sent as a time-series of bits. or character encoding. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits.1 Pin out Diagram Fig.5. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. In addition to the data circuits. of ECE 45 VAST .7. 5.11 5. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard.

The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. a PIC and an LCD display are used. 5. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept.In the receiver side a ZigBee module.8.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission. The data is send as RS232 protocols. The USART communication is used for transmitting data. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module.8. of ECE 46 VAST .2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message.

The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . 5. of ECE 47 VAST .8. which is Usually a thin sheet. Dept.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material.


mm=0.1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize LCD.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1 FLOWCHART 6. of ECE 49 VAST .ss=0 Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept.TIMER Initialize time hh=0.1.

of ECE 50 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept.

1. of ECE 51 VAST .2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.

#int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.h> #include <lcd.0).h> unsigned int hh=00.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1 Transmitter section #include <string.2 Firmware 6. if(hh==24) { } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { of ECE 52 VAST .1).count=1. } else { output_bit(pin_b6. } Dept.c> #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.

2). lcd_gotoxy(5. printf(lcd_putc. } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7. lcd_gotoxy( lcd_gotoxy(10.":%02u". mm++. if(hh==24) { hh=0.2).hh). printf(lcd_putc."%02u".ss). } } count=0. printf(lcd_putc. if(mm==60) { mm=0.1).2).Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++. ss=ss+1. if(mm==60) { mm=0. hh++. if(ss==60) { ss=0. Dept. of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST .":%02u".

lcd_gotoxy(7."CLOCK"). } } } } count++. of ECE 54 VAST . ss=ss+3.0). output_bit(pin_b7. lcd_init(). delay_ms(30). } void main() { char f. putc(f). output_bit(pin_b7. enable_interrupts(GLOBAL). lcd_gotoxy(7. lcd_putc('\f').1).1). setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8).1)."alarm"). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. printf(lcd_putc. enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1). while(1) { f=getc()."CLOCK"). set_timer1(0xfffe). printf(lcd_putc.Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc.

i=0. printf (lcd_putc. of ECE 55 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. lcd_goto(1. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶). } } } Dept. int i=0.h´ #include<lcd.2. c=getc().c).´%c´.1). lcd_intit(). l1:while(1) { i++. } else { go to l1.2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam.c> Void main() { Char c.


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 57 VAST .

of ECE 58 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.2 PCB LA OUT Dept.


4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.15. of ECE 60 VAST . Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. the bandwidth it occupies. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.4 protocol on which it was built.15. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. others are industry standards. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B. 802.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.15. industrial communication and wireless technology. Routers or Coordinators. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. PC peripherals. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. and the IEEE 802. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).4 802. simple connectivity and Dept. Routers can also be used as End Devices. 802.15. Here defined are the frequencies used. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. the frequency. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example.15.4 was developed with lower data rate. but the distance was too great between the points.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason. and networking features unique to this protocol. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. the IEEE 802.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.15. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. As a few examples.4 radio.15.

2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram. 8.15. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.Campus Automation battery application in mind. the 2. of ECE 61 VAST .4 devices.15.400-2. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.8MHz. when I need to reset the XBee. Instead of using a reset switch. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to). Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept.

you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. If you¶re not sure. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept. of ECE 62 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. You should see a screen like the one shown below. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to.

5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. Select ³ZNet 2. Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept. click on the ³Read´ button. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee. of ECE 63 VAST .You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed.

and click the ³Write´ button again. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. If any of those commands did not return the correct information. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. The XBee will respond with ³OK´. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. If those commands returned the correct information. 8. of ECE 64 VAST . y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. change the desired settings. then congratulations.

5 V.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. and can accept 30-V inputs.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB. Dept.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first. The driver. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. receiver. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. of ECE 65 VAST .

5.5. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made. grease. Preparing the PCB drawing 2. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts.Campus Automation 8. Locating holes.5. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. 8. etc.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. using a thin Dept. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired. quick drying enamel paint. However. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations. 8. deciding the diameter of various holes. slants and holes should be traced. of ECE 66 VAST . Only the connecting lines in PCBs. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. for small scale operations. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide.

because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. The PCB may then be washed and dried. After drying. of ECE 67 VAST . like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs).4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. If etching takes longer. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. the resistors are taken care at first. Depending on the wiring diagram. or IDE. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. 8. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. turpentine or acetone. the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated. Dept. This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control.5. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. and then the IC¶s are soldered. It is called an Integrated Development Environment.

which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers. a context sensitive C aware editor. of ECE 68 VAST . Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler. build tools and real time debugger.helping developers create. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. y Dept. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs. This suite includes an IDE for project management. analyze. debug and document project code..Campus Automation 8.5.. built-in functions and standard C operators.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete.


when the observer is far away from the display.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear. 9. Hardware implementation is simpler. y The bell rings at the end of each hour.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller. of ECE 70 VAST . y ZigBee module is very costly.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. Dept. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule.


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes. y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. of ECE 72 VAST . y y Dept.1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections.

of ECE 73 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept.

This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly. Dept. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. of ECE 74 VAST . The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module.

of ECE 75 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept.

of ECE 76 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 77 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 78 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 79 VAST .

of ECE 80 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. CK: synchronous clock input. PGD: Serial programming data. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. Dept. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). INT: external interrupt. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. PGC: serial programming clock. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. CS: Select control for parallel slave. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. THV: High voltage test mode controlling.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. Vpp: programming voltage input. of ECE 81 VAST . SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



of ECE 86 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 87 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept.

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