Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





PIR sensors are used in many applications.bell & ZIGBEE module. such as night vision. PIR sensor . which controls the data transfer. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . In fact.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. 3.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.1. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer. The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. and laser range finding.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section. motion detection. Dept. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). of ECE 7 VAST .

of ECE 8 VAST . The program is set such that LCD will clear .if the message bit is greater than 16 bit.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3.RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller.2. Dept. Zigbee module and a buzzer . The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message. LCD display.PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display.


C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.4.1.POWE SUPPLY Fig.1 Dept C 0 . transmitter section and recei er section are 4.

of ECE 11 VAST .2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.

3 RECEIVER Dept. of ECE 12 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.


GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3. It is compressed of three basic parts. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. LCD.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller. LM 78 5(U5). together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit. constitutes a feed back amplifier.3 V. A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage.3 Volts. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. Dept. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature. but is often a separate unit a module.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. of ECE 14 VAST .e. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal.1. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3.. In the case of +5 Volt. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors. we can use fixed regulator ICs i.

and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1.21 geF ceramic disks.25V between the output and Dept. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. input (Vin). Acceptable values on generally . of ECE 15 VAST . The output of the IC gives us +12v.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value. The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. only three terminals are required for this type of generator. The simplicity and case of application is evident. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor. As a result. A 47Mf (C14) and . with a minimum of external components required. do not require any external feed back connections. output (Vo) and a ground terminal. Indeed. 2mF or greater tantalum. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2). in many applications no external components are required. . Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions. They therefore.1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC. however.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. The use of a suitable capacitor will. or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator. A 47Mf (C13) and .A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals.

C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected. VREF is 1.-12 or 6. Usually. of ECE 16 VAST . This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary.3V DC voltage. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage.3v. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A.25v V = 1.3V.

Hence C=477.72 F. f=5 Hz. Vp=12+1.1 F std.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output. C3. C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose.2=13. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std. std. R2. We require C2 << C1 .2V. Use 47 F standard. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1. of ECE 17 VAST . PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. Dept.3 V Then R2 = 33     std. Use C4 = .Campus Automation I= . SELECTION OF R 1 . 63A. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std.

timers/counters.2. PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. etc.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. etc). The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. ROM. wide availability. 5. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM. communication ports. I/O ports. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus). This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus). extensive collection of application notes. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. As li e normal microcontroller. availability of low cost or free development tools.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. of ECE 18 VAST . Dept. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. The PIC has number of advanced features. Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . large user base. EEPROM.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5.5.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1.

5.2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. ± 5. Eight level deep hardware stack. relative addressing modes). PIC 16C77. Two Capture (16bit/12. industrial and extended temperature ranges.3 Key Features Dept.2. of ECE 19 VAST . Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar.2.6mA typical @3v-4MHz.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions. Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). Compare (16 bit/2 nS). 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). Indirect. Low power. Power on Reset (POR). Wide operating voltage range (2. Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. Pulse Width Modules (1 bit).high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. Low power consumption (< .5nS). 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources). Fully static design. and 8k×14 of flash memory. High sink/source current (25mA). Different types of addressing modes (direct. Commercial. Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar.56)volts. PIC 16C76. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. eral Features 5. Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory). 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). instruction cycle (2 nS). All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles.

1 Self programmable under software control. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. ALU. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. accumulator. of ECE 2 VAST . a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP. 2 CCP modules. Programmable code protection. Single 5V. 5 input/output ports.2. 8KB. Flash program memory (14 bit words).4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit.2. 3 timers. etc. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). control unit. Selectable oscillator options. Data memory (bytes) is 368. USART).6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU.2. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5. 5.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz. Power saving sleep modes. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible.

They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately). The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable.7. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers). The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed.1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. These RISC structure gives the following advantages.2.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR). this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. 5.7. Dept. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others.2. Each time we write a new program to the controller. we must delete the old one at that time.2. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). In the PIC microcontrollers. 5. of ECE 21 VAST .7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections. As a result.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions.

RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. of ECE 22 VAST . BANK 2. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes. which gives only 128 addresses.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range).1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept. it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers.2. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. Instead. these banks may vary. Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. BANK 1.7. 5. and BANK4). The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2. RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer. and PORT E (RE).e. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7. (If we want to set PORT A as an input. Therefore.2. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i. the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. In this controller.2. put the corresponding output driver in a High. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). PORT B (RB). of ECE 23 VAST . 5. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. bidirectional port. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶. These ports are used for input/ output interfacing. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump.) 5. All write operations are read-modify-write operations.e. ´PORT B´ . ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7).). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i..RD-0 to RD-7).. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7). PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5. The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A.Impedance mode). rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations. TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B. Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch.RC-0 to RC-7. Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input.8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports. PORT C (RC). etc. They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A). ³PORT C´. PORT D (RD).8.2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional.1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin.

This will end the y y Mismatch condition. 5.e. RB7:RB4. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). 5.. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared.2. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB.8.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. in the Interrupt Service Routine. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers.e.. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. of ECE 24 VAST . can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i..8.2. Four of the PORTB pins. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). bidirectional port. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. Clear flag bit RBIF. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. bidirectional port.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output.change feature.change comparison). The user. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression.e.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. have an interrupton. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers.

e.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. or with SMBus levels. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. Bluetooth.8. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input.2. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. IR. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). In this mode. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination.2. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. even when they are being used as analog inputs.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i..5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). the input buffers are TTL. 5. 5. ZIGBEE etc. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. When enabling peripheral functions.8. When the I2C module is enabled. the input buffers are TTL. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. BCF. these pins will read as µ0¶s. In this mode. In this mode. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. of ECE 25 VAST . 5. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. read-modify write instructions (BSF.e. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set.. should be avoided. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. When selected for analog input. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. Also. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled.2.

of ECE 26 VAST .10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices. 5. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit. etc. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. serial EEPROMs. such as CRT terminals and personal computers.2. one stop bit & no parity bit. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size. The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept.

the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept. These are given in appendix.5 is suggested. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. of ECE 27 VAST .11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. The use of an RCR network. During normal operation this pin should be high.5.2.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. 5. as shown in Fig. For this reason. When reset it is low. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD.6. during reset.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event.

Program memory is not accessible. 5. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3.5.2. Small instruction set.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware). of ECE 28 VAST . Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig.3 5. The PIC requires external clock generator.2. ‡ Dept. Operations and registers are not orthogonal.

42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. such as Bluetooth. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. However. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. 5. such as wireless light switches with lamps.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance.4 has been developed by IEEE. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small. electrical meters with in-home-displays.15.15. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802. For such wireless applications. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. a new standard called IEEE 802. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used. The new standard is also called ZigBee.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life. of ECE 29 VAST . Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig.5.

5. distance. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. In the ideal scenario. lives in a hive that contains a queen. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". which was used as the basis for a new standard.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace .3. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today . Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. long battery life. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. Using this silent. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. and secure networking.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network .4 GHz in digital modes. In addition. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. The domestic honeybee. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid which the connections are wireless. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. a colonial insect. provided they are within physical range of one another. 5. The survival. but powerful communication system.15. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. bees around Dept. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. success. Typically. she is able to share information such as the location. of ECE 30 VAST . a few male drones. and thousands of worker bees. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected.3. IEEE 802. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle.

of ECE 31 VAST . ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. As a few examples.15. the IEEE 802.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). ultra-low cost.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable.15.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. the bandwidth it occupies. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard. others are industry standards. industrial communication and wireless technology.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.15. 802.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1.15.15. 5.4 IEEE 802. and networking features unique to this protocol. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products. not a single technical standard. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. PC peripherals. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard. 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members.15. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee.3. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices.4 radio.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group. and the IEEE 802. The current list of application profiles either published.4 protocol on which it was built.15.4 Dept. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.3. We will define the frequencies used. As per its main role. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. cost-effective.

It is the most sophisticated one of the three types.15. the Smart Energy Profile 2. The ZigBee 1.15. It can function as a network coordinator.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate.15.4 IEEE 802. of ECE 32 VAST . The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world). In the 2. such as IEEE 802. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. was announced 2 November 2007. The relationship between IEEE 802.15.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802. the 2.15.4(x) and IEEE P1901.4. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN. The first ZigBee Application Profile. The 802. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802.8MHz.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2.5 Components of the IEEE 802.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth.15. The 802.15. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802.400-2. Most recently. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels.4 devices. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations. As amended by NIST. Dept. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007. simple connectivity and battery application in mind. and requires the most memory and computing power.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.480 GHz.15.4 GHz band.3. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.15. Home Automation.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified. 5.15. 802.4 GHz.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier. At 2.405 to 2.

uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules.450 GHz. 5. Second. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands. For many people. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. wireless mesh networking standard. It is generally found in network-edge devices. microwave ovens. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. Dept. and 5. 5.4. Third. scientific and medical purposes other than communications. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. However. 5.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost. IEEE 802. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices.6 ISM Band The industrial. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less. First. and 5. general. of ECE 33 VAST . so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In .15.280 of the Radio Regulations.138. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation. low-power. and medical diathermy machines.450 GHz bands. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency.150. which are typically around three seconds. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. even those that use the ISM frequencies.800 GHz bands. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. 915 MHz and 2. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays.3. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity.45 GHz. In the United States of America.3. 2.

The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0. of ECE 34 VAST . average power consumption can be very low. a router can act as an intermediate router. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. contains two stack profiles. y 5. the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. passing on data from other devices. stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. resulting in long battery life. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally.3. and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). such as multi-casting. ZigBee 2007. while Dept. It is able to store information about the network. it cannot relay data from other devices. now the current stack release. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. for home and light commercial use.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004. ZigBee Pro offers more features. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE).1%) 5. A ZED requires the least amount of memory. ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library".3. The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006.

ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. requiring a more robust power supply. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. receives an acknowledgment. Due to differences in routing options. regardless of the stack profile beneath them. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. The switch then wakes up. In non-beacon-enabled networks. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. 5.36 ms * 214 = 251. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. Dept.3. The applications running on those devices work the same. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. However. Nodes may sleep between beacons. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15). and returns to sleep. of ECE 35 VAST . the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. if not the ZigBee Coordinator. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. However. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. In beaconenabled networks. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. In most large network instances. since it is connected to the mains supply. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active.36 milliseconds to 15. In this type of network. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. Beacon intervals may range from 15. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. sends a command to the lamp. In general. In beaconing networks. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. while others spend most of their time sleeping.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. the network will be a cluster of clusters.

The raw.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. or half a symbolperiod..4 GHz (worldwide). multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). 12. and do not use CSMA. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2..4 GHz band. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch . which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter).15. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2.. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period.11)) MHz. In the 2. Dept. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW). it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS).3. of ECE 36 VAST . 5. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band.. with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems. which by definition do not use CSMA.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL).26. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro.0. That is. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. Finally. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK).4 GHz band. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. where ch = 11.. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment.

but they are less severe. but the distance was too great between the points. In other words.6 As an example.3.15.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption.5 5. Fig.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 . Fig 5. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept.4 radio. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points.3. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B.5. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together). but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios. of ECE 37 VAST .

Thus. secondary battery lasts same as master. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module.000 nodes. >65. Can be used indoors and outdoors. 5. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. of course.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires.15.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee). with low latency available. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default. guaranteed latency. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. of ECE 38 VAST . y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. very long primary battery life. Furthermore. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. y Very high QoS and very low. No configuration is required out of the box. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. Default baud rate is 9600bps. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization.3. Although.

5. .3. The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. Quite simply. it replaces the serial communication cable. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine. This can be very handy.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4.4 PIR Sensor Fig. pin 2 (transmit). pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. XBee also allows invisible operation. These are quite attractive specs. 5.5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping. That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig.8 Dept. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features. of ECE 39 VAST .5.

of ECE 40 VAST . PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. and heatseeking missiles. such as VCRs and DVD players.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. depending on how the device is calibrated. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light. Dept. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from. night vision.4. and laser range finding. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. 5. PIR sensors are used in many applications. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor. and libraries. such as night vision. they also have several disadvantages. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. install. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote.4. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices. hospitals.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. 5. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material.4. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. 5. Also. In fact. motion detection. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them.4. 5. and can accept 30-V inputs.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous.5 V. They can be expensive to purchase. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). and calibrate as well. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. which is usually a thin sheet. Because of these properties.

 Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. . receiver. 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0.1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept. Battery-Powered Systems. Terminals. Modems.28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current .1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F. .5. and Computers 5. The driver. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. of ECE 41 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.

and two polarizing filters. or electroluminescent. which is one row of eight characters.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters.6. for example. An LCD is a small low cost display. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. industrial test equipment. 5. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO).Campus Automation Fig 5. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board).1 Font Dept. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. and 20x4. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. 16x2. laser printers. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights. fax machines. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. which may be LED. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. fluorescent. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. a cloth. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. of ECE 42 VAST . light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins.

as they are stored in volatile memory. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. of ECE 43 VAST . 5. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters.6. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept.6. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters.

Contrast adjustment (VO) 4.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. R/W=1: Read 5. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. The two pins are TXD & RXD. the data is transmitted serially. VCC (+3. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20. and RTS. RS=1: Data 5. CTS. RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. Dept. Ground 2.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. As the name indicates. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. DSR.10 1. DTR. The three links provides µtransmit¶. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. 5. Read/Write (R/W).000bps.3 to +5V) 3. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). RI. Register Select (RS). There are other lines on this port as RTS. R/W=0: Write. µreceive¶ and common ground. RS=0: Command. of ECE 44 VAST .

1 Pin out Diagram Fig. of ECE 45 VAST . 5. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. In addition to the data circuits. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept. or character encoding. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream.5. user data is sent as a time-series of bits. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard.11 5.7. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232.

2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side. The USART communication is used for transmitting data. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC. of ECE 46 VAST . 5.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device.8. The data is send as RS232 protocols. a PIC and an LCD display are used.8.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept.In the receiver side a ZigBee module.

which is Usually a thin sheet. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. of ECE 47 VAST . 5. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. Dept.8. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock .


1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept.1.TIMER Initialize time hh=0. of ECE 49 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1 FLOWCHART

of ECE 50 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept.

1.2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. of ECE 51 VAST .

1).h> #include <stdlib.2. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit( Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.h> #include <lcd. } else { output_bit(pin_b6.0).c> #include < Transmitter section #include <string. of ECE 52 VAST . if(hh==24) { hh=0. } Dept.h> unsigned int hh=00.2 Firmware 6. } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++.count=1.

if(mm==60) { mm=0. ss=ss+1. } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7.hh).":%02u".ss).1). mm++.":%02u".2)."%02u". lcd_gotoxy(10. printf(lcd_putc. Dept. hh++. of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST . if(hh==24) { hh=0. if(ss==60) { if(mm==60) { mm=0.2). printf(lcd_putc.Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++. printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(7. } } count=0. lcd_gotoxy(5.2).

printf(lcd_putc.1). output_bit(pin_b7. setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8). while(1) { f=getc(). printf(lcd_putc.Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(7. enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1). set_timer1(0xfffe). of ECE 54 VAST . delay_ms(30). ss=ss+3. enable_interrupts(GLOBAL)."CLOCK"). lcd_gotoxy(7. } void main() { char f.1). lcd_putc('\f'). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.1). putc(f). } } } } count++. lcd_init()."CLOCK").0)."alarm"). output_bit(pin_b7.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. c=getc().h´ #include<lcd. } } } Dept. i=0.1). int i=0. lcd_intit(). lcd_goto(1. } else { go to l1.c). l1:while(1) { i++.2. of ECE 55 VAST .c> Void main() { Char c.2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam. printf (lcd_putc.´%c´. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶).


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 57 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7. of ECE 58 VAST .2 PCB LA OUT Dept.


15.4 802. the IEEE 802. 802. industrial communication and wireless technology.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. of ECE 60 VAST .4 was developed with lower data rate. PC peripherals.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. the bandwidth it occupies.15.15. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. Routers or Coordinators.15. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. As a few examples.4 protocol on which it was built. others are industry standards. Here defined are the frequencies used.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. but the distance was too great between the points. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. the frequency. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B.15. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices.4 radio. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example.15. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission.15. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. simple connectivity and Dept. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). and the IEEE 802. Routers can also be used as End Devices. 802. and networking features unique to this protocol. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal.

Instead of using a reset switch.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it.4 devices.8MHz. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2. 8. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.400-2.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.Campus Automation battery application in mind. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. of ECE 61 VAST . Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer.15. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to). when I need to reset the XBee. the 2.15.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. of ECE 62 VAST . you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept. You should see a screen like the one shown below. If you¶re not sure.

Select ³ZNet 2. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. of ECE 63 VAST .5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. click on the ³Read´ button.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode.

y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. then congratulations. 8. The XBee will respond with ³OK´. If those commands returned the correct information.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. and click the ³Write´ button again. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. of ECE 64 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. change the desired settings. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. If any of those commands did not return the correct information. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator.

These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. The driver. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. Dept. of ECE 65 VAST .3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. receiver. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.5 V. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below. and can accept 30-V inputs. Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output.

The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black. grease. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts. Locating holes.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1. of ECE 66 VAST . developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. 8.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. deciding the diameter of various holes. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. using a thin Dept. Preparing the PCB drawing 2. 8.5. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. quick drying enamel paint. for small scale operations. However. slants and holes should be traced.5. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired.5. etc.Campus Automation 8. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing.

4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. After drying. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried.5. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. If etching takes longer. The PCB may then be washed and dried. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. or IDE. the resistors are taken care at first. Depending on the wiring diagram. turpentine or acetone. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. of ECE 67 VAST . 8. Dept. This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. and then the IC¶s are soldered.

integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler.5..5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete.Campus Automation 8. debug and document project code. y Dept. of ECE 68 VAST . This suite includes an IDE for project management. which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. build tools and real time debugger. a context sensitive C aware editor. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers. analyze.. built-in functions and standard C operators.helping developers create. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another.


y The bell rings at the end of each hour.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller. 9.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear. of ECE 70 VAST . when the observer is far away from the display. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. y ZigBee module is very costly. Dept. Hardware implementation is simpler.


Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes. y y Dept. of ECE 72 VAST . y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers.1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections.

of ECE 73 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept.

The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required. Dept. of ECE 74 VAST . The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today. It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept. of ECE 75 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 76 VAST .

of ECE 77 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 78 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 79 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 80 VAST .

CK: synchronous clock input. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). of ECE 81 VAST . MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. THV: High voltage test mode controlling. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. INT: external interrupt. PGC: serial programming clock.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. CS: Select control for parallel slave. Dept. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. Vpp: programming voltage input. PGD: Serial programming data. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 86 VAST .

of ECE 87 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept.

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