Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





3.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A.bell & ZIGBEE module. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. Dept. motion detection. of ECE 7 VAST . The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section.1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. and laser range finding. PIR sensor . In fact. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer. PIR sensors are used in many applications.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. such as night vision. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). which controls the data transfer. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.

of ECE 8 VAST .2.RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller. Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3. Zigbee module and a buzzer .PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display.if the message bit is greater than 16 bit. The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message. The program is set such that LCD will clear . LCD display.


1 Dept C 0 .1.POWE SUPPLY Fig.C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.4. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.

of ECE 11 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.3 RECEIVER Dept. of ECE 12 VAST .


In the case of +5 Volt.3 Volts. constitutes a feed back amplifier. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. It is compressed of three basic parts. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal. we can use fixed regulator ICs i. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load. LM 78 5(U5). LCD. of ECE 14 VAST . The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3.1.. A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage.3 V. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. but is often a separate unit a module. Dept. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature.e.

A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals. The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. in many applications no external components are required. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions. The output of the IC gives us +12v. The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1.1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. however. only three terminals are required for this type of generator.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value. and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. They therefore. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2).A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose. The simplicity and case of application is evident. The use of a suitable capacitor will. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator.25V between the output and Dept.21 geF ceramic disks. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC. . 2mF or greater tantalum. A 47Mf (C13) and . A 47Mf (C14) and . Indeed.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. input (Vin). As a result. with a minimum of external components required. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. of ECE 15 VAST . Acceptable values on generally . or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. output (Vo) and a ground terminal. do not require any external feed back connections. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary.-12 or 6. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3.3V DC voltage. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below. VREF is 1. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply. giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes.3V. Usually.3v. of ECE 16 VAST . Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3.25v V = 1. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3.

C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose. of ECE 17 VAST . f=5 Hz.1 F std. C3. Use C4 = .3 V Then R2 = 33     std. C4 is used for reducing noise at the output.Campus Automation I= . std. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1. 63A.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. We require C2 << C1 . Hence C=477. PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std.72 F. Dept. SELECTION OF R 1 . Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std. R2. Vp=12+1. Use 47 F standard.2V.2=13.

A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. As li e normal microcontroller. PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. The PIC has number of advanced features. Dept. etc. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. 5. availability of low cost or free development tools.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . communication ports. large user base. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus).1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. of ECE 18 VAST . and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. ROM. etc). timers/counters. I/O ports.5. extensive collection of application notes. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word.2. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus). wide availability.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. EEPROM.

industrial and extended temperature ranges. Two Capture (16bit/12. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. and 8k×14 of flash memory.2. High sink/source current (25mA). Commercial. Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources). 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). PIC 16C77. 5.56)volts. of ECE 19 VAST . WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). ± 5. Pulse Width Modules (1 bit). Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer.2. Low power consumption (< .high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. Compare (16 bit/2 nS). Different types of addressing modes (direct. Eight level deep hardware stack.6mA typical @3v-4MHz. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). Power on Reset (POR). PIC 16C76. relative addressing modes). Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory). Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). Low power. instruction cycle (2 nS). Wide operating voltage range (2. Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Fully static design. Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection.2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. eral Features 5.3 Key Features Dept. Indirect.5nS). All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles. Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions.

4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability.2. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept. of ECE 2 VAST . USART). 5 input/output ports. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators. Data memory (bytes) is 368.2. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU. 3 timers. Single 5V. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5. 1 Self programmable under software control. control unit. Selectable oscillator options. Programmable code protection. Power saving sleep modes. Flash program memory (14 bit words). ALU. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). 2 serial communication ports (MSSP. accumulator. 2 CCP modules.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. etc.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5. 8KB. 5.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation.2. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256.

this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable. The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers). The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. Dept.7. 5. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. In the PIC microcontrollers.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack.2. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR).2.7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections. Each time we write a new program to the controller. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately). of ECE 21 VAST . y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others. As a result. 5. These RISC structure gives the following advantages.2.7.1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user. we must delete the old one at that time. The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one.

Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes. BANK 1. which gives only 128 addresses. BANK 2. This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. these banks may vary. 5. and BANK4). Instead. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address. The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers.7.2. of ECE 22 VAST .1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept.

put the corresponding output driver in a High.). rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations. and PORT E (RE). ´PORT B´ . Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read.e.8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports. ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7).e. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer.RD-0 to RD-7). Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins. of ECE 23 VAST . PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5. (If we want to set PORT A as an input. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch.8.) 5. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. bidirectional port. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.Impedance mode). These ports are used for input/ output interfacing.1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. 5.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶. PORT C (RC). All write operations are read-modify-write operations. Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input.. In this controller.RC-0 to RC-7.2. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i. the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. etc. ³PORT C´. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7). Therefore. PORT B (RB). The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A.2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional.2. TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B. PORT D (RD). The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A)..

This interrupt-on-mismatch feature. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs.2. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. bidirectional port. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers.. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). This will end the y y Mismatch condition. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept.8. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs.change comparison). in the Interrupt Service Routine. The user. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output..change feature.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. Clear flag bit RBIF. bidirectional port.e. RB7:RB4. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. of ECE 24 VAST . Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. 5. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. have an interrupton.e.2. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups.e. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i.8.. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. Four of the PORTB pins. 5. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>).

2. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. or with SMBus levels. In this mode. the input buffers are TTL.e. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). Also. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. ZIGBEE etc. Bluetooth.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i..e. When the I2C module is enabled. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination.2. 5. of ECE 25 VAST . Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. should be avoided. IR. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. When enabling peripheral functions. the input buffers are TTL.8. read-modify write instructions (BSF.8. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. 5. In this mode. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. When selected for analog input. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. In this mode. BCF. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). these pins will read as µ0¶s.2.. 5. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. even when they are being used as analog inputs. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin.

or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices. serial EEPROMs. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size. 5.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. of ECE 26 VAST . The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin. etc. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits. such as CRT terminals and personal computers. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. one stop bit & no parity bit. The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.

the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept. When reset it is low. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses.5 is suggested. These are given in appendix.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event. For this reason.6. of ECE 27 VAST . 5. as shown in Fig.5.2.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD. During normal operation this pin should be high.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. during reset. The use of an RCR network.

12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator. Operations and registers are not orthogonal. The PIC requires external clock generator. ‡ Dept. Small instruction set. 5.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation. of ECE 28 VAST .3 5.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware). Program memory is not accessible.2.5.

15.5. a new standard called IEEE 802. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. of ECE 29 VAST .42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15. such as Bluetooth. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. The new standard is also called ZigBee. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application. 5.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life. For such wireless applications. However. such as wireless light switches with lamps. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs. electrical meters with in-home-displays. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used.4 has been developed by IEEE.

Using this silent. long battery life. bees around Dept. 5. but powerful communication system. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. lives in a hive that contains a queen. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. The domestic honeybee.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . Typically. distance. a few male drones. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. a colonial insect. The survival.3. she is able to share information such as the location. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. of ECE 30 VAST .in which the connections are wireless. success.3. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in".4 GHz in digital modes. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. IEEE 802. and secure networking. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today . WPANs worldwide will be interconnected.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. which was used as the basis for a new standard. In addition. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. provided they are within physical range of one another. In the ideal scenario. and thousands of worker bees.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth.15. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development. 5.

15. cost-effective. the bandwidth it occupies.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee.3. ultra-low cost. not a single technical standard.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members. industrial communication and wireless technology.4 Dept. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1.15.4 protocol on which it was built.4 radio. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. 802. others are industry standards.15.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).15. 802.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5. of ECE 31 VAST . While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.3. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard.15.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. PC peripherals. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.4 IEEE 802. As a few examples. We will define the frequencies used. the IEEE 802. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802.15. The current list of application profiles either published. and networking features unique to this protocol.15.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. and the IEEE 802. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products. 5. As per its main role.

4 devices.4. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world). The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance. Most recently. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that. The first ZigBee Application Profile.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802.4 IEEE 802. The relationship between IEEE 802. simple connectivity and battery application in mind.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate.4 GHz.4(x) and IEEE P1901.15.15. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY. of ECE 32 VAST . The 802.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance.15. the Smart Energy Profile 2.400-2.4 GHz band. In the 2. such as IEEE 802.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge.15. Dept.15. The 802. Home Automation.3.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.15.480 GHz. and requires the most memory and computing power.15.405 to 2. 802.15. At 2.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States. was announced 2 November 2007. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN. It can function as a network coordinator.8MHz. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.15. The ZigBee 1. the 2. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier.5 Components of the IEEE 802.15. 5.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth. As amended by NIST.

wireless mesh networking standard.45 GHz. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity.150.3.4. 5. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range. even those that use the ISM frequencies.450 GHz. general.450 GHz bands.280 of the Radio Regulations. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating. First. Dept. 5. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency. In the United States of America. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. Third. and medical diathermy machines.15. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation. and 5. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. of ECE 33 VAST . 5. microwave ovens. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. and 5. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. However.138. IEEE 802.3. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules. 2. 915 MHz and 2.6 ISM Band The industrial.800 GHz bands. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. low-power.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. For many people. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In . which are typically around three seconds. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. Second. scientific and medical purposes other than communications. It is generally found in network-edge devices.

3. a router can act as an intermediate router.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. contains two stack profiles. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library". ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). average power consumption can be very low. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. ZigBee Pro offers more features.1%) 5. A ZED requires the least amount of memory. ZigBee 2007. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. resulting in long battery life. the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. while Dept. It is able to store information about the network. for home and light commercial use. it cannot relay data from other devices. of ECE 34 VAST . The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. such as multi-casting. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE).3. now the current stack release. y 5. passing on data from other devices.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device.

of ECE 35 VAST . power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. In beaconenabled networks.36 ms * 214 = 251. the network will be a cluster of clusters. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network. The applications running on those devices work the same. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing. Nodes may sleep between beacons. regardless of the stack profile beneath them.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. Beacon intervals may range from 15. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. receives an acknowledgment. since it is connected to the mains supply. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. and returns to sleep. The switch then wakes up. while others spend most of their time sleeping. However. In non-beacon-enabled networks. 5. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. Due to differences in routing options. In general.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. In this type of network. In most large network instances. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. sends a command to the lamp. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15). Dept.36 milliseconds to 15. requiring a more robust power supply. However.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. if not the ZigBee Coordinator.3.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected. In beaconing networks. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes.

with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth.. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense.. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL). This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. The raw.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard.. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands.4 GHz band. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802.0. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA.. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2. of ECE 36 VAST .4 GHz band.. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. where ch = 11. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. That is. or half a symbolperiod. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). which by definition do not use CSMA. Dept. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2.15. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels.11)) MHz. 12.3. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch . When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter). Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK). 5. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse. Finally.26. these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems. and do not use CSMA. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW).4 GHz (worldwide). In the 2.

Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 . Fig. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption. 5. but they are less severe. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B.3.3.5 5. of ECE 37 VAST . but the distance was too great between the points.5.4 radio. Fig 5. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept.6 As an example. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream. In other words.15. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together).

y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. No configuration is required out of the box. guaranteed latency. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default.3.000 nodes. 5. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. secondary battery lasts same as master. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network.15. Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires. y Very high QoS and very low. >65. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. very long primary battery life. of course. of ECE 38 VAST . Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee).4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. Default baud rate is 9600bps. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. with low latency available.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. Thus. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept. Furthermore. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. Although. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). Can be used indoors and outdoors. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi.

4 PIR Sensor Fig. 5. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping. . This can be very handy.5. That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet. of ECE 39 VAST .8 Dept. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). XBee also allows invisible operation. 5. pin 2 (transmit).15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig. The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. Quite simply. it replaces the serial communication cable.3. These are quite attractive specs. pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required.5. Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4.

PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from.4. such as VCRs and DVD players.4. motion detection. which is usually a thin sheet. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. and libraries. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat).3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.4. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. PIR sensors are used in many applications. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices. They can be expensive to purchase. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. Dept. 5.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding. 5. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. depending on how the device is calibrated. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor. install. such as night vision. Because of these properties. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. 5. night vision. and laser range finding. of ECE 40 VAST . Also.4.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. In fact. and can accept 30-V inputs.5 V. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. 5. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. hospitals.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous. they also have several disadvantages. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. and heatseeking missiles.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. 5. and calibrate as well. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves.

and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. of ECE 41 VAST . Battery-Powered Systems.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F.  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. . receiver. and Computers 5. Terminals. .5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current . Modems. 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0.28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1. The driver.

flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. which may be LED. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. for example. 5. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. fluorescent. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. industrial test equipment. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board).9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. which is one row of eight characters. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. 16x2. a cloth. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. and 20x4. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes.Campus Automation Fig 5. An LCD is a small low cost display. laser printers. or electroluminescent. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1.6. fax machines.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. of ECE 42 VAST . Character LCDs can come with or without backlights.1 Font Dept. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. and two polarizing filters.

A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character.6. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters.6. as they are stored in volatile memory. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on. 5. of ECE 43 VAST .

The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. RI. DTR. There are other lines on this port as RTS. The two pins are TXD & RXD.3 to +5V) 3.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. and RTS. As the name indicates. Dept. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links.10 1. the data is transmitted serially. DSR. RS=0: Command. RS=1: Data 5. R/W=1: Read 5.000bps. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. R/W=0: Write. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4. Read/Write (R/W). 5. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. Register Select (RS). RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). VCC (+3. The three links provides µtransmit¶. µreceive¶ and common ground. Ground 2. of ECE 44 VAST . CTS.

Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. or character encoding. 5.5. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse.1 Pin out Diagram Fig. user data is sent as a time-series of bits.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. In addition to the data circuits.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is. of ECE 45 VAST .7.11 5.

a PIC and an LCD display are used.8. The USART communication is used for transmitting data.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission. The data is send as RS232 protocols. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. of ECE 46 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5.In the receiver side a ZigBee module. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator.8. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. 5.

It consists of a LCD display to show the clock .8. 5. of ECE 47 VAST . it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. which is Usually a thin sheet. Dept. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception.


of ECE 49 VAST Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept.TIMER Initialize time hh=0.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 FLOWCHART 6.1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize LCD.

of ECE 50 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. of ECE 51 VAST .1.2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.

} else { output_bit(pin_b6. of ECE 52 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.count=1.h> unsigned int hh=00. } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++.1). } Dept.2.0).h> #include <> #include <stdio. if(hh==24) { hh=0.2 Firmware 6.1 Transmitter section #include <string. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.h> #include <

2). } } count=0.1). Dept. if(mm==60) { mm=0.2). Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++. if(hh==24) { hh=0. lcd_gotoxy(10. of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST . ss=ss+1. lcd_gotoxy(5.hh).":%02u".":%02u". printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(7. } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7.2). printf(lcd_putc. printf(lcd_putc."%02u". if(ss==60) { ss=0. if(mm==60) { mm=0.

enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1). ss=ss+3. enable_interrupts(GLOBAL). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. output_bit(pin_b7. printf(lcd_putc. lcd_init(). } } } } count++.1). set_timer1(0xfffe).1). putc(f)."CLOCK")."CLOCK"). setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8).Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(7. lcd_gotoxy(7. delay_ms(30). lcd_putc('\f'). } void main() { char f. while(1) { f=getc().1).0). printf(lcd_putc."alarm"). output_bit(pin_b7. of ECE 54 VAST .

h´ #include<lcd. } } } Dept. printf (lcd_putc.c). c=getc(). i=0. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶). int i=0. lcd_goto(1.c> Void main() { Char c.´%c´.2.2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam. } else { go to l1. l1:while(1) { i++. lcd_intit().1). of ECE 55 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.


of ECE 57 VAST .1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.2 PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 58 VAST .


15. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal. and the IEEE 802.15. 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.4 protocol on which it was built. 802. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example. the bandwidth it occupies. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B.15.4 was developed with lower data rate. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. Here defined are the frequencies used.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. Routers can also be used as End Devices. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices.4 802. of ECE 60 VAST . others are industry standards. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B. PC peripherals.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). simple connectivity and Dept. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.4 radio.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. the frequency.15. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. Routers or Coordinators.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination.15. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. the IEEE 802.15. industrial communication and wireless technology. As a few examples.15. and networking features unique to this protocol. but the distance was too great between the points. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.

8. when I need to reset the XBee.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.Campus Automation battery application in mind.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it.15. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2.400-2. of ECE 61 VAST . the 2. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to). Instead of using a reset switch.15. Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.8MHz. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board.4 devices. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.

You should see a screen like the one shown below.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. If you¶re not sure. you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to. of ECE 62 VAST .

The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). Select ³ZNet 2. Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee. Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. click on the ³Read´ button. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee.5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. of ECE 63 VAST . Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept.

first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. change the desired settings. If any of those commands did not return the correct information. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. If those commands returned the correct information. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. The XBee will respond with ³OK´. then congratulations. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. 8. and click the ³Write´ button again. of ECE 64 VAST .

and can accept 30-V inputs. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. of ECE 65 VAST . These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below. The driver.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first.5 V. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. Dept. receiver. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output.

grease.Campus Automation 8. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. However. etc. quick drying enamel paint. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. 8. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. slants and holes should be traced. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. using a thin Dept.5.5. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired. Preparing the PCB drawing 2. Locating holes.5. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. 8. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations. for small scale operations. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate. of ECE 66 VAST .3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. deciding the diameter of various holes. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black.

and then the IC¶s are soldered. the resistors are taken care at first. If etching takes longer. 8. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. or IDE. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). After drying. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. turpentine or acetone. Depending on the wiring diagram. the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated. of ECE 67 VAST . It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. The PCB may then be washed and dried.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case.5. The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. Dept. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint.

Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers.. built-in functions and standard C operators. build tools and real time debugger. y Dept. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers.5. analyze.Campus Automation 8. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete.helping developers create. a context sensitive C aware editor.. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another. which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. This suite includes an IDE for project management. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. of ECE 68 VAST . debug and document project code.


9.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear. of ECE 70 VAST .1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller. y ZigBee module is very costly. Dept. y The bell rings at the end of each hour.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule. Hardware implementation is simpler. when the observer is far away from the display. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell.


Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers.1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections. of ECE 72 VAST . y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. y y Dept.

of ECE 73 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept.

Dept. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today. The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy. of ECE 74 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly.

of ECE 75 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 76 VAST .

of ECE 77 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 78 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 79 VAST .

of ECE 80 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 81 VAST . PGC: serial programming clock. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. Dept. Vpp: programming voltage input. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. INT: external interrupt. PGD: Serial programming data. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. THV: High voltage test mode controlling. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. CS: Select control for parallel slave. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. CK: synchronous clock input.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 86 VAST .

of ECE 87 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept.

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