Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





bell & ZIGBEE module.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC.1. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. such as night vision. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . PIR sensor . PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. PIR sensors are used in many applications. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). 3.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. which controls the data transfer. In fact. and laser range finding. motion detection. Dept. The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. of ECE 7 VAST . Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer.

The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message. LCD display.2.PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display. The program is set such that LCD will clear .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3. of ECE 8 VAST .RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller. Dept. Zigbee module and a buzzer .if the message bit is greater than 16 bit.


1 Dept C 0 .C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.POWE SUPPLY Fig. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.1.4.

of ECE 11 VAST .2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4. of ECE 12 VAST .3 RECEIVER Dept.


unusually in the form of an integrated circuit.1. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3. The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3.3 V. we can use fixed regulator ICs i. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. of ECE 14 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature.. Dept. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven.e. constitutes a feed back amplifier.3 Volts. but is often a separate unit a module. LM 78 5(U5). A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load. In the case of +5 Volt. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal. A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller. LCD. It is compressed of three basic parts.

The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC. The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. A 47Mf (C13) and .A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals. The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. 2mF or greater tantalum. output (Vo) and a ground terminal. or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte . The use of a suitable capacitor will. A 47Mf (C14) and . The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. of ECE 15 VAST .A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. Acceptable values on generally . The output of the IC gives us +12v.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. The simplicity and case of application is evident. and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output.25V between the output and Dept. They therefore. only three terminals are required for this type of generator. input (Vin).1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor. As a result. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. in many applications no external components are required. Indeed. do not require any external feed back connections. The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit.21 geF ceramic disks. . however. with a minimum of external components required. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2). the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator.

giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A. Usually. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept.3v. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals. OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3. of ECE 16 VAST . if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3.25v V = 1.-12 or 6. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected.3V DC voltage. Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter.3V. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output. VREF is 1.

Use 47 F standard. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. Use C4 = . C4 is used for reducing noise at the output. R2. f=5 Hz.Campus Automation I= .2=13. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std. C3. Hence C=477. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std.2V.72 F. Vp=12+1. We require C2 << C1 .3 V Then R2 = 33     std. std. 63A. Dept. PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. SELECTION OF R 1 . C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose. of ECE 17 VAST .1 F std.

PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1. wide availability. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. Dept. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. timers/counters. I/O ports.2. The PIC has number of advanced features. EEPROM.5. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM. ROM. large user base.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus). of ECE 18 VAST . Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word. availability of low cost or free development tools.1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. etc.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. extensive collection of application notes. As li e normal microcontroller. 5. communication ports. etc). The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 . This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus).

eral Features 5. Two Capture (16bit/12. Different types of addressing modes (direct. 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory). relative addressing modes). Indirect. High sink/source current (25mA). 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR). Low power consumption (< . Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. PIC 16C77.2. Wide operating voltage range (2. Power on Reset (POR).high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM. of ECE 19 VAST .3 Key Features Dept. Compare (16 bit/2 nS). Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. PIC 16C76. instruction cycle (2 nS). and 8k×14 of flash memory.5nS).56)volts.2. Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources). Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. Eight level deep hardware stack.6mA typical @3v-4MHz. All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles. Fully static design. 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). industrial and extended temperature ranges. Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. ± 5. Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. Commercial.2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Pulse Width Modules (1 bit).Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions. WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). 5. Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). Low power. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD.

EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. USART). up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators. 8KB. Power saving sleep modes. accumulator. 5 input/output ports. ALU. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. Single 5V. control unit. PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5.2. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module. 5.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation.4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. etc. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept. 3 timers. 2 CCP modules. Data memory (bytes) is 368. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). 1 Self programmable under software control. 2 serial communication ports (MSSP.2. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. Flash program memory (14 bit words). Programmable code protection. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz. of ECE 2 VAST . Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU.2. Selectable oscillator options.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory.

Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. 5. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR). The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable.2. These RISC structure gives the following advantages.2. The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one. Dept. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed. RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. we must delete the old one at that time.7. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers). 5. Each time we write a new program to the controller.1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user.2. y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others. of ECE 21 VAST .7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections. As a result. In the PIC microcontrollers. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5.7. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately). The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle).

There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. Instead.7. A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write).2. of ECE 22 VAST . RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . which gives only 128 addresses. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address. Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words. RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range). Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2.1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access. these banks may vary. it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept. The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. 5. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). and BANK4). BANK 2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. BANK 1.

TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA.RD-0 to RD-7).1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).) 5. etc.2.RC-0 to RC-7. All write operations are read-modify-write operations.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i. ´PORT B´ . ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7). PORT C (RC)..8. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶. 5. Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch.e. In this controller. and PORT E (RE). The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump..Impedance mode). put the corresponding output driver in a High.2.e.). (If we want to set PORT A as an input. ³PORT C´. Therefore. of ECE 23 VAST . bidirectional port. Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins.2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i. PORT D (RD). rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations. PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5. They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A).8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports. The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A. a write to a port implies that the port pins are read. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output. These ports are used for input/ output interfacing. PORT B (RB). ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7).

The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers.8.change feature. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. Four of the PORTB pins.e. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep.8.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. The user. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. 5. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. RB7:RB4. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept..change comparison). This will end the y y Mismatch condition.e. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). Clear flag bit RBIF. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. bidirectional port. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups.2. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature.2.e. have an interrupton. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. of ECE 24 VAST . 5.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset.. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature. in the Interrupt Service Routine. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. bidirectional port.

Also. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).. When enabling peripheral functions. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. When selected for analog input. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>).8. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. ZIGBEE etc. When the I2C module is enabled.2. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. these pins will read as µ0¶s.2. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. the input buffers are TTL. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). or with SMBus levels. 5. should be avoided. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). the input buffers are TTL. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept. IR. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. Bluetooth. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. In this mode.e. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). In this mode. read-modify write instructions (BSF. even when they are being used as analog inputs. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. 5. BCF. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. of ECE 25 VAST .e. In this mode. 5.. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination.2.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i.8.

10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin. one stop bit & no parity bit. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size.2. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. serial EEPROMs. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits. 5.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit. etc. of ECE 26 VAST . such as CRT terminals and personal computers. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices.

5 is suggested.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. as shown in Fig. The use of an RCR network. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event. For this reason. during reset. of ECE 27 VAST . These are given in appendix.2. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept.5.6. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD. When reset it is low.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. 5. During normal operation this pin should be high.

5. ‡ Dept. Operations and registers are not orthogonal. of ECE 28 VAST . The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3.2. The PIC requires external clock generator.12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator.2. Program memory is not accessible. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation.13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. Small instruction set.3 5. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices. 5.

However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. The new standard is also called ZigBee. such as wireless light switches with lamps.4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. electrical meters with in-home-displays.15. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer. For such wireless applications. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life. Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms. However. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application.5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small. 5.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802.4 has been developed by IEEE. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards. a new standard called IEEE 802. such as Bluetooth. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs. of ECE 29 VAST . The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth.15.42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs).

a colonial insect. and thousands of worker bees. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. Using this silent.4 GHz in digital modes.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network .15.3.2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices selectively. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and which the connections are wireless. WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. In addition. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information.3. long battery life. 5. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today . The survival. but powerful communication system. which was used as the basis for a new standard.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . of ECE 30 VAST . success. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". distance. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. Typically. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. 5. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. In the ideal scenario. she is able to share information such as the location. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. provided they are within physical range of one another. a few male drones. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development. IEEE 802. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. lives in a hive that contains a queen. bees around Dept. and secure networking. The domestic honeybee.

4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee.15.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.4 radio.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. As a few examples. ultra-low cost. and networking features unique to this protocol. PC peripherals. and the IEEE 802.15.3.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. the bandwidth it occupies. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. others are industry standards.3. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group.4 protocol on which it was built. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products.15. the IEEE 802. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. not a single technical standard.15. 802.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard. The current list of application profiles either published.15. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices. 5.4 Dept.4 IEEE 802. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. of ECE 31 VAST . and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable.15. 802. industrial communication and wireless technology.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802. As per its main role. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5. cost-effective.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.15. We will define the frequencies used.

15.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels. simple connectivity and battery application in mind.4 IEEE 802.480 GHz.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use. As amended by NIST. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802.15. The first ZigBee Application Profile.15.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2.4 GHz band. It can function as a network coordinator. In the 2.15. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world).4(x) and IEEE P1901.4 devices. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007. At 2.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. The ZigBee 1. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types.15.4 GHz.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802. The 802. The 802. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States.3. Dept. was announced 2 November 2007. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations. 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate.15. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.15.4. The relationship between IEEE 802.15. the 2.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY. Home Automation.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. of ECE 32 VAST .8MHz.5 Components of the IEEE 802.400-2. 5.405 to 2.15. Most recently.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth. such as IEEE 802. and requires the most memory and computing power.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance.15. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN. the Smart Energy Profile 2.

450 GHz. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In . even those that use the ISM frequencies.3. First. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations.3. 5. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity.280 of the Radio Regulations. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. IEEE 802. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries.4. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation. For many people.800 GHz bands. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less.6 ISM Band The industrial.15. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5.450 GHz bands. 5. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway. However. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range. 915 MHz and 2. wireless mesh networking standard. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. scientific and medical purposes other than communications. of ECE 33 VAST . which are typically around three seconds.138. It is generally found in network-edge devices. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. and 5. 5. and 5. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency.45 GHz. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating. microwave ovens. and medical diathermy machines. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. Dept.150. 2. Third. Second. In the United States of America. general. low-power.

This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library". y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. passing on data from other devices.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004. It is able to store information about the network. contains two stack profiles.3. such as multi-casting.3. A ZED requires the least amount of memory. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time. for home and light commercial use. now the current stack release.1%) 5. stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router).8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE). ZigBee 2007. a router can act as an intermediate router. while Dept. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete. y 5. ZigBee Pro offers more features. The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. of ECE 34 VAST . and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. average power consumption can be very low. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. it cannot relay data from other devices. resulting in long battery life.

216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. Due to differences in routing options.36 ms * 214 = 251. In beaconenabled networks. while others spend most of their time sleeping. 5.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. the network will be a cluster of clusters. In non-beacon-enabled networks. However. Beacon intervals may range from 15.36 milliseconds to 15. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. requiring a more robust power supply. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. The switch then wakes up.10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles. receives an acknowledgment. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. However. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active. In general. and returns to sleep. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. In most large network instances.3. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. sends a command to the lamp.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. In this type of network. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15). ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. In beaconing networks. Nodes may sleep between beacons. since it is connected to the mains supply. if not the ZigBee Coordinator. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. The applications running on those devices work the same. of ECE 35 VAST . regardless of the stack profile beneath them.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. Dept.

. In the 2. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. of ECE 36 VAST . Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro..Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK).. 5.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. That is.26.0. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter). although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. or half a symbolperiod. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band. ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY). and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2.4 GHz (worldwide). and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth.11)) MHz. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. Finally. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. which by definition do not use CSMA. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule. There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA.. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding.4 GHz band. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch . and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL).. it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time.4 GHz band. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. where ch = 11. and do not use CSMA. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. The raw. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA). 12.15.3. Dept. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW). which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator.

but they are less severe. Fig.4 radio. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream. of ECE 37 VAST .5.3. but the distance was too great between the points. 5.3. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points.15.5 5.6 As an example. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. Fig 5.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept.12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 . In other words. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios.

The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. Furthermore. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications. >65. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee). ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires.3.000 nodes. with low latency available. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. Default baud rate is 9600bps. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default. 5.15. guaranteed latency. y Very high QoS and very low. of course. secondary battery lasts same as master.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. of ECE 38 VAST . Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802. No configuration is required out of the box. Thus.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. very long primary battery life. Can be used indoors and outdoors. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. Although. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation.

8 Dept. XBee also allows invisible operation. of ECE 39 VAST . 5. This can be very handy. pin 2 (transmit). Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features. These are quite attractive specs. That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping. So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply).7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4. pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network. . it replaces the serial communication cable.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig. Quite simply.5.4 PIR Sensor Fig.5. 5.3.

it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from. They can be expensive to purchase. Also. hospitals. night vision.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. Dept.5 V.4.4. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. 5. which is usually a thin sheet. depending on how the device is calibrated. to detect infrared light coming from a television remote. such as VCRs and DVD players. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away.4. 5. and can accept 30-V inputs. 5.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. In fact. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. such as night vision. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor. and libraries. 5. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. and heatseeking missiles. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. motion detection.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages. and calibrate as well. of ECE 40 VAST . they also have several disadvantages. PIR sensors are used in many applications. 5.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply.4. and laser range finding. install. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. Because of these properties.

8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. receiver. .1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept. Battery-Powered Systems. The driver. and Computers 5. of ECE 41 VAST .  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. .28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1. Terminals. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.5.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F. Modems.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current .

9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. and two polarizing filters. The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. which may be LED. laser printers. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1. a cloth.1 Font Dept. 16x2. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. and 20x4. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. fluorescent. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights.6. fax machines. 5. which is one row of eight characters. for example. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). or electroluminescent. An LCD is a small low cost display.Campus Automation Fig 5. industrial test equipment. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. of ECE 42 VAST .

There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters. 5. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on. of ECE 43 VAST .6. as they are stored in volatile memory. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept.6.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5.

the data is transmitted serially. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port. R/W=0: Write. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20.000bps. DTR. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. VCC (+3. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. As the name indicates.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. Read/Write (R/W). Contrast adjustment (VO) 4.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. There are other lines on this port as RTS. and RTS. RI. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. DSR. RS=1: Data 5. µreceive¶ and common ground. The two pins are TXD & RXD. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). Dept.3 to +5V) 3. 5. RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. R/W=1: Read 5. CTS.10 1. Ground 2. Register Select (RS). RS=0: Command. The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers. of ECE 44 VAST . The three links provides µtransmit¶.

Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits.7. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232. 5. of ECE 45 VAST .5. user data is sent as a time-series of bits. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. In addition to the data circuits. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is.1 Pin out Diagram Fig. or character encoding. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard.11 5.

a PIC and an LCD display are used. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission. The USART communication is used for transmitting data. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC. Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data.In the receiver side a ZigBee module. The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept. of ECE 46 VAST . The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. 5.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC.8.8. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5. The data is send as RS232 protocols.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.

The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. which is Usually a thin sheet.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. 5. of ECE 47 VAST . it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from.8. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. Dept. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material.


1 FLOWCHART 6.1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize LCD. of ECE 49 VAST .ss=0 Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.TIMER Initialize time hh=0.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept. of ECE 50 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.1. of ECE 51 VAST .2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.

} Dept.h> unsigned int hh=00. if(hh==24) { hh=0.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Transmitter section #include <string.c> #include <stdio. of ECE 52 VAST .h> #include <> #include <stdlib.0).1).2.count=1. } else { output_bit(pin_b6. } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { hh++. #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.2 Firmware 6.

lcd_gotoxy(10. } } count=0. hh++. of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST .mm). } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7. if(mm==60) { mm=0.1).2). printf(lcd_putc. ss=ss+1. if(ss==60) { ss=0.":%02u". printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(7.2).":%02u".hh). if(mm==60) { mm=0."%02u".2).Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++. Dept. printf(lcd_putc. if(hh==24) { hh=0. lcd_gotoxy(5.

0). putc(f)."CLOCK").1). while(1) { f=getc(). } } } } count++. } void main() { char f. lcd_gotoxy(7. } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. set_timer1(0xfffe). printf(lcd_putc. ss=ss+3."CLOCK")."alarm"). printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(7. output_bit(pin_b7. enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1). of ECE 54 VAST .Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc. delay_ms(30). lcd_putc('\f'). lcd_init().1). setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8).1). output_bit(pin_b7. enable_interrupts(GLOBAL).

c). c=getc().1).h´ #include<lcd. l1:while(1) { i++.2. } else { go to l1.´%c´.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. lcd_goto(1.c> Void main() { Char c. printf (lcd_putc. i=0. lcd_intit(). if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶). } } } Dept. int i=0.2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam. of ECE 55 VAST .


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept. of ECE 57 VAST .

of ECE 58 VAST .2 PCB LA OUT Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.


Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. Routers can also be used as End Devices.4 radio.4 802. the frequency. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. and the IEEE 802. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. simple connectivity and Dept.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.15.15.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. the IEEE 802.15.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers.4 protocol on which it was built. Here defined are the frequencies used. industrial communication and wireless technology. of ECE 60 VAST . and networking features unique to this protocol. others are industry standards.15. 802. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. but the distance was too great between the points. the bandwidth it occupies. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. PC peripherals.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).4 was developed with lower data rate. Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices.15. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal. Routers or Coordinators.15. As a few examples. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications.15.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. 802.

2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2. Instead of using a reset switch. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board.4 devices.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it. when I need to reset the XBee. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram. Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept.Campus Automation battery application in mind. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.15. of ECE 61 VAST . the 902-928 MHz or the 2. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground.8MHz.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. the 2.15.400-2. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to). 8.

You should see a screen like the one shown below.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to. After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept. If you¶re not sure. you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee. of ECE 62 VAST .

Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode. Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). of ECE 63 VAST . Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee.5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. Select ³ZNet 2. The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. click on the ³Read´ button. Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using.

If any of those commands did not return the correct information. you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer. A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period. The XBee will respond with ³OK´. of ECE 64 VAST . click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. then congratulations. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. and click the ³Write´ button again. If those commands returned the correct information. change the desired settings. 8.

Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB. The driver. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. and can accept 30-V inputs. of ECE 65 VAST . Dept.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. receiver. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8.5 V. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels.

8. 8. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards. of ECE 66 VAST . Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1.5. Locating holes. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. Preparing the PCB drawing 2. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. However. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. quick drying enamel paint.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. slants and holes should be traced.5. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. for small scale operations. using a thin Dept. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. grease. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place.Campus Automation 8. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate.1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts.5. etc. deciding the diameter of various holes.

The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint. the resistors are taken care at first. If etching takes longer. It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed. and then the IC¶s are soldered. The PCB may then be washed and dried. Dept. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. of ECE 67 VAST . 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. Depending on the wiring diagram. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated.5. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". After drying. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner. turpentine or acetone. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. or IDE. 8.

The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs.. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers..helping developers create. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another. which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. debug and document project code. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers. y Dept.5. This suite includes an IDE for project management. built-in functions and standard C operators. allowing access to hardware features directly from C.Campus Automation 8. analyze. a context sensitive C aware editor. of ECE 68 VAST . build tools and real time debugger.


9. Hardware implementation is simpler. Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller. of ECE 70 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. y The bell rings at the end of each hour.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule. when the observer is far away from the display. y ZigBee module is very costly. Dept.


Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes.1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers. of ECE 72 VAST . y y Dept.

of ECE 73 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept.

The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module.1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. of ECE 74 VAST . Dept. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept. of ECE 75 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 76 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 77 VAST .

of ECE 78 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 79 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 80 VAST .

PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. PGD: Serial programming data. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. RD: Read control for parallel slave port.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset). of ECE 81 VAST . Dept. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). Vref (+/-): reference voltage. THV: High voltage test mode controlling. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. PGC: serial programming clock. SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode). CK: synchronous clock input. Vpp: programming voltage input. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. DT: these are synchronous data terminals. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. CS: Select control for parallel slave. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. INT: external interrupt. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode.

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



of ECE 86 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept. of ECE 87 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST.

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