Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Now a day¶s wired communication is outdated .Everywhere we are trying to use wireless communication. But there are limitation in range of wireless communication. Our aim is to develop a wireless transmitter receiver which is capable of transmitting as well as receiving messages form similar devices. Main objective of this project is make an efficient wireless transceiver is with very low cost . Main application of this module is in big industries, and war fields , and it can also be use for the communication between the guards in a train.

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation




Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Campus automation system has mainly two sections, transmitter section and receiver section.





PIC 16F877A






Dept. of ECE





PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC. A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view. The 16F877A micro controller is the heart of transmitter section. Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 This chapter discuss about the blocks of transmitter and receiver section.PIC controls the ZIGBEE module to transfer the data serially. PC is used to enter the data to the PIC with the help of serial port. which controls the data transfer.TRANSMITTER SECTION: Transmitter section mainly consists of three sub sections: *Message transmitting section *Automatic bell *Automatic fan and light controller This section contains peripheral interface controller (PIC) 16F877A. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them. of ECE 7 VAST . and laser range finding. Here we use wireless transmission system for data transfer. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. PIR sensor .The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). In fact. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . such as night vision.1.bell & ZIGBEE module. 3. motion detection. PIR sensors are used in many applications.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 3. Zigbee module and a buzzer .PIC receives the data serially through ZIGBEE module and displays that data on LCD display. The program is set such that LCD will clear . Dept.2. of ECE 8 VAST . The buzzer is used to indicate the arrival of new message.RECEIVER SECTION : The receiver section mainly consists of a PIC microcontroller. LCD display.if the message bit is greater than 16 bit.


POWE SUPPLY Fig.1 Dept C 0 .1. transmitter section and recei er section are 4.C t ti R C R R The ci cuit di gi en below: of power supply.4.

of ECE 11 VAST .2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 4.3 RECEIVER Dept. of ECE 12 VAST .


The adjustable regulator LM 317 is used for 3. together with the resistive voltage divider to tap off a portion of the output voltage. It is compressed of three basic parts.e.3 Volts.3 V. but is often a separate unit a module. Dept.. A series pass transistor or combination of transistor to provide an adequate level of output current to the load being driven. The closed loop amplifier configure act to maintain the traction of the output voltage feed back to the amplifier inverting input terminal equal to the reference voltage that is supplied to the noninverting input terminal. A voltage regulator may be part of some larger electronic circuit. In the case of +5 Volt. LCD.POWER SUPPL In this circuit Microcontroller. LM 78 5(U5). constitutes a feed back amplifier.1. A voltage reference circuit that produces a reference voltage that is independent of temperature and supply voltage. A voltage regulator is an electronic device that supplies a constant voltage to a circuit or load. we can use fixed regulator ICs i. The output voltage of the voltage regulator is regulated by the internal circuitry of the regulator to the relatively independent of the current drawn by the load. of ECE 14 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. An amplifier to compare the reference voltage with the fraction of the output voltage that is fed back from the voltage regulator output to the inverting input terminal of the amplifier. the supply or line voltage and the ambient temperature. GPS and camera are uses +5 volt supplies and MMC card uses +3. unusually in the form of an integrated circuit. The combination of the amplifier (often called an error amplifier) and the series pass transistors.

A 47Mf (C14) and . A very low Effective Series Resistance (ESR) should characterize the capacitor. The output of the LM 7812 gives to the LM78 5 IC for producing +5V dc. The capacitor across the input terminals is required only when the voltage regulator is located more than about 5cm. the current limit resistor Rd is also internal to the generator. Since these regulators operate at a present out put voltage. and will also reduce the noise present at the regulator output. The principle advantage of three terminal regulators is the simplicity of connection to the external circuit. however. The output of the IC gives us +12v. If we connect reveres polarity of the battery then a reveres current produces and damage the regulator IC. improve the regulator response to transient changes in the local conditions. 2mF or greater tantalum.A 47 MFD/25v filter capacitor (C12) is used for smoothing purpose. As a result. in many applications no external components are required. only three terminals are required for this type of generator.A capacitor is generally not needed across the output terminals.21 geF ceramic disks. They therefore. of ECE 15 VAST . do not require any external feed back connections. From the power supply filter capacitor such that the lead inductance between the supply and the regulator may cause stability problems and high frequency oscillations. or 25 mF or greater aluminium electrolyte .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Three terminal voltage regulators are voltage regulators in which the output voltage is set at some pre-determined value. Indeed. The simplicity and case of application is evident. The use of a suitable capacitor will. A 47Mf (C13) and . The diode D5 (1N4 1) protects circuits from reveres current. with a minimum of external components required. The 15 volt DC pass to the 7812 IC. The device connected to 15 v DC supply (the input of the regulator IC always greater than Vout+2).25V between the output and Dept. output (Vo) and a ground terminal. Acceptable values on generally . The LM317 provides an internal reference voltage of 1. input (Vin).1 MF (C8) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection.1 MF (C9) capacitors are used for surge voltage protection. .

OUTPUT VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS: 3. 5 V CURRENT REQUIREMENTS: Upto 2 mA SELECTION OF TRANSISTOR: Use 12. of ECE 16 VAST .-12 or 6. This is used to set a constant current flow across an external resistor divider show below.3V DC voltage. Here a P1 (variable resistor ) is connected for adjusting output voltage.3v. R2+P1=36 ohm In summary.-6 transformer to obtain 12V AC supply from 23 V AC mains supply. giving an output voltage VO of: V = VREF ( 1 + R 2 /R 21 ) + IADJ R2 The device was designed to minimize the term IADJ ( 1 m A max) and to maintain it very constant with line and load changes. C=5I/(Vp x f) Dept.25(1+R2/R21) Here we want 3. Inorder to avoid this we use a capacitive filter. if R21 is 22 ohm we can get value of R2. SELECTION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS: Use LM78 5 to obtain the 5V DC voltage and LM317 to obtain the 3. SELECTION OF DIODES: Use 1N4 7 diodes as it can withstand a maximum of 1 A. Usually.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 adjustments terminals. VREF is 1.25v V = 1. C1 is used for filtering the rectifier output.3V. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 1 : The converted dc contains ac ripple components. the error term IADJ V R2 can be neglected.

Campus Automation I= . std. V = Vref [1 + (R2 / R1 )] Vref = 1. 63A. C3. Dept. Use 47 F standard. Take C2 = C1 / 1 Use 47 F std.2=13. Vp=12+1.25 V fixed value Take R1 = 22 V = 3. C4: C3 is used for filtering purpose.3 V Then R2 = 33     std. We require C2 << C1 . C4 is used for reducing noise at the output.72 F.2V. f=5 Hz.1 F std. SELECTION OF R 1 . of ECE 17 VAST . PROJECT REPORT µ11 SELECTION OF CAPACITOR C 2 : The capacitor C2 is used for filtering purpose. Use C4 = . Hence C=477. Use C3 = C2 = 47 F std. R2.

ROM.Campus Automation PR CT R PORT µ11 5. communication ports. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller li e INTEL 80 1. the important features of PIC16F877 series is given below. As li e normal microcontroller. This improves the bandwidth (data throughput) over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus). Separating program and data memory further allows instru ctions to be si ed differently than the 8-bit wide data word. the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unit called CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM. A PIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memory modules. The PIC has number of advanced features. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650 .1 All PIC microcontroller family uses Harvard architecture. 5.2Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC is one of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies. EEPROM. PICs are popular with both industrial developers and ho bbyists ali e due to their low cost. The figure of a PIC16F877 chip is shown below Fig. timers/counters. and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability.2.5. large user base. Dept. etc. wide availability. extensive collection of application notes. I/O ports. availability of low cost or free development tools. These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. etc). of ECE 18 VAST . PIC 16F877 is one of the most advanced microcontroller from Microchip.1 General Features y It is a high performance RISC CPU. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories so the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus (more than 8 lines in a normal bus).

industrial and extended temperature ranges. Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with 9 bit addresses detection. instruction cycle (2 nS). Different types of addressing modes (direct. 2 A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby). PIC 16C77. Two Capture (16bit/12. ± 5. Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and post-scalar. Indirect. Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B. Up to 368×8bit of RAM (data memory).Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Only 35 simple word instructions. Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR).2 Peri y y y y y y y y y Timer : 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources).6mA typical @3v-4MHz. Operating speed: clock input (2 MHz). Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD. All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycles. eral Features 5. Eight level deep hardware stack. WR and CS controls (4 /46pin). of ECE 19 VAST . PIC 16C76. and 8k×14 of flash memory. Power on Reset (POR). Commercial. 1 bit multi-channel A/D converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C (master/slave). Fully static design. 256×8 of EEPROM (data memory). relative addressing modes). 5. Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer. High sink/source current (25mA). Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar. Low power.3 Key Features Dept.5nS). Compare (16 bit/2 nS).56)volts. Pulse Width Modules (1 bit). Low power consumption (< . Wide operating voltage range (2.2.2.high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM.

PSP parallel communication port 1 bit A/D module (8 channels) 5. Power saving sleep modes. a type of microprocessor that focuses on rapid and efficient processing of a relatively small set Dept. Data memory (bytes) is 368.Campus Automation y y y y y y y y y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Maximum operating frequency is 2 MHz. 8KB. accumulator. Single 5V.2. 1 Self programmable under software control. 3 timers. up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Brown-out Reset (BOR) Analog Comparator module with two analog comparators. etc. 1 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory. Selectable oscillator options. 2 CCP modules. control unit. The CPU in PIC normally supports Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). 5. Now we discuss the important parts of Peripheral Interface Controller 5.6 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The function of CPU in PIC is same as a normal microcontroller CPU. 5 input/output ports. Flash program memory (14 bit words). of ECE 2 VAST . EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256. A PIC CPU consists of several sub units such as instruction decoder. USART). 2 serial communication ports (MSSP. ALU.DC supply for circuit serial programming WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation.2.4 Anal g Features y y y 1 -bit. programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference & comparator outputs are externally accessible. In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability. Programmable code protection. programmable onchip voltage reference (VREF) module.5 Special Features y y y y y y y y y times erase/write cycle enhanced memory.2.

5.2 Data Memory The data memory of PIC16F877 is separated into multiple banks which contain the general purpose registers (GPR) and special function registers (SPR). we must delete the old one at that time.7.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 of instructions. In the PIC microcontrollers.1 Program memory Program memory contains the programs that are written by the user. of ECE 21 VAST .7 Memory Organization of PIC16F877 The memory of a PIC 16F877 chip is divided into 3 sections.7. The counter is automatically incremented to the next instruction during the current instruction execution. This memory is primarily used for storing the programs that are written (burned) to be used by the PIC. Usually PIC16F877 devices have a 13 bit wide program counter that is capable of addressing 8K×14 bit program memory space. They are y Program memory y Data memory and y Data EEPROM 5. The program counter (PC) executes these stored commands one by one. These RISC structure gives the following advantages. The program memory map and stack is shown in appendix Program counters (PC) is used to keep the track of the program execution by holding the address of the current instruction. The execution time is same for most of the instructions (except very few numbers). RISC design is based on the premise that most of the instructions a computer decodes and executes are simple. The execution time required is very less (5 million instructions/second approximately).2. The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. Dept. These devices also have 8K*14 bits of flash memory that can be electrically erasable /reprogrammed.2. As a result. RISC architecture limits the number of instructions that are built into the microcontroller but optimizes each so it can be carried out very rapidly (usually within a single clock cycle). 5. this is a special block of RAM memory used only for this purpose. y y y The RISC structure only has 35 simple instructions as compared to others.2. The stack space is not a part of either program or data space and the stack pointers are not readable or writable. Each time we write a new program to the controller.

BANK 2.3 Data EEPROM and FLASH The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is readable and writable during normal operation (over the full VDD range).7. The data memory bank organization is shown in appendix. Each bank holds 128 bytes of addressable memory. The selection of the banks are determined by control bits RP1. The PIC16F877 chip only has four banks (BANK . This memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. The Flash program memory allows single-word reads and four-word block writes. of ECE 22 VAST . A byte write in data EEPROM memory automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). RP in the STATUS registers Together the RP1. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 BANK 0 1 2 3 Table 5. There are six SFRs used to read and write this memory: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEDATH EEADR EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and writes. The banked arrangement is necessary because there are only 7 bits are available in the instruction word for the addressing of a register. and the first 16 locations of Banks2 and 3 are reserved for the mapping of the Special Function Registers (SFR¶s). RP and the specified 7 bits effectively form a 9 bit address. Instead. it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers. which gives only 128 addresses.2. The first 32 locations of Banks 1 and 2. Program memory write operations automatically perform an erase-before write on blocks of four words.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 According to the type of the microcontroller. these banks may vary. BANK 1. 5. The write time is controlled by an on- Dept. and BANK4).1 A bit of RP1 & RP0 of the STATUS register selects the bank access.

These ports are used for input/ output interfacing.) 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 chip timer. ´PORT B´ . PORT C (RC). whereas writing to it will write to the port latch.. Therefore. PORT D (RD). a write to a port implies that the port pins are read. They are usually denoted by PORT A (R A). Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.´PORT D´ are only 8 bits wide (RB-0 to RB-7.RC-0 to RC-7. ³PORT C´. In this controller. etc.2. the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit µ0¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as output. ´PORT E´ has only 3 bit wide (RE-0 to RE-7). Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin.1 Port A & TRIS A Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i. Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins. (If we want to set PORT A as an input. ³PORT A´ is only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7). of ECE 23 VAST . put the corresponding output driver in a High.. just set TRIS(A) bit to logical µ1¶ and want to set PORT B as an output. rated to operate over the voltage range of the device for byte or word operations.8. The direction of the port is controlled by using TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A. just set the PORT B bits to logical µ0¶.).e. Setting a TRIS(X) bit µ1¶ will set the corresponding PORT(X) bit as input.RD-0 to RD-7). PORT-A PORT-B PORT-C PORT-D PORT-E RA0 to RA5 RB-0 to RB-7 RC-0 to RC-7 RD-0 to RD-7 RE-0 to RE-2 Table 5. and PORT E (RE). All write operations are read-modify-write operations.2 6 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 8 bit wide 3 bit wide All these ports are bi-directional. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain Dept. 5. PORT B (RB).8 Input/output Ports PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports.e. TRIS B used to set the direction for PORT-B.Impedance mode).2. bidirectional port. The write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip charge pump.

8. The ³mismatch´ outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR¶ed together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). This interrupt-on-mismatch feature. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB.2.change comparison). 5.. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i.2. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i. can clear the interrupt in the following manner: Any read or write of PORTB.2 Port B & TRIS Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. RB7:RB4. have an interrupton. The user.8. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM. allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin Dept. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. The interrupt-onchange feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 output. 5. The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB.e. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. bidirectional port. bidirectional port.e. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). of ECE 24 VAST . The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs.change feature. Four of the PORTB pins.. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on-change feature. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. This will end the y y Mismatch condition. in the Interrupt Service Routine.3 Port C & TRIS C Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide..e. Clear flag bit RBIF.

the input buffers are TTL.e. of ECE 25 VAST .8. BCF. read-modify write instructions (BSF. 5. 5. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i. When enabling peripheral functions. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI)..5 Port E & TRIS E Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5. the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels. When selected for analog input. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin.4 Port D & TRIS D Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 an input (i. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). In this mode.2. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. In this mode. XORWF) with TRISC as the destination.e. the input buffers are TTL.8. the user must make certain that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Also. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output.2. When the I2C module is enabled. these pins will read as µ0¶s. These transmissions possible with help of various digital data transceiver modules like RF. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. The USART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with Dept. ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. even when they are being used as analog inputs. ZIGBEE etc. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers.9 USART The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. Bluetooth. IR. In this mode. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation.. This is the one of the simplest way to communicate the PIC chip with other devices. 5. These ports are used for the transmission (TX) and reception (RX) of data. or with SMBus levels.2. PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). should be avoided. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins.

where 8-bit is data & one bit is stop bit. The USART can be configured in the following modes: y y y Asynchronous (full-duplex) Synchronous ± Master (half-duplex) Synchronous ± Slave (half-duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.10 Pin Diagram of PIC 16F877A The 40 pin PDIP pin. etc. serial EEPROMs.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 peripheral devices. one stop bit & no parity bit. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection.out of PIC 16F877A is shown below: Dept. such as CRT terminals and personal computers. such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits.2. Therefore the transmitted or received information is 9-bit in size. or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices. 5. The parameters for serial communication are y y y y y Data rate (Baud rate in bps) Data size (packet size) Start bit (if any) Stop bit (if any) Parity bit (if any) PIC 16F877A have no start bit. of ECE 26 VAST .

Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset event.2.11 Master Clear PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses.5 is suggested. The use of an RCR network. as shown in Fig.6.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied directly to VDD. 5. During normal operation this pin should be high.5. during reset.2 Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. For this reason. These are given in appendix. the following conditions will occur y Queue will clear y All registers will clear y IP points to the first location of memory y RAM will clear Dept. of ECE 27 VAST . When reset it is low.

2. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. The details of crystal oscillator are given in appendix-3.2. The PIC requires external clock generator. We use crystal oscillator for clock generation.5. Program memory is not accessible. Register banking switch required to access RAM of other devices. Small instruction set. of ECE 28 VAST .13 Advantages of PIC Controlled System Reliability: The PIC controlled system often resides machines that are expected to run continuously for many years without any error and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs(with help of supporting firmware).12 Limitations of PIC Architecture y y y y y Peripheral Interface Controller has only one accumulator.3 5. ‡ Dept. Operations and registers are not orthogonal.

5. up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications. The new standard is also called ZigBee.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. Power consumption can be reduced by independently and dynamically controlling multiple power platforms.4 has been developed by IEEE. 5. However. The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. ZigBee is targeted at radio- Dept. ‡ Memory: Most of the PIC based systems are memory expandable and will help in easily adding more and more memory according to the usage and type of application. such as Bluetooth. ‡ Power consumption: A PIC controlled system operates with minimal power consumption without sacrificing performance. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs. electrical meters with in-home-displays. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life.3 ZIGBEE Module Fig. such as wireless light switches with lamps.15. of ECE 29 VAST . The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards. lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small. a new standard called IEEE 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ‡ Performance: Many of the PIC based embedded system use a simple pipelined RISC processor for computation and most of them provide on-chip SRAM for data storage to improve the performance. consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio needing low rates of data transfer.15.42003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs).4 In this project the data will be transmitted from the attendance entering system to the main server using wireless technology. when additional stack layers defined by the ZigBee Alliance are used. and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802. For such wireless applications. In small applications the inbuilt memory can be used.

WPANs worldwide will be interconnected. when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server. Typically. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2. whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern.1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network . distance. she is able to share information such as the location. Every device in a WPAN will be able to plug in to any other device in the same WPAN. The domestic honeybee.3. which was used as the basis for a new standard. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. long battery life.4 GHz in digital modes. In the ideal scenario. This communication dance (the "ZigBee Principle") is what engineers are trying to emulate with this protocol _ a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tackle complex tasks.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate. and thousands of worker bees. 5. 5. and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony.or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation. A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in".3. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid development. but powerful communication system. of ECE 30 VAST .2 The Name ZIGBEE The name ZigBee is said to come from the domestic honeybee which uses a zigzag type of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. a few male drones. a colonial insect. they can communicate as if connected by a cable. preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information. success.15. a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters (33 ft) such as Bluetooth. and secure networking. The survival. and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. IEEE 802. lives in a hive that contains a queen. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today . Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices which the connections are wireless. In addition. Using this silent. provided they are within physical range of one another.a network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace . bees around Dept.

Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors.3.4 standard was to provide a standard for ultra-low complexity. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. the bandwidth it occupies.15. As a few examples. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publish the ZigBee standard.3 Trademark and Alliance The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable. ultra-low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivity among inexpensive devices.4 radio. PC peripherals.3. and low-power wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard. industrial communication and wireless technology.4 protocol on which it was built. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802.0 ZigBee Telecommunication Services ZigBee Health Care ZigBee Remote Control 5.15. it standardizes the body that defines ZigBee.4 Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. The current list of application profiles either published. others are industry standards.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality. not a single technical standard.15. The term ZigBee is a registered trademark of this group. As per its main role. and the IEEE 802. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. We will define the frequencies used. ultra-low cost. and networking features unique to this protocol. or in the works are: y y y y y ZigBee Home Automation ZigBee Smart Energy 1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members. and also publishes application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).4 Dept. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet. of ECE 31 VAST .15. 802. cost-effective.15. The goal IEEE had when they specified the IEEE 802.15. 802.15. the IEEE 802. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. 5.16 define communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.4 IEEE 802.

As amended by NIST.4 GHz.8MHz.4 functions and features speci_ed by the standard. Home Automation.15.15. only approximately 2 MHz of the channel is consumed with the occupied bandwidth. whereas the 902-928 MHz band can only be used in the United States. 802. and requires the most memory and computing power.0 specification will remove the dependency on IEEE 802.480 GHz.4 IEEE 802. the Smart Energy Profile 2. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world). the 902-928 MHz or the 2.4 and ZigBee is similar to that between IEEE 802.4 standard specifies that communication should occur in 5 MHz channels ranging from 2.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868. It can function as a network coordinator.15. was announced 2 November 2007. 5.4 GHz band. While the standard specifies 5 MHz channels.0 specification was ratified on 14 December 2004 and is available to members of the ZigBee Alliance. under an IP layer based on 6LoWPAN.4(x) and IEEE P1901. of ECE 32 VAST . While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.15.15.3. Most recently. At 2.400-2. such as IEEE 802. the ZigBee 2007 specification was posted on 30 October 2007. The ZigBee 1. In the 2. but due to the overhead of the protocol the actual theoretical maximum data rate is approximately half of that. The 802. Canada and a few other countries and territories that accept the FCC regulations.15.4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.4 specifies the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and uses an Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping to modulate the RF carrier. a maximum over-the-air data rate of 250 kbps is specified.4. The 802.4 networks use three types of devices: y y The network Coordinator maintains overall network knowledge.405 to 2. The relationship between IEEE 802.15.15.11 and the Wi-Fi Alliance. The 868 MHz band is specified primarily for European use.4 devices. The first ZigBee Application Profile.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide.15.5 Components of the IEEE 802.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 was developed with lower data rate. It is the most sophisticated one of the three types.15. the 2. simple connectivity and battery application in mind. The Full Function Device (FFD) supports all IEEE 802. Dept. Device manufacturers will be able to implement any MAC/PHY.

Second. these bands are typically given over to uses intended for unlicensed operation. which are typically around three seconds. in recent years these bands have also been shared with license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the 868 MHz. scientific and medical purposes other than communications. microwave ovens.15. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate any interference from ISM equipment. However. 915 MHz and 2. since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway.800 GHz bands. low-power. the low cost allows the technology to be widely depl oyed in wireless control and monitoring applications. scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial. and 5.4. and 5.Campus Automation y PROJECT REPORT µ11 The Reduced Function Device (RFD) carries limited (as speci_ed by the standard) functionality to lower cost and complexity. as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz. 2. First. For many people. the latency can be very low and devices can be very responsive ² particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays. the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwave oven operating at 2. uses of the ISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules.450 GHz bands.450 GHz. 5.280 of the Radio Regulations. Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating. of ECE 33 VAST . IEEE 802. ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands.45 GHz.3.150. even those that use the ISM frequencies. while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensed communication devices. so these devices were limited to certain bands of frequencies In . The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5. 5. Individual countries' use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations. In the United States of America. the low power -usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. and medical diathermy machines. Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 30 msec or less.7 General characteristics of ZIGBEE ZigBee is a low-cost.138. 5. The RFD can be used where extremely low power consumption is a necessity. It is generally found in network-edge devices. general.3. communications equipment operating in these bands must accept any interference generated by ISM equipment. Third.6 ISM Band The industrial. Dept. the mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range. The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency. wireless mesh networking standard.

and mainly replaces the MSG/KVP structure used in 2004 with a "cluster library". and stack profile 2 (called ZigBee Pro). There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. of ECE 34 VAST . ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router). The second stack release is called ZigBee 2006. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. y 5. passing on data from other devices. manyto-one routing and high security with Symmetric-Key Key Exchange (SKKE).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Because ZigBees can sleep most of the time. y ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function. average power consumption can be very low. contains two stack profiles. The 2004 stack is now more or less obsolete.8 Device Types There are three different types of ZigBee devices: y ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device. ZigBee 2007. it cannot relay data from other devices. resulting in long battery life. including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. ZigBee Pro offers more features. The general characteristics of the zigbee are: y y y y y y y y Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0. and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. such as multi-casting.3. the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. now the current stack release.9 Different Stacks of ZIGBEE The first stack release is now called ZigBee 2004. while Dept.1%) 5. A ZED requires the least amount of memory.3. stack profile 1 (simply called ZigBee). It is able to store information about the network. for home and light commercial use. a router can act as an intermediate router.

In most large network instances. However.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 ZigBee (stack profile 1) offers a smaller footprint in RAM and flash. The current profiles derived from the ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks.36 milliseconds to 15. In beaconing networks. while others spend most of their time sleeping. while a battery-powered light switch would remain asleep until the switch is thrown. of ECE 35 VAST .10 ZIGBEE Protocols The protocols build on recent algorithmic research (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector.36 ms * 214 = 251. the same as for ZigBee 2006 devices on a ZigBee 2007 network must become ZEDs on a ZigBee Pro network. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. In non-beacon-enabled networks. The applications running on those devices work the same. However. In this type of network. 5. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is a wireless light switch: The ZigBee node at the lamp may receive constantly. regardless of the stack profile beneath them. Beacon intervals may range from 15. and returns to sleep. the switch node is typically a ZigBee End Device. an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used.432 seconds at 20 kbit/s. The switch then wakes up.65824 seconds at 250 kbit/s. power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: some devices are always active. while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected. In general. the ZigBee protocols minimize the time the radio is on so as to reduce power use. thus lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life. nodes only need to be active while a beacon is being transmitted. In beaconenabled networks. requiring a more robust power supply. this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously. Due to differences in routing options. Dept. Nodes may sleep between beacons. receives an acknowledgment. the special network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit periodic beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes. from 24 milliseconds to 24 ms * 214 = 393. Both offer full mesh networking and work with all ZigBee application profiles.216 seconds at 40 kbit/s and from 48 milliseconds to 48 ms * 214 = 786. which can conflict with the need for low product cost. the network will be a cluster of clusters. low duty cycle operation with long beacon intervals requires precise timing. In such a network the lamp node will be at least a ZigBee Router. neuRFon) to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. ZigBee 2007 is fully backward compatible with ZigBee 2006 devices: A ZigBee 2007 device may join and operate on a ZigBee 2006 network and vice versa. In non-beacon-enabled networks (those whose beacon order is 15). ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active.3. if not the ZigBee Coordinator. since it is connected to the mains supply. sends a command to the lamp. ZigBee Pro devices must become non-routing ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) on a ZigBee 2006 network.

11)) MHz. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once.4-2003 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. Dept. BPSK is used in the 868 and 915 MHz bands. The output power of the radios is generally 0 dBm (1 mW). That is. The raw.3. and do not use CSMA. and the media access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL). these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations an undesirable quality in communication systems.11 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. Transmission range is between 10 and 75 meters (33 and 246 feet) and up to 1500 meters for zigbee pro. which is managed by the digital stream into the modulator.. 5.4 GHz band. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period. which will be MAC/PHY agnostic. they briefly check to see that no one is talking before they start. The basic channel access mode is "carrier sense. over-the-air data rate is 250 kbit/s per channel in the 2. 40 kbit/s per channel in the 915 MHz band. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. In the constellation diagram shown on the right. although it is heavily dependent on the particular environment. or half a symbolperiod.4 GHz band. 12. The standard specifies the lower protocol layers²the physical layer (PHY).. In the 2. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°.. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time.0.26. with each channel requiring 5 MHz of bandwidth. This standard specifies operation in the unlicensed 2. of ECE 36 VAST . Finally. The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. and OQPSK that transmits four bits per symbol is used in the 2. devices in Beacon Oriented networks that have low latency real-time requirements may also use Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS). There are three notable exceptions to the use of CSMA.. multiple access/collision avoidance" (CSMA/CA).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Except for the Smart Energy Profile 2. Beacons are sent on a fixed timing schedule.4 GHz (worldwide). ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802. where ch = 11. FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch .4 GHz band there are 16 ZigBee channels. 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe) ISM bands. The center frequency for each channel can be calculated as. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter). it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time. and 20 kbit/s in the 868 MHz band. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK).. the nodes talk in the same way that people converse. Message acknowledgments also do not use CSMA. The radios use direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. which by definition do not use CSMA.15.

3. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together).12 Mesh Networkin ZigBee is designed to do the mesh networking to the underlying 80 .5. Fig 5. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios.3.6 As an example. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. but they are less severe.5 5. 5. In other words. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. Fig.4 radio. Some of the key protocol differentiators are:  ZigBee: Dept. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves.13 ZIGBEE v/s Bluetooth ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimi ations in power consumption. but the distance was too great between the points. the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. of ECE 37 VAST .15.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data stream.

with low latency available. Can be used indoors and outdoors. Data rate of 250KBps (Kilobits per second). >65. Range is from 100ft-300 for standard XBee modules and 300ft-1 Mile for XBee Pro Modules (depending on where it¶s used and the line of sight from one XBee to the next XBee). 5. y Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost.15.14 ZIGBEE Module The ZigBee Module provides an alternative way to transfer data without the use of wires. ZigBee was among the first transceivers that hit the market and came in a convenient to use casing. of course. guaranteed latency. Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. The ZigBee uses a wireless 2. y Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. y Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. ZigBee transceiver is developed by Digi.4 Protocol created by the IEEE foundation. of ECE 38 VAST . Thus. very long primary battery life. y Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications.4GHz transceiver to communicate with another ZigBee module. secondary battery lasts same as master. Some features of ZigBee are: y y y y 802.  Bluetooth: y Moderate duty cycle. y y y One of the great features of ZigBee networks is the low power operation. Furthermore. Default baud rate is 9600bps. The standard XBee has a 1mW transmit power and the XBee Pro has a 60mW transmit power. ZigBee modules are capable of communicating with more than one ZigBee module. it means you can create a network of ZigBee modules all over the place as long as they are in range. you can change the configuration of how fast you want to transmit but for this tutorial we will just leave the baud rate at default.3. XBee makes sure you won¶t be changing the batteries very often! It consumes about 35mA during transmission (38mA while receiving) while it keeps it below 1uA while Dept. No configuration is required out of the box.Campus Automation y y PROJECT REPORT µ11 Very low duty cycle. Although. y Very high QoS and very low.000 nodes.

So all you need to do is to serially send the information to the transmitter and the receiver module will output them the same way to your target machine.5.8 Dept. This can be very handy.3. 5.5.4 PIR Sensor Fig. These are quite attractive specs. it replaces the serial communication cable. Quite simply. pin 3 (receive) and pin 10 (ground) are required. For the data transmission & reception only pin 1 (supply). . Overall the XBee modules are easy to use and provide great features. 5.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 sleeping. pin 2 (transmit). That means you don't have to care about exchanging complicated information with the module in order to send a packet.7 The details of each pin are given in appendix-4.15 Pin Diagram of ZIGBEE The pin out of the Zigbee module is shown below: Fig. XBee also allows invisible operation. of ECE 39 VAST . The invisible mode sets up a link of streaming data over the ZigBee network.

4.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A PIR sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.4. PIR sensors are generally compact and can be fitted into virtually any electronic device.4.4 Disadvantages Although PIR sensors can be advantageous. Because of these properties. install. Because all objects emit infrared waves (electromagnetic waves that travel with heat). to detect infrared light coming from a television remote.4. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. PIR sensors are also used as motion detectors at most public doorways in grocery stores. PIR sensors are used in many applications. and heatseeking missiles. PIR sensors can also be used for military purposes such as laser range-finding. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. 5.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. They can be expensive to purchase. As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light (depth perception) and the direction that it came from. and calibrate as well. 5. hospitals. PIR sensors are able to determine how far away someone is and whether he/she is approaching the sensor. they do not need an external power source because they generate electricity as they absorb infrared light. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.1 Working of PIR PIR sensors are made of pyroelectric (or thermoelectric) materials and usually contain lenses or mirrors in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. They detect infrared light from several feet/yards away. and can accept 30-V inputs. such as night vision. Dept. PIR sensors can detect many things that humans cannot. depending on how the device is calibrated. 5. and laser range finding. 5. and libraries. such as VCRs and DVD players. of ECE 40 VAST . which is usually a thin sheet. motion detection.5 V. They are used on television sets and television accessory devices.3 Advantages PIR sensors have several important advantages.2 Applications PIR sensors are used in many applications. Also.5 MAX232: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. they also have several disadvantages. In fact. night vision. PIR sensors can only receive infrared light and cannot emit it like other types of infrared sensors. 5. PIR sensors can detect objects that are in front of them.

of ECE 41 VAST . Modems.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is Available With the MAX202  Applications í TIA/EIA-232-F.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors  Operates Up To 120 kbit/s  Two Drivers and Two Receivers  ±30-V Input Levels  Low Supply Current . Terminals. .5. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. Battery-Powered Systems. and Computers 5.  Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V. .28  Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1. receiver.1 PIN DIAGRAM Dept. 8 mA Typical  ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 í 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)  Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0. The driver.

The surfaces of the electrodes that ar APPENDIX APPEe in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. 16x2. fax machines. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller (the black blob on the back of the board). Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters.Campus Automation Fig 5. of ECE 42 VAST . An LCD is a small low cost display. or electroluminescent.9 PROJECT REPORT µ11 5. flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. which is one row of eight characters. which may be LED. a cloth. laser printers. Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters. industrial test equipment. and 20x4. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. and two polarizing filters. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1.6. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing.1 Font Dept. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. 5. for example. Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. networking equipment such as routers and storage devices.6 LCD Display Liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers. fluorescent. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many microcontrollers (including the Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. In this project we use 16x2 LCD display. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights.

A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix. There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters. as they are stored in volatile memory. 5. and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character.2 Features The features of the LCD display are given below: y y y y y y y 16 Characters x 2 Lines 5x7 Dot Matrix Character + Cursor HD44780 Equivalent LCD Controller/driver Built-In 4-bit or 8-bit MPU Interface Standard Type Works with almost any Microcontroller Great Value Pricing 5.3 Pin Diagram The pin diagram & description of pins of 16x2 LCD display is given below: Dept. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found.6. and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters. of ECE 43 VAST .6. and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix.

Contrast adjustment (VO) 4. The RS232 is the communication line which enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. µreceive¶ and common ground. R/W=0: Write. Dept. CTS.10 1. R/W=1: Read 5. 5. The three links provides µtransmit¶. of ECE 44 VAST . DTR. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. this is the most effective method in which the data transmission requires less wires that yields to the less cost. DSR. RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data in communication and interface. RS=1: Data 5. Read/Write (R/W). RS=0: Command. The two pins are TXD & RXD. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment). and RTS. Even though serial port is harder to program than the parallel port.7 RS 232 Serial Port In telecommunications. As the name indicates. Register Select (RS). The electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specify a maximum baud rate of 20. RI. the data is transmitted serially.000bps.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Fig. The µ1¶ and µ0¶ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to 25V and -3V to -25V respectively. There are other lines on this port as RTS. Ground 2. The µtransmit¶ and µreceive¶ line on this connecter send and receive data between the computers.3 to +5V) 3. VCC (+3.

the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE.5. 5.8 Working Our project mainly consists of two sections:  TRANSMITTER SECTION which is placed in office room  RECEIVER SECTION which is placed in class room Dept. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse.11 5. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits. or character encoding.1 Pin out Diagram Fig. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. In addition to the data circuits. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. of ECE 45 VAST .7.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 In RS-232. user data is sent as a time-series of bits.

Generally ZigBee devices are of three types  Coordinator  Router  End device In the transmitter side the ZigBee module acts as a co-ordinator. The data has to be transmitted is entered from PC to PIC through serial port connector or RS232 connector. The USART communication is used for transmitting data.A buzzer is connected in the circuit to indicate the arrival of new message.8. It can transfer a frame of data with 8 or 9 data bits per transmission. Transmitter data is received by the ZigBee module and PIC in the receiver side.8. USART uses two I/O pins to transmit and receive data.2 Automatic Fan & Light Controller A PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor detects infrared light that is emitted from objects within its field of view.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The transmitter section mainly consists of:  Message transmitting section  Automatic bell  Automatic Fan & light Controller 5.1 Notice Display System The Message Transmitting section transmits messages wirelessly through ZigBee module & PIC. PIR sensors differ from other infrared sensors because they can only receive infrared waves. a PIC and an LCD display are used. Its main function is to transmit or receive serial data. PIR sensor is pyroelectric Dept. The I/O pins of USART is connected to Tx and Rx pin of ZigBee module. The received data is displayed on LCD by interfacing it with PIC. of ECE 46 VAST . The USART is universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter. The data is send as RS232 protocols.In the receiver side it acts as both router and end device.In the receiver side a ZigBee module. 5.

As infrared light comes in contact with the pyroelectric material. 5. which is Usually a thin sheet.The Program sets in such a way that the bell rings at the end of each hour between 9am and 4pm. It consists of a LCD display to show the clock . it creates an electrical current that can be measured to determine the intensity of the infrared light and direction it came from. Dept.3 Automatic college Bell The automatic bell works based on the program that we have stored on the PIC.8.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 materials and usually contains lenses in order to focus the infrared light for maximum reception. of ECE 47 VAST .


1TRANSMITTER SECTION START Initialize LCD. of ECE 49 VAST Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Set the time using switch If (hh>=9) && (hh<=16)&& (mm=0) Print ³alarm´ with beep If ss>=3? A Dept.1 FLOWCHART 6.TIMER Initialize time hh=0.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 A Print ³clock´ and Display the time REAPEAT STOP Dept. of ECE 50 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6. of ECE 51 VAST .2 Receiver section START LCD initialization Clear the screen If message>= 16 bit ? Display the message on 16*2 bit LCD module STOP Dept.1.

h> unsigned int hh=00.2 Firmware 6.0). #int_TIMER1 void TIMER1_isr() { if(input(pin_a2)) { output_bit(pin_b6.c> #include <stdio.1). if(hh==24) { hh=0.count=1.h> #include <lcd.1 Transmitter section #include <> #include <stdlib.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.2. } else { output_bit(pin_b6. } Dept. } if(count==1) { if(input(pin_a0)) { of ECE 52 VAST .

mm). printf(lcd_putc.hh).2). printf(lcd_putc. if(mm==60) { mm=0. if(hh==24) { hh=0. mm++.2).":%02u". if(mm==60) { mm=0. printf(lcd_putc.1). lcd_gotoxy(10."%02u". if(ss==60) { ss=0.2). Dept. hh++. } } count=0. of ECE 53 PROJECT REPORT µ11 VAST . } if((hh>=9)&&(hh<=16)&&(mm==0)) { lcd_gotoxy(7. lcd_gotoxy(7. lcd_gotoxy(5.":%02u".Campus Automation } if(input(pin_a1)) { mm++.

enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1). enable_interrupts(GLOBAL). output_bit(pin_b7.1). output_bit(pin_b7. putc(f). setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_8).1). lcd_init(). of ECE 54 VAST . } void main() { char f. while(1) { f=getc(). lcd_putc('\f'). } } } } count++."CLOCK").Campus Automation printf(lcd_putc."alarm").1). set_timer1(0xfffe). ss=ss+3."CLOCK"). printf(lcd_putc. lcd_gotoxy(7. lcd_gotoxy(7.0). printf(lcd_putc. delay_ms(30). } } PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

´%c´. i=0. } else { go to l1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 6.2 RECEIVER SECTION #include ³c:\documents and settings\pjt\desktop\campus\cam. if(i==16) { lcd_putc(µ\f¶).1). of ECE 55 VAST . int i=0.h´ #include<lcd. printf (lcd_putc. l1:while(1) { i++.c).c> Void main() { Char c. lcd_intit(). } } } Dept. c=getc().2. lcd_goto(1.


of ECE 57 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.1 COMPONENT PCB LA OUT Dept.

of ECE 58 VAST .2 PCB LA OUT Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 7.


PC peripherals. If the radio at point C was removed for some reason. Mesh networking is used in applications where the range between two points may be beyond the range of the two radios located at those points. and networking features unique to this protocol.4 standard as a baseline and adds additional routing and networking functionality.4 was developed with lower data rate. What ZigBee is designed to do is add mesh networking to the underlying 802. the frequency.4 protocol on which it was built.15.4 radio.11 standard defines communication for wireless LAN and 802.4 802.1 ZIGBEE Creating wireless networks can be done using a variety of RF protocols. signal bandwidth and modulation techniques are identical.16 defines communication for broadband wireless Metropolitan Area Networks.15. simple connectivity and Dept. Some protocols are proprietary to individual vendors. The message could be transmitted through point C and a few other radios to reach the destination. but the distance was too great between the points.15. ZigBee is a protocol that uses the 802. Routers can also be used as End Devices. IEEE has published the standards that define communication in areas such as the Internet.4 standard to define the PHY and MAC layers. Routers or Coordinators. of ECE 60 VAST . Devices in the ZigBee specification can either be used as End Devices. the IEEE 802. 802.15. and the IEEE 802. Here defined are the frequencies used. This Application Note will explore the ZigBee protocol industry standard for data transmission. Since the ZigBee protocol uses the 802. a new path would be used to route messages from A to B. in the figure above suppose we wanted to transmit data from point A to point B. Another feature of ZigBee is its ability to self-heal.15. While both of those wireless standards are concerned with higher bandwidth Internet access applications. 802. the bandwidth it occupies.15.15. industrial communication and wireless technology. but intermediate radios are in place that could forward on any messages to and from the desired radios As an example. others are industry standards. As a few examples.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8.4 is a standard for wireless communication put out by the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers).

when I need to reset the XBee. I just momentarily touch the bare end of the jumper to ground. Instead of using a reset switch.Campus Automation battery application in mind. use the USB-miniB cable to plug the FT232 Breakout into a USB port on your computer.15. PROJECT REPORT µ11 The 802. Step 2: Power-up the XBee and prep the software After double checking your connections. the 2. Set up the circuit on your bread board using the diagram.5 (SERIES 2) MODULES? Step 1: Construct the circuit Fig (13): Construction of the XBee circuit Build the XBee Breakout board and plug one of the XBee¶s into it.2 HOW-TO SET UP XBEE ZNET 2. While any of these bands can technically be used by 802.400-2.4 GHz band is more popular as it is open in most of the countries worldwide. of ECE 61 VAST . Step 3: Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee: Dept. 8.4 devices. Both LEDs connected to the XBee should light up and stay on (assuming your XBee shipped as a Router/End Device and there is no Coordinator around to connect to).4835 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands.15. I just plug one end of a jumper wire into the XBee reset pin and leave the other end of that jumper hanging off the edge of the board.8MHz. the 902-928 MHz or the 2.4 standard specifies that communication can occur in the 868868.

After the Fig (15): Update the firmware Dept. Fig (14): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Step 4: Update the firmware Click on the ³Modem Configuration´ tab and then click on the ³Download new versions«´ button to download all of the updated firmwares. Make a Single-click on the USB COM port that the XBee is connected to. If you¶re not sure.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Run the X-CTU software. of ECE 62 VAST . You should see a screen like the one shown below. you can click the ³Test/Query´ button to read each COM port to discover which one has the XBee.

click on the ³Read´ button.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 firmware downloads have completed. Select ³ZNet 2. you¶ll need to enter a new command within 5 seconds or the Xbee will exit command mode and you¶ll need to start this step again. Step 5: Test the XBee Read through this step before you do it since once you enter command mode.You may want to change the ³PAN ID´ to a unique number if you plan to use your XBee in a place where others will be using their own XBees. Click on the terminal tab and type ³+++´ in the window to enter command mode. This should match the firmware version that you upgraded to (1241 for Router/End Device or 1041 for Coordinator). Type ³ATVR´ to check the firmware version on the XBee. It should respond with³123´ or whatever unique PAN ID you set in step 4. of ECE 63 VAST .5 Router/End Device AT´ as the firmware in the pull-down menu. The X-CTU software may ask you to push the reset button during the firmware upgrade process. Type ³ATNI´ to check the Node Identifier. The XBee should re spond in a second or two with ³OK´. The window will display all of the current settings of the attached XBee. Check the box that says ³Always update firmware´ and click the ³Write´ button. Type ³ATID´ to check the PAN Network ID that the XBee is using. Fig (16): Run X-CTU and connect to the XBee Dept.

you¶ve successfully updated this XBee! Quit the X-CTU program and disconnect the USB-miniB cable from the computer.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 The XBee should respond with ³router1´ or whatever unique Node Identifier you set in step 4. then congratulations. The XBee will respond with ³OK´. first-out (FIFO) buffer memory (optional) Dept. If any of those commands did not return the correct information. and click the ³Write´ button again.3 USART: The USART protocol is used for serial interfacing between the PIC and the PC. change the desired settings. of ECE 64 VAST . A USART usually contains the following components: y a clock generator. If those commands returned the correct information. Type ³ATCN´ to exit command mode. y y y y y y input and output shift registers transmit/receive control read/write control logic transmit/receive buffers (optional) parallel data bus buffer (optional) First-in. click back to the ³Modem Configuration´ tab. 8. usually a multiple of the bit rate to allow sampling in the middle of a bit period.

receiver.5 PCB FABRICATION DETAILS The PCB must be fabricated first. Fig (17): Circuit diagram of MAX 232 Fig (18): GPS module 8. and can accept 30-V inputs. We should keep in mind that the quality of soldering affects the quantity of output. and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIC library. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. of ECE 65 VAST . Then the components are soldered carefully to PCB.5 V. The driver. The procedure for fabricating the PCB for setting up the circuit of any multipurpose project is described below.4 RS232 PROTOCOL: The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 8. Dept.

1 PCB MAKING PROJECT REPORT µ11 Making of the PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD is as much as art on a technique particularly when they are fabricated in very small numbers. deciding the diameter of various holes. However. quick drying enamel paint. 8. grease. Preparing the PCB drawing 2. For anchoring leads of component 1mm diameter holes and for fixing PCB holding screws to the 3mm diameter holes can be made. There is no other way to arrive at a conclusion than by trial and error. With fine emery paper or sand paper on this. the cost saving procedure adopted here may be adopted. of ECE 66 VAST . etc. the final PCB drawing may be traced by using a carbon paper. developing the image of negative formed on photo sensitized copper plate and dissolving the excess copper by etching is a standard practice being followed in large scale operations. for small scale operations.5. 8. Locating holes.Campus Automation 8. The making of PCB patterns and the PCB involves two steps: 1. taking a photographic negative of the drawing. Clips are used to prevent the carbon paper from slipping while PCB pattern is being traced on the laminate.2 PCB DRAWING Making of PCB drawing involves some preliminary considerations such as placement of components on a piece of paper. the optimum area of each component should occupy the shape and location lands for connecting two or more components at a particular place. The component position can be marked on the PCB reverse side if desired. There are several ways of drawing PCB patterns and making the final boards.5. using a thin Dept. The marked holes in PCB may be drilled using 1mm or 3mm drill bits and the traced PCB pattern created with black.5. Only the connecting lines in PCBs. Fabricating the PCB itself from the drawing. slants and holes should be traced. Thus a sketch of the PCB is made.3 FABRICATION: The copper clad PCB is now prepared by rubbing away the oxide. The traditional method of drawing the PCB with complete placements of parts.

Depending on the wiring diagram. In case of any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint. The rest of this chapter briefly explains embedded systems development and how MPLAB IDE is used. plus some additional circuits on the same chip to make a small control module requiring few other external devices. Stirring the solution helps speedy etching. Dept. of ECE 67 VAST . or IDE. 20-30 gms of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degrees and over the PCB placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray. If etching takes longer.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. The PCB may then be washed and dried. the resistors are taken care at first. Experienced embedded systems designers may want to skip ahead to Components of MPLAB IDE. because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers.5. 8. turpentine or acetone. It is called an Integrated Development Environment. and then the IC¶s are soldered. like the Microchip PIC MCU or dsPIC Digital Signal Controller (DSCs). The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. This single device can then be embedded into other electronic and mechanical devices for low-cost digital control. the solution may be heated again and the process is repeated. These microcontrollers combine a microprocessor unit (like the CPU in a desktop PC) with some additional circuits called "peripherals". DESCRIPTION OF AN "EMBEDDED SYSTEM" An embedded system is typically a design making use of the power of a small microcontroller. It is also recommended that MPLAB IDE On-line Help and MPLAB IDE Updates and Version Numbering be reviewed.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 brush or a small metal case. they may be removed by scraping with blade or knife after the paint has dried. After drying. The paint on the pattern can be removed by rubbing with a rag soaked in a thinner.

.Campus Automation 8. of ECE 68 VAST . a context sensitive C aware editor. build tools and real time debugger. This suite includes an IDE for project management. integrated tool suite for developing and debugging embedded applications running on Microchip PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs.5 DEVICE PROGRAMMING CCS SOFTWARE: PROJECT REPORT µ11 CCS provides a complete. Built in libraries are specific to PIC ® MCU registers.5. allowing access to hardware features directly from C. y y Maximize code reuse by easily porting from one MCU to another.helping developers create. analyze. built-in functions and standard C operators. The heart of this development tool suite is the CCS intelligent code optimizing C compiler. which frees developers to concentrate on design functionality instead of having to become an MCU architecture expert. y Dept. debug and document project code.. Minimize lines of new code with CCS provided peripheral drivers.


Hardware implementation is simpler. Complex programming is required to change the time interval as predetermined rule. Dept.1 ADVANTAGES y y y The energy can be saved by the use of the automatic light and fan controller.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 9. of ECE 70 VAST . Periods can be maintained correctly by the use of automatic bell. 9. y ZigBee module is very costly. when the observer is far away from the display.2 LIMITATIONS y The message is displayed using LCD display is not clear. y The bell rings at the end of each hour.


y y Dept. Also data can be transmitted to selected ZigBee modules by using addressing schemes. of ECE 72 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 10. y Message can also be transmitted to many transceiver modules simultaneously by using network topologies. The range of transmission and reception can be increased by using more routers.1 FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE PROJECT The future development of the device lies in the fact that it uses a microcontroller and that could be programmed in a variety of ways to utilize the available pin connections.

of ECE 73 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Dept.

It helps to transmit and receive data through ZigBee module. of ECE 74 VAST .1CONCLUSION The project ³campus automation system´ was concluded to be of a great innovation for the improvement of day to day life. Dept. The automatic bell is very useful to maintain the periods accurately.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 11. Data was transmitted from one transceiver module to another module wirelessly. The automatic fan and light controller section is very useful to save energy. It has the advantages of being a wireless device besides the simpler hardware implementation is required. This device adds to range of applications for which ZigBee communication is being utilized today.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 APPENDIX Dept. of ECE 75 VAST .

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 76 VAST .

of ECE 77 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 78 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

of ECE 79 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept. of ECE 80 VAST .

VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins. THV: High voltage test mode controlling. Dept. SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port. PGM: Low Voltage Programming input. RD: Read control for parallel slave port. T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0. SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode. of ECE 81 VAST . DT: these are synchronous data terminals. PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port. SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input. OSC1: oscillator input/external clock. CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules. PGD: Serial programming data. Vpp: programming voltage input. VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins. Vref (+/-): reference voltage. MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset).Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Multiplexed Functions of 16F877A Pins y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing analog inputs. PGC: serial programming clock. TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports. T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input. CK: synchronous clock input. SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes. T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output. OSC2: oscillator output/clock out. CS: Select control for parallel slave. T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1. INT: external interrupt. SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode). SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode).

Campus Automation



Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Pin Details of RS 232
D-Type-9 pin no. 3 2 7 8 6 5 1 4 9 D-Type25pin no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Pin outs RD TD RTS CTS DSR SG DCD DTR RI Functions Receive Data (Serial data input) Transmit Data (Serial data output) Request to send (acknowledge to modem that UART is ready to exchange data Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to exchange data) Data ready state (UART establishes a link) Signal ground Data Carrier detect (This line is active when modem detects a carrier Data Terminal Ready. Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem detects ringing signal from PSTN

Dept. of ECE



Campus Automation


Dept. of ECE



of ECE 86 VAST .Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 Dept.

Rs Microcontroller IC-PIC Zigbee PIR LCD PCB MAX 232 IC Serial port Buzzer IC socket Crystal oscillator Program coding Basic components 260 3500 550 260 800 70 70 60 10 10 300 340 TOTAL Rs: 6500 approx Dept.Campus Automation PROJECT REPORT µ11 COST ESTIMATION ITEMS COST. of ECE 87 VAST .

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