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1.

Reaction Enthalpy
Using Hess' law, it is not difficult to show that the value of Ho is the sum of the Hfo values (standard enthalpies of formation) of the products minus those of the reactants.

Example 1. For instance, take the reaction:


C(s) + H2O(g) CO(g) + H2(g) For this reaction, Ho = ( Hfo (CO(g)) + Hfo (H2(g))) - ( Hfo (C(s)) + Hfo (H2O(g))) (i.e. products minus reactants ). Note that two of these quantities are zero, because the enthalpy of formation of elements in their standard states are zero. Thus, this simplifies to Ho = Hfo (CO(g)) - Hfo (H2O(g)) = -110.5 - (-241.8) = +131.3 kJ mol-1 (i.e. endothermic; heat must be supplied by the surroundings to the system to make the reaction go.) Example 2. Find Ho for the reaction HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Note that the Na+ and Cl- are spectator ions, and the net ionic reaction is just: H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) H2O(l) Ho = Hfo (H2O(l)) - Hfo (H+ (aq)) - Hfo (OH- (aq)) = -285.8 - 0 - (-230.0) = -55.8 kJ mol-1 (exothermic, as observed when adding an acid to a base). Example 3. Find Ho for the reaction 3 H2(g) + N2(g) 2 NH3(g). Note that not all of the stoichiometric coefficients are equal to one in this example. Thus, Ho = 2 Hfo (NH3(g)) - 3 Hfo (H2(g)) - Hfo (N2(g)) = 2(-46.1) - 2(0) - 3(0) = -92.2 kJ mol-1 Example 4. The combustion of thiophene: C4H4S(l) + 6 O2(g) 4 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) + SO2(g) Hcomb for this reaction = -2523 kJ mol-1. Find the standard enthalpy of formation of thiophene. Hcomb = [4 Hfo(CO2(g)) + 2 Hfo(H2O(g)) + Hfo(SO2(g))] - [ Hfo(C4H4S(l)) + 6 Hfo(O2(g))] -2523 = [4(-393.5) + 2(-285.8) + (-296.8)] - [ Hfo(C4H4S(l)) + 6 (0)] solving, Hfo(C4H4S(l)) = +80.6 kJ mol-1 Example 5: find the enthalpy of reaction for 2 C(graphite) + 2 H2(g) C2H4(g) (Note that we are really finding the enthalpy of formation of ethylene (C2H4(g)) here!) using the following information:

C(graphite) + O2(g) CO2(g) H = -393.5 kJ mol-1 (reaction 1) C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) 2 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) H = -1410.9 kJ mol-1 (reaction 2) 2 H2(g) + O2(g) 2 H2O(l) H = -571.6 kJ mol-1 (reaction 3) first, we note that we need 2 C(graphite) on the LHS. Thus, use twice reaction 1: 2 C(graphite) + 2 O2(g) 2 CO2(g) H = 2(-393.5 kJ mol-1) we also need 2 H2 on the LHS, thus use reaction 3: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) 2 H2O(l) H = -571.6 kJ mol-1 and we need C2H4 on the RHS, thus use the reverse of reaction 1. Note the reversal of the sign on H: 2 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) H = +1410.9 kJ mol-1 Adding the above three reactions gives the desired reaction, and the H is the sum of the Hs of the three reactions: 2 C(graphite) + 2 H2(g) C2H4(g) H = +52.3 kJ mol-1

2. Light as Waves
Let's first look at some properties of waves. Electromagnetic waves move (propagate) at the speed of light (c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1). They have a wavelength denoted by , and they have amplitudes. The amplitude is the strength of the electric or magnetic field. Note that the wave can have zero amplitude (every point where it crosses the horizontal axis), but is still propagating. Example 1. Find the frequency of red light having a wavelength of 700 nm. = c/ = (3.00 x 108 m s-1) / (700 x 10-9 m)

= 4.29 x 1014 s-1 (= 4.29 x 1014 Hz) Example 2. Find the frequency of blue light from a mercury lamp having a wavelength of 435.8 nm. = c/ = (3.00 x 108 m s-1) / (435.8 x 10-9 m)

= 6.88 x 1014 s-1 (= 6.88 x 1014 Hz) (higher that that of red light - blue light is more energetic than red) Example 3. Find the frequency ( ) of a -ray having a wavelength ( ) of 3.56 x 10-11 m = c/ = (3.00 x 108 m s-1) / (3.56 x 10-11 m) = 8.42 x 1018 s-1 (makes sense, since this is a higher frequency than visible light) Example 4. Find the frequency of a radar wave with = 10.3 cm = c/ = (3.00 x 108 m s-1) / (1.03 x 10-1 m) = 2.91 x 109 s-1 (much lower frequency, as expected) Example 5. Find the wavelength of an FM signal having a frequency of 106.1 MHz (i.e. CHEZFM) = c/ = (3.00 x 108 m s-1) / (106.1 x 106 s-1) = 2.83 m

3. Light as waves and as particles


We can also think of light as particles - photons. These will have specific energies, and we can use Planck's equation to relate their wavelike characteristics (frequencies or wavelengths) to particle-like characteristics (energies). Example 1. Find the energy of photons from: (a) IR radiation having = 1.55 x 10-6 m (=1550 nm) E = h = hc/ = 6.63 x 10-34 J s ((3.00 x 108 m s-1) / 1.55 x 10-6 m)) = 1.28 x 10-19 J (per photon) To find the energy per mole of photons, multiply by Avogadro's number: E = 6.022 x 1023 mol-1 x 1.28 x 10-19 J = 77,300 J/mol = 77.3 kJ/(mol photons) (b) UV radiation having = 250 nm Note that this is a much shorter wavelength than the IR radiation. Thus, we expect the energy to be higher per photon. This is why UV radiation is more damaging to your skin than IR.

As above, E = h = hc/ = 6.63 x 10-34 J s ((3.00 x 108 m s-1) / 250 x 10-9 m)) = 7.96 x 10-19 J/photon To find the energy per mole of photons, multiply by Avogadro's number: E = 6.022 x 1023 mol-1 x 7.96 x 10-19 J/photon = 479000 J (mol photons)-1 = 479 kJ (mol photons) -1 Example 2. Iodine molecules (I2) can be dissociated into two iodine atoms by light if the energy of the light is sufficient. Experiments show that the wavelength of the light must be less than 499.5 nm. (a) What is the frequency of 499.5 nm light? What part of the electromagentic spectrum is this light in? Visible light has wavelengths from 350 to 800 nm, so this is in the visible portion of the spectrum. (b) Use Plancks equation to calculate the energy of dissociation of iodine. Express your answer in kJ/mol. E = h = hc/ = 6.63 x 10-34 J s ((3.00 x 108 m s-1) / 499.5 x 10-9 m)) = 3.98 x 10-19 J/photon To find the energy per mole of photons, multiply by Avogadro's number: E = 6.022 x 1023 mol-1 x 3.98 x 10-19 J/photon = 239700 J (mol photons)-1 = 239.7 kJ (mol photons) -1 = 239.7 kJ (mol I2)-1