66 views

Uploaded by Duaa Fadhil

- Avalon Effect Ritz 2012
- MA_FLD011_PT_APPENDIX.pdf
- ch7.rtf
- Exam Energy, Energy Transfer, Heat, Waves, And Light
- HAARP and Chemtrails, some facts and comments
- anti radiation chip.doc
- Chapter 5 the Nature of Light
- Wave energy, KISS
- Waves Wikia
- Lecture 2
- Aipmt 2009 Question Paper
- Abolishing Duality ESJ
- Strahlenfolter Stalking - Sind Radiofrequenzwaffen Der Sputnik Der 80er Jahre - Mindcontrol.twoday.net
- Why Did the Russians Ban an Appliance Found in 90
- V5I2201652
- j 12 Waves Pm Sample
- amir
- D 8805 PAPER II.pdf
- 82phynot.doc
- Remote Sensing Basics.pptx

You are on page 1of 4

Reaction Enthalpy

Using Hess' law, it is not difficult to show that the value of Ho is the sum of the Hfo values (standard enthalpies of formation) of the products minus those of the reactants.

C(s) + H2O(g) CO(g) + H2(g) For this reaction, Ho = ( Hfo (CO(g)) + Hfo (H2(g))) - ( Hfo (C(s)) + Hfo (H2O(g))) (i.e. products minus reactants ). Note that two of these quantities are zero, because the enthalpy of formation of elements in their standard states are zero. Thus, this simplifies to Ho = Hfo (CO(g)) - Hfo (H2O(g)) = -110.5 - (-241.8) = +131.3 kJ mol-1 (i.e. endothermic; heat must be supplied by the surroundings to the system to make the reaction go.) Example 2. Find Ho for the reaction HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Note that the Na+ and Cl- are spectator ions, and the net ionic reaction is just: H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) H2O(l) Ho = Hfo (H2O(l)) - Hfo (H+ (aq)) - Hfo (OH- (aq)) = -285.8 - 0 - (-230.0) = -55.8 kJ mol-1 (exothermic, as observed when adding an acid to a base). Example 3. Find Ho for the reaction 3 H2(g) + N2(g) 2 NH3(g). Note that not all of the stoichiometric coefficients are equal to one in this example. Thus, Ho = 2 Hfo (NH3(g)) - 3 Hfo (H2(g)) - Hfo (N2(g)) = 2(-46.1) - 2(0) - 3(0) = -92.2 kJ mol-1 Example 4. The combustion of thiophene: C4H4S(l) + 6 O2(g) 4 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) + SO2(g) Hcomb for this reaction = -2523 kJ mol-1. Find the standard enthalpy of formation of thiophene. Hcomb = [4 Hfo(CO2(g)) + 2 Hfo(H2O(g)) + Hfo(SO2(g))] - [ Hfo(C4H4S(l)) + 6 Hfo(O2(g))] -2523 = [4(-393.5) + 2(-285.8) + (-296.8)] - [ Hfo(C4H4S(l)) + 6 (0)] solving, Hfo(C4H4S(l)) = +80.6 kJ mol-1 Example 5: find the enthalpy of reaction for 2 C(graphite) + 2 H2(g) C2H4(g) (Note that we are really finding the enthalpy of formation of ethylene (C2H4(g)) here!) using the following information:

C(graphite) + O2(g) CO2(g) H = -393.5 kJ mol-1 (reaction 1) C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) 2 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) H = -1410.9 kJ mol-1 (reaction 2) 2 H2(g) + O2(g) 2 H2O(l) H = -571.6 kJ mol-1 (reaction 3) first, we note that we need 2 C(graphite) on the LHS. Thus, use twice reaction 1: 2 C(graphite) + 2 O2(g) 2 CO2(g) H = 2(-393.5 kJ mol-1) we also need 2 H2 on the LHS, thus use reaction 3: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) 2 H2O(l) H = -571.6 kJ mol-1 and we need C2H4 on the RHS, thus use the reverse of reaction 1. Note the reversal of the sign on H: 2 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) H = +1410.9 kJ mol-1 Adding the above three reactions gives the desired reaction, and the H is the sum of the Hs of the three reactions: 2 C(graphite) + 2 H2(g) C2H4(g) H = +52.3 kJ mol-1

2. Light as Waves

Let's first look at some properties of waves. Electromagnetic waves move (propagate) at the speed of light (c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1). They have a wavelength denoted by , and they have amplitudes. The amplitude is the strength of the electric or magnetic field. Note that the wave can have zero amplitude (every point where it crosses the horizontal axis), but is still propagating. Example 1. Find the frequency of red light having a wavelength of 700 nm. = c/ = (3.00 x 108 m s-1) / (700 x 10-9 m)

= 4.29 x 1014 s-1 (= 4.29 x 1014 Hz) Example 2. Find the frequency of blue light from a mercury lamp having a wavelength of 435.8 nm. = c/ = (3.00 x 108 m s-1) / (435.8 x 10-9 m)

= 6.88 x 1014 s-1 (= 6.88 x 1014 Hz) (higher that that of red light - blue light is more energetic than red) Example 3. Find the frequency ( ) of a -ray having a wavelength ( ) of 3.56 x 10-11 m = c/ = (3.00 x 108 m s-1) / (3.56 x 10-11 m) = 8.42 x 1018 s-1 (makes sense, since this is a higher frequency than visible light) Example 4. Find the frequency of a radar wave with = 10.3 cm = c/ = (3.00 x 108 m s-1) / (1.03 x 10-1 m) = 2.91 x 109 s-1 (much lower frequency, as expected) Example 5. Find the wavelength of an FM signal having a frequency of 106.1 MHz (i.e. CHEZFM) = c/ = (3.00 x 108 m s-1) / (106.1 x 106 s-1) = 2.83 m

We can also think of light as particles - photons. These will have specific energies, and we can use Planck's equation to relate their wavelike characteristics (frequencies or wavelengths) to particle-like characteristics (energies). Example 1. Find the energy of photons from: (a) IR radiation having = 1.55 x 10-6 m (=1550 nm) E = h = hc/ = 6.63 x 10-34 J s ((3.00 x 108 m s-1) / 1.55 x 10-6 m)) = 1.28 x 10-19 J (per photon) To find the energy per mole of photons, multiply by Avogadro's number: E = 6.022 x 1023 mol-1 x 1.28 x 10-19 J = 77,300 J/mol = 77.3 kJ/(mol photons) (b) UV radiation having = 250 nm Note that this is a much shorter wavelength than the IR radiation. Thus, we expect the energy to be higher per photon. This is why UV radiation is more damaging to your skin than IR.

As above, E = h = hc/ = 6.63 x 10-34 J s ((3.00 x 108 m s-1) / 250 x 10-9 m)) = 7.96 x 10-19 J/photon To find the energy per mole of photons, multiply by Avogadro's number: E = 6.022 x 1023 mol-1 x 7.96 x 10-19 J/photon = 479000 J (mol photons)-1 = 479 kJ (mol photons) -1 Example 2. Iodine molecules (I2) can be dissociated into two iodine atoms by light if the energy of the light is sufficient. Experiments show that the wavelength of the light must be less than 499.5 nm. (a) What is the frequency of 499.5 nm light? What part of the electromagentic spectrum is this light in? Visible light has wavelengths from 350 to 800 nm, so this is in the visible portion of the spectrum. (b) Use Plancks equation to calculate the energy of dissociation of iodine. Express your answer in kJ/mol. E = h = hc/ = 6.63 x 10-34 J s ((3.00 x 108 m s-1) / 499.5 x 10-9 m)) = 3.98 x 10-19 J/photon To find the energy per mole of photons, multiply by Avogadro's number: E = 6.022 x 1023 mol-1 x 3.98 x 10-19 J/photon = 239700 J (mol photons)-1 = 239.7 kJ (mol photons) -1 = 239.7 kJ (mol I2)-1

- Avalon Effect Ritz 2012Uploaded byjon_ritz
- MA_FLD011_PT_APPENDIX.pdfUploaded byabu a
- ch7.rtfUploaded byIratechaos
- Exam Energy, Energy Transfer, Heat, Waves, And LightUploaded bymceldownea
- HAARP and Chemtrails, some facts and commentsUploaded byRados Kovac
- anti radiation chip.docUploaded byMaruf
- Chapter 5 the Nature of LightUploaded byMarcus Lindon
- Wave energy, KISSUploaded byjaacqueline.xx
- Waves WikiaUploaded bymenilanjan89nL
- Lecture 2Uploaded bylaura8887
- Aipmt 2009 Question PaperUploaded byPooja
- Abolishing Duality ESJUploaded byxavierborg
- Strahlenfolter Stalking - Sind Radiofrequenzwaffen Der Sputnik Der 80er Jahre - Mindcontrol.twoday.netUploaded byParanoia.war.gestern
- Why Did the Russians Ban an Appliance Found in 90Uploaded byNorman Green-Price
- V5I2201652Uploaded byAnonymous ytZsBOV
- j 12 Waves Pm SampleUploaded byBob Morris
- amirUploaded byAmir Ahmed Baigo
- D 8805 PAPER II.pdfUploaded byAryama Mandal
- 82phynot.docUploaded byahmded
- Remote Sensing Basics.pptxUploaded byGundrathi Narendra Goud
- Chap 32Uploaded byYndia Soriano
- cf547a62-37ca-4b30-83ba-2618738ab73b.pdfUploaded byastha
- Science 7 3rd QuarterUploaded byJohn Paul Estrella
- Technical Report - Mine Detection (Fall 2007)Uploaded byMahmoud El-Mahdy
- 01 LectureUploaded byDebasish Mahanta
- Okapi Gen2 Datasheet EnUploaded byleriom
- Ssl Whitepaper Nov2010Uploaded byNabucco Donosor
- Descr Water TypesUploaded byNikolas Hatzipolitis
- Placement Test PhysicsUploaded byAlqaan Maqbullah Ilmi
- LightUploaded byfahadsep17

- Aggregates cooling for hot weather concretingUploaded bydr_kh_ahmed
- Urea Metal−Organic Frameworks as Effective and Size-SelectiveUploaded byLaura Badea
- Spe 165005 Ms PcpntUploaded byErick Cruz
- Ferric Thio Cyan AteUploaded byPablo Bernal
- Ashutosh (Physics Project)Uploaded byashutosh kumar
- eth-22533-02Uploaded bysaffron sky
- Hess LawUploaded byNovie Arysanti
- V001T06A001-97-AA-134Uploaded byMark Niel Gongora
- Copy of 06.02.2009-Combine FootingUploaded byifylasy
- Solved Problems ChemistryUploaded byRugi Vicente Rubi
- 201206281220-NABL-109-docUploaded byDavid Araguillin
- Huang ML, Dyes and Pigments 77 (2008) 327-334Uploaded byAlan P. Duran
- 2002-01-0927Uploaded byHiongyii
- Beam Forming of Lamb WavesUploaded byAshwini Pavankumar
- Cooling System Basic PrinciplesUploaded byBryan Martinez
- E-hole Pair GbhieherationUploaded byTushar Dhabal Das
- How Do Intermolecular Forces Affect Boiling Points and Melting PointsUploaded bytrudy
- Improved Current Efficiency Equation for the Electrodeposition of CopperUploaded bymetawfik
- Steel TanksUploaded bypandiangv
- 1 - Solid Phase WeldingUploaded bySaurav Kumar
- Newton Law Worked ExamplesUploaded byMuhammad Mosa
- Skylon SpaceplaneUploaded byΒαρδίκος Δημήτρης
- Wave PropertiesUploaded byHakim Abbas Ali Phalasiya
- Sporlan Thermostatic Expansion ValvesUploaded byevrimk
- corr1Uploaded byGirish Baswa
- DVGW G 469 EnglishUploaded byJONI101
- LCMS Introduction Part 1Uploaded byrostaminasab
- Log Interpretation ChartsUploaded bygustavoemir
- How to Test Pipe FittingUploaded byYaneYang
- Gas Production Operations.pdfUploaded byAhmed Falh