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The Water Code

Revised 1998

Countryside

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Code of Good Agricultural Practice for the Protection of Water

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FOOD WELSH OFFICE AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OCTOBER 1998

Summary

A summary of the key messages in this Code is set out below. You will be able to minimise the risk of causing pollution to surface water and groundwater by adopting these practices. Read the Code for further guidance. The risks of causing water pollution can often be reduced by minimising the quantities of materials to be handled, stored or spread. Farm waste management planning q Draw up a Farm Waste Management Plan to help you decide when, where and at what rate to spread manure, slurry and dirty water on your farm. Following a farm waste management plan will reduce the risk of transfer of pathogens from livestock wastes to water. Paragraphs 9 and 26. Avoid spreading within at least 10 metres of a ditch or watercourse and within 50 metres of a water source such as a spring, well or borehole. Paragraphs 29 and 30. Apply no more than 250 kg per hectare of total nitrogen from organic manures in any 12 months. Paragraph 32. Make an allowance for the available nitrogen, total phosphate and total potash in manures and slurries when working out fertiliser requirements. Paragraph 292. Slurry q Provide sufficient storage and containment for slurry so that it can be managed and controlled properly. Keep stores in good repair. Paragraph 56.

Dirty water q Minimise the amount of dirty water produced. Provide sufficient storage and containment so that dirty water can be managed and controlled properly. Keep stores and irrigation equipment in good repair. Paragraph 117. Check irrigation systems regularly and make sure warning devices and automatic cut-offs are working. Paragraph 138. Solid manure q Make sure that run-off from field heaps does not cause pollution. Run-off from stores on concrete bases should be collected and contained. Paragraphs 140-146. Silage effluent q Minimise the amount of silage effluent produced by wilting grass to 25% dry matter before ensiling. Paragraph 172. Provide sufficient storage and containment for silage effluent so that it can be managed and controlled properly. Paragraph 170. Make sure that silos are in good repair with appropriate collection facilities for effluent. Paragraph 183. Fertilisers q Provide appropriate storage and containment of liquid fertilisers so that they can be managed and controlled properly. Paragraphs 197-203.

Summary

Fuel oil q Provide bunding to contain any spillages from above-ground agricultural fuel oil tanks or areas where fuel drums are stored. Paragraph 209. Sheep dip q Manage sheep dipping very carefully to avoid spillages and other uncontrolled releases of dip to the environment. Paragraphs 219-231. Up to 5 per hectare (450 gallons per acre) of used sheep dip may be applied to suitable land. Soakaways are no longer acceptable. Do not discharge direct to a watercourse. Paragraphs 227-229. New controls will be introduced which will affect sheep dipping. Contact the Environment Agency for further information. Paragraph 219. Pesticides q q Keep pesticides in a store with an impermeable base and sufficient bunding to contain any spillages. Use absorbents to mop up small spillages. Paragraphs 235-243. Observe the no spray zones on pesticide container labels and do not allow spray to drift off target. Paragraph 245. Minimise or eliminate tank washings by careful planning, use of rinsing equipment or direct-meter sprayers. Washings and dilute pesticide wastes can be applied to the treated crop or to untreated crop areas if this is permitted within label recommendations, or they may be applied to uncropped areas of land if the site is approved by the Environment m3

Agency. Soakaways are no longer acceptable. Paragraphs 258-260. Disposing of animal carcases q Small carcases may be buried or incinerated on farm provided guidelines are followed. In many cases it may be more convenient to send carcases to a licensed knackers yard or hunt kennel, authorised incinerator or rendering plant. Paragraphs 271-279. Nitrate and phosphorus

Minimise nitrate leaching by following recommended rates and timings for fertilisers and avoiding ploughing up of permanent grassland wherever possible. Paragraphs 289 and 300. Spread fertiliser accurately, at the right rate and avoid application to uncropped areas, hedges, and watercourses. Get the spread pattern tested regularly. Paragraph 292. Apply phosphorus according to soil analysis and the needs of the crop. Always allow for the nutrients supplied by any organic manures that you have applied. Paragraph 306. Specialised horticulture

Minimise the volume of run-off by matching water application to the requirements of the production system and minimise the loss of nutrients by matching the amounts applied to crop requirements. Paragraph 311.

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Contents

Paragraphs 1. Introduction About this code Minimising waste Water pollution problems Diffuse pollution Soil erosion Micro-organisms Responsibilities of farmers and contractors Emergency action Advice Water pollution general Storage and handling of agricultural wastes Nitrate Application of wastes to land Planning legislation Introduction Planning stages First Stage Areas where waste should not be spread at any time Second Stage Matching land area to nutrient in waste Third Stage Estimating the risk of pollution from spreading Land with very high risk of run-off Land with high risk of run-off Land with lower risk of run-off Day to day management Fourth Stage Assessing possible need for extra storage Fifth Stage Choosing a storage system Designing, building and choosing the site of storage facilities 13 4 56 7 8 9 1011 1213 14 1518 1921 2223 24 25 26 2728

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Laws Controlling Pollution

3.

Farm Waste Management Planning

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35 36 3738 39 4041

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4549 5053

Paragraphs 4. Slurries Introduction Storage General rules Under-floor storage and transfer channels Below ground tanks and reception pits Above-Ground Circular Stores Design of the above ground circular store Using and maintaining the above-ground circular store Weeping-Wall Slurry Stores Design of the weeping-wall slurry store Using and maintaining the weeping-wall slurry store Earth-Banked Stores Working out a size Layout of the earth-banked store Lagoons for liquid storage Design of the earth-banked store Using and maintaining the earth-banked store Treating Slurry Mechanical separation Designing the mechanical separation system Using and maintaining separators Ways of Applying Slurry to the Land 5. Dirty Water Introduction Amounts Minimising quantities of dirty water Choosing a System to Dispose of Dirty Water To land Treatment systems Discharging to a sewer 5455

5658 5960 6162 63 6469 7074 75 7683 8487 88 89 9092 9394 9597 98101 102103 104 105106 107 108110 111114 115116 117

118122 123124 125

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Paragraphs Low-Rate Irrigation The suitability of a site Design of the system Managing Irrigation Systems Introduction General management Maintenance Travelling irrigators 6. Solid Manures Introduction Manure stores Applying the waste to the land Introduction Sewage sludges Septic tank and cesspool wastes Milk and dairy waste Effluent from by-products used to feed animals Wastes from processing of fresh produce Wastes from animal processing Introduction Regulations Minimising the amount of effluent Design of the silo Control measures Baled silage Field silage Applying effluent to land Feeding effluent to livestock Silage additives Introduction Storing and handling fluid fertilisers Introduction Regulations Design of storage facilities Using and maintaining the store Waste oils

126 127131

132 133136 137138 139 140142 143146 147149 150151 152154 155158 159160 161 162 163167 168169 170171 172173 174181 182186 187188 189191 192 193 194 195196 197203 204 205 206211 212217 218

7.

Other Organic Wastes

8.

Silage Effluent

9.

Fertilisers

10.

Fuel Oil

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Paragraphs 11. Sheep Dip Introduction Designing facilities Dipping Disposing of used dip Containers and unwanted concentrate Introduction Storing pesticides Spillage Applying pesticides near water Laws on disposal of waste pesticides Minimising waste pesticide Disposal of waste concentrates Disposal of dilute wastes and washings Disposal of containers Disposal of other contaminated materials Introduction Notifiable diseases Burying carcases on the farm Introduction Organic manures Inorganic nitrogen fertiliser Crop cover Crop residues Autumn cultivations Managing grassland Ploughing up grass Irrigation Phosphorus Introduction Soil-grown protected crops Hydroponic protected crops Non-recirculating systems Recirculating systems Container nursery stock Overhead watering 219221 222224 225226 227229 230231 232234 235240 241244 245246 247252 253255 256257 258260 261267 268270 271273 274 275279 280282 283288 289294 295296 297 298 299 300301 302 303306 307308 309 310 311312 313 314 315

12.

Pesticides

13.

Disposing of Animal Carcases Nitrate and Phosphorus

14.

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Specialised Horticulture

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Paragraphs Recirculation of water Nutrient input Pesticide use Organic wastes Other wastes Mushrooms Compost production Production buildings Watercress 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 Pages Appendices Appendix I Environment Agency: Contact details Appendix II Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food / Welsh Office Agriculture Department: Contact details Appendix III Land area needed for spreading wastes from different livestock Appendix IV Amount of excreta produced by livestock Appendix V Typical amounts of bedding material used by each animal in livestock housing systems Appendix VI Amount of cleaning water used Appendix VII Sources of information q q q q q q Index Legislation British Standards specifications Health and Safety publications Codes of Practice Other publications Address for rainfall information 9297

80

8184 85 86

87 87 8891

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Introduction

About this Code 1 This Code of Good Agricultural Practice for the Protection of Water (the Water Code) is a practical guide to help farmers and growers avoid causing water pollution. It updates the previous edition published in July 1991. This Code is a Statutory Code under Section 97 of the Water Resources Act 1991. This means that if you do not keep to this Code it will not be an offence, but it could be taken into account in any legal action. Following the Code is not a defence against a charge of causing pollution. 2 The Code describes the main risks of causing water pollution from different agricultural and horticultural sources. It does not include fish farming. For the purposes of this Code, good agricultural practice means a practice which minimises the risk of polluting water while allowing economic agriculture to continue. This Code has been written using the latest information available. 3 Any new practices not covered in the Code should follow the general principles set out in it. The Water Code complements advice given in the Soil Code and Air Code and the Code of Practice for the Safe Use of Pesticides on Farms and Holdings. You can obtain all these Codes free of charge from MAFF Publications, (Tel: 0645 556000.) Minimising waste 4 The risks of causing water pollution can often be reduced by minimising the quantities of materials to be handled, stored or spread. Changes in production or management methods or changes to buildings or drainage

Introduction

systems can reduce the output of dirty water, slurry, silage effluent or dilute pesticide produced. Reducing quantities at source will reduce handling costs. Specific advice on this is given in paragraphs 117, 172-173, 184 and 253-255. Water pollution problems 5 Each year there are many reported cases of water pollution. In 1996 non-agricultural sources, primarily industry and sewage effluent, accounted for 89% of all substantiated cases; agriculture caused the remainder. In the same period, most cases of pollution caused by agriculture came from land run-off (14%), slurry stores (13%), silage (11%) and yard washings (9%). 6 Most point-source agricultural pollution, that is pollution that comes from one building, store or field, happens when farm waste with a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (see Table 1) or a high ammonia content gets into a watercourse and is broken down by microorganisms. This process takes oxygen out of the water, or directly poisons aquatic life. In severe cases, all river life can be killed. Pollution can also be caused by fuel oil, sheep dip, pesticides, fertilisers or ammonia in slurry, which can poison or damage river life or may make groundwater unfit to use.

Table 1 Examples of typical BOD levels


BOD (mg/litre) Treated domestic sewage Raw domestic sewage Vegetable washings Dilute dairy parlour and yard washings (dirty water) Liquid waste draining from slurry stores Liquid sewage sludge Cattle slurry Pig slurry Brewers grain effluent Silage effluent Milk 1,000-12,000 10,000-20,000 10,000-20,000 20,000-30,000 30,000-50,000 30,000-80,000 140,000 1,000-5,000 20-60 300-400 500-3,000

Introduction

Soil erosion
Biochemical oxygen demand Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is used to show the risk of causing pollution from organic wastes. BOD (mg/litre) is a measure (in mg/l) of the amount of oxygen needed by micro-organisms to break down organic material. Groundwater Groundwater is the water held underground in rock formations. These formations are called aquifers. Watercourses In this Code, watercourses include all surface waters whether coastal waters, estuaries, lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, canals and field ditches.

8 If soil eroded from agricultural or other land is deposited in watercourses it can cause damage in a number of ways. Drinking water quality can be directly affected by suspended solids. Nutrients and pesticides attached to the particles can be released into the water environment; if the sediment settles on gravels it can seriously disrupt fish spawning. Advice on how to minimise the risks of erosion is given in the Soil Code. Micro-organisms 9 Potentially polluting materials, such as animal slurry, contain micro-organisms, such as salmonellae, toxin-producing Escherichia coli and campylobacters, which could harm humans and livestock. Any surface or groundwater polluted with such waste could be contaminated with these organisms. A particular problem is contamination with the parasite Cryptosporidium parva, which can make humans ill and is difficult to detect and remove when water is being treated. Following a farm waste management plan (see Section 3) when applying slurries, manures and dirty water to land will do much to reduce the risk of transfer of pathogens from livestock wastes to water. On farms where Cryptosporidium parva has been diagnosed, the following extra precautions should be taken to reduce the risk of contaminating watercourses with viable cryptosporidium oocysts (eggs). Slurries should be stored for as long as practicable before spreading. The application of dirty water to land presents a high risk of spreading the organism. You should apply dirty water carefully, and only to fields with the least risk of causing water pollution from run-off.

Diffuse pollution 7 Agriculture can also cause diffuse pollution of waters by suspended soil particles, nitrate, other nutrients and pesticides. Unlike point source pollution, diffuse pollution comes from many fields within a catchment and it is not caused by a single event or action. The cumulative effect of a number of individual minor incidents of diffuse pollution becomes increasingly significant over an entire catchment area. Diffuse pollution of watercourses or groundwater could mean that Environmental Quality Standards are not met. For example, water may not meet drinking water standards, or added nutrients could make algae grow in surface waters. Nutrients and pesticides can be present in runoff from fields in both soluble form and also adsorbed onto soil particles. Advice on how to avoid such run-off is given in the Soil Code.

Introduction

Farmyard manure should be stored for at least 2 months before spreading. Responsibilities of farmers and contractors 10 All farm staff and contractors on the farm who handle, store, use, spread or dispose of any substances that could pollute water should be aware of their responsibilities and know about the causes and results of water pollution. They should know how to operate and maintain the equipment they use and know what to do in an emergency. 11 You should find out about drainage systems on your land and in buildings, especially where pipes, channels and outfalls are. You should also find out the position of nearby boreholes, springs and wells, including private water supplies, from the Environment Agency and the local authority if appropriate. Regular checks should be made to make sure that watercourses are not polluted. Checks should be made more often at times when the risk of causing pollution is highest, such as when slurry, silage effluent or dirty water is being applied to land. All storage facilities should be regularly checked for leaks and damage. Emergency action 12 If water is at risk of becoming polluted or becomes polluted, tell the Environment Agency at once and take immediate steps to stop any further pollution. The Environment Agency provides a national 24-hour telephone service to deal with reports of water pollution and can be contacted by ringing FREEPHONE 0800 807060. The Environment Agency may be able to prevent pollution from occurring or from becoming serious.

13 Farmers should have a contingency plan to deal with water pollution if it happens. The contingency plan should include: q a plan of the farm showing the drainage systems and water sources described in paragraph 11; q details of equipment available on the farm or available locally at short notice, which can be used to deal with pollution problem;. for example, you should know what equipment you have to plug land drains, dam ditches, or hold oil spillages by placing wooden boards across the surface of a watercourse; q relevant telephone numbers, including the Environment Agency, downstream landowners and water abstractors; q plans of action to be taken if certain problems occur, such as leaking silos, slurry store collapse or oil spillage. Advice 14 You can obtain advice on preventing pollution and information on farm waste management planning from independent agricultural consultants with relevant experience (see page 9 for information on the National Farm Waste Management Register). You can obtain detailed design and planning services from consultants and equipment suppliers.

Laws Controlling Pollution

Water pollution general 15 The Water Resources Act 1991 contains provisions which are designed to prevent water pollution and allows people to be prosecuted if they pollute. The Environment Agency is responsible for most of this work. 16 Under Section 85 of the Water Resources Act 1991 it is an offence to cause or knowingly permit a discharge of poisonous, noxious or polluting matter or solid waste matter into any controlled waters without the proper authority. 17 Controlled waters include groundwater and all coastal or inland waters, including lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, canals and field ditches. Temporarily dry watercourses are included. Proper authority is usually a consent to discharge from the Environment Agency under Section 86 of the Water Resources Act 1991. 18 Farmers, employees and contractors may be prosecuted for causing pollution. You could be fined up to 20,000 in a Magistrates Court or get an unlimited fine and even imprisonment in the Crown Court. A person found guilty of causing pollution may also have to pay for any damage caused and for Environment Agency costs. Farmers may also be held liable for pollution resulting from tampering, vandalism or accidental damage by third parties. You should therefore take reasonable steps to secure vulnerable tanks, stores and valves etc. against third party interference where there is a risk that pollution of water could result.

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Laws Controlling Pollution

Storage and handling of agricultural wastes 19 Section 92 of the Water Resources Act 1991 and the resulting Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended) aim to prevent pollution by silage effluent, slurry, dirty water, and fuel oil by setting standards for keeping and handling these substances. Facilities that you already had before 1 September 1991 are usually exempt from these rules, but the Environment Agency can ask you to improve them if it considers that there is a significant risk of causing pollution. All facilities which have been newly erected, substantially enlarged or substantially reconstructed since 1 September 1991 must meet the full standards set out in the Regulations. You must tell the Environment Agency at least 14 days before you use such facilities. You must follow the Regulations, but doing so is not a defence against a charge of causing pollution. It may, however, go in your favour when the Court is deciding on sentence. 20 Under Section 161 of the Water Resources Act 1991, the Environment Agency can do work to prevent or clear up pollution and recover the cost from the person responsible. The Environment Act 1995 introduced a provision allowing farmers or landowners to be prosecuted for not complying with the terms of a notice of works issued under Section 161. You could be fined up to 20,000 in a Magistrates Court or face an unlimited fine in the Crown Court. The Environment Agency can also undertake the work themselves and recover the costs from the farmer or owner.

21 Under section 202 of the Water Resources Act 1991, the Environment Agency can ask for information to help them prevent water pollution. Nitrate 22 Section 94 and Schedule 12 of the Water Resources Act 1991 cover the designation of Nitrate Sensitive Areas where the Government considers it appropriate to limit the amount of nitrate entering water from agricultural land (see paragraph 282). 23 Under the EC Nitrate Directive (91/676/EEC), Member States are required to establish a code of practice which will operate on a voluntary basis as a means for providing all waters with a general level of protection against nitrate pollution. The aspects of this Code which specifically cover nitrate pollution are set out in Sections 3, 4, 9 and 14. In addition, in designated Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) farmers will be required to comply with mandatory measures to reduce nitrate leaching. Application of wastes to land 24 The Environmental Protection Act 1990 provides for a system of integrated pollution control for the disposal of wastes to land, water and air. The parts of the Act that have most bearing on this Code are: Part I, which establishes integrated pollution control and gives local authorities new powers to control air pollution from a range of prescribed processes; Part II, which sets out the rules for waste disposal and also implements the Framework Directive on Waste (91/156/EEC); and Part III, which covers statutory nuisances and clean air. A waste management licensing system was put in place by the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994.

Laws Controlling Pollution

At present all wastes from premises used for agriculture are excluded from the definition of controlled waste. This means that they are not subject to the usual statutory controls on the management of waste, such as waste management licensing, the duty of care and registration of waste carriers (see paragraph 151). However, certain agricultural wastes will be brought within the waste management licensing system in future regulations. The management of hazardous (special) agricultural wastes will be subject to additional controls as set out in the Special Waste Regulations 1996. The existing Waste Management Regulations 1994 control the disposal of non-agricultural waste to land (see Section 7) and the Sludge (Use in Agriculture) Regulations 1989 control the use of sewage sludge in agriculture. Planning legislation 25 The Town and Country Planning (Assessment of Environmental Effects) Regulations 1988 (as amended) set out the requirements for an Environmental Assessment of certain major developments for which planning permission is needed. The local planning authority (or, if the matter is referred, the Secretary of State) will decide on the need for an Environmental Assessment. Further details on planning legislation are given in paragraph 53.

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Farm Waste Management Planning

Introduction 26 The information in this section can be used to: help you decide when and where to spread slurry, manure, dirty water, silage effluent and other organic wastes to minimise the risk of pollution; work out the amount and type of storage you need on the farm to avoid the risk of pollution. decide whether the 4 months storage capacity specified in the Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended) is needed, and sufficient (see paragraph 57). Planning stages 27 The most economic and environmentally friendly way of disposing of animal manure, slurry and dirty water is normally to apply it to agricultural land. You should plan how and when to apply all livestock wastes to the land, to make the risk of water pollution as low as possible and get the most from the nutrients. Making full use of the available nutrients in livestock manures can lead to substantial reductions in the applications of manufactured fertilisers. Where sewage sludge or other organic wastes are applied on the farm, the same principles should be followed. Before you apply livestock or other organic waste to the land, you should produce a farm waste management plan (Figure 1) as follows:

Farm Waste Management Planning

Figure 1: Example of farm waste management plan.

q The first stage. Pick out any land on the farm where waste should not be spread at any time (paragraphs 29-31). q The second stage. Work out how much land you need to take the total nitrogen in all the waste that has to be spread on the farm (paragraphs 32-34). If there is not enough land, make arrangements to spread the excess material on suitable land elsewhere. q The third stage. Pick out land where waste should not be spread at certain times, or where the spreading rate should be limited (paragraphs 35-41). q The fourth stage. Work out the largest amount of waste you will have to store before it is spread. In some situations it may be possible to reduce the volume of waste produced (see paragraphs 43 and 117). If the storage facilities you already have are too small then you will need more storage space (paragraphs 42-44). If you need more storage the fifth stage is to choose and design a suitable storage system to meet the needs of the farm (paragraphs 45-53).

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Metres

Dont spread in the red areas. Avoid orange areas in winter and in a dry summer when the soil cracks down to the drains, or when the soil is compacted. You can use yellow areas throughout the year subject to ground conditions, but restrict application rates in the winter. Green areas can be used throughout the year. Bore hole.

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Farm waste management plan You can either draw up your own farm waste management plan or get professional advice from a consultant. If you are designing your own plan, a self-help guide Farm Waste Management Plan: The MAFF Step by Step Guide for Farmers can be obtained from the Rural and Marine Environment Division of MAFF (Tel: 0171 238 5665). You can get independent, professional advice from a member of the National Farm Waste Management Register. Copies of the register are available from: The National Farm Waste Management Register, Races Farm, Aston Tirrold, Didcot, Oxford. OX11 9DJ (Tel: 01398 361566).

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Farm Waste Management Planning

28 The rest of this section gives more detailed advice on each of these stages. In some situations, however, you might need to vary these guidelines in order to reduce the risk of pollution as much as possible. You might need to get professional help to plan how you will manage livestock wastes on the farm.

Slope The risk of surface run-off increases with slope. Slopes are rarely simple features of the landscape. It is not practicable to define critical angles of slope. When spreading waste onto sloping ground check carefully for surface run-off. Surface run-off The speed at which liquid soaks into the soil is important in working out the risk of run-off. Water ponding on the soil surface shows that the liquid is being applied faster than it can soak into the soil. There is a greater risk of run-off on sloping land. Application should be stopped or the rate reduced depending on the circumstances. On some sites, even a small amount of liquid will cause run-off. Rainwater that runs off fields that have recently been spread with slurry may also cause pollution. Run-off can occur on very dry soils in summer as well as from wet ones in the winter. Land drains Fields with effective land drainage systems cause a particular risk. The danger is that a liquid applied to the surface will find its way into the drains and the watercourse. This risk applies to any drained field whatever its slope or however near it is to a watercourse. Most lowland clays have had a drainage system put in at some time and pipes may still work even if a modern system has not been put in. The risk is greater if the soil is dry and cracked or has been recently drained or subsoiled, particularly where the system includes permeable fill above the drains. Grassland may not show cracks at the surface but the soil may still be cracked below. Groundwater contamination Applying waste to land can pollute water underground. This risk applies in any field where permeable soils lie directly on top of rock formations that hold water, especially where the watertable is shallow or the rock has cracks in it (for example shallow soils over limestone).

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Farm Waste Management Planning

FIRST STAGE
Areas where waste should not be spread at any time 29 The first stage in planning is to pick out any land where waste should not be spread at any time. Leave an untreated strip at least 10 metres wide on both sides of watercourses. Do not forget those on the boundary of your farm. A buffer strip may help reduce the risk of causing pollution. Irrigation systems should work so that there is no chance of their spray coming within 10 metres of a watercourse or of wind blowing material into a watercourse. 30 To reduce the risk of polluting groundwater, livestock manures and other organic wastes should not be applied within 50 metres of a spring, well or borehole that supplies water for human consumption, or is to be used in farm dairies. In some cases a bigger distance will be needed, particularly up-slope of a spring or shallow well. Bear in mind any water sources on your neighbours land. An example of these areas is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: Example to show areas where waste should not be spread at any time (paragraphs 29-30).

31 You might not be able to spread waste on some areas of the farm because of: q very steep slopes with run-off risk all the year round; an abatement notice due to smell nuisance; management agreements (e.g. Sites of Special Scientific Interest, Environmentally Sensitive Areas, Nitrate Sensitive Areas); set-aside rules.

q q

SECOND STAGE
Matching land area to nutrient in waste 32 The next stage is to match the amount of nutrient supplied by the waste to the area of land you apply it to. As a general guide, there should be enough land where waste can be spread to make sure that the amount of total nitrogen in livestock wastes and other organic wastes that are applied is less than 250 kg/ha/year (kilograms each hectare each year). This figure does not include manure deposited while livestock is grazing. Lower amounts may be appropriate in sensitive catchments (see Section 14). In catchments less sensitive to nitrate leaching, some non-livestock wastes such as sewage sludge cake or composted organic waste which contain very little plant available nitrogen may be applied at rates supplying up to 500 kg/ha of total nitrogen in one application every 2 years. 33 For new units, the amount of land needed to achieve this should be available from the outset. Existing units currently applying organic wastes at rates which exceed this

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Farm Waste Management Planning

amount should take steps to change their practice, such as spreading on neighbouring land, so that they can meet this limit. (See Appendix III for examples of land area needed for different livestock). 34 The available nitrogen in organic wastes applied to the land should not be more than the crop needs. You should take this available nitrogen into account when you are working out how much fertiliser you need. High levels of available phosphorus can accumulate in soils receiving regular, large applications of animal manures. This can increase phosphorus loss to water. You should take account of the phosphorus content of manures when working out manure application rates and how much fertiliser you need (see paragraph 307). This may mean that some fields should receive less than 250 kg/ha nitrogen in organic manures in a particular year to avoid excessive enrichment of soil phosphorus levels.

In order to make optimum use of the available nitrogen in organic manures, the manure should be applied as close as possible to the time when maximum crop growth and nitrogen uptake occur. The nitrogen value of manures will generally be considerably reduced if applied in autumn or early winter due to losses of nitrogen by leaching (particularly on sandy or shallow soils) or denitrification (mainly on poorly drained soils). Detailed fertiliser recommendations including the available nitrogen contribution from animal manures are given in MAFF Reference Book 209 Fertiliser Recommendations for Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Field The rules on site risk could apply to less than the whole field when: q only part of the field is a high risk and the rest of the field is a lower risk; q the field is large and does not contain drains and part of the field is a long way from the watercourse. Field capacity Field capacity is when the soil is fully wetted and more rain would cause water loss by drainage or surface run-off. Severely compacted Soil is severely compacted when water stays on the surface after it has rained. Machinery and livestock can both compact soil, especially when it is wet. Frozen hard This term is used when the soil is frozen for more than 12 hours. Days when soil is frozen overnight but completely thaws out during the day do not count.

THIRD STAGE
Estimating the risk of pollution from spreading 35 The third stage of planning is to judge the risk of causing pollution from a field that could have waste spread on it, and the number of months in the year when this risk applies. Crops may limit the time when waste can be applied because of the chance of damaging them. The risk of damaging the soil might also prevent the waste from being spread during the winter months by machinery that is pulled by a tractor. Total nitrogen and available nitrogen
Of the total nitrogen in livestock manures and other organic waste 5% to 60% can be taken up by plants in the first growing season after spreading. This is the available nitrogen. The amount of available nitrogen depends on the type of manure.

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Farm Waste Management Planning

Land with very high risk of run-off 36 As well as the areas mentioned in paragraphs 29-31, do not spread livestock manures or other organic wastes at the times of the year when the following conditions apply: q fields likely to flood sometime in most winters; q fields next to a watercourse, spring or borehole where the surface is severely compacted; q fields next to a watercourse, spring or borehole that are waterlogged; q fields next to a watercourse, spring or borehole that have a steep slope and the soil is at field capacity; q fields next to a watercourse, spring or borehole that have a moderate slope, a slowly permeable soil and the soil is at field capacity. Land with high risk of run-off 37 On areas not ruled out by paragraphs 29-31 and 36 and under the following conditions, do not put on more than the amounts of livestock wastes or other organic wastes recommended in paragraph 38 below: q fields next to a watercourse, spring or borehole that have a moderate slope and the soil is at field capacity; q fields next to a watercourse, spring or borehole with a slowly permeable soil and the soil is at field capacity; q fields with effective pipe or mole drains; q fields where the soil depth over fissured rock is less than 30 cm.

38 You should not apply more than 50 m3/ha (4500 gallons/acre) of slurry or 50 tonnes/ha (20 tons/acre) of manure to high risk land at one time. You can reduce the risk of run-off by applying less than these amounts per application. Leave at least 3 weeks between each application to reduce the surface sealing and to let the soil recover. To reduce the chance of pollution in these situations, the amount of diluted liquid livestock waste applied by pumped irrigation systems should not be more than: q an application rate of 50 m3/ha (4500 gallons/acre) for travelling irrigators (also see paragraph 131); q a precipitation rate of 5 mm/hour (0.2 inches/hour) with sprinklers moved regularly to suit the conditions. Maximum application amounts for other wastes are given in the appropriate sections of this Code. Land with lower risk of run-off 39 On sites where there is a lower risk of causing pollution, you may be able to apply more at any one time but you must always take into account the pollution risk and the nutrient content (see paragraphs 32-34). Pollution caused by run-off from fields stocked with outdoor pigs can be a particular problem. To minimise this risk, outdoor pigs should only be sited on land in the lower risk run-off category.

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Farm Waste Management Planning

Day to day management 40 You should not go over the nutrient loading given in paragraph 32 in any period of 12 months. For slurry that has not been diluted this nutrient loading may need an application rate of less than 50 m3/ha (4500 gallons/acre) in a year. Poultry manures will usually reach this loading at 5-15 tonnes/ha (2-6 tons/acre) depending on nitrogen content. 41 Pay careful attention on ALL SITES to make sure that spreading does not cause ponding or run-off. Drain outfalls into watercourses should be checked frequently during and after spreading. The risk of run-off from land spreading varies with type of waste. The risk from solid materials is less than from liquids applied under the same conditions. Solids only cause pollution if heavy rain follows application. Liquids can pollute on their own even if applied carefully. Any rain soon after application will increase this risk. In addition to the above guidance, you should not apply when: q q q the soil is frozen hard; or the field is snow covered; or the soil is cracked down to field drains or backfill; or the field has been pipe or mole drained or subsoiled over drains within the last 12 months.

FOURTH STAGE
Assessing possible need for extra storage 42 Where slurry or dirty water is produced, you should first estimate the number of months of storage already available on the farm. Next, compare the times of the year when you currently spread slurry with your assessment of field run-off risk. If this shows a shortage of suitable land at times when you currently spread, you may need extra storage. If so, you may need to take professional advice. To help assess storage need, typical volumes of waste produced by livestock are given in Appendix IV. Typical amounts of bedding material used are given in Appendix V.

43 Clean rainwater from roofs and open concrete should not run into any store, unless the areas are small, storage capacity is adequate, or the water is needed to dilute the waste to make it easier to handle. 44 Dirty water that runs off from open soiled yards, manure stores or from cleaning buildings and equipment can either be collected in the slurry store or dealt with by a separate system (see Section 5). If such waste is included in a slurry store, work out the extra storage you need from the area of yards and stores involved using appropriate rainfall figures. (paragraph 116).

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Slurry The Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended) define slurry as: a) excreta produced by livestock whilst in a yard or building; or b) a mixture consisting wholly or mainly of such excreta, bedding, rainwater and washings from a building or yard used by livestock or any combination of these; of a consistency that allows it to be pumped or discharged by gravity at any stage in the handling process. Dirty water Unlike the Regulations, this Code separates materials covered by the definition of slurry given above into slurry and dirty water. Dirty water is a waste containing washings from milking parlours, farm dairies, cleaning work and run-off from open concrete areas that are dirtied by manure or silage. Generally, it contains less than 3% dry matter. Liquid that drains from manure and slurry stores and silage effluent are often collected in dirty water handling systems. These materials are a lot more polluting than yard run-off or cleaning water (see Table 1, paragraph 6). The biochemical oxygen demand (or BOD) and the amount of plant nutrients in dirty water can vary widely, depending upon its source.

The system you choose will also depend on winter rainfall. In areas with high rainfall, storage systems that have a large surface area will need extra storage capacity. With storage systems that produce liquid waste continuously the amount will depend on rainfall. 46 Slurry contains dung, urine and water with only small amounts of bedding. It flows by gravity and can be collected in slatted-floor systems, below ground tanks, or reception pits. You can store it for a long time in an above ground slurry store, or in an earth-banked structure. Separating the slurry mechanically will give a liquid that can be pumped through an irrigation system. 47 Semi-solid slurry is a mixture of dung, urine and bedding. You can store semi-solid slurry in earth-banked structures. Cattle slurries that contain straw bedding can be stored in weeping-wall stores. The time when you can empty these stores could be limited by when the machinery is available or by not being able to get to the store contents until they have dried out. Liquid waste collected from such stores is highly polluting and must be contained before you spread it on suitable land. 48 Manure may contain large amounts of bedding, can usually be stacked and should be stored in a suitable store. For short-term storage the manure can be put into heaps in a field as long as the heaps can be put where there is no risk of causing water pollution by seepage and run-off.

FIFTH STAGE
Choosing a storage system 45 The best way of handling and storing waste depends on its consistency. This depends on the type of livestock, how they are housed, the amount and the type of bedding material and whether the waste is diluted with dirty water.

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Farm Waste Management Planning

49 The type of store also depends on other things. If you are thinking about an earth banked storage system the site you choose must be suitable. The machinery you have to empty the store, labour, and the cost of facilities are also important factors. Designing, building and choosing the site of storage facilities 50 All storage facilities for waste should be designed and constructed to BS 5502: Part 50: 1993, to stand up to the load of the stored material and safely contain any polluting material. Storage facilities for slurry and dirty water which have been newly constructed, substantially enlarged or substantially reconstructed since 1 September 1991 must comply with the requirements of the Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended). Do not put stores within 10 metres of a watercourse or field drain. On some sites the best position for slurry stores and reception pits may be in an area affected by high groundwater. Under these circumstances, correctly designed pressure relief drainage can provide a safe method for removing excess water from the site, subject to safeguards and prior approval by the Environment Agency (see paragraph 57). 51 Design each storage facility to suit the conditions and needs of the particular site. Design details are given in the Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) Report No 126 Farm Waste Storage Guidelines on Construction. You will probably need to get professional help on designing the store from a suitably qualified person.

The building work must be supervised by experienced people to make sure that the standards set by the designer are met. 52 The person who supplies or designs the store and the equipment should give you a manual on how to use the system properly, what safety procedures you should follow and how to maintain the store and its equipment. 53 The siting of the storage facilities should take into account how easy it is to fill, whether you can get to the store to empty it, its appearance, and the possibility of smell causing a nuisance. Under the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order 1995, you will need planning permission before you can put up any new buildings or convert certain buildings you already have, to house livestock or to store slurry, manure or sewage sludge, if they are within 400 metres of any protected buildings such as houses and schools. Agricultural dwellings and buildings are not protected buildings. Where planning permission is not required, a prior notification system is used. You must notify the local planning authority of such developments who must then decide within 28 days whether it wishes to approve details of siting, design and external appearance of the proposed development. Where prior approval is required the development must not begin until such approval has been obtained. You may need to prepare an Environmental Statement before applying for planning permission for some major developments, such as large new pig and poultry units. You should check the current position with the local planning authority.

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Information on this legislation is also given in the Air Code. It is essential to speak to the appropriate body before you build facilities in an Environmentally Sensitive Area, a National Park, on or near Sites of Special Scientific Interest or on archaeological sites.

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Introduction 54 This section is a guide to good practice to minimise the risk of causing water pollution from slurries. It includes how to handle and store slurry in above-ground circular stores, weeping-wall stores and earth-banked structures. Animal slurry stored and spread on farms can cause serious pollution. Many pollution incidents happen because stores are not designed, built, maintained or used properly. 55 Slurry will be produced from dairy, beef or pig housing which does not use much straw or bedding material. The slurry could range from a semi-solid with about 12% dry matter to a liquid with 3-4% dry matter, depending on the type of stock and how diluted the slurry is. The best way to store and handle the slurry before it is applied to the land depends partly on the type of slurry being produced. All practical steps should be taken to minimise the quantity of slurry produced by keeping rainwater out of the slurry system.

STORAGE
General rules 56 A facility for storing slurry should be designed to collect and hold slurry safely for a specific length of time. A guide to designing and building slurry storage tanks is given in British Standard (BS) 5502: Part 50: 1989. Design details are given in the Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) Report No 126 Farm Waste Storage Guidelines on Construction.

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57 Under the Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended) slurry must be kept in a reception pit or slurry storage tank, unless it is kept temporarily in a tanker. The slurry storage tank includes a lagoon, pit or above- ground circular store used for the storage of slurry. The Regulations lay down certain rules for all stores, reception pits and channels which have been newly constructed, substantially enlarged or substantially reconstructed since 1 September 1991. These include the following: q No part of the storage facility can be within 10 metres of a watercourse or field drain that the slurry could go into if it escaped. On some sites, the best position for slurry stores and reception pits may be in an area affected by high groundwater. Under these circumstances, correctly designed pressure relief drainage can provide a safe method for removing excess water from the site. These clean water drains are likely both to be within 10 metres of the structure and to have outfalls to a watercourse. You must seek guidance and prior approval from the Environment Agency who will assess individual cases with regard to design, construction and contingency arrangements in the event of system failure. The Agency may ask you to get professional advice. Floors must not let liquid pass through, ie, they must be impermeable. The base and walls must be protected against corrosion as in BS 5502: Part 50: 1989. If the walls of the store let liquid pass through, the base must go beyond the walls and have collection channels draining into a tank.

The walls and floors must be able to stand up to the loads in BS 5502: Part 50: 1989. The storage tank must have a life of at least 20 years if it is maintained properly. Reception pits must be able to hold at least 2 days slurry production. The storage tank must be big enough to hold at least 4 months slurry unless you have a safe year-round system. You will need to demonstrate to the Environment Agency that your system provides safe, year-round management and disposal of slurry. The size of the store and any reception pit must take into account rain that falls directly onto or drains into them (see paragraph 116). The local Environment Agency office must be told in writing at least 14 days before you first use such facilities. Stores that were in use or built before 1 September 1991 are usually exempt from the regulations, but the Environment Agency can require you to make improvements if it considers that there is a significant risk of causing pollution.

58 The store should be arranged so that the contents can be easily emptied for spreading without causing pollution of watercourses as a result of spillage of the store contents. Slurry stores should be designed and built by specialists who are competent to do these jobs. To avoid pollution, more than 4 months storage may be needed on some farms, particularly those situated in areas with above average rainfall, and unsuitable land for winter spreading.

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Under-floor storage and transfer channels 59 The base and walls of the channels or pits should be impermeable to stop polluted liquids getting out, or to prevent water getting in if they are built below ground. 60 Slurry can be removed through a sluice to a reception pit outside the store before emptying. Alternatively, slurry can be mixed or recirculated before emptying direct from the under-floor store. Design channels to empty their contents into a reception pit or tank so that the slurry cannot overflow. If slurry is emptied from channels to a reception pit through a sluice, the pit must be big enough to hold the largest amount of slurry that could be emptied into it when the sluice is opened. SAFETY NOTE: MIXING OR RECIRCULATING SLURRY CAN GIVE OFF DANGEROUS GASES THAT ARE LETHAL TO BOTH HUMANS AND LIVESTOCK. NEVER PUT SILAGE EFFLUENT INTO UNDER-FLOOR SLURRY STORES. Below ground tanks and reception pits 61 Below-ground tanks should be big enough to suit the circumstances and emptying method. Reception pits should be able to hold at least 2 days slurry and dirty water that is collected. 62 Tanks that are emptied or desludged by a tractor-drawn slurry tanker should be put where the tractor can easily get to them. SAFETY NOTE: COVER OR FENCE OFF BELOW-GROUND TANKS AND RECEPTION PITS TO KEEP TO THE HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK ETC., ACT. TANKS MIGHT CONTAIN LETHAL GASES AND SO YOU SHOULD NOT GO INTO THEM. CLEARLY DISPLAY A WARNING SIGN ON THE TANK.

Under-floor Storage Pig slurry is commonly stored below the slatted floor of the housing facility for 4-8 weeks. If extra storage is needed it should be outside the pig house. Cattle slurry can also be collected and stored under-floor as long as it does not have too much bedding or waste feed in it. Building methods include reinforced and rendered concrete block walls on a concrete base, reinforced concrete made on site, or ready made sections. Transfer Channels Slurry with little or no bedding in it can be transported from the collection place to a storage facility or reception pit, using transfer channels. For cattle slurry, these channels are normally 1 metre wide and 1 metre deep with a level base and a 150 millimetre lip at the emptying end of the channel to keep a layer of liquid in the base for lubrication. The longest channel is typically 25 metres.

Below ground tanks Below-ground tanks are often used to store small amounts of dilute slurry, run-off from farmyard manure stores or parlour washings for a short time. They are usually too expensive for storing slurry for a long time, but can be used as reception pits to collect slurry before it is pumped to an above-ground slurry store. Below-ground tanks are usually built from either rendered reinforced blocks, reinforced concrete made on-site, ready-made concrete panels, steel panels or glassfibre-reinforced plastic.

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Figure 3: Above ground circular store (showing design features that keep to the regulations).

ABOVE-GROUND CIRCULAR STORES


63 If liquid slurry is kept in above-ground circular stores you can spread the waste at any time as long as the soil, crop and weather conditions are suitable. These stores are suitable for storing slurry that is easy to pump, including the liquid that comes from mechanical separation. They are not suitable for slurries that contain a lot of long straw bedding, sand bedding or waste feed.
Above-ground circular stores Stores are normally made from curved steel panels or concrete sections. Steel panels should be coated to protect them against corrosion. As storage depth can be up to 6 metres, they generally take up less space than other storage systems. Steel stores can be extended provided the concrete base and lower panels are strong enough to carry the extra loads if more panels are added to increase the height and size of the store. A typical system has a reception pit next to the main store (Figure 3). A grid covers the reception pit so that slurry can drop through and long fibres are scraped to one side. Slurry may also get to the reception pit through underground channels. A purpose-built pump moves slurry from the reception pit to the store, a tanker or irrigation system for spreading. These pumps are often fitted with an outlet so that the contents of the reception pit can be recirculated. The store contents can be mixed by recirculating them through moveable single or multiple outlets in the store, or by using the filling pump. Mixing with a fixed or portable propeller or aeration system for separated slurry is better for stores with a large diameter.

1 Store and reception pit built to British Standard 5502 2 A space of at least 300 millimetres (freeboard) between the slurry and the top of the tank 3 Reception pit large enough for two days slurry production 4 Two valves in a line, kept locked when not in use 5 Pump 6 Nozzle to mix slurry (this can also be done by a propeller or aerator) 7 Platform for checking and working the store 8 Tanker filling point

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Design of the above-ground circular store 64 The Regulations require the reception pit for new stores to hold at least 2 days production of slurry including rainfall. A space of 300 millimetres (freeboard) between the level of the slurry and the top of the store must be left when working out the size of the store. 65 Cattle slurry may need to be diluted so it is easier to handle by letting some parlour washings or a limited amount of fouled yard area drain into the reception pit. Take this extra liquid into account when working out the size of the store. 66 When the site is chosen, make sure the subsoil gives a stable foundation for the store. The store base should be designed to suit the size of the store and site conditions. 67 The Regulations require that the discharge pipe between the main store and the reception pit must be fitted with 2 valves in line, which are locked shut when they are not being used. 68 There should be equipment to make sure that the store contents can be mixed to break up any crusts on the surface and move any sediment, before it is emptied. 69 There should be a ladder and platform that meets Health and Safety requirements, to inspect the store contents and to supervise mixing.

Using and maintaining the above-ground circular store 70 Keep long bedding or feed out of the store by scraping it to one side, so you can dispose of it separately. Use enough bedding to keep animals clean. 71 Thoroughly mix slurry in the reception pit with the pump, before you put it into the store. You might need to add extra liquid in dry weather. 72 You should check the store contents regularly. Mix the contents to remove surface crusting and the build up of sediment before you empty the store. If you mix the contents by recirculation do not leave the pump running unattended with the valves between the store and the pit open. Note: POSSIBLE NUISANCE CAUSED BY SMELL: Mixing the contents will give off smells. A system where mixing is not done so often will reduce the number of times when this happens. More detail is given in the Air Code. 73 Do not overfill tanks or let them overflow. Always leave a space (freeboard) between the level of slurry and the top of the store to allow for rainfall. 74 Check the store regularly for any signs of leaking. Put faults right, getting professional help if you need it. Completely empty the store once a year. Clean the store down and check both internally and externally for any signs of corrosion, damage

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Figure 4: Weeping wall store. (Showing design features that keep to the regulations).

or degradation of mastic sealant. With steel stores, you should check for corrosion around bolt holes and at the edges of panels, as this can lead to store collapse. Use binoculars for inaccessible areas. Get professional help to carry out repairs.

WEEPING-WALL SLURRY STORES


75 Weeping-wall slurry stores are suitable for cattle slurry with a lot of straw bedding in it.
Weeping-wall slurry stores Weeping-wall stores are built above ground level on a concrete base. Excess liquid drains through narrow gaps in the walls, and is collected and spread onto land. This liquid has a high risk of causing pollution. The contents of the store gradually dry out and become similar in consistency to farmyard manure. The side access panels of the store can be taken out to empty

1 Walls built to British Standard 5502 with gaps 25-35 millimetres wide 2 At least 300 millimetres space (freeboard) between slurry and top of panels 3 Filling ramp with safety rails 4 Base extended to give channel round store 5 Tank built to BS 5502 of a size to suit farm circumstances 6 Panels that can be taken out to empty the store 7 Hard area for machinery to get to the store

these solids. Walls are typically 2 to 3 metres high. Building methods include: q narrow upright pre-cast concrete panels, supported by steel work on the outside; q self-supporting concrete panel sections, with slots down them; q horizontal timber railway sleepers supported between steel uprights. In all cases, slots are 25 to 35 millimetres wide. A diagram showing the features of this type of store is shown in Figure 4.

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Design of the weeping-wall slurry store 76 Store contents are not usually emptied during the winter housing period because panels cannot be opened safely until the contents have dried out enough, typically from early summer onwards. If the panels are opened too soon this could cause a serious pollution risk. The size of store needed will usually be worked out from how long the winter housing will be, taking into account the volume of dung, urine and bedding but not rainfall, as this drains into the collection tank. Under the Regulations, a space (freeboard) of 300 millimetres between the level of the slurry and the top of the walls must be allowed when working out the size of the store. 77 Rain that falls on to the store and about 10% of the slurry going into it, will drain out during storage. The size of the storage tank should take into account the rainfall (see paragraph 116), the surface area of the store and how often the tank can be emptied without causing a pollution risk. All storage tanks which are newly constructed, substantially enlarged or substantially reconstructed after 1 September 1991 are subject to the Regulations (paragraph 57). These require, among other things, 4 months storage capacity unless you have a safe year-round disposal system. 78 The method used to fill the store should be able to deal with strawy material. If there is a ramp for a tractor scraper it should have a suitable slope and raised sides. It can extend into the store if necessary. Any rainwater that runs off from higher yards should be piped straight into the collection tank and should be prevented from entering the store. Excess liquids may cause spurting

through slots which is difficult to contain. 79 The Regulations require that the concrete base of the store must not let liquid pass through it, ie. be impermeable. It should also be level and must extend outside the walls to form the base of a collection channel outside the store. 80 The walls should completely surround the store. Normally all 4 walls have slots although, if the store is built into a slope, one wall could be solid. 81 Slots in walls should end about 100 millimetres above the floor. This will keep a layer of liquid on the floor so that slurry can flow away from the filling point. Gaps next to the filling point should be sealed up or made as small as possible. 82 The store should have panels that can be taken out to empty the contents. These panels should not be next to the filling point. There should be a suitable hard area for loaders and spreaders to get to the store to empty it. 83 Liquid waste draining through the gaps in the walls must be collected in the drainage channel outside the store and drained into a suitable tank. Using and maintaining the weeping wall-slurry store 84 There should be enough straw bedding in the slurry to make sure that diluted slurry does not run out through the slots. 85 Check collection channels regularly to make sure that they are not overflowing or blocked. Check the contents of the liquid collection tank frequently and empty them when necessary. (SAFETY NOTE: BEWARE OF DANGEROUS

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GASES). The spreading method, the time of application and where you spread the slurry should take into account the fact that the liquid has a high BOD and high nutrient content (see paragraphs 29-41). 86 Do not take access panels out to empty the store unless the contents are dry enough so that they will not flow out by gravity. Panels should be removed carefully, section by section. 87 Check the liquid collection channels regularly for leaks. Once a year, when the store is empty, check the wall and floor for corrosion and structural damage. Put any faults right with professional help if necessary.

If you are thinking about using this type of store, talk to the Environment Agency first.
Earth-banked stores Earth-banked structures can be used to store slurry that contains bedding, dilute slurry, separated liquids from mechanical separators, or dirty water. Depending on the consistency of its contents they can either have the liquid taken out and be emptied as a solid or mixed and emptied as a liquid. Such stores are commonly called compounds when they contain solids or semi-solids or lagoons if they contain more liquid waste. A series of lagoons may be used to settle dirty water before it is pumped through an irrigation system. Stores can be built below, above, or part below/part above ground. Typical depth from the base to the top of the embankment is 3 to 4 metres.

EARTH-BANKED STORES
88 Many serious pollution incidents are caused by earth-banked stores that are too small, badly built or in an unsuitable place. In many locations, such stores cannot be built properly because of unsuitable soil. To meet the conditions set out in the Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended) for stores newly constructed, substantially enlarged or substantially reconstructed since 1 September 1991 (see paragraph 57), it is important that: q The site is suitable for this kind of store (see paragraphs 95-96); the structure is designed by a qualified person to suit the particular site and does not let liquids get in or out (i.e. is impermeable); the embankment is dug and built properly so that the structure is stable; a space (freeboard) of 750 millimetres is left between the level of the slurry and the top of the embankments when working out store size.

Working out a size 89 The store should be big enough to store all dung, urine and used bedding produced during the storage period (see appendices IV and V), plus any dirty water or other liquid waste that is going to be stored. Work out the size of the store for dirty water from yard areas, appropriate rainfall figures for the site and the number of months storage needed (see paragraph 116). The rainfall falling onto the store during the storage period must also be taken into account.

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Figure 5: Earth banked compound.

Layout of the earth-banked store A typical compound is shown in Figure 5. 90 If slurry and bedding is scraped over a ramp or edge of a concrete area it should go in the compound at its deepest point. This will keep some liquid in the base, below the filling point, helping the slurry to flow away and fill the whole store. 91 A strainer placed at the deepest part of the compound will let any extra liquids be removed. 92 If the machinery to be used to empty the store will work from the top of the banks, there must be a way of getting to the banks and the banks must be wide enough for the machinery to be used safely, taking into account the weight of the machine. The width of the compound should suit the reach of the machines which will be used. If machinery is going to go into the compound to empty it, there can be a concrete strip or pad in the base.

1 Embankments designed to suit the site 2 Floor slopes slightly towards the filling point 3 If it is emptied from the banktop, banks are built to take the weight and width of the machine 4 At least 750 millimetres space (freeboard) between the surface of slurry and the banktop (new or extended stores) 5 Filling point 6 Strainer to remove excess liquid to be removed by tanker 7 Safety fence built to Health and Safety Standards 8 Width to suit the reach of the machine

Lagoons for liquid storage A typical lagoon is shown in Figure 6. 93 To stop solids building up in a lagoon for liquid storage, you often need to mix the store contents before you empty them. If you will be using tractor-driven mixing equipment, there should be a safe way of getting to the lagoon. 94 If a series of lagoons is used to settle dirty water, there should not be any overflow pipes through embankments unless they empty into a lagoon next to it that is about the same size, or into a pump tank at a similar level. T pipes will prevent floating solids moving from lagoon to lagoon. Vehicles should be able to get to lagoons to desludge them.

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Figure 6: Earth banked lagoons.

Design of the earth-banked store 95 The designer should check that the soil and site is suitable by digging trial holes, but not under where the embankment is going to be. The designer should give you all details including the building method, the internal and external angles of the banks and the width and foundation details of the embankment. 96 If a site is permeable, i.e. it lets liquid pass through, you can import clay to build or line the embankments or install a liner. Prefabricated liners are not strong enough to stand up to emptying by loaders, and should not therefore be used to contain solid or semi-solid materials. You should consult the Environment Agency where any type of liner is being considered.

1 Embankments designed to suit the site 2 Flexible liner if the banks or base let liquid through 3 750 millimetres space (freeboard) between the waste and the top of the bank 4 Inlet 5 T -Pipe overflow 6 Safety fence built to Health and Safety Standards

97 The details the designer gives you will usually include the following practices: q moving land drains so that they are at least ten metres clear of the proposed store; q removing plants and topsoil before the building work starts; q building the embankment by putting layers of suitable graded soil on top of each other to a given depth over the full width and packing it tight using suitable equipment; q building banks high enough to allow for them to settle; q covering the exposed surfaces of the embankment with a layer of topsoil to a given depth and sowing grass to prevent erosion.

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SAFETY NOTE: ALL STRUCTURES MUST BE SURROUNDED BY A FENCE WHICH MEETS THE HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS. Using and maintaining the earth-banked store 98 Keep a space (freeboard) of at least 750 millimetres between the level of waste and the top of the banks in stores built, substantially enlarged or substantially reconstructed after 1 September 1991. Stores built before then might use a smaller space (freeboard) where a reduction in capacity would lead to a risk of pollution through spreading under unsuitable conditions. If this is the case, you must take great care. The space (freeboard) should never be less than 300 millimetres. 99 Liquids that come out of the store through a strainer will have a high BOD and nutrient content. You should not spread them at times, rates, or in places where run-off and pollution could happen (paragraphs 29-41). 100 If you are going to handle slurry as a liquid, mix it thoroughly before you empty it to prevent solids building up. Make sure you do not wash away the banks or damage any liner during mixing. Load tankers or spreaders carefully to reduce the chance of spilling slurry. 101 Keep plants growing on embankments short so that the embankments can be inspected regularly. Do not let trees grow on or next to embankments. If cracks appear or the banks settle these should be put right straight away. Examine embankments after heavy rain. Tell the Environment Agency if there are any signs of liquid seeping out or the embankment slipping. Ask the designer or other suitably qualified person about any repairs and emergency measures that are needed.

TREATING SLURRY
102 You can treat slurry in a number of ways before or during storage and before it is spread. These include mechanical separation, anaerobic digestion (breaking down the slurry without oxygen) and aerobic treatment (treating the slurry using oxygen). All these techniques go beyond treatments that would result from the good practice described in the earlier sections of this Code. However the use of these techniques may be appropriate in some situations. Waste treated by anaerobic digestion or aerobic treatment will normally have a lower BOD, but it must not be emptied into a watercourse. Treated slurry is usually spread back to land. You will normally need to store it to avoid causing pollution. 103 Anaerobic digestion or aerobic treatment can reduce the risk of a nuisance caused by the smell coming from slurries. These treatment methods are not described here but are covered in detail in the Air Code. Mechanical separation 104 Mechanical separation takes some solids out of slurry, giving a liquid fraction that can be easily pumped and a solid fraction.

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Mechanical separation Mechanical separation takes coarse solids and fibre out of slurry. The liquid fraction will have 1-6% dry matter and so have the following possible advantages. q Crusts or sediment are less likely to form during storage and the volume of the liquid that needs to be stored is reduced by up to 20%. q Liquids are easily pumped and can be spread by a travelling irrigator. Of the nitrogen and potassium from the slurry, 70 -80% will be in the liquid fraction. q q q You can apply it to growing crops with less risk of smothering them or of solids building up. If you want to use aerobic treatment, the power needed to do this is reduced. Separated solids are either spread on the land as solid manures or composted and sold as a soil conditioner if you can find a market for it. Approximately 80% of the phosphorus from the slurry will be in the separated solids. q Separation adds an extra treatment, more equipment and costs. You will still need storage facilities for liquid. There are a variety of separator types. These can use perforated screens, perforated belts, or the principle of the centrifuge. q Slurry that needs to be separated is collected to one point in a tank. It is important to mix cattle slurries or slurries containing bedding before separating them and you may need to add some dilution water. A pump is used to move liquids from the tank to the separator. The separator is often up on a platform so solids can fall into a heap or trailer and liquids can flow down to a store.

Designing the mechanical separation system 105 Any reception pit that collects slurry before it is separated should be big enough to hold at least 2 days slurry production including rainfall. The separator should be able to handle the amount of slurry produced on site, in a short working day. There should be some way of protecting the separator and associated pipework and pumps against frost. There should be another way of handling slurry in an emergency, in case of power cuts, or when the separator needs to be serviced. 106 If possible, all pipes and pumps should be placed so that if any slurry is spilt it will go back into the reception pit. The layout, level and slope of the storage area for solids should make sure that any seepage is held safely and will drain back into the reception pit. There should be enough space to store separated liquids and solids so you do not have to apply them to the land when this might cause pollution (paragraphs 27-44). Using and maintaining separators 107 Inspect and maintain all parts of the separation system, in particular pumps, pipework and valves that carry liquids, to reduce the risk of causing water pollution. Examine all storage systems at regular intervals and keep them in good condition.

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Slurries

WAYS OF APPLYING SLURRY TO THE LAND


108 Paragraphs 27-41 in Section 3 cover the general rules of applying slurry, and give application rates for spreading slurry in different situations. The risk of run-off is greater if slurry is spread on bare soil, rather than cropped land. In all cases, the machinery that applies the slurry should suit the type of slurry being handled. It should be able to apply the slurry evenly at rates down to 25 m3/ha (2250 gallons/acre). Avoid spilling slurry while you are filling, moving or unloading the machinery. When using umbilical systems, take care to match pumping rate to field application rate. Do not use such systems to spread slurry when ground conditions are unsuitable. Use travelling irrigators for diluted or separated slurries in the way described in paragraphs 133-136 and 139. 109 If you inject the slurry into the ground, it will reduce the nuisance caused by the smell and the loss of nitrogen to the air in the form of ammonia. This will increase the amount of nitrogen available for crop uptake but this nitrogen will also be at risk to nitrate leaching. Injecting the slurry may reduce the risk of runoff from the surface as long as the rate at which the slurry is applied suits the site. The times and places when slurry can be injected successfully can often be limited by the condition of the soil and the crop. To reduce the risk of causing pollution:

follow the spreading guidelines in paragraphs 29-41; inject across slopes rather than up and down; avoid injecting into porous backfill over drainage systems; avoid injecting into subsoil below the crops active roots.

q q

110 Make sure the slurry that is applied to the land does not pond, run-off or move through the soil to a drainage system or to groundwater. Inspect watercourses frequently during and after spreading. NOTE: POSSIBLE NUISANCE CAUSED BY SMELL: Spreaders or irrigators that spread the slurry without throwing it up into the air and that produce a large droplet size, will help reduce the likelihood of causing a smell nuisance. Applying the slurry straight onto the surface or injecting it into the soil can reduce this problem even more. These techniques will also help to reduce ammonia emissions. This subject is covered in detail in the Air Code.

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Dirty Water

Introduction 111 This section is a guide to good practice to minimise water pollution caused by dirty water. It includes ways of applying dirty water to the land using different irrigation systems. Methods of storage are described in Section 4. 112 Dirty water is waste, generally less than 3% dry matter, made up of water contaminated by manure, urine, crop seepage, milk, other dairy products or cleaning materials. ALTHOUGH IT IS COVERED SEPARATELY IN THIS CODE, IT IS DEFINED AS SLURRY IN THE CONTROL OF POLLUTION (SILAGE, SLURRY AND AGRICULTURAL FUEL OIL) REGULATIONS 1991 (AS AMENDED). Tanks or stores for dirty water which have been newly constructed, substantially enlarged or substantially reconstructed after 1 September 1991 must meet the rules set out in these Regulations, which include a requirement for 4 months storage unless you have a safe year-round disposal system. Storage facilities that were in use or built before 1 September 1991 are usually exempt from these rules, but the Environment Agency can require you to make improvements if there is a significant risk of causing pollution. 113 Dirty water comes from milking parlours, farm dairies, cleaning work and run-off from open concrete areas that are dirtied by manure or silage. Liquid that drains from manure or slurry stores and silage effluent are often collected in dirty water handling systems and is covered in this section of the Code. This liquid can be a lot more polluting than yard run-off or cleaning water.

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Dirty Water

The biochemical oxygen demand (or BOD) and the amount of plant nutrients in dirty water can vary a lot. All dirty water is much more polluting than raw domestic sewage. Information is given in Table 1, paragraph 6, for different sources of dirty water. NEVER LET DIRTY WATER FLOW INTO A WATERCOURSE. 114 Dirty water causes many agricultural water pollution incidents. You must collect, store and dispose of it carefully. The main ways of disposing of it are to irrigate it back to the land or spread it by tanker. Amounts 115 The system used to store, handle and dispose of dirty water must be designed to cope with the amount and type of dirty water coming from your farm. Water used to clean milking parlours, pig accommodation and other similar areas will be polluted. Appendix VI gives an idea of the volumes of water that might be used. If possible you should check the actual amount used. 116 Water that runs off open stockyards, silos, manure and slurry stores will be polluted. Work out volumes from the area and rainfall figures. Figures for a return period of 5 years are often used when working out the design.

Rainfall figures Historical records of rainfall are used to predict the most rain that is likely to fall in a given time. To design dirty water pumping systems, you might need figures for rain lasting for short periods of time (1-3 hours) and medium periods of time (24-48 hours). How often such an event will occur on average is called the return period. Figures for a return period of 5 years are normally used for design calculations. You can get these figures from the Meteorological Office at Bracknell (Tel: 01344 420242).

If possible, collect all dirty water to a single point before storing and disposing of it. Collect water polluted with dairy chemicals or milk in the dirty water system and do not let it get to a watercourse. Minimising quantities of dirty water 117 It is extremely important to minimise the amount of dirty water to be handled. If clean water from roofs, nearby fields or clean concrete runs onto dirty concrete, it will increase the amount of dirty water which you need to store and dispose of carefully. Avoid this extra risk of pollution and cost by directing the clean water into a ditch, watercourse or soakaway, wherever possible. Careful reorganisation of open yards and silos can often reduce the area giving rise to dirty water run-off.

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Dirty Water

CHOOSING A SYSTEM TO DISPOSE OF DIRTY WATER


To land 118 If an unroofed area or the amount of dirty water is small, you can collect and store it with the slurry if the store is big enough. On many sites, however, it is better to use a separate system for dirty water. 119 Low rate irrigation systems (see paragraphs 126-131) use suitable tanks or lagoons to collect the liquids and let them settle. They use an electric pump, small bore pipe and sprinklers or a small travelling irrigator to spread the liquid onto the land. If the area where the liquid is spread is suitable, such systems can handle dirty water every day. In some cases you will need to store dirty water to avoid spreading it on the land when there is a risk of causing pollution. 120 High rate irrigation systems use large bore pipelines, high flow rates and application rates. These systems are not normally used in winter because of the risk of run-off. Storage of the dirty water for a long period would be needed in most places. 121 You can use a tanker to spread all types of dirty water back onto the land. You might need to store the waste to avoid damaging the soil and reduce the risk of run-off. Because it takes a lot of work, this system is only practical for small amounts of liquid. 122 A blind ditch or soakaway cannot be used for materials such as drainage from a slurry store or manure store. They are only likely to be successful with small amounts of liquid on soils that water can pass through easily. They are not suitable on most sites. Ask the

Environment Agency if you have any doubts about a system you have or if you are thinking of using a new blind ditch or soakaway. Treatment systems 123 In some cases you might be able to treat the dirty water before you discharge it, spread it to land, or put it into a public sewer. Treatment systems aim to reduce the pollution from dilute wastes by settling them and using the activity of bacteria. YOU WILL NEED TO GET WRITTEN CONSENT TO DISCHARGE FROM THE ENVIRONMENT AGENCY, BEFORE YOU CAN PUT ANY WASTE INTO A WATERCOURSE. A CHARGE WILL BE MADE FOR THIS CONSENT. Simple treatment systems are unlikely to meet the standards needed. 124 Barrier ditch systems try to treat the wastes by letting the liquid settle in a large barriered section for 90 days, followed by aerobic treatment in a free-flowing section of ditch at least 300 metres long. Reedbed treatment systems pass dirty water through the root area of reeds growing in gravel or soil. If correctly designed and constructed they can reduce BOD significantly, but are unlikely to reduce ammonia levels enough for the Environment Agency to grant a discharge consent. Mixing and bubbling air through dirty water using a mechanical aerator, combined with solids separation and recycling biomass can reduce polluting load but practical farm systems still need development. You cannot rely on these methods to reach the standards of treatment needed for the Agency to issue a consent for direct discharge to a watercourse. Such systems can provide pre-

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Dirty Water

Figure 7: Low rate irrigation system.

treatment before spreading onto land or before discharging to a public sewer. Discharging to a sewer 125 If they are able to treat the extra pollution load, a Water Service Company might allow livestock farms in suitable locations to discharge dilute waste into a public sewer. Consent for the discharge will be required and the Water Service Company will make a charge which depends on the strength and amount of waste.

LOW RATE IRRIGATION


The suitability of a site 126 Although low rate irrigation is a good way of disposing of dirty water safely, not all farms can use this system all the year round. As long as there is a suitable electricity supply, you can pump the dirty water a long way from the farm buildings to the area it is going to be spread on. It is important to judge whether fields are suitable for low rate irrigation. Do not spread on the non-spreading areas or on land while in the very high risk category described in paragraphs 29-31 and 36. You can spread on high risk areas but make sure sufficient land is available to avoid exceeding the recommended rates (paragraph 38). If there is not enough suitable field area for spreading in winter you will need storage facilities for dirty water or another way of disposing of the waste. A diagram of a typical system is shown in Figure 7.

1 Dirty water coming in 2 Tank built to British Standard 5502 and big enough for quantities on site 3 H-pipes to hold back solids 4 Emergency overflow that goes into a blind ditch or a store 5 Pump to suit the amounts and pressure needed 6 Pipes (normally buried) that goes to field areas 7 Sprinkler or travelling irrigator

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Dirty Water

Low rate irrigation systems Low rate irrigation systems normally use settlement tanks or lagoons to collect dirty water before it is pumped onto land through small bore plastic pipes. Sprinklers are used to apply the liquid at rates of up to 5 millimetres an hour (0.2 inches per hour). Travelling irrigators with low application rates can also be used. These are typically pulled along with a trailing hose connected at the centre of the run.

SAFETY NOTE: COVER OR FENCE OFF TANKS TO MEET THE HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK ETC., ACT 1974. TANKS MIGHT CONTAIN LETHAL OR EXPLOSIVE GASES SO DO NOT GO INTO THEM. DISPLAY A CLEAR WARNING NOTICE ON THE TANK. 128 Earth-banked lagoons may be used to settle liquids or to store dirty water, if the site is suitable and the embankments are built properly (paragraphs 88-97). 129 The pump and buffer capacity should be designed to cope with periods of heavy rainfall (paragraph 116). The pump should give enough pressure (head) to pump the liquid through the system to the area where it is being applied. This pressure will depend on friction in the pipe, lift, and sprinkler or irrigator operating pressure.
Buffer capacity You should always provide extra storage capacity in dirty water systems to take account of high rainfall periods or to allow some flexibility to shut the pump down for a time. This buffer capacity should be available when the level of dirty water in the store causes the pump to switch on. The minimum buffer capacity should be sufficient to contain a 25 millimetre rainfall on the area draining to the store. In some cases the buffer should be much greater. You should ask the Environment Agency for advice.

Design of the system 127 If you can dispose of the dirty water all-yearround, a below ground tank should be provided to collect the dirty water. Unless the pump has a chopping facility or a mechanical separator is used, the tank should have 2 to 4 compartments to remove solids that can settle. These compartments should be joined by overflow H-pipes. A tanker should be able to get to the tank to desludge it. The end compartment and the pump output should be big enough to make sure that there is no overflow when a lot of rain falls in a short time (paragraph 116). An emergency overflow should lead to extra storage, or, if you have permission from the Environment Agency, into a blind ditch. Tanks which have been newly constructed, substantially enlarged or substantially reconstructed since 1 September 1991 must comply with the Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended) (see paragraph 57).

The pump should be protected against frost. It should start automatically unless there is a large lagoon where water levels in the store rise slowly with rainfall. You should fit an automatic device to stop the pump when there is a very high pressure (caused by a blockage) or a very low pressure (caused by leakage) in the system. There should be a warning device that you can see or hear easily to warn you that the system has shut down or failed.

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Dirty Water

130 Pipes to fields should be made out of a material that does not corrode. If the pipe is buried, it should be deep enough to protect it from frost and machinery. The main pipe should have outlet points (hydrants) so that the liquid can be spread in at least two suitable fields. 131 The sprinklers should be able to apply the liquid at a rate of no more than 5 millimetres an hour (0.2 inches an hour), and you should be able to move them easily. A mobile irrigator should be able to apply 50 m3/ha (4500 gallons/acre), that is 5 millimetres (0.2 inches) on each run. On heavy soils, which are underdrained, it is preferable to choose an irrigator capable of applying substantially less than this to reduce the risk of causing pollution. Irrigators should have an automatic shut down to stop them applying too much liquid at the end of a run.

and that the fields used for spreading are frequently inspected. 134 How often the sprinklers need to be moved and the safe application rate of mobile irrigators depend on soil type and condition, the slope of the land, weather conditions and the type of liquid being pumped. Keeping silage effluent, run-off from manure stores and other strong effluents out of dirty water systems will reduce pollution risk. Do not spread dirty water on non-spreading areas (paragraphs 29-31), or on land while in the very high risk category (paragraph 36). Take extra care when you are irrigating bare soil or fields that are drained. 135 Move sprinklers regularly. Check the land you are irrigating for any signs of run-off and ponding on the surface or worms being killed. Move sprinklers or reset travelling irrigators to a lower application rate if there are any signs of these problems. If you use sprinklers to apply liquids with a high nutrient content, move them frequently to limit application rates. NOTE: POSSIBLE NUISANCE CAUSED BY SMELL: applying dirty water and slurry by sprinklers or irrigators can cause smells. Reduce this problem by paying attention to wind direction and where the liquids are being spread. More details are given in the Air Code. When frost lasts for a long time, systems cannot be used and you will have to make other arrangements to handle the small amount of dirty water produced in these weather conditions. 136 Check watercourses frequently during and after spreading to make sure that there is no pollution.

MANAGING IRRIGATION SYSTEMS


Introduction 132 Pollution can often happen because sprinklers or irrigators are not moved often enough, the application rate is too high or they are used on unsuitable land or during the wrong weather conditions. This section applies mainly to using irrigation systems for disposing of dirty water. The rules also apply to travelling irrigators used for diluted or separated slurries. General management 133 A person should be in charge of the system to make sure that the equipment is maintained

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Dirty Water

Maintenance 137 Inspect tanks or lagoons frequently. Desludge sections where solids settle, using a vacuum tanker. Apply this sludge to the land, taking care to avoid causing pollution. SAFETY NOTE: TANKS MIGHT CONTAIN LETHAL OR EXPLOSIVE GASES. DO NOT GO INTO THEM. 138 Check pumps, filters and control gear regularly to make sure they are working properly. Maintain them according to the suppliers instructions. When the system is being used: check the warning devices several times a day; check sprinklers regularly to make sure that they are turning properly; check travelling irrigators to make sure that they are winding-in correctly and that the automatic cut-off is working. Travelling irrigators 139 Paragraphs 133-136 and 138 also apply to travelling irrigators. Set the speed at which they travel to give an application rate that does not cause ponding or run-off on the surface and does not apply too much nutrient. Check the settings and wind-in speed following the manufacturers instructions and adjust as necessary. You should not apply more than 50 m3/ha (4500 gallons/acre) in high risk situations (paragraphs 37-38) or on any drained soils. Low application rates will require fast wind-in speeds and more frequent attendance to reset the irrigator. On sloping land, set the irrigator to run across the slopes.

The irrigator should shut off automatically at the end of each run. If the amount of liquid that can be stored is limited, you should start the irrigator on a new run as soon as possible.

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Solid Manures

Introduction 140 This section deals with solid animal manures stored on farms. Although solid manures are less likely than slurries to cause pollution, they can make a lot of liquid waste if they are heaped outside. This liquid has a high BOD and there is a high risk of it causing pollution. You should contain it if there is a risk to watercourses or groundwater. Composting can significantly reduce both the volume of manure which is spread to land and the amount of odour released. Further information is provided in the Air Code.
Solid manures These include: material from traditional covered straw yards, manure with a lot of straw in it and solids from mechanical slurry separators. Most poultry and broiler systems produce solid manure. These organic wastes will generally contain enough bedding material, or have enough dry matter to be stacked. Manure stores Stores usually have a concrete base that can take the weight of tractors and spreaders. This base has one, two or three walls. These walls are typically 2-3 metres high. Ways of building the walls include ready-made concrete panels, reinforced concrete, reinforced block work, or good quality railway sleepers supported by suitable upright RSJs. The height of the store is normally limited to 3 metres. The width of the store is typically 10-15 metres. Liquid waste is collected in a below-ground tank or directed into a dirty water system.

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Solid Manures

141 Liquid waste from manure stored on yards or other hardstandings is defined as slurry under the Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended). It must be collected and stored as described in these Regulations. 142 Only put the manure in a temporary field heap if you can put it where there is no risk of runoff polluting water. Do not put heaps over field drains, within 10 metres of a watercourse or 50 metres of a spring, well or borehole that supplies water for human consumption, or is to be used in farm dairies. Manure stores 143 Stores specially built for solid manure will take away the risk of pollution through run-off and will make it easier to handle and load the stored material.

Collection channels should be outside the walls of the store if the walls let liquid pass through them. 146 Liquid waste should go either into a belowground tank built as in paragraphs 57, 61 and 62, or into a dirty water system. Either empty the tank regularly by tanker and spread the waste onto the land or connect the tank to a suitable pumped dirty water disposal system. When you are choosing the size of the tank, take into account the rain that is likely to fall and the way you will empty it to make sure that the tank does not overflow and cause pollution. Applying the waste to the land 147 Check the waste in any tanks frequently and empty them when necessary. (SAFETY NOTE: TANKS MAY CONTAIN LETHAL OR EXPLOSIVE GASES. DO NOT GO INTO THEM). How, where and when you spread the waste should take into account that these liquids have a high BOD and nutrient content. You should apply them according to paragraphs 29-41. 148 Although the risk of causing pollution by spreading solid manures is low, surface run-off can happen if rain falls after waste has been applied. To reduce this risk you should not spread solid manures on non-spreading areas (paragraphs 29-31), or on land while in the very high risk category (paragraph 36). You should not exceed the recommended rates in high risk situations (paragraphs 37-38) or on any drained soils. Take particular care not to apply poultry manure at a rate which exceeds the nutrient loading guideline in paragraph 32.

144 When you are estimating the volume of waste you need to store, take into account the amount of bedding. Fresh manure taken from livestock housing every day can fill a space of up to 2 m3/tonne (70 cubic feet per ton). The volume can decrease by quite a lot while it is being stored. (A guide to typical amounts is given in Appendices IV and V.) 145 Permanent stores should have a base that does not let liquid pass through it. This base should slope so that liquids run-off into a collection channel across the front of the store which, along with channels at the side of the store, contain the liquid waste.

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Solid Manures

149 Make sure that spreading manure does not cause pollution. Check watercourses frequently during and after spreading. Guidance on minimising the potential smell nuisance from storing and spreading solid manures is given in the Air Code.

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Other Organic Wastes

Introduction 150 This section covers the other main organic wastes that are applied to agricultural land. The risks of polluting watercourses and groundwater are similar to the risk from livestock wastes. You must not empty any organic waste into a watercourse without consent from the Environment Agency. Waste must not be emptied into a sewer without an authorisation from the Water Service Company. The Environmental Protection Act 1990 (Part II) regulates the management of nonagricultural wastes. The Act controls the system for collecting and disposing of waste, makes it your legal duty to take care when you are handling waste and strengthens the licensing system for disposing of waste. Under the Act you may need a licence to dispose of waste. It is an offence to apply waste on land unless the site is licensed or the waste is exempt. 151 The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 allow the spreading of some wastes from non-agricultural sources onto agricultural land, without licensing, provided it meets certain requirements. The application of these wastes must be registered with the Environment Agency who will supply advice on the regulations and their interpretation. More detailed guidance is provided in the Soil Code. The spreading of the wastes listed in the panel are exempt from licensing controls under the Regulations when spread on agricultural land as long as the following conditions are met. q Maximum application rate is 250 tonnes/ha (5000 tonnes/ha for dredgings) in any 12 months.

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Other Organic Wastes

q Spreading results in benefit to agriculture or ecological improvement. Further information is provided in the Soil Code. The Environment Agency may require you to provide evidence of benefit to agriculture prior to spreading. q The application of wastes must be notified to the Environment Agency who will supply advice on the Regulations and their interpretation. The Environment Agency must be provided with certain details, such as a description of the waste and the amount to be spread. It is strongly advisable to consult the Environment Agency before accepting any waste of this type. Use of other non-agricultural wastes must be licensed by the Agency before they can be applied to agricultural land. Suitability of sites for land spreading of organic wastes and the preparation of Farm Waste Management Plans are covered in Section 3 of this Code. When applying organic wastes to land the amount you apply should not contain more than 250 kg/ha/year of total nitrogen. Maximum application rates for other organic wastes are covered in this Section. For further advice, you should contact the Environment Agency.

Waste which can be spread to agricultural land under the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 once the conditions for exemption from licensing have been met. waste soil or compost; waste wood, bark or other plant matter; waste food, drink or materials used in or resulting from the preparation of food or drink; blood and gut contents from abattoirs; waste lime; lime sludge from cement manufacture or gas processing; waste gypsum; paper waste sludge, waste paper and de-inked paper pulp; dredgings from any inland waters; textile waste; septic tank sludge; sludge from biological treatment plants; waste hair and effluent treatment sludge from a tannery.

Sewage sludges 152 Sewage sludge contains significant proportions of nitrogen, phosphorus, trace elements and organic matter. It therefore has a similar fertiliser value to animal manures and slurries. However, sewage sludge can also contain potentially harmful substances including pathogens and

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Other Organic Wastes

heavy metals. It is therefore necessary to control the use of sewage sludge in order to protect human and animal health and to maintain soil fertility and crop yields. Detailed requirements are laid down in the Sludge (Use in Agriculture) Regulations 1989 (as amended): these must be followed by anyone applying sewage sludge to any part of your land which is used for growing food crops (including for animal feed) or grassland for livestock. The Regulations are supported by a complementary Code of Practice for Agricultural Use of Sewage Sludge which provides guidance on the application of sludge to land. Further information is also provided in the Soil Code and in the MAFF leaflet Sewage Sludge (PB 2568). The use of sewage sludge on agricultural land producing non-food crops is exempt from the site licensing requirements of the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 (see paragraph 151) providing that it results in ecological improvement and does not cause the concentration in the soil of heavy metals to exceed the limits set out in the 1989 Sludge Regulations. However, operators must register with the Environment Agency. When applying sludge to land, the amount you apply should not contain more than 250 kg/ha/year of total nitrogen. Sewage sludge cakes which contain little plant available nitrogen may be applied at rates up to 500 kg/ha of total nitrogen in one application every 2 years in catchments less sensitive to nitrate leaching (see paragraph 32). When you apply both livestock manures and sewage sludge this limit is the combined nitrogen in both materials. You should take the amount of available nitrogen and phosphorus into account when you are working out sludge application rates and how much inorganic fertiliser the crop needs (see page 12 for explanation of total and available nitrogen).

153 The rules for avoiding water pollution when sewage sludge is applied to the land are the same as for slurry (paragraphs 29-41). You should not apply it on non-spreading areas (paragraphs 29-31), or on land while in the very high risk category (paragraph 36). You should not apply more than 50 m3/ha (4500 gallons/acre) of liquid sludge, or 50 tonnes/ha (20 tons/acre) of dewatered sludge at one time in high risk situations (paragraphs 37-38). 154 The storage of sewage sludge before application to agricultural land is subject to the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994. However there is exemption from the need to hold a waste management licence providing certain restrictions are met. All storage must be on land used for agriculture. Any liquid sludge must be stored in a lagoon or container which is secure. Dewatered sludge must be heaped in a secure location. It is usually only stored in a field heap for a few weeks. You should not place heaps over land drains, or within 50 metres of a spring, borehole or well that supplies water which is for human consumption or to be used in farm dairies. Septic tank sludges and cesspool wastes 155 Sludge from both septic tanks and waste from cesspools is commonly collected and spread on agricultural land. Septic tank waste is partially digested sewage. Cesspool waste is raw, undigested sewage. 156 The application of septic tank sludge to agricultural land is controlled by the Sludge (Use in Agriculture) Regulations 1989 (as amended). Septic tank sludge must be injected or cultivated into the soil. You must not allow animals to graze or harvest forage crops for at least 3 weeks after applying septic tank waste. Nor must you harvest fruit or vegetable crops

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Other Organic Wastes

which are grown in direct contact with the soil and normally eaten raw for at least 10 months after application. Septic tank sludge which is spread on nonagricultural land is covered by the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994. Such spreading operations may, however, be exempt from waste management licensing under certain conditions (see paragraphs 150 and 151). 157 Cesspool waste is covered by the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994. You must have a waste management licence from the Environment Agency before spreading it on land. 158 When applying either septic tank sludge or cesspool waste to land, the amount you apply should not contain more than 250 kg/ha/year of total nitrogen. You should take the amount of available nitrogen and phosphorus into account when working out application rates and how much inorganic fertiliser the crop needs. The rules for avoiding water pollution when these organic wastes are applied to land are the same as for slurry (paragraphs 29-41). You should not apply them on non-spreading areas (paragraphs 29-31), or on land while in the very high risk category (paragraph 36). You should not apply more than 50 m3/ha (4500 gallons/acre) at any one time in high risk situations (paragraphs 37-38). Milk and dairy waste 159 At certain times of the year, you might want to dispose of milk that you cannot sell. This could happen because quota has been exceeded, because the milk cannot be collected due to bad weather or because the milk is contaminated. Milk has an extremely high BOD and it will cause serious pollution if it reaches water. If

possible, feed surplus milk to livestock. Alternatively it can be added to stored slurry or applied directly to land. If you add it to a slurry store, you should treat it as slurry when you apply it to land. SAFETY NOTE: MIXING MILK AND SLURRY CAN GIVE OFF LETHAL OR EXPLOSIVE GASES. A veterinary surgeon should be consulted on animal health aspects before you spread milk onto grazing land or feed it to animals. Do not spread milk on non-spreading areas (paragraphs 29-31), or on land while in the very high risk category (paragraph 36). On other sites, dilute the milk with the same amount of water before you apply it. You should not apply more than 50 m3/ha (4500 gallons/acre) of diluted milk. Similar rules apply to disposing of surplus whey or other waste liquid dairy products produced on the farm. 160 Waste produced on premises used for agriculture is not currently subject to control under the waste management licensing system, but certain agricultural wastes will be brought within the licensing system in future legislation (see paragraph 24). This will lead to some changes in the guidance within this part of the Code. Effluent from by-products used to feed animals 161 Feeds such as wet brewers grains and sugarbeet pulp will produce effluent when you store or ensile them. Store this effluent safely, and apply it to land as described in paragraph 192. Wastes from processing of fresh produce 162 WATER THAT HAS BEEN USED TO WASH VEGETABLES MUST NOT BE EMPTIED

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Other Organic Wastes

INTO A WATERCOURSE UNLESS YOU HAVE A CONSENT TO DISCHARGE FROM THE ENVIRONMENT AGENCY. This water will usually have a relatively low BOD and a medium amount of solids in it. Water you have used for peeling vegetables will have higher levels of both. Water that has been used for peeling and washing vegetables will need to be biologically treated to meet the standards set before you can discharge it to a watercourse. International trade together with the processing and preparation for marketing of ornamental, vegetable and fruit produce have greatly increased in recent years. The handling or processing of this material creates a risk that serious pests and diseases will be introduced or spread within our agricultural or horticultural production systems if the associated surplus soil, liquid waste and/or plant debris, which can carry harmful organisms, is not disposed of safely. For further guidance, please refer to Plant Health: Code of Practice for the Safe Disposal of Agricultural and Horticultural Waste, which is available from your local Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate office (located at MAFF offices as listed in Appendix II). If you apply untreated washings from vegetables to the land, follow the same rules as for disposing of dirty water (see Section 5). Wastes from animal processing 163 Under legislation controlling the disposal of animal by-products and the sterilisation and staining of unfit meat, it is illegal to spread any untreated abattoir waste onto agricultural land, except for blood and contents of intestines that you use as a fertiliser. You must not spread on agricultural land any processed animal waste, in solid form, from rendering plants. Consult the Environment Agency if you intend to spread liquid waste, such as condensate from a rendering plant, onto agricultural land.

Under the requirements of the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994, the person actually carrying out the spreading of these materials onto agricultural land must first register with the local Environment Agency. The Agency will require advance details including an estimate of the quantity of material to be spread. It is a provision of the Regulations that the spreading must be of benefit to agriculture or for ecological improvement. 164 Under the Diseases of Animal (Waste Food) Order 1973 (as amended), you must not let livestock get to unprocessed waste food, including blood. To meet these standards you must not let livestock or poultry get into fields where this waste has been spread until none of it is left on plants or the ground surface. 165 You should not spread the contents of animals intestines on non-spreading areas (paragraphs 29-31), or on land while in the very high risk category (paragraph 36). In high risk situations (paragraphs 37-38) you should not apply more than 50 m3/ha (4500 gallons/acre). 166 You should not spread blood on areas mentioned in paragraphs 29-31 and 36. In all other situations, you should dilute blood with at least the same amount of water before you spread it. You should not apply more than 25 m3/ha (2250 gallons/acre) of undiluted blood. 167 You should choose sites where you can apply these materials to avoid causing public nuisance. Make sure that applying them does not cause ponding or run-off. Inspect watercourses during and after application. NOTE: NUISANCE CAUSED BY SMELL: take this into account when you are choosing the site for spreading the effluent.

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Silage Effluent

Introduction 168 This section is a guide to good practice to minimise water pollution caused by silage effluent. Effluent from crops stored in an enclosed pit or silo is one of the most concentrated and harmful pollutants on the farm (paragraph 6). Even small amounts in a watercourse can cause a lot of damage to the environment, such as fish being killed, for a long way downstream. A lot of serious pollution incidents happen each year because farmers do not contain or dispose of silage effluent properly. 169 The main causes of pollution are silos or waste collection facilities that are not designed or maintained properly. Silage effluent is very corrosive and can damage concrete and steel. It can easily escape through silo floors, collection channels or tanks that are damaged, cracked or which let liquid through them. Silage effluent cannot be treated to be discharged into a watercourse. You should store it safely and spread it onto the land or use it for animal feed. Regulations 170 The Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended) require you to make and store silage: q either in an existing silo, built before 1 September 1991; q or in a new silo or one that has been substantially enlarged or substantially reconstructed after 1 September 1991; q or in wrapped and sealed or bagged bales;

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Silage Effluent

q or in a tower silo that meets the appropriate British Standard; q or as field silage (field heaps or non-baled bagged silage) provided such sites are notified to the Environment Agency at least 14 days before first coming into use. You may continue to use sites for which notifications were accepted by the National Rivers Authority before 1 September 1991. New, substantially extended, or substantially reconstructed silos, have to comply with the Regulations (see paragraph 19). The requirements include the following: q Liquid should not be able to pass through the silo base, i.e. it should be impermeable. The base should have channels around it to collect effluent. The base and any drains should be able to resist corrosion by silage effluent. If the silo has walls, the base should go beyond the walls and have channels to collect effluent. The collection channels should lead to a tank which is able to resist acid. It should be able to hold at least 20 litres of effluent for each cubic metre of silo space, if the silo holds less than 1500 cubic metres. Silos with a capacity of 1500 cubic metres or more should have an effluent tank of not less than 30 cubic metres plus 6.7 litres for each cubic metre of silo capacity in excess of 1500 cubic metres.

q If the base of the tank is below ground, the tank should be able to resist acid attack for 20 years without maintenance. Silos that were in use or built before 1 September 1991 are usually exempt from these rules, but the Environment Agency can require you to make improvements if it considers that there is a significant risk of causing pollution. 171 If you intend to remove silage from where it was originally made and put it into another store, either that store must comply with the requirements of the Regulations (see paragraph 170) or you must get the prior approval of the Environment Agency to use any other structure. Minimising the amount of effluent 172 The amount of effluent depends on how wet the material is in the silo. The amount produced from grass in clamps or bales can be minimised by wilting to 25% dry matter or more before ensiling. Some silages such as whole crop cereals and maize produce little effluent provided they are harvested at the correct stage of maturity. Maximum effluent flow occurs within two days of putting the material in the silo. The flow of effluent is affected by the type of silage, the depth of silage, the drainage inside the silo and the additives you use. 173 Rainwater that falls onto the silo will add to the amount of effluent. Putting a roof on silos will reduce this problem.

q No part of the silo, tank or channels should be within 10 metres of a watercourse or field drain, which silage effluent could get into if it escaped. q Any silo walls should be able to resist corrosion and be built to stand up to the loading given in British Standard 5502: Part 22: 1987.

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Silage Effluent

Figure 8: Typical walled silo.

Design of the silo 174 The base and walls of the silo should be professionally designed to suit the conditions of the site. The building work should be supervised to make sure the silo is structurally sound and effluent cannot escape. Design details are given in the Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) Report No. 126 Farm Waste Storage Guidelines for Construction. A typical silo is shown in Figure 8. 175 Dig out and remove any land drains that are under the site. There must be no land drains within 10 metres of the silo. Check for old drainage systems.

1 Walls built to stand up to loadings in British Standard 5502: Part 22: 1987 2 Floor made from suitable concrete mix (with contraction joints and water stops) or hot-rolled asphalt 3 Sealant 4 Drains inside the silo walls 5 Channel outside the walls 6 Corrosion-resistant tank normally built in one piece with a cover you can lock

176 Concrete floors must be designed and laid properly to make sure that liquids cannot pass through them. They should be reinforced with correctly designed and sealed movement joints. There are a number of proprietary coating systems which can be applied to concrete surfaces to reduce the risk of corrosion by silage effluent. Epoxy coatings are the most durable while other coatings will need more frequent refurbishment to maintain impermeability. Alternative materials, such as hot rolled asphalt, can be used for silo floors in appropriate circumstances. The correct specification and application of these materials is extremely important. 177 Silo floors should slope from back to front with a fall of 1 in 75 to a drain across the front of the silo. In addition the floor should slope at about 1 in 50 across the silo to drains running along the length of the walls. These drains will reduce the pressure on the walls and remove

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Silage Effluent

effluent from the silo as quickly as possible thereby reducing the risk of corrosion. 178 The floor slab of a silo with walls should extend beyond those walls and have an external channel formed. If there are no walls, the floor must have a drain or channel around the edge. The channels must collect all effluent without any leakage. Drains and channels should empty into a tank of suitable size, normally below ground. Tanks should be made from materials that are protected from corrosion. They are often made out of one piece of that material without any joints. You should consider providing a separate drainage system for dirty water run-off from uncovered silos. This can be brought into operation when the flow of silage effluent stops. This will avoid the need for further regular inspection of the silage effluent tank (paragraph 186). You must collect, store and dispose of dirty water carefully (see Section5). 179 Effluent can be pumped from a small below ground tank to a larger store above ground. You can mix effluent with slurry or dirty water in such a store, as long as the store can resist the corrosion from neat silage effluent, and it is well ventilated. NOTE: POSSIBLE NUISANCE CAUSED BY SMELL: Mixing effluent with slurry or dirty water will increase the risk of causing a nuisance because of the smell. More detail is given in the Air Code. SAFETY NOTE: DO NOT ADD SILAGE EFFLUENT TO SLURRY IN ENCLOSED BELOW GROUND TANKS OR TANKS INSIDE BUILDINGS AS IT GIVES OFF LETHAL GASES. 180 If the floors of existing silos are corroded or cracked, it might be possible to repair them

subject to detailed investigation. It is likely that silage effluent will have leaked through the existing floor. It is important that the hard core under the floor is not contaminated with effluent. Failure to remove this effluent and replace the affected hard core will drastically shorten the life of the repaired floor and may lead to subsequent pollution. If resurfacing the silo floor is a viable option, this can be done with concrete, hot rolled asphalt or other specialist coating materials. In all cases, specialist advice should be sought. 181 Silo walls should be built to stand up to the loads given in BS 5502: Part 22: 1987. Walls can be made of any suitable material that is protected against corrosion. All tower silos must meet the British Standard 5061: 1974(a). Control measures 182 Anyone who makes and handles silage should know that silage effluent is highly polluting. 183 Clean and inspect walls and floors when the silo is empty, and mend any cracks, corrosion or other faults before you make silage again. 184 If you cut the crop in dry weather and let it wilt until it has a suitable dry matter content (at least 25% for clamp silos) this will significantly reduce the amount of effluent. If the crop cannot wilt because of wet weather or you put fresh grass in a silo, you can use additives to get good quality silage. Take extra care in such situations to make sure you can cope with the amount of effluent produced. SAFETY NOTE: SOME TYPES OF SILO WALLS ARE NOT DESIGNED TO STORE MATERIAL WETTER THAN 20% DRY MATTER.

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Silage Effluent

185 You can put straw bales in a layer on the silo floor to soak up liquid. Alternatively, you could mix absorbent materials with the grass when you put it into the silo. Although these methods may reduce the total amount of effluent produced, using straw may in fact increase the speed with which it runs out and it will reduce silo capacity. 186 Check collection channels and the area around the floor slab regularly for leaks or blockages. Check the level of effluent in the tank and empty it regularly. It must never overflow. Where overflow would readily gain access to a watercourse, a visible or audible warning device is strongly advised. SAFETY NOTE: TANKS MAY CONTAIN LETHAL OR EXPLOSIVE GASES. DO NOT GO INTO THEM. LOCK TANK COVERS WHEN YOU ARE NOT USING THEM. DISPLAY A CLEAR WARNING NOTICE NEAR THE TANK. Baled silage 187 Let material you are going to bale wilt until it contains at least 25% dry matter, to minimise effluent production inside the package. Where lower dry matter material is baled, using 750 millimetre wide bale wrap rather than 500 millimetre wide bale wrap significantly reduces the total amount of effluent released during storage. 188 Under the Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended), wrapped or sealed silage bales have to be stored at least 10 metres away from any watercourse or field drain into which effluent could enter if it escaped from the bales.

When you feed the silage, you must not take the bags or wrapping off the bales within 10 metres of a watercourse or field drain into which silage effluent could enter. If there is any effluent inside the packaging, you must dispose of it safely.

Field silage 189 Making and storing silage in field heaps or in large bags (non-baled) without an impermeable base or walls is allowed provided the site is suitable. You should choose a level site and make a careful assessment of pollution risk. Discuss your proposals with the Environment Agency well in advance of silage making. In considering site suitability, the Agency will take into account slope, soil permeability, soil compaction, degree of soil cracking and fissuring, and the risk of causing pollution of underground and surface water. Other factors will include the nearness of roads and farm tracks which may increase the risk of run-off reaching surface waters or sensitive sites such as Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs). Field silage sites have to meet the Regulations. The requirements include the following:

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Silage Effluent

Notifying the Agency of the proposed site at least 14 days before that site is first used. Provided the site is acceptable to the Agency, no further notifications are required unless there is an expansion of that site or new sites need to be considered. There must be no watercourses, ditches or land drains within 10 metres of the site. There must be no water sources (spring, well or borehole) that supplies water for human consumption, or is to be used in farm dairies within 50 metres of the site.

need to spread the effluent that is left over onto the land, or store it safely to be used in the future. Any new storage facilities must meet the Regulations. Silage additives 194 Most silage additives are extremely polluting. They should be stored and handled at least 10 metres from a watercourse or field drain. Care should be taken to make sure that no additive or used container gets into a watercourse.

190 Let material you are going to ensile wilt until it contains at least 25% dry matter, to minimise effluent production. 191 Make sure bags are closed and sealed at each end. If there is any effluent inside the bag you must dispose of it safely. Applying effluent to land 192 Do not apply effluent to non-spreading areas (paragraphs 29-31) or on land while in the very high risk category (paragraph 36). Dilute silage effluent with the same amount of water before you apply it to the land. Do not apply more than 50 m3/ha (4500 gallons/acre) of this diluted effluent. NOTE: NUISANCE CAUSED BY SMELL. Take this into account when you are choosing the site for spreading the effluent. Feeding effluent to livestock 193 Silage effluent contains a fairly low amount of dry matter but has some feed value. It is unlikely that dairy cows will drink all the effluent made each day. Therefore, you will

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Fertilisers

Introduction

195 This section deals with the inorganic and manmade fertilisers which you store and use on the farm. You must consider the risk of polluting water by fertiliser leaking from a store, field run-off or by being applied directly to surface water. Avoiding unnecessary nitrate leaching is important when you are planning fertiliser use (see Section 14). Avoiding build up of soil phosphorus levels above those necessary for crop production will reduce phosphorus loss from agricultural land (see paragraphs 304-307). 196 The risk of solid fertiliser causing pollution while it is being stored is relatively low but pollution incidents, when they happen, can be serious. You should not store fertiliser bags within 10 metres of a watercourse or field drain. Handle them carefully to avoid damage. Gather up any spilt material. Further guidance is provided in the Code of Practice for the Prevention of Environmental Pollution from the Manufacture, Storage and Handling of Solid Fertilisers produced by the Fertiliser Manufacturers Association. You need to be especially careful to avoid spilling stored fluid fertiliser and causing water pollution. Further guidance is available in the Code of Practice for the Prevention of Water Pollution from the Storage and Handling of Fluid Fertilisers produced by the Fertiliser Manufacturers Association.

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Fertilisers

Storing and Handling Fluid Fertilisers 197 Place storage facilities as far away as possible from any watercourse, ditch or drainage system. Ask the Environment Agency if you do not know whether a site is suitable. 198 The storage tank should be designed to suit the type and amount of liquid that is going to be stored. It should be made from a material that is resistant to corrosion from liquid fertiliser. The base should be designed to support the weight of the full store. There should be a hard area so that large delivery vehicles can get to the store. 199 Mild steel tanks should be welded from plates of adequate thickness that are protected against corrosion on the outside by a suitable coating. If you are storing nitrogen fertilisers, you can prevent corrosion inside the tank either by first using a phosphate containing compound fertiliser which will form a protective layer on the inside of the tank or by adding a small amount of phosphate to the nitrogen fertiliser. Glass-fibre reinforced plastic (GRP) tanks should be fixed to the base and put where the chance of damage from a vehicle hitting the tank is as low as possible. Protective barriers might need to be put at the filling and emptying points of the tank. 200 You can use a flexible liner, which is supported and protected by a suitable structure, to store liquid fertiliser. Do not use unprotected or unsupported flexible containers for either temporary or permanent stores. 201 Pipes, valves and connections for filling and emptying stores should be made out of materials that do not corrode and should be placed to avoid damage. Lock any valves where

the fertiliser could empty under gravity when they are not being used. 202 Keep the storage tank and any connected pipes and valves in good condition. Inspect them each year for any signs of leaking or corrosion. Paint the outside of steel tanks regularly. Treat any damage to the surface of GRP tanks with a coat of resin. 203 Good handling procedures will minimise the risk of spilling fertiliser either when you are filling stores from road tankers or filling the field applicator or bowser. All hatches, lids and valves should be securely closed before tankers or bowsers are moved, and valves should be locked when unattended. Do not overfill tanks. Leave space for the contents to expand. Anyone using fertilisers should know about these procedures, the possibility of causing pollution from spillage, and the emergency action you have to take.

Fluid fertilisers The term fluid fertilisers as used in this Code includes clear, aqueous, non-pressurised solutions and suspensions. The term liquid fertilisers is sometimes used for solutions.

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Fuel Oil

Introduction

204 This section covers agricultural fuel oil stored on farms. Oil spills on farms cause a number of pollution incidents each year. Vandalism and accidental damage by moving vehicles are common causes of oil spills and should be guarded against (see paragraph 18). Regulations 205 The Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended), cover storing of more than 1500 litres (330 gallons) of agricultural fuel oil on farms (see paragraph 19). The Regulations do not cover domestic fuel oil that is stored separately. The Regulations require among other things that above ground fuel tanks or areas for storing fuel drums which have been newly constructed, substantially enlarged or substantially reconstructed after 1 September 1991 must: q be surrounded by walls and a base that liquid cannot pass through, i.e. is impermeable, to form a bund, which is large enough to hold a specific amount of fuel; q have no part of the bund or storage area within 10 metres of a watercourse or field drain which fuel oil could get into if it escaped;

q have the bund and the base of the storage area built to last for 20 years with reasonable maintenance; q be arranged so that all parts of the tank, and any taps or valves permanently fixed to the tank, empty vertically downwards inside the

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10

bund and are locked shut when they are not being used; q if a flexible pipe is used for filling vehicles this pipe must be fitted with a tap or valve which closes automatically, at its far end. There are different sizes for bunds where fuel is stored in drums, barrels, a single tank or several tanks. For example, with a single tank the bund should be big enough to hold the tanks contents plus an additional 10%. See the Regulations for full details. Fuel stores built before 1 September 1991 can be used without being altered, but the Environment Agency can require you to make improvements if there is a significant risk of causing pollution. The Regulations do not apply to underground tanks and temporary mobile fuel tanks. Design of storage facilities 206 Tanks are normally above ground and built from welded mild steel plate. The supporting structure is often built from masonry pillars or walls and/or steelwork. A typical tank that meets the new regulations is shown in Figure 9. Some prefabricated tanks are available where the outer tank provides an integral bund to meet the Regulations. You should check the suitability of such tanks with the Environment Agency. 207 A suitable standard for new tanks for fuel oil is British Standard 799: Part 5: 1987. This standard gives details of plate thickness, supports, filling pipes, vents and other tank fittings you need.

Figure 9: Farm fuel tank.

1 Tank built to British Standard 799 or similar standard 2 Filling pipe for oil, which is delivered by tanker 3 Sight glass, contents gauge or dipstick 4 Valves inside the bund kept locked when not in use 5 Bund walls and base that do not let liquid pass through 6 Bund that can hold tanks contents plus 10% of tank if it is a single tank 7 Sump

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Fuel Oil

208 Place the tank away from any foul or surfacewater drains, and where the delivery driver can see the filling gauge. The tank should be protected from being hit by vehicles. 209 Below-ground tanks should not be used if leaks could pollute groundwater or where water in the soil could corrode the tank. If the store has to be underground, you should ask the Environment Agency first, and the tank should be inside a masonry or concrete chamber. Under the Regulations all other newly installed tanks must have a bund of the size laid down. There should not be an outlet or drain from the bund. The floor of the bund should slope towards a small sump. There should be some way (for example, a hand pump) to remove water or fuel oil from the sump before you dispose of it safely. 210 You should be able to lock any drain cock closed. There should be room for a container (for example a bucket) underneath it. The tank should have an anti-siphon device fitted to the filling pipe if its inlet is lower than the highest fuel level in the tank. Fuel lines to equipment such as grain driers should have hand valves fitted next to the tank. Outlet valves should be marked to show when they are open and closed. There should be a way to measure the fuel level in the tank. If there is a sight tube, it should be protected from damage, positioned within the bund, and not be made of glass. SAFETY NOTE: YOU SHOULD PUT THE TANK ON A SUITABLE SITE AND TAKE OTHER PRECAUTIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE. ASK YOUR LOCAL FIRE SERVICE.

211 Mobile fuel tanks should be built to a similar standard as that described in BS 799: 1987. They should be designed so that they are protected from accidental damage. The tank should have a contents gauge. It should be stable enough to travel on roads and have suitable brakes. Keep all connections and valves where fuel could empty by gravity locked, when you are not using them. Using and maintaining the store 212 You should provide sand or another suitable absorbent material next to the storage area to soak up any spillages. 213 Where possible, a member of farm staff should be present when fuel is delivered. 214 Keep all valves inside the bund closed and locked when you are not using them. This includes valves on fuel lines to boilers or grain driers. Store flexible hoses for refuelling vehicles with the hose outlet in the bund. Avoid overfilling vehicle tanks. 215 Check for leaks frequently and repair them as soon as they appear. Take water or oil out of the bund and dispose of it safely. Water will often contain some oil. Large amounts of oil can be removed from water using a blanket that is specially made to absorb oil. Water that is only slightly polluted can be spread on uncropped land. Do not spread on the nonspreading areas or on land while in the very high risk category (paragraphs 29-31 and 36). 216 Inspect tanks regularly and repaint them on the outside to prevent corrosion. Inspect bunds and keep them in good condition. 217 Use mobile tanks with care, especially when you are refuelling machines such as irrigation pumps next to watercourses. Check that the

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fuel systems and tanks of all tractors and diesel engined equipment used in a fixed position are not leaking. Waste oils 218 Never dispose of waste oil into soakaways, watercourses, drains or sewers as it can cause serious water pollution. Guidance on acceptable disposal methods for waste oils is given in the Air Code.

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Sheep Dip

Introduction

219 Every year pollution is caused by handling and disposing of sheep dips carelessly. All sheep dips are very toxic and extremely small amounts can cause the death of fish and other water life. They can also pollute groundwater and water supplies. This section covers using both permanent and mobile dipping facilities. New controls will be introduced under the EC Groundwater Directive which will affect sheep dipping operations. You should contact the Environment Agency for further information. 220 Install dipping facilities as far away as practical from any watercourse spring, well or borehole. They should not be less than 10 metres from watercourses and drains and not less than 50 metres from springs, wells or boreholes. The same rules apply to the position of mobile facilities while they are being used. If there is any doubt about whether a position is suitable ask the Environment Agency. 221 Everyone who is involved in the dipping operation must be properly trained and competent. Practical measures for planning and carrying out safe dipping of sheep, including the steps necessary under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994, are described in leaflet AS29, Sheep Dipping, published by the Health and Safety Executive.

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11

Designing facilities 222 Ready-made dipping baths made from one piece of material are preferable. They should not have a drain hole. 223 You might need to repair or replace dip baths you already have. If the bath has a drain hole, you should seal it. If you are replacing the bath you should consider if there is a better place to put it on the farm (paragraph 220). 224 There should be draining-off pens of sufficient size for sheep to stand in after dipping. The floor of the pen should be impervious (for example concrete) and be on a slope of at least 1 in 60 so that surplus dip drains back to the dip bath. A Code of Practice for the Design and Construction of Sheep Buildings and Pens, BS 5502: Part 41: 1990, provides general design information. Dipping 225 You should only use licensed dip concentrates. Only buy enough dip concentrate to meet your immediate needs. You should store dip concentrates so that if any is accidentally spilt it is safely contained. You should follow the instructions on the label for using and disposing of the dip. If you use mains water, make sure there is no risk of dip being sucked back into the water supply system. You should neither overfill the dip bath nor let it overflow when you are dipping the sheep. Fit splash boards if they are needed. 226 You should keep sheep in draining-off pens for 5 to 10 minutes after dipping them to allow

complete drainage of surplus dip. The drainback system for dip must work properly. You should check regularly any traps that the dip settles in and clear them if necessary. Never let freshly dipped sheep walk into a watercourse or wetland area. Restrict access until the fleece is dry. Disposing of used dip 227 Dispose of used dip wash as soon as possible after dipping. Never empty it into a watercourse. When cleaning mobile dips, remember that the washings contain dip chemicals and must be contained and disposed of safely. Soakaways are no longer an acceptable means of disposal as they represent an unacceptable risk to groundwater and surface water. Do not build new soakaways for the disposal of used sheep dip. 228 Spread used dip onto land at low application rates if you have a suitable area. You should co-operate with mobile dipping contractors and clearly establish responsibility in advance for the safe disposal of used dip. Do not spread dip on non-spreading areas (paragraphs 29-31), or on land while in the very high risk category (paragraph 36). In addition to this guidance do not spread dip (paragraph 41) when: q q q the soil is frozen hard; or the soil is snow-covered; or the soil is cracked down to the drains or backfill; or

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Sheep Dip

the field has been pipe or mole-drained or subsoiled over the drains within the past 12 months. Ask the Environment Agency if there is any doubt whether an area is suitable for used dip to be spread on. You should not apply more than 5.0 m3 of used dip on each hectare (450 gallons/acre). If you are using a vacuum tanker, you will have to dilute used dip before you can spread it. You might need to dilute one part dip to three parts or more of water or slurry, as most tankers cannot apply less than 20 m3/ha (1800 gallons/acre). Do not store used dip with slurry. CAUTION Some sheep dip chemicals are poisonous to birds including domestic geese and hens. You should not let birds and other livestock drink the dip. Do not let livestock graze on land for at least one month after used dip has been spread.

crushed or had holes put in them will be accepted at registered disposal sites where they will be regarded as non-hazardous industrial waste. Most local Waste Collection Authorities will collect them if they are asked but there may be a charge. For details of other ways of disposing of containers see paragraphs 261-267. 231 Surplus concentrate should be stored safely for future use or disposed of by a registered waste disposal operator. In some circumstances suppliers may be prepared to take back unopened containers.

229 If you cannot find a suitable area of land on the farm, you should store used dip in a suitable holding tank till it is collected for disposal by a registered waste disposal operator. You can get details of registered waste disposal operators from the Environment Agency. Containers and unwanted concentrate 230 You should never reuse empty containers for any purpose. Containers should be cleaned when the dip is being prepared so that you use the rinsing liquid to dilute the dip. After cleaning, you should crush or put holes in the containers so they cannot be used again. Containers that are clean and have been

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Pesticides

12

Introduction 232 This section deals mainly with the storage, handling and disposal of pesticides on farms. Water pollution incidents happen every year because farmers do not store, prepare, apply or dispose of pesticides properly. Many pesticides harm water life. There is also concern over levels of pesticide residues found in drinking water sources. 233 The use of pesticides is controlled by Part III of the Food and Environment Protection Act (FEPA) 1985 and, in particular, the Control of Pesticides Regulations (COPR) 1986 (as amended) and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 1994, made under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HSW Act). Everyone who uses pesticides should know the rules set out in these laws. Practical points are covered in the MAFF/HSE Code of Practice for the Safe Use of Pesticides on Farms and Holdings (1998), which you can get free from MAFF Publications (see paragraph 3). 234 Under FEPA, everyone who uses pesticides on a farm or holding must be trained to use them safely and efficiently. They should know what emergency action to take if there is a spillage. People who use pesticides may need to have recognised certificates of competence. Storing pesticides 235 Any new pesticides store that is built should meet the highest standards of design and construction. You might need to improve buildings that you use or want to use to store pesticides. You should not build pesticide stores where there is a risk of polluting watercourses or groundwater. Get advice from the

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Pesticides

Environment Agency, the local planning and fire authorities, the crime prevention officer, and the Health and Safety Executive before you build or substantially alter a pesticide store. 236 You can store small amounts of pesticide in a suitable chest, bin, vault or cabinet. This container should be resistant to impact and fire, and have a built-in sump big enough to contain the amount of pesticide stored in case the packages leak. 237 A store should have enough storage space, be soundly built from fire resistant materials and be equipped and organised to store the intended contents. 238 The store should be able to contain the contents safely if they leak or are spilt. The floor should not let liquids pass through it, i.e. be impermeable and either be below ground level to form a sump, or there should be a door sill and walls that do not let liquid pass through and can contain spillage. This facility should be able to hold the store contents plus at least an extra 10% (an extra 85% if you are in an environmentally sensitive area). 239 Liquids such as dilute sprayer-tank washings can be stored in a separate below-ground tank or sump of adequate capacity outside the store. This can also double as an emergency store for contaminated water if there is a fire or spillage. 240 You can get more details on how to store approved pesticides in HSE Agriculture Information Sheet No. 16 Guidance on Storing Pesticides for Farmers and Other Professional Users. British Standard BS 5502: Part 81: 1989 Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Chemical Stores also applies.

Spillage 241 Avoid spilling pesticides while you are handling and storing them. If you do spill pesticide you should take quick action to limit the effects and to warn others, including the Environment Agency, who may be affected. 242 All mixing, filling and washing operations should be carried out in an area designated and constructed for the purpose such that spillages cannot escape from the area and contaminate soil, groundwater or surface water. Spills that are left to dry on a concrete yard will be washed into the drains by the next rainfall. You must avoid back-siphoning by ensuring there are no direct connections between a sprayer and the water supply. 243 If spillage occurs you should take special care to contain it. Soak up small spills with absorbent material, e.g. sand. Disposal of such absorbents should be arranged through a licensed waste disposal operator. If a major spill occurs, contain the liquid and contact the Environment Agency on their emergency hotline: 0800 807060. On no account should you hose down as this will increase the risk of causing water pollution. 244 You should always fill the sprayer well away from ditches, watercourses and field drains. Always take care to prevent the sprayer overflowing. Applying Pesticides Near Water 245 Never apply pesticides where they could drift onto water unless they are specifically approved to be used in or near water. Make sure that there will be a margin between where

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12

the spray falls and the bank of any watercourses. For some pesticides, a minimum width for the no- spray zone is specified on the label. Turn off boom sections as appropriate. You must get agreement from the Environment Agency before you use herbicides to control aquatic weeds in or near water. More comprehensive guidance is provided in the MAFF booklet Guidelines for the Use of Herbicides on Weeds in or Near Watercourses and Lakes. 246 To make the danger of pesticides drifting into water as low as possible use the right spraying techniques. You should not spray near water under windy conditions. Allow for the effect of drift by keeping further away from water when spraying up-wind. For the pass nearest to a watercourse, with a significant flow, spray in an upstream direction. Laws on Disposal of Waste Pesticides 247 In addition to FEPA and the HSW Act, the Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990, Water Resources Act 1991, the Environment Act 1995 and their respective regulations apply to the disposal of waste pesticides and containers. People who use pesticides should know about their legal responsibilities and duty to dispose of any waste they produce properly. 248 Under the Water Resources Act 1991, it is an offence to cause or knowingly permit a discharge of poisonous, noxious or polluting matter to enter any controlled waters without the proper authority (see paragraphs 16 and 17). 249 You need a Trade Effluent Consent from the local Water Service Company (WSC) before you can empty waste into a sewer. To empty wastes containing substances prescribed under the Water Resources Act 1991 into a sewer,

you need approval from the Environment Agency, before the WSC can give you a Consent. 250 At present all wastes from premises used for agriculture are excluded from the definition of controlled waste (under Part II of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and Regulation 1(3) of the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994). This means that they are not subject to the usual statutory controls on the management of waste waste management licensing, the duty of care, registration of waste carriers etc. However, certain agricultural wastes, including those arising from the use of pesticides on farms, will be brought within the waste management licensing system in future legislation. 251 These proposed changes in the law will affect wastes arising from the use of pesticides on farms and will therefore lead to some changes in the guidance given within this part of the Code. Further information is given in the MAFF/HSE Code of Practice for the Safe Use of Pesticides on Farms and Holdings (1998).

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Pesticides

Substances prescribed under the Water Resources Act 1991 The substances currently prescribed are as follows: Mercury and its compounds Cadmium and its compounds gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane All isomers of DDT Pentachlorophenol and its compounds Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorobutadiene Aldrin Dieldrin Endrin Polychlorinated biphenyls All isomers of trichlorobenzene Atrazine Simazine Tributyltin compounds Triphenyltin compounds Trifluralin Fenitrothion Azinphos-methyl Malathion Endosulfan Dichlorvos 1,2-Dichloroethane More substances could be added to the list from time to time.

252 If any poisonous, noxious or polluting material has gone or is likely to go into any controlled waters other than by an authorised discharge, the Environment Agency may do work to prevent or put right the pollution. The person responsible for the pollution may have to pay the costs of doing this work, including the cost of restocking rivers. Minimising Waste Pesticide 253 If you buy and use pesticides you will produce some waste. First of all, therefore, and to satisfy COSHH, you need to consider whether you have to use a pesticide in the particular circumstances. 254 If you need to use a pesticide, select the most appropriate one from those approved and estimate how much you need to buy. Think about how you will dispose of the waste, any problems the pesticide could cause, the shelflife of the pesticide and how you can store it safely. 255 You should try to produce as little waste as possible. Minimise or eliminate tank washings by careful planning, use of rinsing equipment or direct-meter sprayers. You can cut down the amount of waste washings when you clean out equipment if you use an efficient flushing system, instead of filling the spray tank with water and pumping it through the equipment. Disposal of Waste Concentrates 256 From time to time you will need to dispose of pesticides, for example because you have more than you need, they are out of date regarding shelf-life, they are not approved, have had approval withdrawn or if material has been spilt or the containers are damaged.

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257 It is not economical to store pesticides that you cannot use. It is illegal to store them if the approval has been taken away. In some cases, you might be able to send unwanted, unused containers back to the supplier. Otherwise, you will probably need to use a registered waste disposal operator. Never dilute and dispose of waste concentrates in the way described for dilute wastes in paragraph 260. Disposal of Dilute Wastes and Washings 258 Fill and wash equipment in an area chosen and built for that purpose. Spillages should not be able to escape from the area. You should ensure that the area is well away from yard drains, ditches, field drains and surface-water. All spraying will produce some liquid waste. You will need to dispose of pesticides in a way that is environmentally acceptable (see paragraph 260). 259 When you have finished spraying, you should clean, wash and rinse all the equipment you have used. If suitable, the contaminated water can be used later to make a further batch of the dilute pesticide. The washing facilities should be designed so that back-siphoning of pesticides into the water supply cannot occur. 260 If the contaminated water cannot be reused you will need to dispose of it. The preferred ways are as follows: q applying the contaminated water to the treated crop if this is within the terms of the product approval, although this could reduce the efficiency of the last application of pesticide; do not exceed the maximum permitted dose; applying to untreated crop areas if this is within the terms of the product approval and there are no watercourses nearby;

storing the waste in a suitable container until a registered waste disposal operator collects it. Other ways, that need prior approval from the Environment Agency or the local Water Services Company (WSC), include the following:

spraying it onto an area of uncropped land, not stubble or fallow, of minimal wildlife value, that is an area which supports only poor vegetation and without hedges, trees or bushes on it or nearby. If such an area of land is identified, its approval for use will require that it must be capable of absorbing the volume of liquid to be discharged onto it without run-off (see Section 2 for assessment of run-off risk), the leaving of puddles, or risk to wildlife, watercourses, groundwater, septic tanks, field drains or sewerage systems. Where necessary it must be signposted and fenced to exclude people and livestock; using equipment designed to treat liquid waste that contains pesticides, as long as you can store the treated waste and use it again or dispose of it in a way approved by the Environment Agency or local WSC. In England and Wales, the Environment Agency must agree before substances prescribed under the Water Resources Act 1991 can be emptied into a public sewer; subject to a consent from the local WSC and the Environment Agency for substances prescribed under the Water Act 1989, emptying the liquid into a public sewer. Soakaways are no longer acceptable for the disposal of water contaminated with pesticides. Disposal of Containers

261 Never use empty pesticide containers again

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except, if in good condition, to hold an identical pesticide from a container that is damaged or leaks. Containers, except those mentioned in paragraph 263 below, should always be cleaned before you dispose of them. Clean them by following the instructions on the label or, if there are no instructions, rinse them at least three times until the container is visually clean. If available, specialist rinsing equipment should be used. If possible, you should clean the containers when you are preparing a working strength spray dilution so you can use the rinsing liquid to dilute the spray. 262 You should crush or make holes in the cleaned containers so that they cannot be used again. Try not to damage their labels. The crushed and holed containers should be stored in a secure compound, preferably not a pesticide store, until you can dispose of them. If you are not preparing a spray dilution you should collect the rinsings in a suitable container, label and store it in a safe place until you can dispose of it elsewhere. 263 You should not rinse or clean containers that hydrogen cyanide gassing powders or aluminium, magnesium or zinc phosphides were supplied or kept in because they give off dangerous gases if they get damp. You should fill them with dry earth, sand or other harmless material. Put holes in containers just before you dispose of them. Never put containers that are empty or have been filled with harmless material in a building. You can bury the treated containers as described in paragraph 265. 264 Triple-rinsed containers that have been crushed or had holes put in them will generally be accepted at licensed waste disposal sites, depending on their conditions for accepting such waste (see paragraphs 247-252). The Environment Agency can provide information on the availability of recycling schemes.

265 You can bury containers you have cleaned or treated as described in paragraphs 261-263 on agricultural land that you own or occupy. Choose the burial site carefully so that there is no risk of polluting surface water or groundwater. Bury the containers at least 0.8 metres below the surface and below the level of any land drains. Mark the area so that you can find it easily in the future. Keep a record of the type and amount of the materials buried there. 266 The disposal of certain containers and packaging is described in paragraphs 264-265. In some cases, you can burn lightly contaminated containers to dispose of them. Such burning is subject to national clean air laws. It could cause a statutory nuisance and the local authority could take action under Part III of the Environmental Protection Act 1990. Before you burn such material, ask the pesticide supplier about any dangers and seek advice from the Environmental Health Department of the local authority. Fumes and smoke could cause a serious health risk. Practical advice on burning of containers is given in the Air Code. 267 When you are burning waste packaging, you should make sure that: q it is done in an open space at least 15 metres from a public highway and where smoke is not likely to drift over people or livestock or move towards any public highway, housing or business property;

q the containers are open and you put them on the fire a few at a time; q care is taken to avoid breathing any smoke produced; q you put the fire out before you leave it. Bury any residues from the fire as described in

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paragraph 265. Do not burn products classed as: highly flammable; pyrotechnic devices, such as smokes; and atomisable fluids, such as aerosols. Disposal of Other Contaminated Materials 268 You will also need to dispose of packaging and other wastes, including protective clothing that you have used to deal with spillages. If you have this kind of waste, get advice from the Environment Agency on a suitable authorised way to dispose of it (see paragraphs 250-251). Disposal of these wastes on the premises is unlikely to be acceptable. 269 Dispose of used rodenticide or other pesticide baits and carcases in the way the instructions on the product label tell you. If you are allowed to bury them and the label does not give any special instructions, you should dispose of them in the way set out in paragraph 265. 270 You should hire a registered waste disposal operator to dispose of containers which cannot be cleaned thoroughly, solid waste from the clean-up of spillages, loose pesticides, heavily contaminated equipment and protective clothing, materials used to soak up liquid spillages and the like (see paragraphs 247-251).

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Disposing of Animal Carcases

Introduction 271 There are a number of ways to dispose of animals and poultry that die on the farm. For example they could be taken by a licensed knackers yard or hunt kennel, or sent to an incinerator or authorised rendering plant. On some farms burial, burning or incineration may be chosen, particularly for small carcases. Whichever route is chosen, the carcases should be disposed of without delay. 272 If carcases are buried, this section of the Code must be followed to minimise the risk of causing water pollution. Never dispose of carcases in or near watercourses, boreholes or springs. Apart from being prosecuted for causing water pollution, you could also spread disease to animals on neighbouring farms. 273 Avoiding air pollution caused by burning or incineration is dealt with in the Air Code. Notifiable diseases 274 If you think that a notifiable disease has caused ill health or death you must report it to the Divisional Veterinary Manager at the local Animal Health Office of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food or Welsh Office Agriculture Department. In these cases, carcases should be available to be examined by post-mortem. Always consider the possibility of anthrax if death is sudden or unexplained. Burying carcases on the farm 275 Under the Specified Risk Material Regulations 1997 (as amended) cattle over two months old and all sheep and goats containing specified risk material may only be buried on farm if they are whole carcases or following a veterinary post-mortem inspection.

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276 The burial site must: q be at least 250 metres away from any well, borehole or spring that supplies water for human consumption or to be used in farm dairies; be at least 30 metres from any other spring or watercourse, and at least 10 metres from any field drain; have at least one metre of subsoil below the bottom of the burial pit, allowing a hole deep enough for at least one metre of soil to cover the carcase; when first dug, the bottom of the hole must be free of standing water. If you do not know whether a burial site is suitable, or you need to dispose of carcases on a regular basis, you should first talk to the Environment Agency. Do not bury carcases in a manure store. 277 Cover the carcase with topsoil straightaway, so that dogs and foxes may not get to it. Under the Animal By-Products Order 1992, burial must be to a depth beyond the reach of carnivorous animals. In addition, it is an offence under the Dogs Act 1906 to leave carcases unburied where dogs can gain access. 278 Small carcases and waste from a birth may be put in a lined pit without a base, if the site meets the rules in paragraph 276. The pit must be covered with a substantial top that has a manhole cover that is locked when it is not being used.

Lined disposal pit Lined disposal pits are usually built out of precast concrete rings and are typically 1.2 m diameter and 2.7 m deep. The top can be made from precast concrete with a metal manhole cover. The pits work best if you start filling them in spring or summer and use a bacterial starter such as well rotted farmyard manure. Add a few gallons of water each week to keep the contents moist. LIME MUST NOT BE ADDED BECAUSE IT SLOWS DOWN DECOMPOSITION.

279 Keep a field plan of the burial site and records of the dates of burial and the number and type of livestock buried.

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Nitrate and Phosphorus

Introduction 280 This section of the Code covers the nitrogen lost as nitrate from farmland and the way you can cut down this loss at little or no extra cost. In some cases, better farming methods will reduce both the cost of fertilisers and the amount of nitrate lost by leaching (that is the nitrate washed away by water draining from the soil). Nitrate is lost to surface waters by run-off or through land drains and to groundwater. The amount of nitrate lost depends on weather, soil and farming system. This section also covers phosphorus loss from agricultural land. 281 There is concern over the amount of nitrate in many of our drinking water sources, both river waters and groundwaters. There is also concern over the amount of nitrogen reaching our estuaries and seas. The EC Nitrate Directive (91/676/EEC) was agreed in December 1991. It requires Member States to introduce a Code of Good Agricultural Practice to control nitrate loss which all farmers should apply on a voluntary basis. Paragraphs 284-295 of this section meet this obligation in respect of England and Wales. In addition, in Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) designated under the Directive, farmers must comply with mandatory measures contained in an NVZ Action Programme. The measures described in paragraphs 284-295 are incorporated into the NVZ Action Programme, together with other measures prescribed by the Directive. Paragraphs 296 -303 give further guidance on steps which can be taken to reduce the risk of nitrate leaching in particular circumstances.

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Nitrate Nitrate, NO3-, is the main nitrogen-containing anion occurring in soil. It is very soluble and moves freely in water through the soil profile. FACTS The Fertiliser Advisers Certification and Training Scheme (FACTS) is an independent, voluntary certification scheme, enabling those providing fertiliser advice to farmers to demonstrate their competence.

282 In addition, since 1990 the Government has operated Nitrate Sensitive Areas to help protect key groundwater sources of drinking water. The voluntary, compensated measures encouraged in these areas include the conversion of arable land to extensive grassland and other measures going substantially beyond good agricultural practice. The Nitrate Sensitive Area Scheme was closed to new applications in July 1998. Organic manures 283 Livestock manures and organic wastes such as sewage sludge contain different amounts and forms of nitrogen. When you apply them to the soil, the soluble nitrogen is turned into nitrate in a few weeks. The rest of the nitrogen takes longer to break down and be converted to nitrate. 284 Because of the different forms of nitrogen and the different rates at which they can be used by the crop, the risk of losing nitrate by leaching can be higher than from inorganic fertilisers. To reduce potential leaching losses from manures do not apply more than 250 kg/ha of total nitrogen in organic manure in any 12 months. You should not apply more available nitrogen than the crop needs. The concentration of available nitrogen in slurries can be measured on the farm using portable equipment. Alternatively, a simple hydrometer can be used to measure the slurry dry matter content from which the approximate available nitrogen content can be estimated using standard figures. 285 Apply organic manures which have a lot of available nitrogen when this can be used by the crop. This type of manure includes cow slurry, pig slurry, poultry manures and liquid digested sewage sludges. To cut down the risk of nitrate leaching, application to arable land in the autumn or early winter, including forage maize

Total nitrogen and available nitrogen Of the total nitrogen in livestock manures and other organic waste, 5% to 60% can be taken up by plants in the first growing season after spreading. This is the available nitrogen. The amount of available nitrogen depends on the type of manure. In order to make optimum use of the available nitrogen in organic manures, the manure should be applied as close as possible to the time when maximum crop growth and nitrogen uptake occur. The nitrogen value of manures will generally be considerably reduced if applied in autumn or early winter due to losses of nitrogen by leaching (particularly on sandy or shallow soils) or denitrification (mainly on poorly drained soils). Detailed fertiliser recommendations including the available nitrogen contribution from animal manures are given in MAFF Reference Book RB 209 Fertiliser Recommendations for Agricultural and Horticultural Crops.

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fields, should be avoided whenever practicable. To comply with this advice, additional storage may be required. Guidance on the storage of slurries is given in Section 4 and on dirty water in Section 5. 286 You can apply organic manures that do not contain much nitrogen that can easily be converted to nitrate at any time as long as runoff risk is minimised. These include farmyard manure and sewage sludge cake. 287 You should not apply livestock manures and other organic wastes when the soil is: q q q q waterlogged; flooded; frozen hard; snow-covered. You should not apply these materials to steeply sloping fields or within 10 metres of surface water, including field ditches. 288 Both solid and liquid organic manures should be spread as accurately and uniformly as practically possible. All application equipment should be suitable for the type of manure being spread and should be capable of producing a reasonably uniform spreading pattern over the appropriate range of application rates. Equipment should be adjusted according to the manufacturers instructions and kept in good condition. Inorganic nitrogen fertiliser 289 To keep the amount of nitrate lost from the soil as low as possible, carefully work out the amount of inorganic nitrogen fertiliser you need. Work out how much nitrogen is in the soil and how much the crop needs. Take into

account the type of soil, previous cropping and use of animal manure and other organic wastes when you are working out how much nitrogen a crop can get from the soil itself. In situations of high soil nitrogen supply, such as land receiving regular applications of organic manures or recently ploughed from intensively managed grass, soil analysis for soil mineral nitrogen can provide a more precise guide to soil nitrogen supply and fertiliser requirement. Do not apply extra fertiliser to be on the safe side. The amount of nitrogen fertiliser applied should not exceed the crop requirement as this increases the amount of nitrate lost by leaching and is a waste of money. Recommendations are given in MAFF Reference Book 209 Fertiliser Recommendations for Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. If you receive professional advice on fertiliser use make sure that the person giving advice is certified by FACTS (Fertiliser Advisers Training Scheme). 290 The time you apply nitrogen fertiliser is also important. Apply the fertiliser when the crop can make best use of the nitrogen. Do not apply nitrogen fertilisers to fields in grass between 15 September and 1 February and to fields not in grass between 1 September and 1 February unless there is a specific crop requirement at this time e.g. for winter brassicas. Cereals that are sown in the autumn do not have a requirement for nitrogen fertiliser to be applied in these periods. Cut down the amount of fertiliser you apply to grass from mid-season onwards. Cut down the amount of nitrogen you apply to grass if the growth will not be used fully or if the growth is limited by drought. Do not apply more fertiliser to the seedbed of crops that are sown in the spring than the amount that will be used by the crop at that time. 291 Records of the amounts and dates of

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applications of fertilisers, livestock wastes and other organic wastes should be kept to help you to work out how much nitrogen fertiliser is needed. 292 Spread nitrogen fertiliser accurately, at the right rate, and without applying it to uncropped areas, hedges and ditches. Keep machinery that spreads fertiliser in good condition. Adjust all fertiliser spreaders carefully, following the makers instructions, to apply the amount you want. Get the spread pattern tested regularly. You should only use fertiliser of a quality that you can spread accurately and evenly. 293 Take special care when applying any inorganic fertiliser on fields where there is a risk of runoff to surface water. You should not apply fertiliser when the soil is: q q q q waterlogged; flooded; frozen hard; snow covered. You should not apply inorganic fertilisers to steeply sloping fields. 294 Avoid applying fertiliser to a watercourse. Full width distributors such as pneumatics will not generally cause any problems if you use them carefully. Spinning disc and oscillating spout machines are more difficult to operate so that the full application rate is spread right up to the edge of the field. Attempting to achieve this can cause some fertiliser to go into a watercourse. You can adjust some newer machines by fitting headland discs or tilting the tractor linkage to avoid this happening. Otherwise the machine should be driven further away from the watercourse, leaving an

area next to the water where the application rate is lower. Use liquid fertiliser applicators in a way that avoids the wind blowing droplets into watercourses. Crop cover 295 If the soil is bare and at field capacity, there is a risk of losing nitrate. If you grow a crop in the autumn and early winter it will reduce the amount of nitrate in the soil, and so reduce the amount that could be lost by leaching. 296 Sowing crops in the autumn so they are growing by early September will reduce the amount of nitrate lost by leaching. Sow crops as early as possible. Sowing crops after midOctober will have little effect in reducing the amount of nitrate lost through leaching in the winter. When the decision on which crop to grow is evenly balanced, preference should be given to crops sown in the early autumn as these are more effective at taking up residual nitrate than crops sown in the late autumn or spring. If possible, cover or catch crops should be sown in fields that would otherwise be bare over the autumn and winter. To be effective cover crops need to be established in early autumn. Winter green cover is particularly important on one-year set-aside fields.

Field capacity Field capacity is when the soil is fully wetted and more rain would cause water loss by drainage. Frozen hard This term is used when the soil is frozen for more than 12 hours. Days when soil is frozen overnight but thaws out during the day do not count.

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Crop residues 297 Crop residues that do not contain much nitrogen, such as cereal straw, will help reduce the amount of nitrate leached if you mix them into the soil in autumn, especially if you also sow a crop. Crop residues that contain a lot of nitrogen such as those from most non-cereal and vegetable crops, can release nitrogen quickly. It is best to avoid mixing these residues into the soil until just before you sow the next crop. Autumn cultivations 298 To delay the build up of nitrate in the soil in the autumn, put off cultivating the land for as long as possible without delaying when the next crop is sown. Cultivation after the early harvest of a crop, such as vining peas or oilseed rape, which leave a residue that contains a lot of nitrogen, can often be put off without affecting when the following winter cereal is sown. You can often leave residues of crops that are grown on sandy soil and harvested late, such as sugar beet, undisturbed until just before you sow the following springs crop. Managing grassland 299 The risk of losing nitrate from grassland that is intensively grazed is high, especially if grazed with cattle throughout the autumn. If the intensity of grazing is reduced, particularly in the autumn, the amount of nitrate lost will be cut down. Where possible, grazing cattle should not have direct access to watercourses.

Ploughing up grass 300 A lot of nitrate is released if permanent grassland is ploughed up and changed to arable. Nitrate will be lost by leaching for several years. This practice should be avoided if possible. The amount of nitrate released can be reduced by minimising soil disturbance. If permanent grassland needs reseeding, aim to do it with as little cultivation as possible and try to ensure that grass covers the field by early October. 301 If grass leys are grown in rotation with arable crops, it is best to sow the first crop as soon as possible after the grass has been ploughed up. Following winter cereal crops should be drilled as early as possible. When you are reseeding leys, aim to do it with as little cultivation as possible and try to get the crop to cover the land by early October. Irrigation 302 Good irrigation practice will generally reduce the amount of nitrate lost by leaching by making sure that the crop makes good use of the fertiliser you apply. If you apply too much water, or you apply it unevenly, the amount of nitrate lost could be high. Use a reliable scheduling system to help avoid this. The system should not need the soil to be returned to field capacity during the growing season.

PHOSPHORUS
303 Phosphorus can contribute to eutrophication of still or slow moving freshwaters. Although wastewater from sewage treatment works provides the main input in many catchments, agricultural land is a significant source of phosphorus input to surface waters.

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304 Phosphorus from agriculture can reach surface water in various forms and by various routes. Their relative importance will depend on the particular catchment. The main losses are q surface run-off, particularly of recently spread animal manures; erosion of soil particles; particulate and dissolved phosphorus in water flowing from land drains. Phosphorus can also be leached to groundwater. 305 You can minimise the risk of phosphorus from livestock manures reaching a watercourse by following Section 3. You should prepare and follow a Farm Waste Management Plan if manures are spread on your farm. To minimise fertiliser run-off, follow advice in paragraphs 291-295. You can minimise soil erosion by following Section 3 of the Soil Code or the MAFF Booklet Controlling Soil Erosion. 306 The amount of phosphorus lost by erosion, leaching or drain flow will depend on the soil phosphorus level. The higher the soil phosphorus level, the greater the loss. To minimise losses, you should not apply amounts of phosphorus fertiliser in excess of those recommended in MAFF Reference Book 209 Fertiliser Recommendations for agricultural and horticultural crops. For most crops, no fertiliser is recommended at ADAS Soil P Index 4 or above. Where organic manures are applied on fields at ADAS Soil P Index 3 or above, care should be taken to avoid total phosphorus inputs exceeding the amount removed by crops in the

rotation. This will help avoid raising soil levels above those necessary for crop production.

Eutrophication For the purpose of this Code, eutrophication is defined as the enrichment of water by nitrogen or phosphorus, causing algae and higher forms of plant life to grow too fast which disturbs the balance of organisms present in the water and the quality of the water concerned.

q q

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q q

Specialised Horticulture

Introduction 307 This section covers pollution risks associated with specialised horticultural crop production including Protected crops; Container grown hardy ornamental nursery stock; Mushrooms; Watercress. Field grown horticultural crops are covered by other sections of the Code. Pollution risks from fuel oil, pesticides and fertilisers are covered in the sections on these topics. 308 Surplus water will run off from many protected crop and container nursery stock production systems. This can contain both nutrients and pesticides. A Water Service Company might allow such run-off to be discharged into a public sewer. They will make a charge which depends on the strength and amount of waste. The following paragraphs provide guidance on minimising the quantities lost.

q q

SOIL GROWN PROTECTED CROPS


309 Where a crop (such as lettuce) which is sensitive to high soil nutrient levels follows a crop (such as tomatoes) which requires high soil nutrient levels, it has been a traditional practice to flood the soil between crops to reduce the concentration of nutrients in the soil. To minimise the amount of nutrient lost to the water environment by flooding, you should

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discontinue liquid feeding the first crop as early as practicable and avoid excessive use of water when flooding.

the substrate and growing system. For example more frequent applications of smaller volumes are needed for less retentive substrates.
Measuring run-off Place a rockwool slab in a tray with a hole in one corner, and a bucket underneath to catch the run-off (it may be necessary to dig a hole to accommodate the bucket). Measure the amount of liquid in the bucket every day and compare it with the amount of feed applied to the same slab. Covering the bucket reduces evaporation and improves the accuracy of the measurement. % run-off = volume collected x 100 volume applied Many growers monitor the electrical conductivity of the solution in the rockwool slabs and some monitor the conductivity of the run-off as well. Comparing these measurements with the electrical conductivity in the applied feed can be a useful guide to whether the right amount of feed is being given. If the conductivity in the slabs is very close to that applied, then watering can be reduced. A difference of at least 0.5 milliSiemens is acceptable, providing nutrient levels are within the optimum range.

HYDROPONIC PROTECTED CROPS


310 Most rockwool and other hydroponic production systems produce run-off which drains from the site. Some growing systems recirculate the surplus solution and avoid runoff, but this approach is not practicable in many circumstances. Non-recirculating systems 311 You should not apply more water than is required by the particular production system. To enable you to control the amount of water applied, you need to monitor the quantity of water being used. This will normally be done using appropriately positioned flow meters. 312 Depending on the crop, you should use one or more of the following techniques to avoid excessive run-off. Measure the quantity of run-off at a representative number of points in each cropping area. Your measurement should be compared with standard figures, where available, of the percentage run-off for your growing system. If your run-off is greater than 30% of the water being applied, you should try and reduce water application. q Make sure the irrigation system is well designed, carefully installed, monitored closely and regularly maintained to ensure that the variability in the amount of water delivered by each nozzle or dripper is as low as possible. The amount and frequency of applications should be adjusted according to the needs of

The amount of nutrients added to the water for protected crops should be matched to the crop requirement, stage of growth and time of year. Any surplus nutrients will be lost in run-off. Recent research has shown that the nitrate concentration in feeds for tomatoes can be partially replaced by chloride, resulting in reduced nitrate in the run-off. Work is in progress on other crops. Recirculating systems 313 Nutrient film and any other system that allows recirculation of the nutrient solution avoids

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run-off. However the system will need to be emptied at the end of the season and sometimes more frequently. Used solution can be sprayed onto crops during the growing season when they can utilise the nutrients. It must not be discharged to watercourses or to soakaways without consent from the Environment Agency. To reduce the amount of liquid to be disposed of, the solution volume should be allowed to run down as much as possible before the end of cropping.

more common in future. New container areas should be planned with this possibility in mind. Nutrient input 317 Most production systems involve controlledrelease fertilisers added to the compost and nutrients added to the irrigation water. Controlled release fertilisers have the potential to limit nutrient loss as they are confined to the container. The amount of nutrients added to both compost and water should be carefully matched to the production system to minimise the amount lost in run-off. Nutrient levels should be monitored to minimise costs and run-off loss. Pesticide use 318 Pesticide use should be the minimum required to produce marketable crops. Where practicable, compost-incorporated treatments should be used rather than drenches.

CONTAINER NURSERY STOCK


314 There are two main production systems, overhead watering and capillary sand beds. Run-off from both can be minimised by careful management. Sub-irrigated sand beds will result in reduced run-off compared to overhead watering. However, they require greater capital investment than other standing base systems and this has limited their adoption. Overhead watering 315 To minimise the amount of run-off the amount and frequency of water applied to nursery stock grown in containers should be matched to the rainfall, species, growing medium, stage of growth, container size and time of year. The irrigation system should be properly designed and should match the cropped area as far as is practicable. The irrigation nozzles should be regularly maintained to ensure even water application. Recirculation of water 316 Recirculation of run-off water has not been normal practice in the UK but it may become

ORGANIC WASTES
319 Plant debris and used compost will normally be collected and removed from the holding to minimise pest and disease problems. If plant material or compost is stored in heaps on the holding, these should be sited away from watercourses so that any effluent produced does not cause pollution.

OTHER WASTES
320 A wide range of chemicals (acids, sterilants, cleaners) are used in horticulture as well as nutrients and pesticides. Unused concentrates should be stored safely to meet Health and Safety requirements.

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Dilute, used sterilants and cleaners should be disposed of safely. Any remaining liquid should be applied to land, taking care to avoid run-off to ditches or land drains.

not be used for dirty water which contains pesticide or disinfectant residues. The management of dirty water is described in Sections 3 and 5 (see also paragraph 321). Rainfall onto building roofs and clean concrete areas should have a separate drainage system from dirty water. Clean water should be directed into a ditch, watercourse or soakaway, wherever possible. Spent mushroom compost and organic debris should be dealt with in a similar way to livestock solid manures (see Section 6).

MUSHROOMS
Compost production 321 The pre-wet phase of mushroom compost production aims to blend all materials at the correct moisture content. It is carried out on concrete yards in the open. Poor, uneven water application can lead to excess run-off. All runoff should be contained and recycled wherever possible. Dirty yard areas should be kept to a minimum to reduce the quantity of dirty water produced. The options for dealing with any surplus dirty water, together with dirty water from cleaning operations (described below) are dealt with in Section 5, and the principles of storing and applying dirty water to land are given in Section 3 of this Code. Advice on dealing with odour problems is given in the Air Code. Production buildings 322 Cleaning down trays and equipment within buildings and on concrete yard areas outside buildings can use large amounts of water from pressure hosing. You can reduce water usage by dry brushing first to remove solids and debris. Choose an appropriate nozzle size and pressure to minimise water use. Improved use of water will reduce supply costs and minimise the volumes of dirty water to be dealt with. Dirty yard areas should be kept to a minimum to reduce the quantity of dirty water produced. Dirty water contains both settleable and suspended solids which must not be discharged to a ditch or watercourse. Soakaways should

WATERCRESS
323 After harvesting watercress, the remaining plant debris is usually removed in readiness for the next crop. This action stirs up sediment which must not be discharged to a watercourse. The mix of water and suspended solids may need to be directed to a suitable tank or lagoon, either by gravity or by pumping, to allow solids to settle out. The liquid portion can be discharged to a watercourse provided it meets the requirements of an Environment Agency discharge consent. Such a consent will depend on how often watercress is harvested and the quality and flow of the receiving watercourse. It may include limits on suspended solids, pesticides, flow rate and time of discharge. Solids from the settlement process and plant debris should be spread onto suitable land or removed from the site (see Section 3). If any plant debris is stored in a heap you should ensure that any run-off is not allowed to get into a watercourse.

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Appendices

Appendix I

E N V I R O N M E N T A G E N C Y: C O N TA C T D E TA I L S

ENVIRONMENT AGENCY GENERAL ENQUIRY LINE


Tel: 0645 333 111

ENVIRONMENT AGENCY EMERGENCY HOTLINE


Tel: 0800 807060

SOUTHERN
Guildbourne House Chatsworth Road Worthing West Sussex BN11 1LD Tel: 01903 832000 Fax: 01903 821832

SOUTH WEST
NORTH EAST
Rivers House 21 Park Square South Leeds LS1 2QG Tel: 0113 244 0191 Fax: 0113 246 1889 Manley House Kestrel Way Exeter EX2 7LQ Tel: 01392 444000 Fax: 01392 444238

HEAD OFFICE
Rio House Waterside Drive Aztec West Almondsbury Bristol BS12 4UD Tel: 01454 624400 Fax: 01454 624409

THAMES
NORTH WEST
Richard Fairclough House Knutsford Road Warrington WA4 1HG Tel: 01925 653999 Fax: 01925 415961 Kings Meadow House Kings Meadow Road Reading RG1 8DQ Tel: 01189 535000 Fax: 01189 500388

ANGLIAN
Kingfisher House Goldhay Way Orton Goldhay Peterborough PE2 5ZR Tel: 01733 371811 Fax: 01733 231840

WELSH MIDLANDS
Sapphire East 550 Streetsbrook Road Solihull B91 1QT Tel: 0121 711 2324 Fax: 0121 711 5824 Rivers House/Plas-yr-Afon St Mellons Business Park St Mellons Cardiff CF3 0LT Tel: 01222 770088 Fax: 01222 798555

80

Appendix II

M I N I S T RY O F A G R I C U LT U R E , F I S H E R I E S A N D F O O D / W E L S H O F F I C E A G R I C U LT U R E D E P A R T M E N T: C O N TA C T D E TA I L S M I N I S T RY O F A G R I C U LT U R E , F I S H E R I E S A N D F O O D A N G L I A R E G I O N A L S E RV I C E C E N T R E
(covering Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Suffolk)

Block B Government Buildings Brooklands Avenue Cambridge CB2 2DR Tel: 01223 462727 Fax: 01223 455652

E A S T M I D L A N D S R E G I O N A L S E RV I C E C E N T R E
(covering Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire and Nottinghamshire)

Block 7 Chalfont Drive Nottingham NG8 3SN Tel: 0115 929 1191 Fax: 0115 929 4886

S O U T H E A S T R E G I O N A L S E RV I C E C E N T R E
(covering Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, East and West Sussex, Hampshire, Isle of Wight, Kent, Greater London, Oxfordshire and Surrey)

Block A Government Offices Coley Park Reading RG1 6DT Tel: 01189 581222 Fax: 01189 392399

81

Appendix II

S O U T H M E R C I A R E G I O N A L S E RV I C E C E N T R E
(covering Gloucestershire, Hereford and Worcester, Warwickshire and West Midlands)

Block C Government Buildings Whittington Road Worcester WR5 2LQ Tel: 01905 763355 Fax: 01905 763180

S O U T H W E S T R E G I O N A L S E RV I C E C E N T R E
(covering Devon, Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly)

Government Buildings Alphington Road Exeter Devon EX2 8NQ Tel: 01392 77951 Fax: 01392 410936

N O R T H E R N R E G I O N A L S E RV I C E C E N T R E
(covering Cumbria, Lancashire, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear)

Eden Bridge House Lowther Street Carlisle Cumbria CA3 9DX Tel: 01228 23400 Fax: 01228 28495

82

Appendix II

N O R T H E A S T R E G I O N A L S E RV I C E C E N T R E
(covering Cleveland, Durham, Humberside and Yorkshire - North, South and West)

Government Buildings Crosby Road Northallerton North Yorkshire DL6 1AD Tel: 01609 773751 Fax: 01609 780179

N O R T H M E R C I A R E G I O N A L S E RV I C E C E N T R E
(covering Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Shropshire and Staffordshire)

Berkeley Towers Merrival Road Wistaston Crewe CW2 6PT Tel: 01270 69211 Fax: 01270 669494

W E S S E X R E G I O N A L S E RV I C E C E N T R E
(covering Avon, Dorset, Somerset and Wiltshire)

Burghill Road Westbury-on-Trym Bristol BS10 6NJ Tel: 0117 959 1000 Fax: 0117 950 5392

83

Appendix II

W E L S H O F F I C E A G R I C U LT U R E D E P A R T M E N T REGIONAL OFFICE
Trawsgoed Aberystwyth Ceredigion SY23 4HT Tel: 019743 301

CAERNARFON DIVISIONAL OFFICE


Crown Buildings Penrallt Caernarfon Gwynedd LL55 1EP Tel: 01286 4144

C A R M A RT H E N D I V I S I O N A L O F F I C E
Government Buildings Picton Terrace Carmarthen SA31 1BT Tel: 01267 234545

LLANDRINDOD WELLS DIVISIONAL OFFICE


Government Buildings Spa Road East Llandrindod Wells Powys LD1 5HA Tel: 01597 3777

84

Appendix III

L A N D A R E A N E E D E D F O R S P R E A D I N G WA S T E S F R O M DIFFERENT LIVESTOCK
TYPE OF LIVESTOCK OCCUPANCY LAND AREA REQUIRED AT 250 KG/HA TOTAL NITROGEN APPLICATION RATE

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

dairy cow (550 kg) beef cow (500 kg) beef bullock (400 kg) grower/fattener (180 kg) calf (0-6 months) pig baconer (35-105 kg) pig light cutter (35-85 kg) pig grower (18-35 kg) pig weaner (7-18 kg) sow and litters (to 4 weeks) maiden gilt laying hens broilers turkeys (male) turkeys (female) ducks

6 6 6 6 6

month month month month month

housed housed housed housed housed

0.19 0.12 0.09 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.08 0.06 2.6 2.0 5.6 2.6 3.6

ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha

90% 90% 90% 90% 100%* 100% 98% 76% 80% 80% 85%

1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

* Based upon 2.3 lactations per year. The table shows typical figures to meet the recommended maximum loading of 250 kg/ha/year of total nitrogen in applied organic manures (Paragraph 32). Where occupancy differs from those used in the typical values the land area requirements should be adjusted proportionately. The amount of nitrogen excreted by livestock can vary according to weight, diet and other details of the production system.

85

Appendix IV

A M O U N T O F E X C R E TA P R O D U C E D B Y L I V E S T O C K

Type of Livestock

Body weight (kg) 450-650 500 400 180 130-225 7-18 18-35 35-85 35-105 35-105 65 35 2200 2200 2500 13,500 6500

Moisture content % 90 90 90 90 94 90 90 90 90 94 85 85 70 30 40 40 40

Typical volume (litres/day) 53.0 32.0 26.0 13.0 10.9 1.3 2.7 4.1 4.5 7.2 4.1 1.1 115.0 49.0 60.0 159.0 74.0

1 dairy cow 1 beef cow 1 beef bullock 1 beef bullock 1 1 1 1 1 1 sow + litter (average for cyle) weaner grower light cutter (dry meal) baconer (dry meal) baconer (liquid feed at 4:1)

1 mature sheep 1 lamb 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 laying hens laying hens (air dried) broilers + litter turkeys (male) + litter turkeys (female) + litter

86

Appendices V-VI

T Y P I C A L A M O U N T S O F B E D D I N G M AT E R I A L U S E D BY EACH ANIMAL IN LIVESTOCK HOUSING SYSTEMS

Livestock Dairy cows

Housing System Cubicles

Litter used Chopped straw Sawdust, wood wastes Straw Litter used Straw Wood shavings Straw chopped 38-50 mm Wood shavings Chopped straw Chopped paper

Typical amount used in 180 days (kg) 120 150 530 Typical amount used per year (kg) 102

Dairy cows Livestock Pigs Poultry

Loose housing Housing System Pens Deep litter

1.0 0.5 (per bird per crop)

Broilers

Deep litter

A M O U N T O F C L E A N I N G WAT E R U S E D Livestock Type Dairy cows Cleaning system Cleaning milking parlour equipment, washing udders, etc.: without a power hose with a power hose Cleaning out pens after each batch (10 pigs per pen) Amounts in litres Range Typical per animal/day

14-22 27-45 per batch 16-24

18 35

Pigs

18

87

Appendix VII

S O U R C E S O F I N F O R M AT I O N 1. Legislation Animal By-Products Order 1992 SI 1992 No. 3303 HMSO (ISBN 0-11-025029-x). Amended by the Animal By-Products (Amendment) Order 1996, SI 1996, No. 827, HMSO (ISBN 0-11-054558-3). Collection and Disposal of Waste Regulations 1988 SI. 1988, No 819, HMSO (ISBN 0 11 086819 6) Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986 (COPR) SI 1986, No 1510. HMSO (ISBN 0 11 067510) Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991. SI. 1991, No 324, HMSO (ISBN 0 11 013324 2) as amended by the Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil (Amendment) Regulations 1997 SI 1997, No 547 HMSO (ISBN 0-11-064049-7) Control of Pollution (Special Waste) Regulations 1996 SI 1996, No 972 HMSO (ISBN 0 11 062941 8) as amended by the Control of Pollution (Special Waste) (Amendment) Regulations 1996 SI 1996, 2019, HMSO (ISBN 0 11 063881 6) Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 SI 1994, No 3246, HMSO (ISBN 0-11-0437217) Diseases of Animals (Waste Food) Order 1973 SI 1973, No 1936, HMSO (ISBN 0-11-0319362) EC Council Directive 91/156/EEC. amending Directive 75/442/EEC on waste. No. L78/32, Official Journal of the European Communities, 26/3/91. EC Council Directive 91/676/EEC. Concerning the Protection of Waters against Pollution caused by Nitrates from Agricultural Sources. No L375/1. Official Journal of the European Communities, 31/12/91. Environment Act 1995, Chapter 25, HMSO (ISBN 0 10 542595 8) Environmental Protection Act 1990, Chapter 43, HMSO (ISBN 0 10 544390 5) Food and Environment Protection Act 1985, Chapter 48, HMSO (ISBN 0 10 544885-0) Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974, Chapter 37, HMSO (ISBN 0 10 543774 3)

88

Appendix VII

Meat (Sterilisation and Staining) Regulations 1982 SI 1982, No 1018, HMSO (ISBN 0 11 027018 5) as amended by the Meat (Sterilisation and Staining) (Amendment) Regulations 1984 SI 1984, No 604 HMSO (ISBN 0 11 046604 7) Special Waste Regulations 1996, SI 1996, No 972, (ISBN 0-11-062941-8), as amended by the Special Waste (Amendment) Regulations 1996 SI 1996, No 2019, (ISBN 0-11-063881-6) Specified Risk Material Regulations (as amended) 1997 SI 1997, No 3062 (ISBN 0-11-065470-6) Sludge (Use in Agriculture) Regulations 1989 SI. 1989, No 1263, HMSO (ISBN 0 11 097263 5) as amended by the Sludge (Use in Agriculture) Regulations 1990 SI. 1990, No 880, HMSO (ISBN 0 11 003880 0) Town and Country Planning (Assessment of Environmental Effects) Regulations 1998 SI 1988, No 1199, HMSO (ISBN 0-11-0871995) as amended by SI 1990, No 367, HMSO (ISBN 0-10-543-7743) Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order (1995) SI. 1995, No 418, HMSO (ISBN 0 11 52506-x) Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 SI 1994, No 1056, HMSO (ISBN 0 11 044056 0) Water Act 1989, Chapter 15, HMSO (ISBN 0 10 541589 8) Water Resources Act 1991, Chapter 57, HMSO (ISBN 0 10 543774 3) You can get these from Stationery Office Bookshops or Stationery Office Publications Centre (Tel: 0171 873 0011) 2. British Standards Specifications BS 5502 Buildings and Structures for Agriculture Part 50: 1989 Code of Practice for design, construction and use of reception pits and storage tanks for slurry Part 41: 1990 Code of Practice for the design and construction of sheep buildings and pens Part 22: 1987 Code of Practice for design, construction and loading Part 81: 1989 Code of Practice for design and construction of chemical stores

89

Appendix VII

BS 8007: 1987 Code of Practice for Design of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous liquids BS 5061: 1974(a) Cylindrical Forage Towers and Recommendations for Their Use BS 799: Part 5: 1987 Oil Burning Equipment Specification for Oil Storage Tanks You can get these from: BSI, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL (Tel: 0181 996 9000) 3. Health and Safety Publications Effluent Storage on Farms HSE Guidance Note GS 12 (May 81) Slurry Storage Systems HSE (Annex to AIC 1986/155) Storage of Approved Pesticides: Guidance for Farming and Other Professional Users. HSE Guidance Note CS 19 July 1988 Sheep Dipping Booklet AS29 (rev. 2), December 1997 You can get these from local HSE Offices or from HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS (Tel: 01787 881165 Fax: 01787 313995) 4. Codes of Practice Code of Practice for Agricultural Use of Sewage Sludge. 2nd edition. Department of Environment, 1996. Available from DETR Publications (Tel: 0181 4295186) Code of Practice for the Safe Use of Pesticides on Farms and Holdings MAFF/HSE 1998. MAFF (PB 3528) The Air Code revised, MAFF (PB 0618) The Soil Code revised, MAFF (PB 0617) You can get these from MAFF Publications (Tel: 0645 556000) Plant Health: Code of Practice for the Safe Disposal of Agricultural and Horticultural Waste. Available from local Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate offices (located at MAFF offices listed in Appendix II) and MAFF Publications (PB 3580) Code of Practice for the Prevention of Environmental Pollution from the Manufacture, Storage and Handling of Solid Fertilisers 1997 Code of Practice for the Prevention of Water Pollution from the Storage and Handling of Fluid Fertilisers 1995

90

Appendix VII

Both these Codes of Practice are available from: The Fertiliser Manufacturers Association, Greenhill House, Thorpe Wood, Peterborough PE3 6GH. (Tel: 01733 331303) 5. Other Publications Fertiliser Recommendations for Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. MAFF Reference Book 209 6th Edition 1994, The Stationery Office (ISBN 0 11 242935 1). You can get this from Stationery Office Bookshops Guidelines for the Use of Herbicides on Weeds in or Near Watercourses and Lakes. MAFF Booklet, MAFF/PSD PB 2289 Farm Waste Storage Guidelines on Construction Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) Report No 126, (in preparation). You can get this from: CIRIA, 6 Storeys Gate, London SW4P 3AU (Tel: 0171 779 3243) Farm Waste Management Plan: The MAFF Step by Step Guide for Farmers, available from the Rural and Marine Environment Division of MAFF (Tel: 0171 238 5665) Sewage Sludge, MAFF Leaflet PB 2568 Controlling Soil Erosion, MAFF Leaflet PB 3280. You can get both these leaflets from MAFF Publications (Tel: 0645 556000) The Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 and as amended 1997 GUIDANCE NOTES FOR FARMERS (Department of Environment, WOAD) April 1997. You can get these from DETR, Water Quality Division, Ashdown House, 123 Victoria Street, London SW1E 6DE. 6. Address for Rainfall Information The Meteorological Office Agriculture Products Sutton House London Road Bracknell Berks RG12 2SY 01344 420242

91

Index

Numbers refer to paragraph numbers, except those in tinted boxes (e.g. 17 ) which refer to the page number for definitions and descriptions in panel boxes. A Abattoir waste (see animal processing waste) Above-ground circular stores q description q design q planning storage q using and maintaining Advice Aerobic treatment Agricultural fuel oil (see fuel oil) Agricultural Fuel Oil Storage Regulations (see Control of Pollution Regulations 1991) Agricultural pollutants Anaerobic treatment Animal carcases q burying on farm q lined disposal pit description q notifiable diseases Animal processing waste Application of wastes to land q animal processing waste q brewers grains effluent q dilute pesticide q dirty water q injection q maximum rates 163167 161 258260 118122 109, 153 3841 2, 59 102103 271280 275280 69 274 163167 6374 21 6469 4253 7074 14 102103

q pesticides q milk and dairy waste q nitrate q nitrogen loading q non-spreading areas q planning q poultry manure q run-off risk q septic tanks and cesspool wastes q sewage sludges q silage effluent q slurry q solid manures q used sheep dip q vegetable washings Available nitrogen q definition B Baled silage Battery manure (see Poultry manures) Below-ground tanks q description Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) q definition Blind ditch Blood

260 159 280302 3234, 152 2931 2741 147149 3541 155158 152154 175 108110 147149 228 162

12 187188

6162 20 6 3 122 163167

BOD (see Biochemical oxygen demand) Brewers grains 161

92

British Standard 5502

50, 5657, 170, 181

q planning of storage and spreading q treatment Discharge to sewer E Earth-banked stores q description q design q dirty water q layout q planning storage q size q using and maintaining Emergency action Empty containers

2753 123124

Broiler manure (see Poultry manures) BS 5502 (see British Standard 5502) C Carcases (see Animal carcases) Cattle manure (see Solid manures) Cesspool wastes Clean water Compounds (see Earth-banked stores) Consultants (see Professional help) Control of Pollution (Silage, Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil) Regulations 1991 (as amended) 19, 15 , 50, 57, 81 112, 127, 141,170 188, 205 Cow slurry (see Slurry) Creamery waste (see Milk) Cryptosporidium D Dairy waste (see Milk) Diesel oil (see Fuel oil) Diesel Oil Storage Regulations (see Control of Pollution Regulations 1991) Diffuse pollution q nitrate Dirty water q amount q clean water separation q discharge to sewer q disposal to land q low rate irrigation 78 280302 2753, 15 , 111139 115116 117 125 118122 126139 9 155158 43, 117

125, 249, 260 88101 25 9597 128 9094 4253 89 98101

1213, 101, 105, 234 194, 230, 261267

Environment Agency (EA)1112, 17, 1921, 243 Environmental Assessment Environmental Protection Act (1990) F Farmer responsibilities 25 24, 150

1011, 232234

Farmyard manure (see Solid manures) Fertilisers q fluid fertilisers q nitrate q phosphate q spreading q storing and handling liquids Field q description Field capacity q description 12 , 73 12 195203, 292297 53 289294 303306 292294 197203

93

Fines Fish farming Frozen hard q description Fuel oil storage q store design q using and maintenance

7 2

Liquid sewage sludge, (see Sewage sludges) Low rate irrigation q description q design q maintenance q management q planning of spreading q site suitability q travelling irrigators M Maximum application rates 126139 35 127131 137138 133136 2753 126 139

12 204217 206211 212217

Fuel Oil Storage Regulations (see Control of Pollution Regulations 1991) G Groundwater q description q contamination H Horticulture q container grown nursery stock q hydroponic protected crops q mushrooms q soil-grown protected crops q watercress I Injection Irrigators (see Low rate irrigation) L Lagoons (see Earth-banked stores) Land application (see Application of wastes to land) Land drains Legislation 10 1525, 50, 57, 88, 112, 127, 150152, 154,156157, 163164, 170, 188, 205, 233, 247250 3 10 308323 314318 310313 321322 309 323 109

q animal processing waste q dirty water q livestock wastes q milk q septic tank and cesspool wastes q sewage sludge q silage effluent Manures (see Solid manures) Mechanical separation Milk N Nitrate q autumn cultivations q crop cover q crop residues q description q inorganic fertilisers

165166 139 3841 159 158 152153 192

104107 159 50, 57, 123 298 295296 297 71 289294

Liquid fertilisers (see Fertilisers)

94

q irrigation q managing grassland q organic manures q ploughing up grass Nitrogen loading Non-spreading areas P Parlour washings (see Dirty water) Pesticides q application q pesticides code q disposal law q disposal of concentrate q disposal of containers q disposal of dilute 258 q disposal of other contaminated materials q substances prescribed under the Water Act 1989 q spillage q storage Phosphorus Pig manure (see Solid manures) Pig slurry (see Slurry) Planning permission Planning storage and spreading Point source pollution Pollution incidents

302 299 283288 300301 3234, 152, 284 2931

Pollution offence Poultry manure Professional help R Rainfall Reception pits Run-off risk S Septic tank and cesspool wastes

1517 48, 140149, 285288 26, 28, 5152, 58, 95, 174 77, 116, 32 6162 3541 155158

232270 245246 233 247252 256257 261267 260 268270

Sewage sludges Sheep dip q concentrate q containers q design of facilities q dipping q disposal of used dip Silage additives Silage effluent q amount produced q baled silage q control of effluent q design of store q feeding q spreading to land

152154, 286288 219231 231 230 222224 225226 227229 194 168193 172173 187188 182186 174181 193 192

64 , 249, 260 241244 235240 303306

25, 53 2753 6 5

Silage Effluent Storage Regulations (see Control of Pollution Regulations 1991) Sludge cake (see Sewage sludges) Sludge (Use in Agriculture) Regulations (1989) Slurry 152 54110

95

q definition q mechanical separation q nitrate q planning storage and spreading q spreading q storage q treatment

15 104107 283288 2753 108110 54101 102107

q liquid fertiliser q pesticides q silage effluent q site q size q solid manure q slurry Sugarbeet pulp Surface run-off q description

197203 235240 168186 5153 4244 143146 54101 161

Slurry storage (see Storage systems and see Slurry) Slurry Storage Regulations (see Control of Pollution Regulations 1991 Soakaways Solid manures q description q effluent q sewage sludges q spreading q storage q nitrate 122, 227, 260 140149 38 141142, 147149 152154 147149 143146 285288

10

T Tin tanks (see Above-ground circular stores) Total nitrogen q definition 12

Town and Country Planning Order ( 1995 ) 25, 53 Transfer channels q description Travelling irrigators Treatment of slurry Turkey manure (see Poultry manure) U Under-floor storage q description Underground tanks q description V Vegetable washings 5960 20 6162 20 162 5960 20 38, 131, 133136, 139 102107

Spreading (see Application of wastes to land) Sprinklers Storage systems q British Standard q choice q design q dirty water q fuel oil 50 4549 5052 112 204217 38, 131, 133136

W Waste Disposal Authorities 231, 257, 260, 270 Waste Management Licensing Regulations (1994) 24, 150152, 250 Water Act (1989) 1522, 64 , 247248, 260

96

Watercourses q definition Watercress Weeping-wall slurry stores q description q design q using and maintaining Whey (see Milk) Y Yard run-off (see Dirty Water) 3 323 7687 23 7683 8487

97

MAFF Code of Good Agricultural Practice for the Protection of Water

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