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MANHOOD HUMANITY HUMAN of The Science and Art of ENGINEERING BY ALFRED KORZYBSKI NEW YORK E. P. DUTTON & COMPANY 68 1 FIFTH AVENUE .

P. Dec.Copyright 1921. . June. 1921 Second Printing. August. 1981 Third Printing. DUTTON & COMPANY All Rights Reserved First Printing. 19tl . Dec.. . 1923 Printed in the United States of America . Fourth Printing . by E.

TO THE QUICK AND THE DEAD I DEDICATE THIS WORK .

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Lippincott Company. Putnam's Sons. Harry Y. The Journal of Experimental Medi- The New quote from "An School for Social Research. for permission to quote from "Corporation Finance. Harper Brothers. Messrs. The Engineering Magazine Company. Calhoun." by Louis C." by Walter N. for permission to quote from "Mastering Power Production." by Edwin Grant Conklin. Polakov." by E. Princeton University Press. D. P. Columbia University Press." by James Harvey Robinson. Imaginary Portraits of Some Distinguished Americans. Vol. 27.ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author and the publishers acknowledge with gratitude the following permissions to make use of copyright material in this work: Messrs. for permission to quote from "Forced Movements. D. Heath & Company." by C. J. for permission to quote from "Heredity and Environment. for per- mission to quote from cine." by Harvey O'Higgins. G. Messrs. J. New York and London. for permission to quote from "Unified Mathematics. for permission to quote & from "From the Life. Appleton & Company. Benedict and John W. B. C. for permission to Outline of the History of the Western European Mind. . Karpinski. for permission to quote from "The Human Worth Keyset. The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. S. for permission to quote from "Organism as a Whole" and "Physiology of the Brain. Mead." by Jacques Loeb. of Rigorous Thinking. Messrs." by Jacques Loeb. Messrs.

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As a study of is. but in this book an has been made to approach the problem of Man from a scientific-mathematical point of view. To be mpersonal the . no matter what we may think of them or by what name we call them but because the word "spiritual" is not scientifically defined." there has been superadded the word "so-called.PREFACE book is mately embraces primarily a study of Man and ultiall the great qualities and prob- lems of Man. The author has done his utmost to use such words as convey only the meaning intended. a personal and private way. and therefore great pains have been taken not to use words insufficiently defined. mean that the author does not feel or think as ple many other peo- he does effort and very much so. . such as "spiritual. ation all the characteristics which If Man it takes into considermake Man what he certain it some readers do note the absence of does not expressions familiar to them. or words with many meanings." not because the author has any belief or disbelief in such phenomena there is no need for beliefs because some such phenomena exist. and every individual understands and uses this word in . and in the case of some words.

social. point of view. moral. If all the laws of human nature. is must first be ascertained what Man what is his real nature and what are the basic laws of his nature. or his spiritual. economic Man should be in accord with the laws of his nature.x PREFACE "so-called. physical. social it political status. argue if electricity be "natural" or of "material" or of "spiritual" questions in studying electricity. then civilization will be a human civilization a permanent and peaceful one - not before. It is obvious that to be able to speak about the great affairs of is Man. The problem has not been approached from the point of view of any private doctrine or creed." As a matter of fact we do not ask these origin." author has had to indicate this element by adding I repeat once again that this book is it is not a "materialistic" or a "spiritualistic" book a study of "Man" and therefore does and should include materialistic as well as spiritual phenomena because only the complex of these phenomena constitutes the complex of Man. we endeavor to find out the natural laws governing it and in handling live wires we do not argue or speculate about them . but from a mathematical. an engineering. economic. we succeed in finding the rest will be a com- paratively easy task and political status of the ethical. which impersonal and passionless. It is useless to "jwpmiatural.

to know what Man is. Though this book has been written with scrupu- Man lous care to avoid ing words or terms of vague meanand though it often may seem coldly critical of things metaphysical. their scientific significance and a scientific proof of them.PREFACE xi we use rubber gloves. and I . its greatest help will ultimately be in guiding the investigation. truth urge of the human heart the craving for spiritual our yearning for the higher potentialities of that which it we call "mind. though the clarifying definition of the classes of life has been chiefly used in the book for its great carrying power in the practical world. The original manuscript was very crude and foreign in form. but have been using a tongue new to me. It will be the same with and the great affairs of Man we have. so that they may be approached and studied by the best minds of the tions that are caused by the color . first of all. world without the digressions. In writing this book I have been not only introducing new ideas and new methods of analysis. it will be seen that." "soul" and "spirit" but has been written with the deep desire to find the source of these qualities. etc. and misinterpretaand the confusion of personal emotions and if the book be read with care. perhaps the greatest. it has not been written with indifference to that great. the right valuation and especially the control and use of the higher human powers.

A. not only in giving me a thorough criticism from the point of view of the Engineer. J. Professors E. Charles P. Keyser. who has found in this discovery of the natural law for the human . Vice-President of the American Society of . Petrunkevitch and Doctors J. S. formerly Mira Edgerly. Wolf. P. E. Wolf. Loeb. J. under great obligations to Walter Polakov. Vice-President of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Champlain L. sincere appreciation. Ross. H. for their I wish to express my to wish also to acknowledge the deepest gratitude my wife. H. Grove-Korski. kind permission to quote them. Warbasse. but also in devoting his energies to organizing the first "Time-binding Club" where these problems have been discussed and criticized. Mead. Polakov. G. Riley. C. A. J. Burges John. Steinmetz. E. O'Higgins. Brandeis. son. I W. Robinson. Robert B. Miss Josephine Osborn. C. J. Heating and Ventilating Engineers. Doctor of Engineering. J.xii PREFACE greatly indebted to various friends for their patient kindness in correcting the many errors of my I am poor English. L. for his exceedingly I am also helpful suggestions. J. with great practical results. R. Robinson. Keyser. Conklin. to the authors. To all those who have read and criticized the manuscript or helped otherwise Moore. H. B. E. H.

this book could not have been produced in such a comparatively short time. Industrial York with Counsellor and Industrial Engineer in New City. as I wish also to thank John Macrae. . as my representative to whom further queries should be addressed in my abany sence from America. the solution of her life xiii who. has given me incomparably inspiring help and valuable criticism. publishing the book. It is not an exaggeration to state that except for her steady and relentless work and her time. because of her interest in my long search. has kindly consented at my request to act. Esq. all To other friends who have helped in P. K. Mr. my authority. the Vice-President of E.PREFACE class of life. many personal ways I express thankfulness. Walter Polakov of New York City.. Button & Co. January 17. which saved my time. 1921 New York City. and work.. for his unusual attitude toward A.

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CAPITALISTIC no 139 155 IX. Method and II. 224 255 III. WHAT is MAN? V. PAGE INTRODUCTION. WEALTH ERA k VII. ELEMENTS OF POWER VI. CONCLUSION 204 APPENDICES I. ENGINEERING AND TIME-BINDING . MATHEMATICS AND TIME-BINDING BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING 209 II. SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST VIII. 46 66 93 IV. Processes of Approach to a New I Concept of Life CHILDHOOD OF HUMANITY CLASSES OF LIFE 27 III.CONTENTS CHAPTER I. MANHOOD OF HUMANITY 167 X.

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MANHOOD of HUMANITY .

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" Remember. By Human Engineering the science and art of directing the energies and capacities of human beings to the advancement of human weal. It need not be argued in these times that the establishment of such a science the science of human welfare is is able importance.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION METHOD AND PROCESSES OF APPROACH TO A NEW CONCEPT OF human and LIFE "For a while he trampled with impunity on laws divine but. No an undertaking of immeasurone can fail to see that its to be estabfacts it importance lished supreme. at last a victim to the relentless rules of humble Arithmetic. as he was obsessed with the delusion that two and two makes five." BRANDEIS. if it must be founded on ascertained is must accord with what characteristic of must be based upon a just conception of Man it what Man . he fell. Arithmetic is the first of the sciences and the mother of safety. O stranger. TT is the aim of this little book to point the way I to a new science and art the science and art of Human mean Engineering. such a science is It is evident that.

nothing a right understandjust. whether it be something higher than man or lower we thereby commit an error so fundamental and far reaching as to produce . else ing of what we as human beings really are. Now. it is perfectly clear that of all the things with which human beings have to deal. tions with anyone knows that to confuse fracwhole numbers would wreck the science and art of arithmetic. everyone knows that to mis- take vice for virtue would destroy the foundation of ethics. if needs only a re- ceive the nature of we humans radically misconman if we regard man as being something which he is not. to see that. that to mistake solids for surfaces or lines would wreck the science and art of geometry. scientific concept of Man and children. everyone knows for example. flection. everyone knows that to mistake a desert mirage for a lake of fresh water does but lure the fainting traveler to dire disappointment or death. women It follows that for us human beings can be quite so important as a clear. true. No one need be told have true ideas indispensable it is to correct notions of just concepts how the things with which we humans have to deal. it For little it requires no great wisdom.2 is MANHOOD OF HUMANITY in upon a right understanding of Man's place the scheme of Nature. the by far is Man himself humankind most important men.

This done. The of question we a have. to consider first is all is fundamentally: is What is Man? What To a man? What ing human being? What is or characteristic mark of humanity? the definthis question two answers and only two have been given in the course of the ages. they are primarily responsible for what is dismal in the life and history of humankind. An important part of my task will be to show that both of these answers are radically wrong and that. and they are both of them current to-day. therefore.A NEW CONCEPT or LITE 3 every manner of confusion and disaster in individual life. in community life and in the life of the race. One of the answers is biological an animal. beyond all things else. this peculiar or characdignity as teristic human human faculty or power or capacity I shall . the I question remains: clearly hope to show and convincingly that the answer is to be found is What Man? in the patent fact that human beings possess in varying degrees a certain natural faculty or power or capacity which serves at once to give them their appropriate beings and to discriminate them. a certain kind of animal. not only from the minerals and the plants but also from the world of animals. the other answer is a mixture partly biological and partly is man mythological or partly biological and partly philoman is a combination or union of animal sophical with something supernatural.

women and children constitute the life. to believe everything. both ways save us from thinking. What I mean by time-binding will be clearly and fully explained in the course of the discussion. time-binding class of j There will then remain the great task of indicating and in a measure sketching some of the important ways in which the true conception of man as man will transform our views of human society and the world. The purpose of this introductory chapter is to consider certain general matters of a preliminary nature to indicate the spirit of the undertaking tion to provide a short course of approach and preparato clear the deck. and make ready for action.4 call MANHOOD OF HUMANITY the time-binding faculty or time-binding power or time-binding capacity. and when it has been made clear. preferring to have their thinking done for them they accept readymade individual. jority take the line of least resistance. affect our human conduct and give us a growing body of scientific wisdom regarding the welfare of mankind including all posterity. There are two ways to slide easily through life: Namely. so to speak. the question ing that binding binder What Is Man ? will be answered by sayman is a being naturally endowed with timethat a human being is a timecapacity that men. private doctrines as their own and . . or to doubt everyThe mathing.

Every generation looks upon its own creeds as true and permanent and has a mingled smile of pity and contempt for the For two hundred or more prejudices of the past. Humanity must know the natural laws for humans. It is the counsel of wisdom to discover the laws of nature. as otherwise he will not his wheat. whereas the knowledge of these laws enables him to produce the most favorable conditions for his plants and animals. otherwise humans will not create the conditions and . including the laws of human nature. or the quality and abundance of milk he desires. Nature's law.A NEW CONCEPT OF LIFE 5 follow them more or less blindly. or corn. But the power of human beings to determine their own destinies is limited by natural law. and then to live in accordance with them. establishes its own own rules of education and conduct. generations of our historical past this attitude has been repeated two hundred or more times. folly. and thus influences every step we are free to take within the structure of our social system. and thereby to gain the desired results. The opposite is A farmer must know the natural laws that govern or cow. and unless we are very careful our children will have the same attitude a toward us. have satisfactory crops. There can be no doubt that humanity belongs to class of life which to a large extent determines its destinies.

a bridge.6 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY human activities the customs that regulate which will make life. as discovered by observation and experiment and formulated by mathematics and mechanics else he can not calculate . Every human a scientific dis- covery. the forces at his disposal. it possible for them to have the most favorable circumstances for the fullest which means the human development in release of the maximum natu- and expression in mental. moral. and when anything any number of tion to be attempted that involves individuals methods of coordinathe have to be considered methods which have proven to be the best suited for such undertakings are engineering methods the engineering of an idea toward to a complete realization. a temple. has to be conceived in the home or first a mind the plan thought out before is it can be made a reality. be it activities. a statue. he can not determine the capacity and requirements of his power plant. resulting in happiness in life and ral-creative energy in work all collectively and individually because the conditions of the earning of a livelihood influence and shape our mental processes and achievement. a picture. he can not compute the resistance of his materials. know the materials with which he has to Every engineer has work and the natural laws of these materials. material and spiritual and all the other great fields of human activities. is . the quality and the form of human inter-relationship.

roughly determined by the analysis of human nature. it is a scientific task and involves the coordination and cooperation of all the sciences. essentially plication of natural laws. CONCEPT OF LITE 7 he can not make the most profitable use of his Lately in late all resources. fashioned philosophical speculation nor for barren metaphysical reasoning in vacuo. which is not material but is that It has been found mental. not a task for old human nature. Except for productive human labor. with mathematics as its chief inHuman Engineering will strument and guide. maximum production may be attained when and only when the production is carried on in conformity with certain psychological laws. psychological.A NEW short. embody the theory and practice -the science and . It is. the human factor. our globe is too small to support the human population now upon it. moral. For engineering. dinated sum-total rightly understood. industries and particularly itself during itself the World War. it essentially a task for engineers. is the coor- of human knowledge gathered through the ages. This is why it is an engineering task. Humanity must produce or Production is perish. which was a gigantic industrial process. another factor manifested and proved to be of the utmost importance: namely. depends upon the discovery and the apincluding the laws of therefore.

aim matics a Here is I want to make not what many very clear that mathepeople think it is. and time are sufficient to start with. mathematical philosophy volved. mathematics is the science of "Exact thought or rigorous thinking." and one of its distinctive characteristics Press. commit the sin of preferring the worse to the better." This quality alone is sufficient to explain why people generally do not like mathematics and why even some have anything to do with problems wherein mathematical reasoning is inIn the meantime. is "precision. it is not it system of mere formulas and theorems. they are space Human . sharpness.8 art MANHOOD or HUMANITY of all engineering branches united by a common the understanding and welfare of mankind. scientists bluntly refuse to has very little. in his book The Human Worth of Rigorous Think- ing (Columbia University 1916). they deliberately violate the rectitude. completeness of definitions. Those who deliberately refuse to think "rigorously" that is mathematically in connections where such thinking is possible. sharp and rigorous thinking is essential. it is a philosophy wherein precise. Keyser. supreme law of it intellectual Here of I have to make clear that for the purpose Engineering the old concepts of matter. to do with mere calculations or with numbers as such or with formulas. but as beautifully defined by Professor Cassius J. if anything.

A NEW CONCEPT sufficient in OF LIFE 9 much sufficient in the the same way as they have been old science of mechanics. understanding of space and time as used in this book will protect and humanity from periodical old mechanics lead directly to such The collapses. society Engineering conceptions and on many old will help the study and understanding of matter. space and time in their relative meanings. Philosophy in its old form could exist only in the absence of engineering. the old lost their verbalistic philosophy reason to exist. and metaphysics have They were no more able to under- stand the "production" of the universe and life than they are now able to understand or grapple with "production" as a means to provide a happier existence for humanity. and must be taken by mathematical think- place . They failed because their venerated its method of "speculation" can not produce. space and time were good enough to prevent the collapse of a bridge the same . but with engineering in existence and daily more active and far reaching. The old meanings of matter. a knowledge of the intrinsic laws governing the uniHuman verse as to suggest the new mechanics. and perhaps will ultimately lead to an underwill throw a new light standing of their absolute meanings. Figura- tively speaking Human of bridge engineering Engineering is a higher order it aims at the spanning of a gap in practical life as well as in knowledge.

" The world of producers the predominating majority of will human beings welcome a philosophy of ordered thought and production." and modern intolerance toward new ideas. All kinds of intellect must get together. MANHOOD OF HUMANITY Mathematical reasoning is displacing metais physical reasoning. Neither engineers nor other right to prefer their men have any personal peace to the happiness of mankind. difference in dangerous a "religion" Indeed there is very little kind between the medieval fanaticism is as of the "holy inquisition. it may be proved that undue pessimism as any other blind creed.io ing. all of them. Only a few parasites and "speculators" will mourn the disappearance of their old companion "speculation. have their duties no doubt. istic Engineering driving verbal- philosophy out of existence and humanity gains decidedly thereby. own know or discouraged because they feel or think that they that the situation is hopeless. but they do not fully use their education if they do not try to broaden their sense of responsibility toward up in a all selves narrow mankind instead of closing themspecialization where they find scientific their pleasure. If they are indifferent. not in the unperturbed ranks of those who keep themselves aloof from life. for as long as we presuppose the situation . their place and their duty are in the front line of struggling humanity. The scientists.

and that every situation can be successfully handled by the use of proper means. who know why and how neglect to act. To-day the presis such that we cannot go forward with- out their coordinating guidance. But first there must be the desire to act. One aim of this book is to furnish the required stimulus by showing that Human Engineering will rescue us from the tangle of private opinions and enable us to deal with all the problems of life and human society upon a scientific basis. Their knowledge is the very force which makes the life of hu- manity pulsate. The spirit of Human Engineering does not know the word "hopeless".A NEW CONCEPT OF LIFE n to be hopeless. If the scientists and the engineers have had no common base upon which to unite. The task of engineering Most science is not only to know but to know how. who do not know will act. the situation will indeed be hopeless. a common sure of life base must be provided. The whole history of mankind If those those and especially the present plight of the world show only too sadly how dangerous and expensive it is to have the world governed by those who do not know. for engineers know that wrong methods are alone responsible for disastrous results. no system or class would care to disregard it. and the world will continue to flounder. In paying the price of this war. we have been made . their united of the scientists and engineers do not yet realize that judgment would be invincible.

This new enterprise is too difficult and too vast for the unaided labor of one man life is too short. in analysing life The method used phenomena as physics in this book is essentially an engineering method. should be done with a view to seeing how much can stops to criticize be found in it of what is new and good that may be elaborated further. He must acquire the habit of taking his share of public responsibility. This signifies that a very great deal of very simple pointing in the direction of a greater work. not engineers and scientific men only. it is Human Engineering will give not improbable mathematicians new and interesting fields for research. new thoughts The reader who words or expressions because of their more or less happy or unhappy use will miss The reading of it the whole point of the work. all operate in establishing the practice in all the affairs of Human Engi- neering In writing this book of I society and life. and and mechanics alw?^ suggest to mathe- maticians that new fields for analysis. have had to wrestle with human tremendous difficulties in expressing and in indicating new methods.12 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY to realize that even the private individual can not afford to live wrapped up in his own life and not take his part in public affairs. but the general public to co- work. The humEngineering blest role of mathematicians in Human . and put into better form. must be done in the way of educating.

is world has or that ethical char- not one which.A NEW may in CONCEPT OF LIFE 13 be likened to that of "Public accountants" whc order the affairs of business. Ethics we can human being arrive at the as a science will investigate and explain the essential nature of man and the obligations which the essential . the least it can teach us is that it is useless to try to find a dividing line between logic and mathematics. and in this book hope to show. put In relation to mathematics Bertrand Russell has said: "Logic is the youth of mathematics. by rigorously true conception of what a really is and that in thus discovering the characteristic nature of man we come to the secret and source of ethics. that by mathematical philosophy. phil- osophy can do anything whatever to satisfy. Russell says: "The hope of satisfaction to our more human desires. not vaguely unable to agree with him speculative. scientific thinking. I contend. for no such line exists. mathe- matics is the manhood of logic." By "philosophy" he means mathematical philosophy a philosophy that I scientific. Elsewhere Mr. to seek for one serves merely to betray one's ignorance of mathematical philosophy." This brilliant mot of the eminent philosopher of mathematics is no doubt just and is profoundly significant. so far as I can see. I On the contrary. the this hope of demon- strating that the acteristic. entirely that such a philosophy can make no contribution to is rigorously am ethics.

far from being artificial fictions. by science. is to accordance with the laws of it human is it nature. It will be seen that to live in live righteously. do not intend to trouble the reader with is any highly technical mathematical arguments. if Human be non-mathe- matical in spirit. is any technical sense a mathematical have merely wished to indicate that the of conceived and undertaken in the mathematical spirit it spirit. It is no cause for wonder that mathematical think- ing should lead to such a result. can be trusted. or any other natural law. although mathematicians sometimes make mistakes.14 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY man imposes upon nature of human beings. hope is I have not given the impression. man's Man is a natural mind is a natural agency. there arc a few simple mathematical considerations which . for being. for no thought. which must be the guiding Engineering. the spirit of mathematics Whilst I always right and always sound. are natural facts natural revelations of natural I law. to live ethically. and the results of rigorous thinking. re- peated allusion to mathematical that this book task to be in I treatise. and. then will be seen that the laws of human nature are no is the only possible rules for ethical conduct and no more man-made than more supernatural the law of gravita- tion. a part of nature literally. and when is clearly seen that man a natural being. for example.

in ethics. in economics. in distribution of wealth. it is . the fine arts. and so to maintain the integrity and continued prosperity of the whole complex body of our social life. and to which. in all the production and the affairs affecting the great matters are interdependent and interlocking.A NEW CONCEPT OF LIFE 15 anyone of fair education can understand. more difficult than the most ordinary arithmetic of the secondary school or the counting house. that in some of the great matters progress proceeds in accordance with one law and one rate of advancement and in others in accordance with a very different law and rate. a fact of observation. a proper balance. which are of exceedingly great importance for our purpose. osophy. but it will be seen that they throw a flood of light upon many of the most important human concerns. One of the ideas is that of an arithmetical progression. Because we interested in in human beings we are all of us what we call progress progress in law. another one is that of a geometrical Neither of them involves anything progression. therefore. it is therefore a fact of the utmost importance that progress in each of the cardinal matters must keep abreast of progress in the other cardinal matters in order to welfare of mankind. It is a fact that all these keep a just equilibrium. it is a fact. in philin government. in the natural sciences. I ask the reader's best attention. are in jurisprudence. in the practical arts.

The a simple geometrical progression first one is I denoted by (GP) . unless by some science and art of Human Engineering progress in all the great matters essential to human weal can be made man. etc. 8. a fact attested by all history and made evident by reason. 10. etc.. in the social it is conflicts. 1024. 64. a fact that the readjustment that follows. form of revolutions and war.16 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY and sad experience. 16. and destined to be again disturbed periodically withit is out end. 14. 20. 512. to proceed in accordits ance with one and the same law having in the nature of validity combination. 4. the balance and equilibrium among the parts is disturbed. as after an earthquake. 12. To this end in Taken beg the reader to consider very carefully and side by side the two following series of numbers. 8. 6. . GP : 2. AP : 2. does indeed establish a kind of new equilib- rium. 16. the strain gradually increases until a violent break ensues insurrections. 18. 256. the second one is a simple arith- metical progresson denoted by 32. 128. that owing to the widely differing laws and rates of progress in the great essential concerns of humana fact. a fact of observation ity. 4. but it is an equilibrium born of violence. the facts just stated are so extremely important that they deserve to be stated with the utmost emphasis and clarity.

it is again for the convenience of comparison that I have chosen the same number for both common ratio and common difference and for the sake of simplicity that I have taken for this number the easy number 2. Do not fail to observe in this connection the folis lowing two facts. Other choices would be logically just as good. increase.A NEW CONCEPT OF LIFE 17 For convenience of comparison I let them begin with the same number and for simplicity I have taken 2 for this initial term. large the common a difference of the latter is may The ratio other fact to be noted of its that the greater the rapidly do geometric progression. One of them that the magni- tude of the terms of any geometric progression whose ratio (no matter how small) is 2 or more will overtake and surpass the magnitude of the corresponding terms of any arithmetical progression. no matter how be. observe that in the got from the preceding term by multiplying by 2 and that in the (dP] each term (GP) each term from its is as got predecessor by adding 2 is . Why have I introduced these two series ? Because they serve to illustrate perfectly two widely different laws of progress two laws representing vastly different rates of growth. or advancement. so that the . the more successive terms increase. in the first series the multiplier 2 in the called the common ratio and second series the repeatedly added 2 is called the common difference.

no matter how fast. whereas the sum of the firstfirst six the (AP}. according to the progress in one of the matters advances law of a geometric progression and . and that the difference be- tween their corresponding terms becomes increasingly larger and larger the farther we go. To every one it will be obvious that the two progressions differ in pace. having a difference of first 1936. outruns every arithmetic progression. the rical sum of the progression is terms of the arithmetical progression is only 42. equal to 2 or so one geometric progression may be far swifter than another one of the same type. the noon-day and natural sun that. etc. for instance. now any two matters of human weal jurisprudence science It is as plain as great imporfor example.i8 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY terms of one geometric progression may increase a thousand or a million or a billion times faster than the corresponding terms of another geometric progression. now we take the sums of the they will be 2046 and no 10 terms. the difference between the two sums being 84. the if difference 8 terms each) being 438. Consider tance for etc. if or any other two major con- cerns of humanity. As any geometric progression (of ratio more). no matter how slow. already between these sums (of only much larger than before. the sum of 8 terms is 510 for the (GP) and 72 for six terms of the geomet126..

progress in the other matters of no less importance has advanced only at the rate of an arithmetical progression or at best at the rate of some geometric progression of relatively slow growth.A NEW CONCEPT OF LIFE 19 the other in accordance with a law of an arithmetical progression. contention is that while progress in some of the great matters of human concern has been long proceeding in My accordance with the law of a rapidly increasing geometric progression. like that of a steam engine or a printing press. there follows a period of readjustment by means of violence and force. a gradually produced in is human affairs. social equilibrium at length destroyed. It must not be fancied that the case supposed merely hypothetical. or some discovery of analytical scientific method. showing that far from being merely hypothetis the case supposed has always been actual and actual to-day on a vaster scale than ever before. for example. like that of geometry or the infinitesimal calculus. The whole history of mankind and especially the present condition of the world is unite in ical. or . if the two quickly strain is outstrip interests involved be interdependent (as they always are). observation and a little Some technological invention is made. progress in the former matter will very and ever more and more rapidly progress in the latter. so that. To see it and to understand little it we have to pay the small price of a meditation.

time astronomy and and space and matter have been already conquered to such an extent that our globe. and manifold peoples of divers tongues and traditions and customs and institutions are now con- . science begets science. logical power according to the law and rate of a rapidly increasing geometric progression or logarithmic function. in in applications of them. What happens? What is the effect upon the progress of knowledge and invention? The effect is stimulation. in biology. in chemistry. in physics. invention breeds invention. the children of knowledge produce their kind in larger and larger families. And now what must we ences the pseudo sciences say of the so-called sciof ethics and jurispru- dence and economics and politics and government? For the answer we have only to open our eyes and behold the world. in mathematics. like that of falling bodies or the Newtonian law of gravitation. has virtually shrunken to the dimensions of an ancient province.20 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY some discovery of natural law. from genera- and the spectacle we behold is that of advancement in scientific knowledge and technotion to generation. Each invention leads to new inventions and each discovery to new discoveries. the process goes on from decade to decade. once so seemingly vast. By virtue of the advancement that has long been going on with ever accelerated logarithmic rapidity in invention.

behind? The answer is have lagged not far to seek nor difficult etc. demanded a new ethical wisdom. a new legal wisdom. partly because they have to understand. they have lagged behind. They have lagged depended upon the philosophy they barren methods of verbalistic . and it is in the because of their lagging that they have not the needed now wisdom to effect a cure. And and the answer that the so-called sciences of ethics jurisprudence and economics and politics and government have not kept pace with the rapid progress made other great affairs of man. For the new visions our anguished times is aloud but the only answers are reverberated echoes of the wailing cry mingled with the chattering cry voices of excited public do.A NEW There thus CONCEPT OF LIFE 21 strained to live together as in a single community. it is Do you ask why that the "social" sciences the so-called sciences of ethics. behind. partly because they have been hampered by the traditions and the habits of a bygone world they have looked backward instead of forward. a new economical wisdom. tion men who know the explanation? not what to Why? What is is double: Why the disease? is edy at hand? is The answer the The quesAnd why no remsame for both. it is because of their lagging that the world has come to be in so great distress. they have lagged behind. a new political wisdom. a new wisdom in the affairs of government.

of their lagging behind is found in the aston- ishing fact that. such The reader should note carefully that cataclysmic call changes such "jumps. that sooner or later so disturbs the equilibrium of in those human affairs as to result periodically social cataclysms which we call insurrec- tions. they have lagged behind. so-called social "sciences" on the other hand. these two monstrous conceptions of the essennature of man I shall deal at a later stage of this writing." as we may them such violent read- . partly because they have been often dominated by the lusts of cunning "politicians" instead of being led by the wisdom of enlightened statesmen. the fundamental cause. At present I am chiefly concerned to drive home the fact that it is the great disparity between the rapid progress of the natural and technological sciences on the one hand and the slow progress of the metaphysical. they have lagged behind. partly because they have been predominantly concerned to protect "vested interests.22 MANHOOD or HUMANITY have been metaphysical instead of scientific. they have not discovered what Man really is garded human but have from time immemorial falsely rebeings either as animals or else as With tial combinations of animals and something supernatural. despite their being by their very nature most immediately concerned with the affairs of mankind. revolutions and wars." upon which they have in the main depended for support. however.

" by "jumps. A' \ A i ." Non-peaceful social progress. 248 Arithmetical accelerated Peaceful progress. This highly significant fact may be graphically illustrated in the following figure: Geometric evolution of the natural and technological sciences. And I would have him see clearly that. because the disparity which produces them increases as we pass from generation to generation from term to term of our progressions the "jumps" in question occur not only with increasing violence but with increasing frequency.A NEW CONCEPT OF LITE 23 justments in human affairs and human relationships are recorded throughout the history of mankind. 16 32 evolution violent of the so-called social "sciences.

be. the larger part goes for growth. 3 8 = 27> and so on. This is another example which explains how the theory of dimensions is vitally important in life and shows why it is absolutely essential to take account of dimensions in the study of life problems. when the organism becomes larger. its volume eight times larger. that popula- and the need of people increase in a geometrical progression. DE. increase in size as cubes increase. the food is spent to build the mass of the volume of the body and is spent proportionally to the cube. while the bodies to be fed. the "jumps" or revolutions more occur at shorter intervals as time goes on and thus frequently force us to coordinate our ideas to facts. the difference will be 9 and 27. that they have to absorb their food through surfaces which as growth goes on increase only as squares. In case of 3 times. and also that the growth of individuals is limited by the fact.* *To tion digress a bit. its absorbing capacity has become four times larger. represent revolutions or wars. FG. more and more is Periods of peace or seeming peace alternate frequently with periods of violence. that in the infancy of an organism only a part of the food goes to maintain life. but the second progression being much slower than the first one. Suppose our organism has grown to a size twice as large.24 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY BC. it may be interesting to add. EF. and AB. ab. obvious. CD. It is obvious that at some point. the absorbing surfaces. 22 it is = 4. all the absorbed food will be used to maintain life and none will be left for growth. growing proportionally to the square. being volumes. . 3 2 =9. 2 3 =8. cd. take the same amount of time. with the the aftermath of revolution of ideas "jump" forced by violent readjustment of ideas to facts events. as the cubes of the same base grow faster than the squares. and this last process will stop. the mentioned disparity of progress in peaceful times the hatching seed of future violence.

phil- osophy. mathematics or without nevertheless. such words as "good" or "bad" or "truth" volumes upon volumes have been written about them. but what that something is still awaits scientific determination.A NEW As siderations CONCEPT OF LIFE 25 a matter of fact these few mathematical concalled can hardly be mathematical philosophy. the effect has been warring schools of philosophy sectaIn the meantime something rians and partisans. in his book. From the . for instance. ethics and psychology would cease to be "private theories" or verbalism and they would advance to the rank and dignity of sciences. law. . There was no possible way to arrive at an agreement on the significance of words." "bad. or even the understanding Let us take. corresponding to each of the terms "good. no one has reached of them. bringing attention to these very simple mathematical ideas we should not be able to proceed any further than problems have always been "solved" by verbalists and rhetorical metaphysicians who cleverly played with vague words and who in the life past Our always ignored the supremely important matter of dimensions because they were ignorant of it." "truth" exists as matter of fact. quote a characteristic of life as exone of the "heroes" of my esteemed pressed by I Here may friend Harvey O'Higgins. any result universally acceptable to multiply . If only these three words could be scientifically defined.

and enough common sense to understand that to talk of adding three quarts of milk to three-quarters of a mile is to talk nonsense. To freedom from blinding prejudice. Y. is not any reason whatsoever why we should despair. Imaginary Portraits of Some Distinguished Americans (Harper. it is not necessary to be a highly trained specialist. psychology. ethics. The problems can be solved. N. the only qualifications required are candor. . politics and sociology could not solve the practical see in the history of problems of humanity. a real desire for truth. justice and morality are laws only of human But society. but to move with those laws and direct his people in accordance with them. his theory of life would probably have been something like this: 'There is no justice. law. "Warren never philosophized. which consubject in their larger aspects to natural laws and the statesman has tradict morality and outrage justice artisan handles his tools.' If such are the creeds of "distinguished people" anywhere. and all civilization are society. thoughtfulness. an open mind. in nature or in natural laws. natural life.26 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY Life.). what better can we expect than that which we humanity? But the fact that the old philosophy. despite the lesser by-laws of morality and jus" tice. if he handled facts as an he had philosophized. there is no morality. follow the reasoning of this book.

as is that of a child who uses a priceless chronometer to crack nuts. is coming to its senses and must soon we enter its manhood. in the us. This childhood. shaken by this war. as any childhood. but none of them has been able to give the world a 27 .CHAPTER II CHILDHOOD OF HUMANITY / T HE conclusion of the World War A is the closing of the period of the childhood of humanity. for humanity. has shown us the price of life. This childhood has been unduly long. but happily are near to the end of it." the sacred dead will not have died for naught. wanton waste of life. them have contributed something to human progress. a period of great achievements and rewards dawning upon new and real sense of values The the "red wine of youth. and we will have to keep our oath to make the future woithy of their sweat and blood. There are different kinds of interpretations of All of history and different schools of philosophy. Early ideas are not necessarily true ideas. can be characterized as devoid of any real understanding of values.

be it that of an individual or tations that of the race. new economic conditions. The world had it was obliged to supplement the old systems with special boards for food. and their interpretations or misinterpre- have from the earliest times formed systems of law. railroads. labor. forms conclusions which have to be often revised before they correspond approximately to facts. it was found that the old political and economic systems were not to create adequate to the task put upon them. of ethics. reality it to everybody. What we call progress consists It in coordi- nating ideas with realities. Some unmistakable truths were revealed. and of philosophy. etc. shipping. Our life is bound to develop according to evident or else concealed laws of nature. The World War in has a taught something great reality. . Human intellect. coal. The evident laws of nature were the inspiration of genuine science in its cradle. was indeed accustomed us to think in those terms of Facts and to and not of phantom speculation. The World War emergency compelled the nations to or- ganize for producing greater power in order to con- quer power already great.28 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY whole progress of of basic philosophy embracing the science and establishing the life man upon the abiding foundation of Fact. Power had be produced to destroy hostile power. force were the things that counted.

is the ability "to do things. except for the poetry and the manuring of the battle fields. This war butchered millions of people and ruined the health and Is this lives of tens of millions. the analysis must be In science. they blow and they are strong and red. climax of the pre-war civilization to be passed unnoticed.CHILDHOOD OF HUMANITY If there is 29 is anything which this war has proved. too true. but the elucidation facts. We have only to collect them and analyse them." "In Flanders Fields the poppies blow . and better fed? gained as Or that the "poppies blow" stronger is the death of ten men on the battle field to be of as is much worth in knowledge the life of one rabbit killed for experi- Is the great sacrifice worth analysing? ment? can be only one answer yes. But. But the purpose of this writing is not the celebrais tion of poetry. . Such as understand this lesson will know how to act for the benefit of all. thousands of rabbits and guinea pigs are used and killed. . and right use of Normally. for experiments which yield great and tangible benefits to humanity. . in scientific laboratories. We have all the facts necessary. In this case. it the fact that the most important asset a nation or an individual can have." that . if truth There be desired. scientific. "opinions" are tolerated when and only when facts are lacking. rejecting mere "opinions" as cheap and unworthy.

can move about after being deprived of the appliances by which the life accumulated and transferred. of the lower in railroad accidents. must be amended to read "stop. look. even more easily destroyed are the more advanced and complicated social organizations. "Stop. of facts. but it was without any much speculative think- sufficient basis Theology and philosophy flourished. but for the preservation of the life of humanity. not for the saving of a few lives Living organisms. The first question will is: what are to be the scientific methods that opinions and creeds from an analysis of facts and ensure correct deductions based upon them? short survey of eliminate diverse A facts concerning civilization will help to point the way. In the early days there was ing. in its cradle. Humanity. or even by the injury of minor parts of force is them. it had only the faculties of observation and speculation. and THINK". but all their primitive notions about facts such as the structure of the . but higher organisms are instantly killed by the removal of such appliances.30 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY At present the future of mankind is dark. did not have science. their speculations were often very clever. and listen" crossings listen. in which the differentiation and for a considerable time the integration of the vital organs have not been carried far. and simpler types. the prudent caution at railroad look.

Outline of the History of the Western European Mind. and from remotest antiquity the mode of thinking has changed only as fast as the relations The savage among phenomena have been established. and like memory it alone can explain the present and in this takable value. This little volume gives condensed statements. the form of the earth. with slight exceptions. of the historical developments of the human mind and contains a long list of the most substantial modern books on historical questions. as in a nutshell. our methods of learning and of applying for information we owe. . past History is an expansion of memory. mechanical principles.CHILDHOOD OF HITMANITY 31 heavens. ception of the possibility of indefinite progress Progress f (J. Robinson rise to the continuity of history. our knowl- edge." * lies its most unmis- regards every striking phenomenon or group of phenomena as caused by some personal agent. 1919. J. R. meteorological or physiological phenomena almost all of them wrong.) "Late appearance of a . and for convenience they will simply be marked by his initials Excessive definite theory of progress. opinions. were for What is history? What is its significance humanity? answer: "Man's Dr. R. All the further historical * An quotations will be taken from this exceptionally valuable little book. intellectual tastes. to the often to the remote past. gives us a precise abject dependence on the past gives H. New York. H. . prejudices. by The New School for Social Research. Our convictions. conservatism of primitive peoples. f James Harvey Robinson. but they did not have a con. H. The Greeks speculated on the origin of things. J.

The deficiencies of Medieval culture. . market-place. the 'Buccinator* popularized. . 1543. His attitude toward the Copernican theory. which was condemned by Roman Inquisition 1616. . Still believed in fixed Starry His discovery had little immediate effect on prevailSphere. . . His lively appreciation of the existing obstacles to scientific advance. combined with those of the Christian Fathers. . Galileo (1564-1642). All the weaknesses of the Hellenic reasoning. . in our sense of the word. the idols of the tribe. . . by the his Inquisition at Rome. Copernicus' own introduction acknowledges his debt to ancient philosophers. Galileo's chief discoveries were in physics and mechanics. . Copernicus. cave. . of experimental and applied modern science. . . . . Little history of Natural science. . aided by apparatus. There was no steady accumulation of knowledge to offset the growing emotional distrust of reason. underlay what appeared to be a most Defects logically elaborated and definitive system of thought. ing notions. .32 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY Human nature was always asking "why"? and not being able to answer why.' and studying the world about us. . Unfulfilled promise of Hellenistic science.' Libri VI. . . His telescope speedily improved so as to magnify 32 diameters. It was an imposing collection of speculation. . which. . . . . Keppler (1571-1630) and discovery of the elliptical orbits of the planets. and guesses. Necessity of escaping from the scholastic methods of 'tumbling up and down in our reasons and conceits. . . . and failed to recognize the fundamental necessity of painful scientific research. . and theatre. were based on a very slight body of exact knowledge. they found their answer of man from the earliest time till the opening of the 1 7th century almost altogether unconscious. 'De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. . . of the university education. Fundamental weakness of Hellenic learning. . . . . taught in the universities. Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) made it his chief business to think out and set forth in Latin and Italian the Bruno burned implications of the discovery of Copernicus. This made a deep impression and finally the newer conceptions of the universe began to be Lord Bacon (1561-1626). opinions. Undreamed of achievements possible if only the the distrust of right method of research be followed . Isaac Newton (1642-1727) proved that the laws of falling bodies apply to the heavens. however brilliant and ingenious they might be. Influence of slavery in checking the development of science. . . . .

(J. posed to reach the truth through analysis and clear ideas.CHILDHOOD OF HUMANITY 33 through another factor "who. Prevalence of symbolism. aspirations.) "Phases of religious complex. mana. and * state. 'Religious/ a vague and comprehensive term applied to: (i) certain classes of emotions (awe. . the superThe cultural mind viewed as the product of a natural. The 1 6th book of the Theodosian Code contains edicts relating to the Church issued by the Roman Emperors during the 4th and 5th centuries. They make it a crime to disagree with the Church. etc." From the early ethics.* Descartes (1596-1650). magic. the universities still dominated by Aristotle. . . . clean and unclean. or ecclesiastical organizations. . . totemism. prayers. . Beliefs (3) Priestly. or a successful control over. fetishism. animism. R. dogmatic theology. .). "Association of religion with the supernatural. . which may take the form of distinctive religious acts (ceremonies. law. the theological faculties. sacrifices. (2) Conduct. our modern idea of 'principle'). days of humanity. and science in its infancy. long and hazardous process of accumulation. (4) about supernatural beings and man's relations to them: the latter may take the form of revelation and be reduced to creeds and become the subject of elaborate theological speculations. the sacred. . ." H.. were the monopolies of one their class and the source of . rejection of all authority. His fundamental interest in mathematics. 'good works') or the observance of what in primitive conditions are recognized as 'taboos'. Spontaneous generation of superstitions. he proauthority. His claim to originality and his Obstacles to scientific advance. . . . . Gods or God. 'dream logic' spontaneous rationalizing or 'jumping at conclusions'. on the assumption that God will not deceive. self-distrust.. power. . . and the question came to be "how. the taboo (cf. . . dependence." The unknown was But with the progress of called. science the "why" became more and more evident. . . they provide harsh penalties for heretical . the censorship of the press exercised by both church ancient . religion has always had for its primary object the attainment of a satisfactory adjustment to. . .

' and denouncing scientific discoveries. . Great prevalence of witchcraft during the i6th and iyth centuries in Protestant and Catholic countries. Beginnings of censorship of the press after the invention of printing. . vested interests. . . Tortures to force confession. . Ethics is to too fundamentally important a factor in civilization depend upon a theological or a legal excuse. . . Older conceptions of Our legal expression disease as caused by the Devil. . Those who tried to discredit witchcraft denounced as 'Sadducees* and atheists. the comfortable nature of the traditional and the . . . and grant privileges to the orthodox clergy (exemptions from regular taxes and benefit of the clergy). hanging. . . . . Psychological power and attraction in the elaborate Allegory put an end symbolism and ritual of the church. . burning alive. . . Science brushed life and realities were their domain. How with a growing appreciation for natural law and a chastened taste in wonders. . . Flourishing of the miraculous. . . The . Trial of those suspected of sorcery. strangling. alike. habitual. . . . . .. The painful appropriation of new ideas. . 'act of God' confined to unforseeable natural disasters. . .34 MANHOOD or HUMANITY The first to break this power were the exact sciences. Protestants shared with Roman Catholics the horror of 'rationalists' and 'freeThe leaders of both parties agreed in hampering thinkers.. miracles have tended to become a source of intellectual distress and bewilderment. The psychology of intolerance. . Tens of thousands of innocent persons perished. Christianity becomes a monopoly defended by the state. i6th century accept the theory of intolerance. . . The intolerance of the Catholic Church: a natural result of its statelike organization and claims. . . Penalties. licens. to all literary criticism. . . Fear. . Witchcraft in its modern form emerges clearly in the I5th century. . Protestants of ing of ecclesiastical and civil authorities. . Its doctrine of exclusive salvation and its conception of heresy both sanctioned by the state. They progressed too rapidly to be bound and limited by obscure old writings and prejudices." . . . aside all sophistry and became a reality. witches' mark. . . Doubt and error regarded as sinful. teaching and writing. any unusual or startling occurrence attributed to the intervention of either God or the Devil.

. by its very nature." . Position of the conservative. by its very essence. Theology and law are both of them nature. if not reactionary. unchangeable. past and present status of society and. legal civilization. Culture can not be transmitted hereditarily but can be accumulated through education and modified indefi. The same can be said in regard to the Law was and is to protect the spirit of the law. Dogmatic theology is.35 ethics must conform to the natural laws of human nature. must be very conservative. osophy before the natural and exact sciences came Law was always made by the few and in general for the purpose of preserving the "existing order.. R. ideas. H. Conservatism in the light of history: History would seem to discredit conservatism completely as a working principle in view of the past achievements of mankind in the recent past and the possibilities which opened before us.) atism: Primitive natural reverence for the familiar and habitual Natural conservatism greatly reenforced by religion and law. . date from the beginning of veloped in Legal speculation was wonderfully deparallel lines with theology and phil- into existence. helplessly accept the situation as inevitable. of all professions..* static by their "The Sociopsychological foundations of conserv*(J. Laws. nitely." or for the reestablishment of the old order and the punishment of the offenders against it. Futility of the appeal of the conservative to human nature as an obstacle to progress. Those who suffer most from existing institutions commonly. . he urges the impossibility of altering 'human nature' and warns against the disasters of revolution.

to be effective in a dynamic world must be dynamic. and so medieval ideas. must be adjudged responsible in a large measure for the circumstances which made the World War inevitable. of morals in politics and business. We are forced to realize crushed. gresses fall methods and judgments are constantly applied to the conditions and problems of modern life. This discrepancy between facts and ideas is greatly responsible for the dividing of modern society into different warring classes. life and In recent civilization ethics. revolutionary progress of technic and the steadily changing conditions of life and so we witness a tremendous down. that evolution by transformation is a cosmic process . reactionary. law and ethics.36 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY Philosophy. they must be made vital enough to keep pace with the progress of science. opposed to change. which other. could not duly influence the dynamic. Life profaster than our ideas. which are static. Under ings the flash of explosives of those antiquated ideas some of the workwere exposed or The World War has profoundly changed economic conditions and made it necessary to erect new standards of values. and thus becoming more and more unable to support the mighty social burden of the modern world. do not understand each Medieval legalism and medieval morals the basis of the old social structure being by their nature conservative. because controlled by theology and law.

. including the newer social sciences. Character of the opposition to the evolutionary theory. Evolution is the only theory which is in harmony with facts and with all branches of science. is the "science of sciences. . . the evidence. lative. Discovery of the great age of the earth. . Bearing of evolution on the theory of progress. Herbert Spencer Haeckel (1834-1919) and others clarify. . Organic evolution and social evolution. In the past. as defined by Fichte. The significance of the doctrine for intellectual history. Popular confusion of 'Darwinism' with 'evolution/ Revolutionary effects of the new point of view.) tionary hypothesis. Weisman. Does away with conception of fixed species (Platonic ideas) that had previously dominated speculation. Problem of adjusting history to the discoveries of the past 50 years. which overwhelming. Weakening of the special creation theory by other evidence such as archeology and biblical criticism. of it on the other is side.CHILDHOOD OF HUMANITY and that reaction. not static. * with little But if "Formulation and establishment of the evolu(J. Philosophy. it. The hypothesis of special creation a mere fossil of the past. gradual development of the evolutionary theory.* 37 it. (1820-1903). when all exact sciences were philosophy had to be purely specuor no regard to realities. . . R. There is all not one fact tending to prove special or separate is creation. DeVries and others. H. in their infancy." Its aim was to solve the problems of the world. . Subsequent development of the evolutionary doctrine by Mendel. life is dynamic." . The genetic method adopted in all the organic sciences. Darwin's 'Origin of the Species/ 1859. though it may retard can not entirely stop The is idea that organic species are results of special creation has no scientific standard whatever. defend and popularize the new doctrine. .

) theological anthropology and reassert the dignity of man. Philosophy does not fulfill her initial aim to bring the results of experi- mental and exact sciences together and to solve world problems. the general growth of knowledge has reacted in a stimulating way upon the sciences of society. the growth of criticism and liberalism has made the analysis of social institutions somewhat less dangerous. irrespective in a looks like a hen with her little of the cackling of metaphysics.* "The Deists and philosophers destroy the older *(J. and for want of coordination the great world-problems suffer. the progress of life and science goes on.38 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY we regard philosophy as a Mother science. This failure of philosophy to fulfill her boasted mission of scientific coordination is responsible for the chaos in the world of general thought. H. However. The Darwinian hypothesis has rendered preposterous any conception of a wholly static social system. she is unable to follow her growing hatchlings. that the Mother science ducklings paddling pond. Life is an accidental game of private or collective ambitions and greeds. lective The world has no col- or organized higher ideals and aims. the great increase in the number. Through endless. we find that those branches have grown so large and various. the modern social sciences in our capitalistic order meet much the same resistance from the 'vested interests' that theological radicalism encountered in the Middle Ages. divided into many branches. and social science has in no way approached the objectivity and social . nor even fixed general purposes. scientific specialization scientific branches multiply. In the meantime. complexity and intensity of social problems has proved a strong incentive to science. R. far beyond her reach.

The primal function of a science is to enable us it to anticipate the future in the field to progressiveness . . . it is understood to include of the above mentioned parts. hypotheses. of our conventional examination system. . effects of vested rights in . .. (3) many (4) fertile working hypoth- eses respecting the causes and regularities of natural phenomena. . (2) a large body : of natural laws. . hampering experiments and readjustObstacles to readjustment presented by consecrated ments." . As yet our education has not been brought into close relation with prevailing conditions of our ever increasing knowledge. Facts alone do not constitute a science any more than a pile of stones constitutes a house. which must precede any effective social reform. .. Grave day natural science. inordinate development of organization and regimentation in our present educational system. Influence of modern commercialism in the traditions.CHILDHOOD OF HUMANITY 39 Systematic study of chemical and physical phenomena has been carried on for many generations and these two sciences now include ( i ) knowledge of an enormous number of facts. theories and laws before the subject is entitled to the rank of a alone . (Because of absolute lack of any scientific base. science.) General nature of the problem of social reform: psychological problems involved in social reform movements: violent resistance of the group to that criticism of the existing institutions. Excellent aims and small achievements of sociology in practical results. and helpful theories held subject to correction by further testing of the hypotheses giving rise to them. . which relates. When a subject is finally many all spoken of as a science. Author. Psychological disadvantages of present . not even do facts and laws there must be facts. . .

is Ethics in the stifling grip of myth and legalism not convincing enough to exercise controlling influence. it is commonly regarded as The technical branches of science have been strongly backed and generally supported by those to whom they have brought direct profit. official warning of the coming of the World War the greatest of catastrophies. to perpolitical form for ourselves the duty which losophy did not perform for us ing in terms of facts and not physical speculations. We neglected to use our cominto its mon sense and look deeper origins. The future was not anticipated because political philosophers did not To be possess the necessary basis of knowledge. for example.40 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY this standard. we looked upon the World War as a personal creation of a "war-lord. and so they have had better opportunities for development. neither Judged by kindred philosophy nor its the so-called social sciences have in the no past been very effective. we must admit that philosophy has been but little just aided financially because unnecessary. in phi- the duty of think- terms of metafacts Knowledge of would have told us that the war lords were only the representatives of the ruling classes." because those interested in it told us so. There was. Being still in our childhood and thinking like savages. A system of social . Such is the situation in which we find ourselves.

is not "grab what peculiar to any one country. tatious systems has a large Each of the dispunumber of followers and each faction looks upon the others as deprived of All of them truth. capitalism to socialism." and ruthless competition. It is the same in the realm of religions there are . for example. it is the motto of our whole civilization and is the inevitable outcome of which is you can. or exist by means of war. realism to idealism. colored our mental processes and controlled our destinies. play with the words "natural law" which they ignorantly presume to have as the basis and content of their own particular doctrine. pessimism opposed to optimism. . "survival of the fittest. Where are we to find the true doctrines? Where the true philosophy? If we go back over the history of civilization. The representatives of this system determined to continue to exist. and so war was the consequence. The ruling classes carried the whole system under which they lived to its logical conclusion and natural This motto issue. must cease to exist. private opinions and theories have shaped our beliefs. we find that in all "sciences. we see. materialism to spiritualism. common sense and knowledge.CHILDHOOD OF HUMAKITY and economic order built exclusively 41 selfishness." our stupid philosophy regarding the characteristic nature of man and the proper potentialities of human life. on greed. and so on endlessly." except the exact ones.

"The information of notions and axioms on the foundation of true induction is the only fitting remedy by which we can ward off and expel these idols.42 MANHOOD or HUMANITY approximately 291 million Confucianists. (Novum Organum. 177 million Protestants.) "Four species of idols beset the human mind. and the human mind resembles these uneven mirrors which impart their own properties to different objects. and they 115 million are rather large groups. however. for the doctrine of idols bears the same relation to the interpretation of nature as that of the confutation of sophisms does to common logic. 42. its Bacon seems a bit remote. 157 million Animists. It is. by 34. Orthodox Christians to speak only of the most important religions. calling the first Idols of the Tribe. for man's sense Asserted to be the standard of things. Francis Bacon. Each group. "The idols of the tribe are inherent in human is nature falsely and the very tribe or race of man. all the perceptions both of the senses and the mind bear reference to man and not to the Universe. of great service to point them out. for everybody (in addition to the errors common to the race . 137 million Buddhists. 211 million Moham- medans. or Taoists/ 261 million Roman Catholics. but the idols and medieval fetishes which he so masterfully describes are equally venerated to-day. on the contrary. 209 million Hindus. believes faith to be infallible and all theory or its the others to be false. the second Idols of the Den. to which (for distinction's sake) we have assigned names. 40. from which rays are emitted and distort and disfigure them. the third Idols of the Market. 41. "The idols of the den are those of each individual. the fourth Idols of the Theatre.

. composed and made to agree with each other. search for knowledge in lesser worlds. the causes of the most opposite errors being generally the same. course and these all we denominate idols of the theatre: for we regard as the systems of philosophy hitherto received or imagined. present systems. there are idols which have crept into men's minds from the various dogmas of peculiar systems of philosophy. and also from the perverted rules of demonstration. and Heraclitus said well that men were. and the like. so many plays brought out and performed. which we call idols of the market. and lead mankind into vain and innumerable controversies and fallacies. creating fictitious Nor do we speak only of the or of the philosophy and sects of the ancients. 43. "Lastly. throw everything into confusion. but words are formed at the will of the generality. and not in the greater its to or common world. either from his own peculiar and singular disposition. or equable and tranquil. from the commerce and association of men with each other. as it happens to be preoccupied and predisposed. Nor can the definitions and explanations with which learned men are wont to guard and protect themselves in some instances afford a complete remedy words still manifestly force the understanding. as it actuated by chance. for men converse by means of language. Nor. confused. 44. which interand corrupts the light of nature. and the authority acquired by those whom he reverences and admires.CHILDHOOD OF HUMANITY of 43 has his own individual den or cavern. and. is variable. since numerous other plays of a similar nature can be still and theatrical worlds. or from the different impressions produced on the mind. so that the spirit of man (according man) cepts several dispositions). "There are also idols formed by the reciprocal interand society of man with man. or from his education and intercourse with others. and there arises from a bad and unapt formation of words a wonderful obstruction to the mind. or from his reading.

" . extent of investments. our well nigh perfect means of rapid human inter-communication. H. repeti. querulous. coal. tool-using to a machine-controlling animal. private "truths. unemployment and the labor of women and capital Increased productivity and the children. Problems of and labor. disease. labor organizations. implicit credence. ignorance. neglect. The period of humanity's a scientific period manhood will. but also to elements and axioms of sciences which have become * and inveterate by tradition. . increased division of labor and specialization of industrial procThe great increase in the volume of capital and in the esses. sectarian opinions. tion and isolation. our social and intellectual life. The impulse of invention. the concentration and localization of industry. and war. do MANHOOD OF HUMANITY many we allude merely to general systems." Metaphysical speculation and its swarming progeny of blind and selfish political philosophies. machinery has in turn begotten the modern factory with its vast organized labor. iron." characteristic of the childhood of humanity. I doubt not. expansion of commerce. sectarian "truths" and sectarian such is doctrines. and steam essential to the development of machinery on a large scale. The rise of the factory system.44 again. R. the separation of capital and labor and the growth of impersonal economic relationship. be to all the in- a period that will witness the gradual extension of scientific method " * During the past two centuries the application (J. The tremendous increase in the production of wealth and the growing interdependence of nations has opened up a vast range of speculation in regard to the betterment of mankind to the abolition or reduction of pov. confused and blind opinions. private and private doctrines. and the whole range of the relations of mankind. Man advances from a erty.) of the scientific discoveries to daily life has revolutionized our methods of supplying our economic needs. the modern city and finally. Industrial processes become dynamic and everchanging a complete reversal of the old stability.

CHILDHOOD or HUMANITY terests of 45 mankind a period cover the essential nature of the science in which man will dis- man and of establish. . at length. and art directing human energies and human capacities to the advancement of human weal in accordance with the laws of human nature.

In some cases the words will indeed have a technical meaning and it will be necessary to exercise great care against the danger of giving false impressions for clear ideas are essential . even so-called "scientific" language is often too vague for the purpose and requires further daily speech Some may say necessary to lay so much refining. in this chapter are not easy." or to put "something over" other fellow.CHAPTER III CLASSES OF LIFE problems to be dealt with tant. 46 . that it is useless and un- stress and precise expression. that it for they say that "business" language is good enough the to "talk business. to sound thinking. precision is on correct thinking has no practical value. but they are exceedingly impor- To classify phenomena correctly. As a matter of fact our common is ill adapted for the precise expression of thought. they must be correctly analysed and clearly defined. avoiding as much as possible the difficulties of technical terms. will use language easily to be under- stood by every one. For the sake of clearness I will use the simplest illustrations and. But a little explanation will show that often of the greatest importance.

when lightning struck a house. in its some facts. determines own destinies. which bring about important practical consequences. . casual. therefore in words and ideas become facts moreover.CLASSES OF LIFE 47 Humanity practical life is a peculiar class of life which. the behavior of the poputhe same in one respect. In both instances. the sinner would be guilty of "resisting the supreme law" and would deserve to be punished by death. other millions as an have defined "electric it as a "natural. because to do so would be against the "definition" which proa claims the phenomenon to be "punishment for evil. periodical pheit nomenon"." What first has been the result of these "non-important" definitions in practical life? In the case of the definition. a stricken building is treated just as any tree overturned by storm. if caught in the open storm they take refuge under a tree a means by of safety involving maximum danger but the people lace is a do not know it. many millions of human beings have defined a stroke of lightning as being the "punishment of God" of evil men. For instance." any attempt to prevent or check the destruction would be an impious act. Now in the second instance. the population naturally made no attempt to save the house or anything in it. yet other millions have defined spark. the people save what they can and try to extinguish the fire. degree.

and the If our institutions are considered "Godstate. they provide their houses with lightning rods. The importance of definitions can be seen in all other fields of practical life. But now. in which the popula- have a scientifically correct definition of light- ning. given" every reformer or advocate of change should be treated as a criminal or "a danger to the existing order" and static sacred and therefore hanged or foolish. we have as we know in as are established in by help of daily practice and such facts scientific laboratories where men to analyse facts . they put them- selves in a position of minimum exposure by lying flat on the ground until the storm has passed. they are caught by a storm in the open they neither run nor hide under a tree. To know the world in which we such facts live." imperfect and often and subject in to change all all the time steadily and dynamically obedience to some course known or un- known law. but when the if and storm is directly over their heads.48 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY Now tion in the third instance. our institutions are "man made. definitions create conditions. Such examples could be given without end. then of reactionaries would be a "danger to the natural order" and they should be treated the same way. if at least put in jail for life. but another example of sufficient vital importance to be given here. as it has to do with our conthere is ception of the social and economic system.

and true propositions. progressive. a few and a few true propositions. to the solution of The aim Fortunately the solution of a few leads automatically many others. The tions. Such. sometimes by men of creajust concepts tive genius.CLASSES OF LIFE do not jump to conclusions. but analytic definitions are definitive propositions and are true . Some of the greatest scientific discoveries and most far-reaching nothing else have been than a few correct definitions. a few just cona few true propositions. This will be necessary to indicate the trend of the analysis. The matter of definition. and endless. In some places it will statements that will have to of the analysis is to give us just concepcorrect definitions. of phenomena as result from correct analysis of the phenomena. The problems are infinitely many. I am not now speaking of nominal defi- nitions. and it is necessary to select. process is slow. and often almost automatically by men of merely good sense and fair talent. I have said. which for convenience merely give names to known I am speaking of such definitions objects. Leibnitz a few correct definitions. for was the work of Euclid. Newton and example. extended and multiplied. but these have been cepts. 49 be necessary to make await full justification at a later stage of the discussion. is very important. Nominal definitions are mere conveniences and are neither true nor false.

the first was the most mistaken and its application brought the most harm.50 or else false. An and gives us an . . the second one A% (alpha 2). In the illustration of the definitions of lightning. the third one As (alpha 3). we may suppose that a genius appears who has the faculty to surpass all the other relative truths AI. a kind of energy which flows. VALID IN INFINITY (A^) say a final definition. the ond was less incorrect and the practical results sec- less bad. A^ As. there were three. . . MANHOOD OF HUMANITY Let us dwell upon the matter a litde more. through a Then of course glass tube filled with charcoal. and so . absolute or final truth. . A may be neither absolutely true nor absolutely false. was the "true one" and it brought the maximum benefit. that is.. the third under the present conditions of our knowledge. of degrees of definition truth and degrees of falsehood. that lightning is so . what use could be made of We could erect glass towers filled with charcoal and so secure an unlimited flow of available free energy and our . for illustration's sake.. but of two definitions of the same thing. one of them may If.. This lightning illustration suggests the important idea of relative truth tive and rela- falsehood the idea. y be truer or falser than the other. let us say. we call the first " truth " A (alpha i). this definition would immediately make obvious it.

color thing as a phenomenon called the Imagine how it might be defined. but they suggest . as in a convex or concave mirror. " " scientific truth in the present nevertheless. the reflexes may be distorted. the modern would say it is the light of such and such wave length "(Ai). an historian would say "that is the color of the ink with which human history has been written" (A&). reflected in our midst as in a mirror. This example explains the importance of correct definitions. This final but unknown "truth valid in infinity" is somehow perceived or felt by us as an ideal. a Bolshevik " " would say My color (A%) . "The "ideas" are reflexes of the phenomenon. A reactionary would call it a "Bolshevik" (Ai)'. true "ideas" about the more and more nearly phenomenon. an uneducated person would " " say that is the color of blood " (A-?) . a color-blind person would say "such a thing does not exist "(^3). a scientist " condition of our knowledge. " " a Daltonist would say that is green (A) a . that is the soul of metaphysician would say whiskey" (^5).CLASSES OF LIFE whole life 51 would be affected in an untold degree. But to take another example: there is such a " " red. but it is. If this last definition be " " valid in infinity or not we do not know. for in countless years of observation we have formed a series of less and less false.

he be a poor designer. be helpful to illustrate this process by an Let us suppose that a man makes an experiment of doing his own portrait from a mirror. concave or convex. If he looks into a plane mirror. the drawing of his likeness would have practically no resemblance to his original features.52 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY It is an ideal reflex valid in infinity. if poor. The Britannica gives us I will some help in this connection. For correct analysis and true definitions of the cardinal classes of life in our world it is necessary to have some just ideas about dimensions or dimen- sionality. it will not convey the impression that the features of the original were beautiful. Measurable entities explain briefly by an example. Each one must be measured . it is only by words that we are enabled to give to other human we have had It beings an exact or nearly exact impression which of the phenomenon. Let us suppose that the man has beautiful features but because the drawing is very even so. he will draw the likeness badly. he will see his true likeness. which may be plane. If this poor designer were to look into and work from a concave or convex mirror. of different kinds can not be in compared directly. may example. of the utmost importance to realize that the words which are used to express the ideas and the ideals are THE MATERIALIZATION of the ideas and ideal.

and this number will not be so many units of length nor of surface but so many solid or cubic units. therefore. we would wreck all the architectural and engineering structures of the world. said to have three dimensions. a volume say a cube we see that the cube has surfaces and lines and points. To analyse the classes of life we have to consider : two very different kinds of phenomena the one embraced under the collective name Inorganic the other under the collective name chemistry . Just these dimensional differences have an in practical life. and the 25 will not be 25 linear units but 25 square or surface units. A line can have only length and therefore is face has length and width and . will cube will have neither 5 nor 25 for its measure. it will be 25. and at the same time show ourselves stupider than block-heads. If we take. have 125. the measure of this square (surface) will not be 5.CLASSES or LIFE terms of a unit of its 53 own kind. width and thickness and is. as enormous unrealized importance in the case of taking a line of five units of length and building upon it a square. if we confused dimensions when computing lengths and areas and volumes. for example. but a volume is not a surface nor a line nor a point. this it If upon this square we build a cube. of one dimension: a suris therefore said to have two dimensions a volume has length. It is as plain as a pike staff that.

reactions in inorganic chemistry are relatively few. divisions are of the pecu- liar properties of the elements chiefly involved in the second The tributed among properties of matter are so disthe elements that three of them Oxygen. we knew of more re- than 79 elements of which the whole number of actions amounted to only a few hundreds. Here more than ever. but among the remaining three elements Carbon. Until now. Hydrogen. we have to take them as nature reveals them to us. is essential in and will help enor- inorganic chemistry always involve the phenomenon of heat. Up to 1910. mathematical thinking mously. organic compounds being unlimited in number possibilities and with their unique characteristics. . and Carbon possess an enThe number of semble of unique characteristics. and in some instances an unusual energy is The reactions produced called electricity. or the chemistry of hydro-carbons. Hydrogen and Oxygen the reactions were known to be practically unlimited in number and possibilities this fact must have very far reaching consequences. As far as energies are concerned. sometimes light. These class.54 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY made because Organic chemistry. but in the chemistry of these organic chemistry three elements the number of different compounds is in practically unlimited. the radio- active elements represent a group too insufficiently known The and for an enlargement here upon this subject. .

Of these phenomena. at the same time. higher energies of the chemistries of tKe higher dimensionality are very difficult to define. besides the few mentioned above there are NEW AND UNIQUE energetic phenomena occurring in this dimension." the stincts" and of the "mind" in general. chemical they include the basic chemical ical phenomena involved in all chem- reactions. but being unique in many other respects.CLASSES OF LIFE 55 represent of course. they also have an infinitely vast field of unique characteristics. mention the may be made of phenomenon "life. my descriptions are no better than the description of The . the difference between the two chemistries involves a difference of dimensionality. but being. Just as this difference of dimensions makes the whole difference between the geometry of volumes and the geometry of surfaces. It is obvious that this "uniqueness" is the reason why these phenomena getic must be belonging to or having a higher dimensionality than belongs to the phenomena of inorganic chemistry just as the uniqueness of the propclassified as erties of a erties volume as compared with surface propdepends upon the fact that a volume has a higher dimensionality than a surface. phenomenon of the "inThese ener- phenomena are unique for the unique chemistry of the three unique elements. a different class of phenomena. Among the energetic phenomena of organic chemistry.

WHICH is OF ANOTHER DIMENSION than the activities in inorganic For the so-called life in the crystals chemistry. chemistry and those found it organic We see is a mistake to speak about which we name the curious AUTONOMOUS phenomenon of ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Autonomous movement. The words "Autonomous activities" are important because they hint autonomous at the dimensional differences of these energies. Autonomous transmission of hereditary characteristics and Autonomous development. which are equally unsatisfactory. in the same sense in use the word life to the not AUTONOMOUS of crystals In the theory of crystals the term life is purely rhetorical: its use there is very injurious to sound science. Autonomous excretion. Leipzig. ter. But a better sional word should be found to define the dimen- differences between the activities found in in inorganic chemistry. Autonomous multiplication. He defines a living being as a natu- ral object acteristic which possesses the following nine charactivities : Autonomous change. Autonomous assimilation. in his Der Kampf der Teile im Organismus. 1881. I In want of a bet- quote him. These old ideas of "life" in crystals are (or anautonomous) activities another word than life should be found. "life" in a crystal. profoundly unscientific and serve as one of the best . Autonomous growth. Autonomous ingestion.56 life MANHOOD or HUMANITY given by Professor Wilhelm Roux.

the analogies between a living organism and a crystal are merely superficial and it is by pointing out the fundamental differences between later utilized the behavior of crystals we but can best understand the it and that of living organisms that specific difference between non- living and living matter." ways of thinking. these solutions must not be supersaturated. If crystals then volumes are surfaces. However. and can regenor injured. growth leads in living organisms to cell division as soon as the mass of the cell reaches a certain limit. form in such a solution when broken even possible to prevent or retard the formation of a supersaturated solution by preventing 'germs' into the solution. solu- composing them and not the substances themselves must be available to the cells. fats. nucleins. will do so only in a supersaturated solution of its own substance. from products. . correct appreciation of these facts will give us an insight A into the specific difference ter. . .CLASSES OF LITE 57 examples of the frequent confusion or intermixing a confusion due to unmathematical. It is true that a crystal can grow. and 125 cubic incorrect units=25 square units absurdities belonging to the "childhood of humanity. and carbohydrates of the cells. ." "Crystals can erate their it is grow in a proper solution. they must be dilute. In bacteria or the cells of our body grow. of dimensions logically "live. second. order to make Just the reverse is true for living organisms. This process of cell division tions of the split products of the substances can not be claimed even metaphorically to exist in a crystal. on the contrary. and third. an observation crystals in in the air from getting which was by Schroeder and Pasteur in their experiments on spontaneous generation. between non-living and living mat- The split formation of living matter consists in the synthesis of the proteins.

" (The Organism Whole." known life it function the transformation of solar energy into organic chemical energy. we readily find that there are three cardinal classes which are radically distinct in function. The animals use the highly dynamic products of class the chemistry-binding the plants as food." one of the energies characteristic of this of phenomena which is class of phenomena. analyse the classes of life. small 'building stones' into is specific for each organism the complicated compounds the 'secret of life' or rather one as a of the secrets of life." is "selfproIf we pelling" and true to its dimensionality. They are a class of into another kind which appropriates one kind of energy. though minerals have various activities.) It will be explained later that one of the energetic organic chemistry the "mind. is "autonomous. and so THE PLANTS AS THE CHEM- ISTRY-BINDING class of life. they are not The plants have a very definite and well "living. in that sense I define they are a kind of storage battery for the solar energy. while the crystal simply adds the molecules found in its superThis synthetic power of transforming saturated solution. .58 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY essential "The difference between living and non-living cell matter consists then in this: the living synthesizes its own complicated specific material from indifferent or nonspecific simple compounds of the surrounding medium. by Jacques Loeb. converts and stores it up. A short analysis will disclose to us that.

I mean the capacity in virtue of which man is at once the heritor of the by-gone ages and the trustee of posterity. I mean the capacity of human beings to conduct their lives in the ever increasing light of inherited wisdom. digest experiences of the past. over and above that. mean the capacity to employ as instru- ments of increasing power the accumulated achievements of the all-precious lives of the past generationsspent in trial and error. they have remarkable freedom and power which the plants do not possess I mean the freedom and faculty to move about in space. and the animals are correclass of life . human beings do indeed possess the space- binding capacity but. And because humanity is just this magnifi- .CLASSES or LIFE and those products tion 59 undergo in the results of plant-transformaanimals a further transformation into yet higher forms. spondingly a is more dynamic a their energy kinetic. I the fruits of past labors tual mean the capacity to use as intellecin and experiences or spiritual capital for developments I the present. And now what shall we say of human What is to be our definition of Man? Like mals. beings possess a human most remarkable capacity which is I mean the capacity to entirely peculiar to them and appropriate the labors and summarise. and so I define ANIMALS AS THE SPACE-BINDING CLASS OF beings? the ani- LIFE. trial and success.

The definitions of the classes of life represent the different classes as distinct in respect to dimensionality. and this is extremely important for no measure or rule of one class can be applied For to the other. to be the TIME-BINDING CLASS OF These are. obtained from direct observa- tion. I define HUMANITY. LIFE. we are ever to have a science . For these simple definitions and especially that of Humanity profoundly transform the whole conception of life is human in every field and.60 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY cent natural agency by which the past lives in the present and the present for the future. without making grave mistakes. example. to treat a a human being is as an animal as mere space-binder because humans have certain animal propensities. they are so simple and so important that I cannot over-emphasize the necessity of grasping them and most will especially the definition of Man. an error of the same type and grossness as to treat a cube as a surface because it has surface properties. It is absolutely essential to grasp that fact if of human nature. in the universal tongue of mathematics and mechanics. all. what more important than of interest and activity. it definitions of the cardinal classes of life will be noted. the definition of Man will give us a starting point for discovering of the human the natural laws of human nature class of life.

to be represented by the ONE DIMENSIONAL line MP. by the their grow. can represent the different classes of life in The minerals. with their The to grow and to be active in space by the TWO DIMEN- SIONAL plane PAM. "autonomous" growth.CLASSES OF LIFE 61 We three life coordinates. H (Humans) (Minerals) M (Plants) (Animals) Such diagrammatic illustrations must not be taken too literally. The humans. The animals. with TIME. they are like figures of speech helpful The if understood harmful if not understood. reader should reflect upon the simple idea of dimen- . with their in- organic activities would be the Zero (o) dimension that is the lifeless class here represented of "life" by the point M. with their "autonomous" capacity plants. to be active in space "autonomous" capacity to AND TO BE ACTIVE IN region THREE DIMENSIONAL MAPH.

follows. mobility. and make So it what have it is give it its own character. for example erties autonomous they plant properties but animals have other propfor example. erties or propensities logical sense. animals some grow. or type that and it is make human When and only when these propensities and powers beings human and not animal. inventiveness. for example. and properties of higher dimensionality or type it is these that make animals animals and not plants. mal properties beings have certain aniautonomous mobility. for example. Just so.62 MANHOOD or HUMANITY is not merely a thing of interest or of convenience. will greatly help the reader if he will retire to the quiet of his cloister and there meditate about as dimension a plane has two and so it has line properties . or propensities of higher dimensionality. a plane and not a line. A line has one a plane contains lines ow^-dimensional properties but it has other properties fwo-dimensional properties and it is these that are peculiar to it. human or physical appetites but humans have other propethical sense. progressiveness erties proplevel. but is absolutely essential as a means of discriminating the carsions until he sees clearly that the idea dinal classes of life from one another and of conit is ceiving each class to be what it instead of mixing It confusedly with something radically different. . this fact is clearly seen and .

there will begin the science of man for then the science and art of human nature and only then we shall begin to escape from the agelong untold immeasurable evils that come from regarding and treating human beings as animals. and we may look forward to an ethics. they can hardly fail to see clearly that it differs both in function and in type or dimension from what is rightly meant by human progress. dimensions is of the utmost importance in the natural sciences. but with the modern theory of de Vries. a jurisprudence and economics. in which there is no intermixing of dimensions. human time-binding capacity lies in an entirely different dimension from that of animals. This mathematical discrimination between classes. as mere binders of space.* * It may be contended by some that animals have been making "progress" or some may say that animals also "bind-time. If people are pleased to talk about the "progress" of animals." This use of words would again become mere verbalism.CLASSES OF LIFE 63 * keenly realized. types. it involves the concept of the "continuum". if any persons wish to talk of animal "progress" or animal "time-binding. because of the transmutation of species. these things are self evident." they should invent a suitable word for it to save them from the blunder of confusing types or mixing dimensions. If animals really progress. The peculiar faculty belonging exclusively to humans which I designate as "time-binding" I have clearly defined as an exponential function of time in the following chapter. which is doubtful because they are an . creators and improvers of good. destined to endless advancement. a mere talking about words mere speculation having nothing to do with facts or with correct thinking. To adjust the Darwin theory to dimensionality is a somewhat more difficult problem. in accord with the potencies of Human Nature. So. life a gov- ernance a science and art of human and so- based upon the laws of human nature because ciety based upon the just conception of humanity as the time-binding class of life.

they will replace basic errors with scientific truths of fundamenolder form of life than humans and they have not shown any noticeable progress to the knowledge of man.64 MANHOOD Humanity is still OF HUMANITY its in childhood. it powerfully stimulated the development of all the branches of natural and technological knowledge. historical fact or trend of civilization. we have At "bound" so little time in the course of the centuries. in mathematical terms. our sciences and our activities. they have served a great purpose in enabling us to understand natural phenomena in approximate way to make it possible to build up modern technology and to develop our a sufficiently physical science to the point where it was necessary and possible to make a correction of the Newtonian laws. to be negligible as an infinitesimal of higher order. The fact that a fallen apple hit Newton. the bottom of every human activity. Even in the event of the Newtonian laws being proved to be not quite correct. led to the discovery of the theory of gravitation. this changed our whole world conception. A similar organic change in our conception of life human and its phenomena is involved in the fore- going definitions of the classes of life." Apples had fallen from trees for ages. but without any important results in the economy of humanity. there lies some doctrine or conception of so-called "truth. their progress is so small in comparison with man's that it may be said. in the which are so brief scheme of the universe. .

CLASSES OF LIFE tal 65 they will form the basis for scientific of a permanent civilization in place of development the periodically convulsive so-called civilizations of importance . the past and present. . To know the cause of evil and error is to find the cure.

The facts are that man is not supernatural but is literally a part of nature 66 . but will confine myself to the more pressing matters of the task the ing. way The to the science hand.CHAPTER WHAT IS IV5 MAN? TVTAN ^ * has ever been the greatest puzzle to man. academic study of man. of which too many have already been written. in consequence of which there has never been a proper principle or starting point for a science of humanity. As the subject of this book is not a theo- retical. (2) man has always been regarded either as an animal or as a man supernatural phenomenon. in are the two which have most retarded human prog- ress: (i) there has never been a true definition of man nor a just conception of his role in the curious drama of the world. I will not recount the reasons. which is that of pointing and art of Human Engineertwo facts which have to be dealt with first.from that of animals and the characteristic nature of has not been understood. It has never been realized that man is a being of a dimension or type different . There are many and important reasons for this fact.

No in matter how. arrived at mathematically. we have to analyse man in three coordinates in three capacities. his activities activities space. Let us imagine that the aboriginal original apes.WHAT is MAN? 67 and that human beings are not animals. "something" made the higher dimenover and above it is enough that . this him that lifted . These concepts are basic and impersonal. To know anything that is to-day of fundamental interest about man.him to a in some-wise. by the power to make the past live in the present and the present for the future. they were alike in A every respect. he became the first time-binder. they are It first mathematically correct. the that he was produced. but something strange happened to B. change sion. human specimen was one of two brother and B. whereas in the study of animals we have to consider only two factors: their chemistry and their activities in space. a human. seen that the their We have animals are truly characterized by their space-binding ca- autonomous mobility animals are space-binders. by their capacity We that human pacity to bind time human beings are time-binders. his chemistry. does not matter at time-binder. have seen are characterized by their creative beings power. in namely. somehow produced. and especially his in time. both were animal space-binders. the fact remains was somewhere. all how the first man.

AM an animal. until in the course of centuries different man said felt himself increas- ingly somehow not from the animal. unnatural laws. He had thus a new faculty. he belonged to a new dimension. of course. and estab- lished speculative. but. artificial. but he to could explain. there was superadded the marvelous new capacity for bindingtime. The time- binding capacity. and because he had able to analyze his is new capacity he was brother "A" . . by neglecting a has been the chief source of human woe for it still half a million years and survives. he therefeore. increased more and more. first manifest in B. / clusion. and formulated the impasse. AN ANIMAL." conclusion With this he estranged himself. could not emulate. as a spark of some thing supernatural." he was not really true to any law and condemned himself to a life of hypocrisy. fact. He was neither true to the "supernatural" which he could not scorned. he did not realize it. with the days and each generation. something apart from nature. is He himself.68 his MANHOOD OF HUMANITY animal capacity for binding space. know and therefore." This fatal first conis reached by false analogy. nor was he true to the "animal" which he Having put himself outside the "natural laws. which put him in a cul-de-sac of a double life. but he is my brother. "If I am an animal there also in me something higher. he observed "A this my brother.

strongest probabilities ably no other single hypothesis has less to recom- and sheer conservatism. The science of Human Engineering can not be built upon false conceptions of human nature. partly because of its conand partly by force of inertia in the very teeth of the Probof biological science. cit.) current to-day: millions still look upon man as a mixture of animal and something supernatural. and lost the sense that he is of it. man. mend it. it can not be ." other so completely dominates (Cassius J. loc. maintained.WHAT is MAN? make 69 us! "How Among blind our familiar assumptions the animals. and yet no the human mind. he has estranged and objectified the world. no doubt. There is no doubt that the engineering of human society is a difficult and complicated problem of for it tre- mendous ethical responsibility. lending its characteristic mark and color to ing. From this he has detached himself in thought. involves the welfare of mankind throughout an unending succession of generations. is still his whole philosophy and art and learn- venience. And this age-long habit and point of view. which has fashioned his life and controlled his thought. And this monstrous conception is Keyser. It can not be built on the conception of man as a kind of animal. at least. has long been wont to regard himself as a being quite apart from and not as part of the cosmos round about him.

It must be built upon the scientific conception of mankind as characterized by their time-binding capacity and function. This mighty term timewill be found to em- WHOLE of the natural laws. conception of man as being at once natural and higher in dimensionality than the animals. view of human It is human society. just. is there- will represent every quality that such words as is everything that fied as implied good. while merely space-binding will be classiits "animal" and be thus assessed at proper value. the natural economics. then really peaceful and progressive civilization. Those ignorant "masters of our destinies" who regard humans as animals or as monstrous hybrids of natural and supernatural must be dethroned by scientific education. must be obvious to any one that time-binding the only natural criterion and standard for the life. This conception radically life. . the natural ethics. not before. beautiful.70 built MANHOOD OF HUMANITY on the conception of man as a mixture of natIt must be built upon the ural and supernatural. in it Everything which is really is in the HUMAN DIMENSION. alters our whole and the world. without periodical collapses and violent readjustments. right. the natural sociology. the natural philosophy. "time-binding" fore. the natural governance. to be brought into the education of time-binders. time-binding class of binding brace the when comprehended. will commence.

! which powerfully affect the physico-chemical base of our time-binding activities. Humans are thus made untrue to fact. and the spell has operated to suppress their REAL HUMAN NATURE and to prevent it from ex- pressing itself naturally and freely. On the other hand. conception of man as a mixture of animal and supernatural has for* ages kept human beings under the deadly spell of the suggestion that. no matter how immoral they are. he will murder or commit arson or theft. the personal morale of the individual has only a small influence upon his conduct. but seem unable to realize that.WHAT Humans and at the is MAN? 71 can be literally false teachings. Many poisoned by false ideas people have a just horror thought of putting poison into tea or coffee. under hypnotic influence. then they will spontaneously . time-binding capacity One has to stop and think There is nothing mystical about the fact that ideas and words are energies ideas false and doctrines. when human beings are educated to a lively realization that they are by nature time-binding creatures. that." Hypnotism is a known has been proved that a man can be so hypnotized that in a certain time which has been It suggested to him. "human nature. animal selfishness and animal greediness are their essential character. when they teach false they are poisoning the of their fellow men and women. the subject obeys the hypnotic sug- The gestions.

as have said. his being. MUST ACT TO LIVE (through the ORDER TO BE ABLE or society) The misunder- action of parents which is not the case with animals. true for the But not HUMAN DIMENSION. but is only by men's artificial productivity. IN BINDING CAPACITY." die out This is true for ANIMALS. Man.72 live in MANHOOD OF HUMANITY accordance with their time-binding nature. . I which. . is the source and support of the highest ideals. Even that a crea- ture must live before it can act. . achieved in blaming a man for being selfish and greedy if he acts under the influence of a is What social environment and education which teach him is that he an animal and that selfishness and greediness are of the essence of his nature? so eminent a philosopher and psychologist as Spencer tells us: "Of self-evident truths so dealt with. Ethics has to recognize the truth that egoism comes before altruism. by the very intrinsic character of FIRST. which THE MATERIALIZATION OF THEIR TIMEtherefore. the one which here concerns us is . because animals from lack of food when their natural supply of it is insufficient because they have NOT THE it is CAPACITY TO PRODUCE ARTIFICIALLY. Why not? Because humans through their time- binding capacity are first of all creators and so their number is not controlled by the supply of unaided nature.

It is all so simple. FOR HUMANITY IN ORDER TO LIVE MUST ACT FIRST . and this effect becomes in turn the Here even cause of other effects which produce still others. the laws of ethics the laws of right living are laws of human nature laws having whole source and sanction in the time-binding capacity and time-binding activity peculiar to man. natural laws their Human excellence is excellence in time-binding. and . and so on in an endless chain.WHAT is MAN? 73 standing of this simple truth is largely accountable for the evil of our ethical and economic systems or lack of systems. LIVE BECAUSE WE WE PRODUCE. the postulates of ethics must be changed. BECAUSE WE ARE ACTING IN TIME AND ARE NOT MERELY ACTING IN SPACE BECAUSE MAN is NOT A KIND OF ANIMAL. If human ethics are to be human. It is just because binders shelter human that beings are not animals but are timenot mere finders but creators of food and they are able to live in such vast numbers. As a matter of fact. artificial production would cease and ninety per cent of production mankind would perish by starvation. if only we apply a little sound logic in our thinking about human nature and human affairs. the blind must see the effect of higher dimensionality. if humanity were to live in complete accord with the animal contime-binding ception of man. are to be in the human dimension.

economics. is a properly used. they must be made to progress and the human to function in the proper dimension dimension and not that of animals: they must be made time-binding sciences. To an engineer human life is an equivalent to energy. is to analyse the generator with a view to discovering how best to conserve it. if can. the first thing to do. jurisprudence. psy- chology. mental or musand the moment something is found to be a source of energy and to have the capacity of doing work. Can this be done? I have no doubt that it For what is human life after all? To a general in the battlefield. human life factor which. must produce creatively and therefore must be guided by applied science. politics. cular. and this means that the so- called social sciences of ethics. Experience has shown . and govern- ment must be emancipated from medieval metaphysics. by technology. in order to live. from the engineer's point -of view. can destroy the enemy. and bring it to the level of maximum productivity. or a capacity to do work.74 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY must be measured and rewarded by time-binding standards of worth. to improve it. sociology. Humanity. they must be made scientific. Human beings are very complicated energy-produc- ing batteries differing widely in quality and magnitude of productive power. they must be technologized.

human batteries have the remark- able capacity of reproduction. the batteries will cease to func- they will die. divided into branches each of which has a very different role which it must perform in harmony with all the others. these we call brain glands. teries is MAN? of all. mechanical and knowledge chemical phenomena of nature. and nerves. we the chemical parts funcfind also a mysterious apparatus with a comall make plex of wires which and. teries are not supplied periodically with a more or less constant quantity of some chemical elements called food and air. The chemical processes not only deposit particles of mass for the structure of the generator but produce some very powerful unknown kinds of energies or vibrations which tion .WHAT that these batteries are. 75 chemical batIf these bat- first producing a mysterious energy. From of other physical. finally. has all the . that this fect human battery is the most perit example of a complex engine. we must come to the These functions are familiar the conclusion. The mechanical parts of the structure are built in conformity to the rules of mechanics and are automatically furnished with lubrication and with chemical supplies for automatically renewing worn-out parts. In the examination of the structure of these batteries we find that the chemical base tion is very much accentuated This chemical generator all is through the structure. to everybody.

The parts and functions of this marvelous engine have been the subject of a vast amount of research in various special branches of very noteworthy fact is that both the physical work and the mental work of this human engine are always accompanied by both physical and science. to elecThis human engine-battery tricity and to radium. if not properly used. The reader may wish to ask: What is the essence es- of the time-binding power of Man? Talk of sences is metaphysical it is not scientific. durability and perfection. Let explain by an example. me What tricity is is electricity? The scientific answer is: elec- that which exhibits such and such phe- . is of unusual strength. especially wireless phenomena. It also wear and tear of non-living presents certain sexual and spiritual phenomena that have a striking likeness to certain phenomena. and yet it is very liable to damage and even wreckage.76 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY combined with a peculiarities of a chemical battery generator of a peculiar energy called life. A chemical changes in the structure of its machinery corresponding to the engines. it is thus equipped with both mental and mechanical means for producing work. delicate The controlling factors are very and so the engine is very capricious. it has mental or spiritual capacities. Very special training and understanding are necessary for its control. above all.

and so the natural productivity of the increasingly inadequate. Some descriptive term was necessary to indicate that human capacity which discriminates human beings from animals and marks man as man. becomes more and more manifest upon What Is there are the conditions of life upon this earth? war or peace in daily life? All living beings require food. animal and human. but the tendency checked by various counteracting influences. We are studythose phetalk of So. will lead to the science And what Engineernot and Human ing is knowledge of time-binding phenomena vain babble about an essence of time-binding power. in Human Engineering we has is shall not talk of the essence of time-binding but only of the led to phenomena and the the laws thereof.WHAT nomena. short time ago these checks had so operated A . Thus it is in physics there is no essences. group of ing Electricity is MAN? a 77 certain means nothing but called electric. phenomena electricity when we are studying nomena. For that use the appropriateness of the term time-binding reflection. in soil becomes The tendency true of all life is to increase geometrical ratio is vegetable. electric What not development of of electrical appliances knowledge phenomena art of meta- physical talk about the electrical essence. too. There is no mystery about the word time-binding. they multiply in a geometrical ratio. natural and artificial.

and its a men progressive in triumph means progressive advancement weal. is and many other factors are hostile to life. perpetual war in methods must be applied.. tion of And so in the last century the populait Europe increased more than had increased soil. the lack of rainfall. in several centuries before.passed through a tremendous worldwide military war and we developed special ways of producing power to overcome the enemy. that it human must especially struggle for existence. Impoverished exces- sive heat or cold. human not be The lesson of the World War should . It is only by the timebinding capacity of man by scientific progress and that the checks have been technological invention growth of human overcome. every-day life. there is war have just . life It evident. We were thus driven to discover some of the hidden sources of power and all of our old habits and ideas were bent toward military methods and military technology. We The war is elements war of every-day life against hostile for the subjugation of physical is nature and not for the conquest of people. excessive moisture. contest for self if must carry on a perpetual preservation. It seems obvious that. therefore. It war carried on by the time-binding power of pitted against natural obstacles.78 to annul the MANHOOD or HUMANITY law of increase as almost to stop the population.

I law and What want to emphasize in this little book. instead of asking those whose profession to fight for the division of things produced by nature or by other human beings. the normal daily war of millions and millions of individuals sources to to subjugate natural re- human uses is interrupted. . what even more important. due to the great release of power in the new-born giant technology. when there is trouble with the producing power of the world. ethics. and the slow- gathered fruits of measureless toil are destroyed. As a matter of fact our civilization has been for a long time disorganized to the point of disease. and the revision must be made by engineering minds in order that our ideas may be made to match facts. Politicians. We must learn that. diplomats. we have to consult an engineer. But peaceful war. is the need of a thoroughgoing revision of our ideas. Lately through the whirl of changing conditions.WHAT is MAN? 79 missed through failure to analyse it. not a charlatan. What I must learn to ask those am advocating is that we is who know how to produce things. an expert on power. technological philosophy. When nations war with nations. and lawyers do not understand the problem. If we are ill. the disorganization has become acute. we consult a physician or a surgeon. war for the conquest of nature. involves the use of is methods of technology and.

in the conditions in which nature produces them. to be enduring. The three requirements may be briefly character- ized and appraised as follows: Raw material and soil are products of na( i ) ture. tory production demands analysis of basic facts. is If the cure source. are of very little immediate benefit to humanity. this we have to go to the can be done only by men familiar. because untilled soil produces very little food for humans. No mere preaching of brotherly produce one single brick love. not only with effects but also with the causes. and (3) the application of power. To soil. will for the building of the future temple of human vicOrdered the temple of human civilization. tion is is the main of maximum production. it is necessary to have production put on a sound basis. Money is not the wealth of a nation. This era is essentially an industrial era. but produc- and wealth. pro- duce we have to have : (i) raw material or tools (2) instruments for production: and machines. or class hatred. humanity simply took them and had the use of them for nothing. because it is impossible to call a prayer of thanksgiving (if any) addressed to a "creator" as payment to gods or men.8o MANHOOD OF HUMANITY sick The seldom know the cure for themselves. But raw material and soil. so ordered production But to have the object for humanity. and raw material such as .

(3) application of power. minerals. indeed they make the ence of humanity possible. As to the second requirement for production. mental and And. by his "time-binding" Raw materials of the second class have exist- an enormous use-value. it materials in make them available obvious that even raw the form in which nature has produced them. finally: human work.WHAT wood. copper. are mostly of no value and unavailable for the process of use. necessary to cut a tree for the is making of timber. namely: (2) Tools "'tools and machines. Different sources of natural energy and power are known. it is obvious that and machines" are made of raw material by muscular. and even it then. we may well conclude that "raw material" must be divided creative production. So. mental and muscular capacities. is MAN? etc. unless reproduced through Therefore." into "human two very distinct classes: (a) raw material as produced by nature nature's free gift which in its original form and place has practically no usevalue. oil.. only to is necessary to excavate the by applying further human work is it possible for any human use. coal. useless to humanity It is until after human work ap- plied to them. The most The . and (b) raw material reproduced by man's activities. 81 are completely is iron.

which. All albuminoids found in animals are produced by the processes fulfilled in plants. Nitrogen I5-I9%> Oxygen 20-24%. Albuminoids play the most vital role in plant life and are an extensive class of organic bodies found in plants and animals. but once it is a component part of a substance. Nitrogen chemically has an exceptional inertness toward most other substances. From the soil the nitrates in a combination called nitrates. almost all of these combinations are a very powerful source of energy.* the * It must be remembered here that our world is. Nitrite of amyl acts upon our organs in a pass into the plant. and all of them have a very strong effect upon organic life. Nitric acid acts through oxidation. Venous blood . energy the chemical energy. The history of the earth and its life is simply the history of different chemical periods. with its tendency to combinations Different elements act in different ways. Nitric acid occurs in nature. A laughing gas. of wind power. first of all. abounds in the serum of the blood and forms an important part of the muscles and brain. They all contain nitrogen. Albumen is an are mostly of some nitrogenous compound. strange fact is to be noticed about nitrogen. growth and transforming agency of plants. nerves. took and takes One of these forms of different known and unknown forms. This solar heat is the origin of water power. Alkaloids are compounds of a vegetable origin. which to-day. generally of complex composition and capable of producing marked effects upon animals.3-2. organic compound of great importance in life. most violent and spasmodic way. Nitrous oxide is the so-called is and exchanges.0%. as well as in the first period of primitive organic life.82 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY important available source of energy for this globe is the sun the heat of the sun. analysis shows that they contain approximately: Carbon 50-55%. the substances are burned up by the oxygen given off from the acid. Hydrogen 6. Explosives which are a chemical means of storing tremendous amounts of energy.9-7. and of power bound up in coal. of the chemistry.5%. with different transformations of energy. Sulphur 0. Their exact constitution is not known. besides being the characteristic ingredient in the white of an egg. as they are found to form the chief constituents of blood. a dynamic conglomeration of matter and energy.

Arterial blood: Nitrogen. already.WHAT is MAN? $3 All foods which the animals as well as the humans use are. Oxygen. such changes as do take place are initiated by a sub. This part initiates these changes which constitute the development of the cell. no other sources of contains in 100 volumes: power are avail- Nitrogen. .5. When we ask what this fulminating powder is composed of. Our modern method of firing a gun is to place in close proximity with the gunpowder which we choose to decompose or explode. 14. in technology. 23. "Nitrogenous compounds in general. and the seed differs extensive from the rest of the plant in its ability to initiate .3. . 15. We see that organic matter is stance containing nitrogen. It is a curious and significant fact that. . are extremely prone to decomposition. . and which on decomposing. so constituted that small incidental actions are capable of initiating great reaction and liberating large quantities of power.2. . to be clearly seen that the only source of is energy which can be directly appropriated and used by man or animal is vegetable food found in the wilderness. ." Spencer. The seed of a plant contains nitrogenous substances in a far higher ratio than the rest of the plant. Carbonic Acid.. . .. in every living vegetal cell there is a certain part that contains nitrogen. which is decomposed or exploded with . . even in organisms and parts of organisms where the activities are least. . their decomposition often involving a sudden and great evolution of force. Transformation of energies It is building up of life. we find that it is a nitrogenous salt. the changes constituting germination. extreme facility. . . . 62. . but we employ for the purpose compounds of the same general class. Oxygen. . communicates the consequent molecular disturbances to the less easily decomposed gunpowder. 13. Simivital changes larly in the bodies of animals .3. we not only utilize the same principle of initiating extensive changes among comparatively stable compounds by the help of compounds much less stable. We see that substances classed and we see that are all nitrogenous as ferments. a small portion of fulminating powder. Carbonic Acid. .6. the result of the solar energy transformed into what may be called chemical energy. 71.

. they have and directed by human brain. But in the case supposed. they would be confined to those comparatively small regions of the globe where the climate and the fertility of the soil are specially favorable. have very (2) in the little form as produced by nature or no value for humanity. to understand the processes of production.84 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY first able for direct use. alone. as we have seen. which. depending exclusively on wild fruits and the like. to be mastered is The same true in regard of a water. This short survey of facts. or a bushel of wheat. If humanity had only the capacity of apes. problems of pro- come ultimately to the analysis of Natural resources of raw material and nat- ural energy. or a steam engine. essential to realize that it is humanity is able to sur- vive only by virtue of the capacity of humans to exto convert the products of ploit natural resources nature into forms available for human needs. (because muscles are always directed by the brain) which gives value to the otherwise useless raw ma- The activity of the human brain human terials and energies. the creation human "time-binding" power. brings us to the conclusion that duction 1 i ) known all to everybody. Hence. these are not available except by the use of the to the getting of animal food. or the art of using a team of horses. freely supplied by nature.or windmill.

A stone obeys the natural laws of stones. the plant and the animal do not possess the intellectual power to create and initiate and so must blindly obey the laws that are natural for them. in the world which we there are natural laws of inorganic as well as organic is. therefore. Not so with man. One of them which must be kept conis that. they are not free to determine their own destinies. they would not be mere spacetime-binders they would be animals binders. which help or hinder the processes of production upon which the lives and happiness of mankind essentially It and fundamentally depend. that the human has the peculiar capacity of establishing the social laws and customs which regulate and influence its destinies. there must be fundamental laws which are natural for this class of life. it follows inevitably that there must be natural laws for humans. man has the capacity and he . phenomena. live. an animal. conforms to the natural law of laws of animals liquids. lost sight of in this connection that is must not be the human class of life a part and a product of and that. a plant. Another of the class of life facts as before said. to the natural . a liquid nature. to the natural laws of plants. There are other stantly in in facts mind. for the stone.WHAT is MAN? 85 humans would not be humans. But here the problem becomes more complicated.

The great problem has been felt as a powerful way to impulse throughout the ages of human striving. in every instance. the natural laws for the human class of life. or misinterpret. ural laws of the The problem is human class of to discover the natlife. though they have differed widely. marks the summit of enterprises. What a has been the trouble? The trouble has been. MANHOOD OF HUMANITY through ignorance or neglect or mal-intent.86 can. they agree in one respect they have had a common fate the fate of being false. for in all times it has been evident to thinkers that upon the right solution of the problem must forever depend the welfare of mankind. a radical misconception of what human being really is. Many "solutions" have been offered. human For to solve this problem to open the everything which can be of importance to humanity to human welfare and happiness. and. seems impossible to evade To discover the nature of Man is and the laws of that nature. deviate from. which grow out of the false conception according to which human beings are anical solutions are those . and the source of human it Just therein lies the secret a fact of chaos and woe it such tremendous importance that cannot be overit emphasized and longer. All the "solu- tions" offered in the course of history and those which are current to-day are of two and only two kinds The zoologizoological and mythological.

economics. Such have been and still are the regnant philosophies of human nature. government life become nothing but branches of zoology. is central. politics. dominant. if humans are animals. politics and government. they are the studies of animal . must be based upon and guided by realities. as sciences. they are the arts of . scientifically judged. and so the social "sciences" of ethics.WHAT is MAN? 87 mals. law. economics. ophy. managing and conis trolling animals according to this zoological philos- human wisdom about human beings wisdom about animals. all-embracing reality the reality . animal mythological "solutions" are those which the monstrous conception according to which human beings have no proper place in nature start with The but and supernatural unions or combinations of animality and divinity. law. It is essential to realize that the great. vitiating ethics. silly. Such "solutions" contain no conception of natural are mixtures of natural law. like all other scientific enterprises. they are mythological ab- surdities muddle-headed chattering of crude and irresponsible metaphysics well-meaning no doubt. the laws of human nature are the laws of animal nature. but and deadly in their effects upon the interests of mankind. What is the remedy? How are the laws of It is human nature to be discovered? evident that the enterprise. as arts.

uses. and trans- . If we misconceive this funda- mental matter. and not something else. controls. In neutral or (3) harmful.88 of MANHOOD or HUMANITY human nature. This time-binding activity fact must be firmly seized and kept steadily in mind. ( human economy work may be I ) useful or (2) sig- These words have no human economy. The proband applying the "laws of human the problem of discovering and applying of to the conduct of life the laws of time-binding of time-binding energy. And we have discovered what man is we have disstress : covered that man is characterized by the capacity or power to bind time. on the absolute necessity of conceiving Man as being what he really is. but the ter if we may confidently expect enterprise to prosper." I have laid so much we conceive it aright. that is both logically clear and clear in the sad light of history. and so we have defined life. is This time-binding energy higher dimensionality it than of of higher rank other natural the energies which directs. nificance except in is the capacity to do work. in the chapon "The Classes of Life. the enterprise must fail. That is why. for able to direct. humanity cept is as the time-binding class of That conthe fundamental. Energy. to use. It contains the germ of science and art of Human lem of discovering nature" is Engineering. we have noted. to transform other energies. The energy of it the is human intellect is a time-binding energy.

of events with an ever-increasing burden of intel- lectual achievements. we have seen the immense difference between them. of spiritual wealth.WHAT forms. law of the increase? And what is the natural What is the natural law of great matters of human advancements concern? in all human of utmost importance both theowhatever it be retically and practically. geometric In other words. it is an that loads abstract time the vehicle energy ates. the natural law of the natural law of amelioration in the human progress human affairs nature fundamental law of human the basic law of the time-binding energy . destined for the civilization of posterity. is MAN? which is 89 This higher energy commonly is called the mental or spiritual power of man time- binding because the present is it makes past achievements live in and present activities in time-to-come. What is the law? cal have already noted the law of arithmetiprogression and the law of geometric progres- We sion. for the law is a natural law a law a law of human nature question is The of the time-binding energy of man. and we have seen that the natural law of human progress in each and every cardinal matter is a law like that of a rapidly increasing progression. it is an energy that creit is an energy that can understand the past and foretell the future it is both historian and prophet. It an energy that initiates.

90 peculiar to MANHOOD OF HUMANITY man is a Logarithmic law I a law of logarithmic increase. that made by the 3 third generation will be PR . . It is and its significance is mighty and its Even mathematical formulation can girls. common the ratio the ratio of improvement number by which the progress of one generation must be multiplied to give the amount of progress made by the next generation. . PR*. and so on. . . Then the following series will show the law of human progress in the chosen field: PR. PR*. him but to make it his own. . where R denotes the that is. counting the first one and all that follow in endless succession. PRT PRT+1 . the third generation starts notice with 2 PR+PR2 PR +PR and . . . . adds so PR3 and ends with PR + in 3 . then the amount of progress made by the second generation will be PR 2 . . Let us see how the Suppose PR to denote the amount of progress made tion in some important field by a given generawhich we may call the "first" generation. PR2 PR3 . how it goes. the term bewilder beg the reader not to let easy to understand. . the first generation ends with PR. be understood by boys and formulation looks. now denote by T the number of generations. adds PR 2 . and ends with PR-\-PR 2 . the second generation starts with PR. the gain made . everlasting. on and on.

this total gain is given by the formula. made in T generations . +PRT '. which first 1024 times the progress made in " " generation.(PR j^ i T P). and we readily compute that the total gain in 10 generations is 2046 times the progress " made in the first "generation. now is in all fields it nor has it ever done when we point once acquire sense enough to let it do so. . progress of each generation to be double that of the preceding one) and if we merely take T to be (say) 10. Moreover. but in all fields of human " " I have just now interest. . That sense we shall have when and only when we disthat will so operate My cover that by nature we are time-binders and that is the effectiveness of our time-binding capacity not .WHAT the is MAN? the total gain gi T tk generation is is PRT '. it does said. not so operate so. If we take R to be 2 (which a very small ratio. not merely on one field. Operates in all fields as a matter of fact. then we see that the progress requiring the made by the is single loth generation is PX2 10 the . the reader must reflect upon the fact that it operates. Total gain in T generations =-5 J\ is . as before pointed out. to gain a just sense of the impressiveness of this law.

naturally qualified only to but to progress more and more rapidly. mathematical and technological sciences. as the generations unlike animals. time-binding human energy. This great fact regulator and guide is to be at once the basis. as I have explained. conformity to the fundamental exponential law of the time-binding nature of man. law. peaceful progress so-called social "sciences" when and only when the life-regulating "sci- ences" of ethics. with progress. are technologized. so that we humans not are. when politics. philosophy. And so I repeat that the world will have uninterthe rupted. is wrong and makes for human woe. as in the expression PR T . religion. like the natural. a a logarithmic or exponential function of time function in which time (T) enters as an exponent. . an always accelerating acceleration. by the equal pace of progress in in all cardinal matters. whatever contravenes it. and government and only when they are made genuinely scientific in spirit and. pass. method. economics.92 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY only a function of time but is. for then and only then will they advance. the in the science and art of Human Whatever squares with that law of Engineering. then and then only. the equilibrium of social insti- tutions will remain stable and social cataclysms cease. is right and makes for human weal.

useful things automatically and therefore without conscious thinking. If an old idea or a system of old ideas be false and therefore harmful. it is a genuine service to attack it and destroy it even if nothing be offered to take its place. habit exceedingly useful the effective conduct of life is indeed even indispensable to for it enables us to do many easily. just as it is good to destroy a rattlesnake lurking by a human pathway. Purely destructive criticism is sometimes highly useful. destructive and constructive at the same time. any it may be purely constructive. however useful destructive criticism may be. it is not an easy false service to render. even if one does not offer a substitute for the snake.CHAPTER WEALTH T BEG the reader to allow Vl me to begin this chap- The reader is aware that Criticism by which I mean Thought may be one of three kinds: it may be purely destructive. are protected alike by habit and by the inborn conservatism of many minds. and thus to save our mental energy for other work. Now. But. but for the same 93 . however and harmful. for old ideas. or it may be both ter with a word of warning.

has difficulties of its thought own. Is such criticism or It easy? Far from These are of two it. it structive critic endeavors to destroy such ideas by reasoning with with automats difficulty us. is who very. On the other hand.94 reason. or do not seem to clash. he finds that he is trying to reason is with machines. very hard to acquire and the third is The third kind of criticism the kind that at once kind of thought structive both dethat and constructive has a double aim of destroying old ideas that are false and that of replacing them with new ideas that are true. habit tect false MANHOOD OF HUMANITY makes us proideas automatically. for the art of being clear and perfectly intelligible to practise. and so the third kind of criticism or thought ficult is the most difdifficulty of all. to reflect a little he will be good enough upon the matter. purely constructive criticism constructive purely thought consists in introducing new ideas of a kind that do not clash. varieties: the difficulty of showing are content with their present stock of people old ideas that the new ones are interesting or important. and the great difficulty of making new ideas clear and intelligible. can not fail to ap- . for it has to overcome both the of destructive criticism and that of constructive if thought. Such the chief encountered by destructive criticism. therefore. The reader. and so when the deis often very harmful. with old ones.

WEALTH predate the tremendous writing of this little 95 difficulties which beset the only that the critical it work belongs what is book. essen- keep in mind the nature of our enterprise as a whole. while the true ideas it seeks to substitute for them are fundamental and new. is to be the science and recting human energies and capacities them contribute most of . is. greatly enhanced and felt with especial keenness in the present chapI therefore beg the reader to give me here ter. world-wide and old. which is that of pointing the way to the science and art of Human Engineering and laying the founseen dations thereof. not to the third kind of thought. we have Human when developed. very special cooperation the cooperation of openIt is mindedness. candor and tial to critical attention. seen that the ages-old and still current con- zoological and mythological conceptions. culty. Engineering. This great diffi* felt at every stage of this writing. art of so dias to make effectively to the advancement human welfare we have must have its seen that this science and art basis in a true conception of human is nature a just conception of what Man really and we have of his natural place in the complex of the world. for a reason to be presently explained. but much more the errors aims to destroy are fundamental. for he must perceive. according to which human beings are either are animals or else hybrids of animals and gods ceptions of man .

96

MANHOOD OF HUMANITY

mainly responsible for the dismal things in human history; we have seen that man, far from being an
animal or a compound of natural and supernatural,
is

a perfectly natural being characterized by a certain

capacity or

time

;

we

the capacity or power to bind have seen that humanity is, therefore, to be

power

rightly conceived

and

scientifically

defined

as

the

time-binding class of life; we have seen that, therefore, the laws of time-binding energies and time-

binding phenomena are the laws of human nature; we have seen that this conception of man which must be the basic concept, the fundamental principle

and the perpetual guide and regulator of Human Engineering is bound to work a profound transformation in all our views on human affairs and, in particular,

must

radically

alter

the

so-called

social

"sciences"

the life-regulating "sciences" of ethics,

sociology, economics, politics

and government
estate of

ad-

vancing them from their present

sciences to the level of genuine sciences

nologizing them for the effective service I call them "life-regulating," not because they play a more important part in human affairs than do the

pseudo and techof mankind.

genuine sciences of mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy and biology, for they are not more important than these, but because they are, so to say, closer, more immediate and more obvious in their
influence

and

effects.

These

life-regulating sciences

WEALTH
are, of coiwse, not independent; they

97

depend

ulti-

mately upon the genuine sciences for much of their power and ought to go to them for light and guidsaying they are not independent is that they are dependent upon each other, interpenetrating and interlocking in innumerI

ance; but

what

mean here by

able ways.
sciences will

To show

in

detail

how

the so-called
to

have to be transformed

make them
qualify

accord with the right conception of

man and

them

for their proper business will eventually require

a large

volume or indeed volumes.

In this introductory work I cannot deal fully with one of those "sciences" nor in suitable outline with each of them separately. I must be content here to deal, very briefly, with one of them by way of illustration

and suggestion.

Which one

shall

it

be

?

Now among
is

these life-regulating "sciences" there
its

one specially marked by the importance of
its

sub-

ject,

by prominence in the public mind. I the "dismal science" of Political Economy.
present chapter
I shall discuss three

central relation to the others

and by its mean Economics

For

that

reason I have chosen to deal with economics.

In the

of

its

principal

terms

Wealth, Capital and

Money

with a view

to showing that the current meanings
tations of these familiar terms

and

interpre-

must be very greatly

deepened, enlarged and elevated if they are to accord with facts and laws of human nature and if the so-

98

MANHOOD OF HUMANITY
which employs them
is

called "science"

to

become

a genuine science properly qualified to be a branch

Engineering. It is to be shown that the meanings currently attached by political economists and others to the terms in question belong to what

of

Human

have called the period of humanity's childhood; and it is to be shown that the new meanings which
I

must receive belong to the period of humanity's manhood. It will be seen that the new meanings differ so radically from the old ones as
the terms

make it desirable for the sake of But the new meanings new names.
to
scientifically desirable,
is

clarity to give
this,

however

impracticable because the

old terms

wealth, capital,
in the

money

are so deeply

imbedded

speech of the world.

And

here

comes

view the very special difficulty alluded to above and which led me to request the reader's
into

special cooperation in this chapter.
is

The

difficulty

not merely that of destroying old ideas that are false; it is not merely that of replacing them with
it is

true ideas that are new; habitually to associate

that of causing people

meanings that are new and
false.
is

true with terms associated so long, so universally, so

uniformly with meanings that are

The

secret of philosophy, said Leibnitz,

to treat

familiar things

as

unfamiliar.

By

the

secret

of

call science.

"philosophy" Leibnitz meant the secret of what we Let us apply this wholesome maxim in

WEALTH

99

our present study; let us, in so far as we can, regard as the familiar terms wealth, capital and money
unfamiliar; let us deal with them afresh;
let

us

examine openmindedly the facts the phenomena to which the terms relate and ascertain scientifically
the significance the terms
science of

must have

in a

genuine
facts" I

human economy.
is

Examine "the

say

examine "the phenomena"
is

for bending facts

to theories
to facts

a vital danger, while bending theories

essential to science

and the peaceful prog-

ress of society.

Human
values

beings have always

had some sense of

some perception or cognition of values. In order to express or measure values, it was necessary to introduce units of measure, or units of exchange.
People began to measure values by means of agri-

cultural

and other products, such

as cattle, for ex-

ample. The Latin word for cattle was pecus, and the word pecunia, which came to signify money, accounts for the meaning of our familiar word pecuniary. The earliest units for measuring became unsuited to the

increasing needs
traffic.

of growing trade,

"business," or

Finally a unit called

money
to

was adopted

in

which the base was the value of some

weight of gold.

Thus we

see that

money came

mean simply
But what

the accepted unit for measuring, repre-

senting and expressing values of and in wealth.
is

wealth?

I

have said that the old

ioo

MANHOOD

OF HUMANITY

the conconceptions of wealth, capital and money ceptions that are still current throughout the world

belong to the period of humanity's childhood they are childish conceptions. I have said that they

must be replaced by
ceptions
fit

scientific

conceptions

by con-

for humanity's manhood.

that must be

made

in

The change our conceptions of the great

terms

It is necessary to analyse the is tremendous. current conceptions of wealth, capital, and money in order to reveal the childish conceptions of them

their falseness, stupidity

and

folly.

To

do

this

we

must enter the

field

of Political

Economy

a field

beset with peculiar difficulties and dangers.

All the

the impression that there
to gain a true conception

Furies of private interests are involved. One gains is little or no real desire
a scientific conception

of wealth.
definition

Everybody seems to prefer an emotional
a definition that suits his personal love
it.

of wealth or his hatred of
wealth, capital and books of political

Many

definitions of

money

are to be found in
definitions

modern

economy

and books

belonging to humanity's childhood. For the purpose of this writing they all of them look alike they
sufficiently

agree

they are
tells

all

of them childish.

Mill, for example,

us that wealth consists of

"useful or agreeable things which possess exchangeable value."
nitions
is

Of

capital

one of the simplest

defi-

this:

being accepted equally without reference to the character or credit of the person who offers it. to tender it to others in discharge of debts or full payment for commodities. Economics of Industry. cold. blood poisoning or the attacks of wild animals." (Alfred Marshall. so as to use his hide for clothes and his meat his brain for food. its ethics is zoological ethics. in turn. elements of natural logic and natural ethics absent. make . metaphysical.WEALTH 101 "Capital is that part of wealth which is devoted to obtaining further wealth. Our primitive forefather in the jungle would have died from hunger. to kill an animal. bluntly do not correspond to facts. The are The sophisticated ideas about the subject of political economy. and legalPolitical istic. or to break and to wood and trees for a shelter some weapons for defense and hunting. Its reasonings are mainly speculative. or apply it to any other use than. if he had not used and muscles to take some stone or a piece of wood to knock down fruit from trees. and without the intention of the person who receives it to consume it. heat." economy has many different schools of thought and methods of classification. Trade and Industry) from hand to money is as follows: "Money that which passes freely hand throughout the community in final discharge of debts and full payment for commodities. or to enjoy it.) Walker defines (in his Money. based on the zoological conception of man as an animal.

probably by chance.) Our fire primitive forefather's first acquaintance with was probably through lightning. binding being. the of fire and also the good effect stored-up energy of the sun in vegetation and its He was already a timeprimitive beneficial use. acquired experiences. he established one of the first facts in technology. Thus nature revealed to him one of its great gifts. even after his death. tions. he was reflecting those natural laws that belong to his class of life. . progressiveness had got into his blood he was above the estate of animals. evolution had brought him to that Being a product of nature. We also observe that primitive man produced made observacommodities.IO2 "In the strike first MANHOOD or HUMANITY stone which he first wild animal he pursues." (R. Torrens. down the fruit which hangs above we see the appropriation of one article for the purpose of aiding in the acquisition of another and thus we discover the origin of capital. he discovered. An Essay on the Production of Wealth. the possibility of making fire by rubbing together two pieces of wood and by striking together two pieces of stone. in the (the savage) flings at the stick that he seizes to his reach. he had ceased to be static he had become dynamic level. and that some of the produced commodities had a use-value for other people and remained good for use. he felt the warm effect of broiling his food by finding some roasted animals in a fire.

) All those things are time-binding phenomena produced by the time-binding capacity of man. (As we know. His child not only directly received initiated into all of his experiences some of the use-values produced by him. is childishly undeveloped Humanity has some conceptions about dimensions and talks of the world in which as having three dimensions. but was and observations. freely supplied by nature. the real meanings of things that are basic or funda- mental. as defined in mechanics. means the ratio of work done to the time used in doing it. all of this mental and manual work consumed an amount of his part finally which time. It is obvious that all of these elements are indispensable to produce anything of any value. and some work on shaped the thing. must notice the strange fact that. combined with some mental work which gave him the conception of how to make and to use the object. All of our conceptions are relative and all comparative.WEALTH The produced commodities were composed 103 of raw material. of them are based upon matters . humanity has not learned to grasp . though very in others. from the engineering point of view. power. or of any use-value. We developed in some ways. humanity. but man has not known that this capacity was his defining mark. yet even in its we live wildest imagination it can not picture tangibly a fourth dimension nay.

and so on. have yet to learn and apply the lesson that not only our material wealth and capital but our science and art and learning and wisdom all We that goes to constitute our civilization were produced.104 MANHOOD or HUMANITY which we do not yet understand. he found that some of his appliances were not good. the progress of humanity went on. we have not yet grasped the obvious fact import for all a fact of immeasurable of the social sciences that with little exception the wealth and capital possessed by a given generation are not produced by its the inherited fruit of dead men's own toil toil but are a free gift of the past. In political economy the meagreness of our understanding is especially remarkable. nevertheless and it is a fact of the greatest importance we learn how to use many things which we do not fully understand and are not yet able to define. Through the work of his brain and its direction in the use of his muscles. we talk of time. but no one has been able to define them in terms of the data of sensation. for example. made . electricity. I will not enlarge he better ones. but he was able to cause nature to express itself. space. by finding a way to release nature's stored up energy. gravity. Primitive man and thus slowly at first. not by our own labor. but by the timebinding energies of past generations. used natural laws without knowing them or understanding them.

Humans did not knew feel that they did not create nature. After the death of a man. In the earliest times the religious. such as weapons. Those facts had made by someone important consequences. objects for some particular use could be used by someone ing. users again the experiences acquired by one member of a family or a group of people were taught by example or precept to others of the same generation Such simple facts are the corner stones of our whole civilization and they are to the next generation. in their unsophisticated morale. legal and ethical systems had not been invented. or the caves adapted for liv- some years by its parents or it would have died. They "proper" to "expropriate the creator" and legalistically appropriate the earth and its treasure it for themselves. The morale at that time was a natural morale. . that being called into existence they had a natural right to exist and to use freely the gifts of nature in the preservation of their life. fishing or hunting instruments. a baby had to be nourished for else.WEALTH upon the history of the evolution of because it is 105 civilization told in many books. and the direct result of the HUMAN CAPACITY OF TIME- BINDING. philosophical. and that is what they did. even after the death of one or more successive . some of the objects produced by him still survived. They felt.

io6

MANHOOD OF HUMANITY
to-day
is

The world

full

of controversy about

wealth, capital, and money, and because humanity, through its peculiar time-binding power, binds this

element "time"
the

in

an ever larger and larger degree,

controversy

becomes more and more

acute.

Civilization as a process is the process of binding time progress is made by the fact that each generation adds to the material and spiritual wealth which
;

it

inherits.

Past achievements

the fruit of bygone

time

thus live in the present, are augmented in the

present,

and transmitted

to the future; the process
is

goes on; time, the essential element,
that,
it

so involved

though arithmetically, its fruit, civilization, advances geometrically. But there is another peculiarity in wealth and

increases

money:

If a

rot or rust quietly on

wooden or iron "inch" be allowed to some shelf, this "inch" does

not represent anything besides this piece of wood or iron. But if we take the MENTAL value of an inch,
this unit of

one of the measures of space, and use

it,

with other quantities, in the contemplation of the skies for the solving of an astronomical problem, it
gives a prophetic answer that, in a certain place there is a star; this star, may be for years looked for in
vain.

Was

it

that the calculation

was wrong?

No,

for after further search with telescopes of greater power, the star is found and the calculation thus
verified.

WEALTH
It is

107
inch

obvious that the "unit"
but
is

has no value

by
the

itself,

very precious as a unit for measuring

phenomenon of length, which it perfectly represents, and that is why it was introduced. It is exactly the same with money if the term be Understood aright, money, rightly understood. being the measure and representative of wealth, is in the main, the measure and the representative of
dead men's
toil; for, rightly understood, wealth is almost entirely the product of the labor of by-gone

This product, we have seen, involves the element of time as the chief factor. And so we
generations.

discover

how money,

nected with time

properly understood, is conthe main function of money is to

measure and represent the accumulated products of
the labor of past generations. Hoarded money is like an iron "inch" upon a shelf a useless lump;

but

when used

as a

measure and representative of

wealth rightly understood, money renders invaluable service, for it then serves to measure and represent
the living fruit of dead men's
toil.

For this reason, it is useless to argue who is the more important, the capitalist who has legal possession of most of the material fruit of dead men's toil,
or the laborer
of
it.

who has

legal possession of but

little

In the laborer,

we do not now

really look

for his physical muscular labor ALONE; for this is replaced by mechanical or animal power as soon as

io8
it

MANHOOD OF HUMANITY
What we do
is

can be.
will

we

always need,

need from labor, and what HIS TIME-BINDhis BRAIN
be divided into

ING POWER.

The

population of the world

may

different classes; if the classes are not here

enumeris

ated in the customary way,
sary to classify
tion that this
is

it

is

because

it

neces-

human

beings, as nearly as possible,
is

according to their "power-value." There is an ideal classification, but

no asser-

if

someone

moved

to exclaim
I will
is

"what

a foolish, unscientific

division!"

the division

answer by saying: "I grant that foolish and unscientific; but IT IS THE

ONLY
By

DIVISION

WHICH
it

CORRESPONDS TO
is

FACTS
this

IN LIFE, and
'foolishness'

not the writer's

fault.

some good may be accomis

plished."

From an

engineer's point of view humanity

apparently to be divided into three classes; (i) the
intellectuals; (2) the rich;

and (3) the poor.

This

of

to be contrary to all the rules but it corresponds to facts. Of course some logic, individuals belong to two of the classes or even to

division

would seem

all

three of them, an after-war product, but essentially, they belong to the one class IN PROPORTION
to the characteristic which
their life; that
is,

is

the most

marked

in

in the

sense of social classes

BASED ON MAGNITUDE OF VALUES.
( i )

The

intellectuals

are the

men and women

WEALTH
who

109

possess the knowledge produced by the labor of by-gone generations but do not possess the material

wealth thus produced. In mastering and using this inheritance of knowledge, they are exercising their time-binding energies and making the labor of
the dead live in the present and for the future.

(2) The rich are those who have possession and control of most of the material wealth produced by
the toil of bygone generations
unless animated

wealth that

is

dead

and transformed by the time-binding
are those
the

labor of the living.

(3)

The poor

who have

neither the

knowledge possessed by

intellectuals

nor the

material wealth possessed by the rich and who, moreover, because nearly all their efforts, under present
conditions, are limited to the struggle for
istence,

mere

ex-

have

little

or no opportunity to exercise their

time-binding capacity. Let us now try to ascertain the role of the time-

binding class of
necessity, to

savage. of his work and progress we saw that for each successful achievement he often had to wrestle with a
;

life as a whole. We have by back to the beginning back to the go We have seen what were the conditions

very large number of unsuccessful achievements, and his lifetime being so limited, the total of his successful

achievements was very limited, so that he was

able to give to his child only a

few useful objects and

no
the

MANHOOD OF HUMANITY

sum of his experience. Generally speaking, each successor did not start his life at the point where
his father started;

he started somewhere near where

his father left off.

His father gave, say, fifty years to discover two truths in nature and succeeded in making two or three simple objects; but the son does not need to give fifty years to discover and create the same achievements, and so he has time to achieve
something new.

He thus

adds his own achievements
;

to those of his father in tools and experience this is the mathematical equivalent of adding his parent's

years of

life to his

own.

His mother's work and
the

experience are of course included

name

father

and son being only used representatively.
This stupendous Fact
is

the definitive

mark of

humanity

the power to

roll

up continuously the

ever-increasing

achievements

generation endlessly.
is

We

of generation after have seen that this time-

binding power of time. Time flows on, increasing in arithmetical
progression,

an exponential power or function

adding generation unto generation; but the results of human energies working in time do not go on arithmetically; they pile up or roll up

augmenting in accordance with the law of a more and more rapidly increasing geometric progression. The typical term of the
rapidly,

more and more

progression

is

PR T
in

where

PR

denotes the ending

progress

made

the generation with which

we

forming of albuminoids and other substances for All of their nitrates are highhigher purposes. Finally life. its peculiar and definitive mark.WEALTH in increase. varying as time T passes. correspondingly more dynamic. and so the quantity. energy. It is an unrealized fact that in this higher class of . R denotes the ratio and T denotes the number of generations after the chosen progress made quantity. to genebe negligible. its characteristic. agree to start our reckoning. the highest known its of has time-binding capacity as discriminant. but explosives any- way." " The T an exponent. Nature is the source of lowest form of life. is called an exponential function of the time. A beaver dam is always a beaver class dam. explosives. PR of in the Tth generation contains T as start. but time does not play the role it plays animal in human If Animals are limited by death permanently. the definite role to perform Their function is the the economy of nature. so small as to ration. They is powerful sources of some new Animal life uses these "explosives" as food are in and life life. is a remarkable builder of dams. but he does not progress in the way of inventions or furit animals make any progress from generation is A ther development. or low explosives. humanity. have a in all energy. for example. Plants. beaver.

(4) W= (PR -P) T . made the work done PR represents the progress in the Tth generation (T being counted from some generation taken as starting point of reckoning) . ^ lime in accordance T We have seen that. or work. Time = i this - we have by (i) that is. this progress. achievement. is the total work. That fact is of basic importance for the science and art of Human Engineering. is means that the number in PR T which measures the work done generation. the Now. of energy-growth mind the time-binding energy an increasing exponential function of time. W y done in T generations (3) !T that is. being done in one generation. . PR T = Power. a given also the measure of the power that does the work.ii2 the MANHOOD OF HUMANITY law of organic growth develops into the law the life. with the law of geometric progression. T (2) Work=PR = rower. In mechanics we have the well-known formula (i) Work = Power.

. as well as jR. total wealth namely PR T . The foregoing basic man. PR etc. The formula makes mathematically evident the time-binding capacity characteristic of the human class of life. sum 2 powers PR. if we divided this sum by T. The fact remains that P. Properly understood. it is produced by Man and only Man. are peculiarly increasing series of a geometrical character the precise form will be de- veloped in another writing. The reader should not fail to notice very carefully that the expression (4) for total W is progress made the total an expression for the work done the tions in the course of T generaproduced and he should especially note how the expression involves the exponential function of time (T). each working during one and only one generation. wealth consists of the fruits or products of this time-binding capacity of Animals do not produce wealth. the quotient would be a power that would have to act through T generations to produce W.WEALTH It should be noticed that 113 expression for of T different W may by (2) this also be regarded as the .) . (In opinion this writing it is not important to look deeper into these proposed series. formulation should lead to further similar developments throwing much light upon the process " of civilization and serving to eliminate private " from the conduct of human affairs.

shape and so forth. The it first kind perishes the commodities composing useless. and has not the capacity to progress. names. or forgotten but it The one is limited in time time.ii4 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY achievements and progress. imperishable. immo- not used. deteriorate and become it is The other it is per- manent in character. unlimited in POTENTIAL USE-VALUE. The energy is is of a body which due to its called potential energy. Mental use-values are not static but permanently is dynamic. the former I call latter. The energy is of a body which energy. the Analysis will justify the is ' KINETIC USE-VALUE. have seen that the term wealth. called kinetic Here its material use-value has value it is through bile if position. . position. rightly under- means the fruit of the time-binding work of humanity. one thought. one discovery. the impulse . Both kinds have use-value. because cumuThis Human fact is lative. We stood. due to the its motion. may be lost the other. As plants gather in and store up solar energy into sheaves for the use and growth of animal and man so humans are gather- ing and binding the knowledge of past centuries into sheaves for the use and development of generations yet unborn. the other is knowledge. does not wear out. the vital and dynamic difference between ani- mal life and human life. are knocking out the barriers of time. Wealth is of two kinds: one is material.

" we are told. In calling the old conceptions childish. before cited. "Wealth.WEALTH . II. That they are indeed especially if childish concepif tions the reader can not fail to see he will reflect upon them and with the he will compare them conception according to which wealth consists of those things whether they be scientific material commodities or forms of knowledge and understanding that have been produced by the time-binding energies of humanity. and according to which nearly all the wealth of the world at any given time is the accumulated fruit of the toil of past generations the living work of the dead." I have said that such obtaining "Capital is conceptions are childish such definitions of wealth and capital they belong to the period of humanity's childhood. 115 to others they follow the law of an increasing potential function of time. I do not mean that they contain no element of truth .) these names correspond I to the two names of the two mentioned classes of energy." And we are told that that part of wealth which is devoted to further wealth. by trick or trade. "is any useful or agreeable thing which possesses exchangeable value. Here must return to the current conceptions of wealth and capital. This is why (See app. by the product of labor. It seems unnecessary to warn the reader against confusing the "making" of money by hook or crook. with the creating of wealth.

labor directed by the The kinetic use-values of wealth are also created by human toil mainly by the intellectual labor of observation. I mean that they are shallow. The fundamental im- portance of time as a factor in the production of wealth the fact that wealth and the use-values of wealth are literally the natural offspring of the has been completely spiritual union of time with toil overlooked. But how do such use-values arise? The potential use-values in wealth are created by human work operating in time upon raw material given by nature. narrow in their vision. experimentation. I especially mean that they are dumb. these transformations are wrought by human brain labor and human muscular human brain acting in time. wrong in their accent. scientifically or spiritually meagre. not only by the economics. deduction and invention. bcause they are blind. The old conceptions do indeed imply that wealth and capital involve both potential and kinetic use-values.u6 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY whatever. but by the . the element of time enters as an absolutely essential factor. and in so far they are right. all conIt suming the precious time of short human is lives. imagination. obvious that in the creation of use-values whether potential or kinetic. The use-values are produced by time-taking transformations of the raw materials. regarding the central matter that wealth is the natural offspring of Time and Human Toil.

Nature's laws are supreme. unscientific These have made human insurrec- history the history of social cataclysms tions. That is the lesson we must learn from the history of Humanity's childhood. but the end is evil. but the proposition that Money is always true. the 117 jurisprudence and the other branches of speculative reasoning. we cannot change them we can deviate from them for a while. unscientific politics. economies. In the course of the ages there has indeed been much "talk" about time. False con- ceptions of Man ignorance of the laws of unscientific human nature have given us government. but there has been no recognition of the basic significance of time as essential in the conception and in the very constitution of human values. the state- ment is is Time often false. It is often said that "Time is Money". IT IS THUS TRUE THAT MONEY IS A VERY PRECIOUS THING. wars. . It is always true in the pro- found sense that of Wealth Money is the measure and symbol the product of Time and Toil the crystallization of the time-binding human capacity. IN THE MAIN. unscientific law.WEALTH ethics. revolutions sad tokens not so much of human lust as of human ignorance of the laws of . THE LIVING WORK OF THE DEAD. THE MEASURE AND SYMBOL OF WORK IN PART THE WORK OF THE LIVING BUT. throughout the long period of humanity's childhood. un- scientific ethics.

.n8 human a science MANHOOD OF HUMANITY nature. one hope and Human Engineering based upon the just conception of binding class of life humanity as the timeand conforming to the laws of nature including the laws of human nature. There art of is but one remedy.

accumulated wealth in kinetic acquired by experiof life are left and potential use-values created and in the past. called humans. humanity will really understand its Human own nature and status. by that peculiar function or power of man for the binding of time. die do not their bodies die but their achievements live for- ever a permanent source of power. For the first time since the first day of man. science. all fields All of our precious possessions ence. they are humanity's treasures produced mainly and conserved for our use. and will learn to direct scientifically the living and the non-living forces for construction. Newton and Leibnitz was to discover powerful methods the only ing the laws of nature. avoiding unneces- sary destruction and waste. That 119 the natural trend of life . for mathematics fit language for express- Engineering will be the science by which the great social problems will be solved. It may seem strange but it is true that the time- binding exponential powers.CHAPTER VI CAPITALISTIC ERA immortal work done by Descartes. by by-gone generations.

improved lands. at this point to would draw attention one of the . for. keep the rate of humanity's or set back. the use-value of some such have or items of material wealth will last for generation. turned from its natural course. railroad tracks. mental advancement down to that of an arithmetic progression are the real enemies of society. All potential use-values differ in by the dead are temporal and potential Many On use-values are found in museums and have very tical life. for they keep the life-regulating "sciences" and institutions far behind the gallop of life itself. The consequence is periodic social violence wars and revolutions. Let us carry the analysis of potential and use-values a left to us utility. certain machines or tools. to metaphysical speculation and sophistry. with or without intention. little kinetic further. and so they continue to live in that to I which they lead.120 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY is and the progress of the development of this treasury so often checked. such as buildings. they yet serve as the foundation for the developments that supersede them. Kinetic use-values more than one their character. Those who. and an almost endless list of modern potential use-values the other will have use-values for a long time to come. is due to ignorance of human nature. permanent in though they may become anti- are quated. limited value to-day in prac- hand some roads or waterways built by the ancients have use-value to-day.

Before the invention of the steam engine. The now statement requires dead inventor of the steam last . This invention has revolutionized our less directions. I will most salient effects. full significance of the reflection. a The product of the dead.CAPITALISTIC ERA 12* most important kinetic and potential use-values produced by humanity the invention of the steam engine. upon the powers of living men. amounts of solar energy and time bound up in the growth of vegetable life and conserved for use in the form of coal and other fuels of vegetable origin. people depended mainly upon human powers that is. In remote antiquity the conception and knowledge of natural law was wholly absent or exceedingly vague. dead men's toil. life in not only of the living fruits of but also of the inconceivably vast count- To in be brief. humanity has been able to avail itself. But we must not fail to note carefully that we to-day are enabled to use this immense new power of bound-up solar energy and time by a human invention. Through this invention. Human the most analyse only the Engineering has never existed except embryonic form. The human invention of the steam engine released for use a new power of tremendous magnitude the stored-up power of solar energy and ages of time. there were manifold complications. and the "living powers" Even then living fruits of the labor of the dead.

water. could not. even iron. in aboriginal conditions. methods of work. In the inventor's intellectual equipment there was actively present the kinetic use-value of "bound-uptime. This was not produced. and scientific knowledge of his time and generation use-values of wealth created by the genius and toil of by-gone generations. let us say 6000 years because civilization was not then sufficiently adago. when everything. vanced: mathematically considered. had a Of life course if of several fol- thousands of years and could have consecutively lowed up all the processes." enabling him to discover the laws of heat. have invented and built a steam engine. thousand years of human ingenuity So. in one life time. obvious that. even a genius of the highest order. the steam engine may or be considered a kinetic use-value in which the is factor of time let equal to something like 6000 years. the production invention of this great use-value had to await all the accumu- lated work of six and human labor. It is us say roughly 200 generations. unhampered by the preju- . and steam. if we choose. and he employed both the potential and kinetic use-values of mechanical instruments.122 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY engine could not have produced his ingenious invention except by using the living powers of other dead men except by using the material and spiritual or mental wealth created by those who had gone before. the same inventor could have was unknown.

of the words the living powers of the dead we see the grave importance in . because they belong life. The and a life of one generation is and were it not for our human capacity to inherit the material toil. short. He becomes a civilized man only by the accumulation of. the fact can not be re- peated too often. for then and only then can he start where the preceding generation left off. This capacity is peculiar to men. matching his wits with gorillas. as in the main the accumulated production of dead-men's work. human life of the factor TIME we behold the significance of the time-binding The steam engine is to be seen capacity of man. left in the woods. By this illustration we see the profound meaning . to a lower type or dimension of Sophistry avails nothing here. and acquaintance with dead men's work. the process of civilization would not be possible and our present estate would be that of aboriginal man. its creator is it the time-binding power of man. It is untrue to say that A started his life aided . ERA all 123 of and been able to make these inventions by himself.CAPITALISTIC dices of those days. would be and remain a savage. anew. Civilization lives. Animals have not. augment and to transmit it little in the brief span of our is a creature. spiritual fruit of dead men's to own it to posterity. a child. he would represent in himself all the progress of civilization.

and the utility of the spoon. Or upon is it an artificial status imposed by the few the many? Such is the crux of the modern controversy. for his father's achievements depended on the achievements of his immediate predecessors. It is generally known that the invention of the steam engine and other combustion engines which release sun-power for mechanical use. here arises a most important question: Since the wealth of the world is in the main the free gift And of the past the fruit of the labor of the dead to whom does it of right belong? The question can monopoly of the great inherited treasures produced by dead men's toil a normal and natural evolution? Is the existing not be evaded. some of them slaves. some of them "owners" of slaves. is The metal spoon or a product of the the knife of which we use daily generations. material or spiritual wealth we have were produced by us for. work many the including those who discovered metal and the use of it.124 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY exclusively by the achievements of (say) his father. everything we use or enjoy. we must see that what . is in the main the product of the labor of men now dead. we call our wealth. applies to all of us. This of supreme ethical importance. our civilization. none of us may speak or act as if the fact. has revolution- . if we be not stupid. and so on all the way back through the life of humanity.

and vast amounts of money. money.CAPITALISTIC ized the economic system in the scale of . can have the fullest use of the stored-up energies of time and the ancient sun. We have found that the major part of the engine and all factors connected with its production are the combined power of dead men's labor. are also. Thus the monopoly of the stored-up energies of the sun arises from monopolizing the accumulated fruits of dead men's toil. up machines used in proall this to build factories. in the main. ERA 125 for the building of engines centrate a modern needs. But it is necessary to stop here and analyse the factors of value in the engine to be made and in the money used for the purpose of making use of the stored-up energies of the sun. These problems will. representing the work of of the dead. to set ducing the engines. so that the only way to obtain the benefit in the release of sun-power. the concern of the science neering. in the future. requires the use of is That why this era is called the capitalistic era. It is further the dead. toil is by using the product of the obvious that only the men or organizations that are able to concentrate the largest amounts of money. that wealth or capital and its We have found symbol. it is necessary to congreat number of living men in one place. the bound-up power of dead men's labor. be and art of Human Engibriefly at the Let us glance problems from another .

not are of physical by a man of ordinary Hence 300 pounds strength during a day's work.000 living human censuses available between 1902 and 1906) a wealth of approximately $357.000.600.000 sun man-powers.000 foot pounds. or equal to 1. we will have: (1) (2) dead.000 living man-powers of the .000.- ooo in (Social Progress. 10.000.000.500.000.000 foot pounds made available. 1.600.i26 angle. Taking. to the work of our whole living population.000. for simplicity's sake. we approximately (all . This is about the amount zation.600. power exerted of coal will represent the labor of a man for a year. Let us take have beings a still broader view of resources. The current production of coal in the world is about 500.600.000.000. work. But by our imperfect methods of utili- more than 1. this will give us approximately the number as 1.000.000 tons (1906).580. 1906. and sun-power equal. $35.70 as the average living expenses per annum for each one of the world's population. page 221) which in our is analysis dead men's work.000 man-powers that are producers but not consumers. 1. If we suppose that only half of this coal goes for mechanical use.000 living men. MANHOOD OF HUMANITY The power developed in the combustion of one pound of coal is theoretically equal to 1 1.

1. in this explained very clearly by the mathematical law of a geometrical progression. has been produced mainly by the generations.600. The essential elements of a progression are the first term and the ratio R and the number of the terms T. It is said work of all if our past "mainly" because. all of them dynamic and active: to wit. . PR*.000 sun man-powers.000 living man-powers of the dead. PR T P . they are able to direct and use basic powers. that this additional producing but not consuming population. . The reason why we stage of civilization. precisely the Of P in the human progression PR 1 ' PR*.000 living men.CAPITALISTIC ERA 127 (3) 1. we would be just aboriginal sav- ages having nothing and progressing very slowly. better perhaps than any other simple mathematical means.000 sun man-powers.000. we were the first generation. two use-values the potential and the All living men have in some degree this type of power.000.600.600. the geometric progression does not represent law of human progression. So we see that this world is really populated to- day by three different populations.000. is progress very rapidly. Thus it is obvious beyond any argument. 1. the magnitude of the terms increasing more rapidly * all the time.000. is the .000. with an ever increasing number of terms. Such classification needs a reflection man : is intrin- sically an increasing exponential power and always produces kinetic.* course. . 10. it is here employed because it is familiar and serves. to show roughly how human progress goes on.

is entirely dependent on the magnitudes of PR. we have 11. in transformation. With or progression at all. each term in the case BE magnitude.128 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY is This fact artificial the reason why the old unscientific and social profound system requires and must undergo Human progress. Here we have a problem of very high importance and enormous magnitude. WOMAN AND CHILD starting status of the first generation.000 living men. which it would be folly not to recognize and accept as such. and the rest must become dynamic. The NO PROGRESS P P OorR =0 THERE WOULD TUDE of human progression is mainly dependent upon the time and the work done by the dead. the starting status = of the initial generation. It is not necessary to use much imagination to se e that if humanity had always been rightly educated.000 dead manpowers and all the sun man-powers SEVEN SER- VANTS TO EACH LIVING MAN. R is the peculiar capacity of humans to bind time and is a free gift and law of nature. so far advanced that social insti- tutions can not much longer ethics. To serve 1. T a gift of nature. science would have long ago discovered the natural forces and laws essential to human welfare. they forced by violent readjustments. continue to lag so far jurisprudence.600. and human misery would to-day be relatively small. or number of generations. The existence of R and T is entirely beyond human control. Here comes the tremendous responsibility of education. PR T and T. static behind. is many directions. Static static economics. . Humans can control only the MAGNIof those elements by education. It is obvious that the .000. T is time.600. recurring with ever increasing frequency. R being a law of nature. existence of R and T is independent of humans. if they do not continue to progress peacefully in accordwill be ance with the law of the progress of science.000.

CAPITALISTIC

ERA

129

included. It looks like the millennium. It
if

would be so
way,
those fac-

we

but used

all this

power

in a constructive
all

eliminating waste and controversy and
tors

which hamper production and progress. The present economic system does not realize even the

beginning of the magnitude of this truth and the tremendous results which are to be achieved through
the adjustment of
it.

The problem

will

be solved by

Engineering, for this will establish the right understanding of values and will show how to man-

Human

tific

age world problems scientifically it will give a scienfoundation to Political Economy and transform
;

so-called "scientific shop
''scientific

management"

into genuine

world management." * There is a chasm between "Capital" and "Labor," but nature does not know "Capital" or "Labor" at all.

Nature knows only matter, energy, "space," "time," potential and kinetic use-values, forces in all their
direct

and

indirect expression, the energies of living

men, living powers of dead men, and the bound-up powers of Time and the ancient Sun. Nature made

man an

increasing exponential function of time, a

time-binder, a
basic powers.

power

able to transform and direct

Sometimes we hypocritically like to delude ourselves, if our delusions are agreeable
profitable.

and

We
*

call

labor" and

we pretend

that

human work "manual we need the laborer for

See Appendix III.

130
his

MANHOOD OF HUMANITY

muscular service, but when we thus speak, we are thoughtless, stupid, or insincere. What we look for
in the
ical

worker
is

is his

control of his muscles; mechan-

work

machinery.

or can be replaced almost entirely by What we will never be able to replace

by machinery is a Man, because man belongs to the level of a dimension above machinery. Enginepower, sun man-power, and capital mainly the work of the dead are inanimate they become pro;

ductive only energies

when quickened by the time-binding of living men and women. Then only are

the results proportional to the ever growing magnitude of exponential power. In nature's economy the time-binders are the intelligent forces. There is none

and from the engineer's point of and the simplest laborer, Smith or view, Edison
else

known

to us,

Jones, are basically the same; their powers or capacities are exponential, and, though differing in degree,
are the
all

same

in kind.

This

engineers are optimists.
truth.

may seem They deal
if

optimistic but

only with fact
their bridges

and

If they

make

mistakes,

break down, then, no matter

how

clever their sophis-

Like severity must try, they are adjudged criminal. be made the rule and practice toward all those who
control the institutions and great affairs of
society.

human

The

Periodical break-downs must be prevented. engineers of human society must be held responthe bridge engineer
is

sible, as

held to-day.

CAPITALISTIC

EEA

131"

first

Things are often simpler than they appear at the glance. There may be fire and plenty of coal in a stove, yet no heat the fire does not burn well an
; ;

engineer will

remove the natural causes of obstruc-

tion of the natural process; even such a simple thing

as the removal of ashes

seems simple enough. simple, if only it be not obscured and complicated by
sophistry.

may solve the problem. It The truth is often clear and

"Capitalistic" reasoning

and

"Socialistic" reasonthings.

ing

Nature does not know such

Nature has

only one "reasoning" in all its functions. Our falsifying of nature's laws makes the controversy.
Socialism exists as an ism because Capitalism exists as an ism; the clash is only an expression of the
eternal law of action

and

reaction.

We

are living in a world of wealth, a world en-

generations of dead men's toil; between the lust of the one to keep and the lust of
riched by

many

others to get, there is little to choose; such contentions of lust against lust are sub-human animalistic;
the righteousness of zoological ethics tooth and claw; below the human dimensions of
is

such ethics

life,

utterly

unworthy of the creative energy
capacity

the

time-binding
feels keenly

of

humanity.

Socialism
affairs are

and

sees dimly that

human

not

conducted

in

Capitalism neither sees

conformity with natural laws. it nor keenly feels it. Neither

132

MANHOOD OF HUMANITY

laws

the one nor the other stops to investigate natural nature's laws laws of human nature scientifically.

They both
in

tive

methods
issue.

of them use the same speculatheir arguments, and there can be
speculative

no

Against one old-fashioned,

argument, there is always a speculative answer. They both speak about the truth, but their methods can
not find the truth nor their language express it. They speak of "justice," "right" and so forth, not knowing that their conceptions of those terms are based

on a wrong understanding of values. There is one and but one remedy, and that remedy consists in
applying
scientific

method
once
fields

to the study of the subject.

Sound
it

reasoning,

introduced,

will

overrun

humanity as the
will

eliminate
it

the waste of energy in
forces

turn green in the spring; contro-

versies;
tion

will

attract all

toward construc-

and the exploitation of nature for the common
capitalists
socialists.

weal.

There are socialists and
are those

and

capitalists;

there are

Among

the capitalists there
fruit of

who want wealth
for themselves.

mainly the

dead
seek

men's

toil

Among

the socialists

there are those
to disperse
it.

the orthodox socialists

who
itself

The former do

not perceive that
is

the product of the labor of the dead
if

dead

not quickened by the energies of living men.
socialists

The

orthodox

do not perceive the tremendous

CAPITALISTIC
benefits that accrue to

ERA

133

mankind from the accumula-

tion of wealth,

if

rightly used.

Whether we be capitalists or socialists or neither, we must learn that to prey upon the treasury left by the dead is to live, not the life of a human being,
but that of a ghoul. Legalistic title ownership does not alter the fact.
lust for the

documentary Neither does

same.

When we
what
a

have acquired the just conception of
is

human being

we

shall get

away from

the

which a human being is instrumentum vocale; an animal, instrumentum semivocale: and a tool, instrumentum mutum. To
conception according to

Roman

regard
but
it is

human

beings as tools

as instruments
is

for

the use of other

beings repugnant, stupid and short sighted. Tools are made by man but have not the autonomy of their

human

not only unscientific

maker
ment.

they have not man's time-binding capacity for initiation, for self-direction, and self-improveIn their

own

nature, tools, instruments,

ma-

chines belong to a dimension far lower than that of

man.

Talk of dimensions or dimensionality is by no means theoretical rubbish. The right understanding
of dimensions
tical life.
is

The

of life-and-death importance in pracintermixing of dimensions leads to

wrong

conclusions in our thought and

wrong

conclu-

sions lead to disasters.

OOO 1. if expressed and applied in the human may "time-binding" dimension. With the base of (say) 5. units of produced deprived of the benefit That is an illustration of what a part dimensions play in practical life. The reflective reader of 100 analyse for himself what effect these same rules would have. then Consider the classes of human production belongs essentially to the human or as I call it the third dimension. but it becomes a question of limitation of eyesight.000. time being the supreme test.000. first. we produce in the third dimension a result of 125 units. not to be able to see the overwhelming differences between the laws of development of the dimension. The following table gives the visual shock : 1st Dimension 5 2nd Dimension 25 100 IO.000 1. and the third . and so when humans are paid but 25 units in accordance with the standards of the second dimension (that of animals).134 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY life as representing three dimensions (as explained in an earlier chapter).000 3rd Dimension 125 I.000.OOO is This explains why the intermixing of dimensions the source of tremendous evil. Who sions is can now assert that the problem of dimen- tion of one only of theory? It is not even a queslimitation of mind.000 IO IOO I.OOO 1. humanity is wealth. second.000.

and living 1. it is obvious that money is a measure and symbol of power. man-powers of the dead. is in the difference between what earned and what is. a key which unlocks the secrets of the power of capitalism and opens the door to a new civilization where the understanding of dimensions will establish order out of the chaos.000 10.000 living men." Practically all the habitable lands. are already private legalistic owners.000.000. ERA 135 or pounds sterling." The problem of dimensions therefore. The space-binding animal standard of miscivilization has brought us to an impasse a blind alley for the simple physical reason that there is no more space to "bind. of bound-up time. What hope for the ever increasing population? there among But we have these 1. This being true.000. "made.000 sun man-powers: that is indeed a tremendous power to PRODUCE WEALTH FOR ALL.600. which is measured and symbolized by money. but to-day it is ignorantly and .000. of work done.CAPITALISTIC Dollars. is found in just this difference in dimensions is in the difference between what is given and what is taken. or other units of money follow the same rules: the strength and in fact the source of power of modern capitalism. are bound up in wealth.600. and practically divided is all the natural resources. IF WISELY DIRECTED. produced mainly by the dead. We have seen that kinetic and potential use-values.

Watts. leieff. Steinmetz. and sun-powers. not survival of the "fittest in time-binding capacity. Dewey. all the time and nature occasionally. Poincare. Loeb. Russell. Much more aimfully. The great mass of the wealth of the world has been thus produced by generations that have gone. Gibbs. with a full mobilization of our living. William Benjamin Smith. Coper- Newton. ditions where animal standards prevail and "survival fittest" of the means. and many others consume no more bread than the simplest of their fellow mortals. because human beings are not treated in accordance with their nature as the timebinding class of life. dead. all is to be gained in exploiting nature the time. Einstein. in Indeed such men are often How many a genius has perished inarticubecause unable to stand the strain of social conlate want.136 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY shamefully misdirected." but survival of the strongest in ruthlessness tition ! and guile in space-binding compe- Wealth is produced by those who work with hand or brain and by no others. MendePasteur. men like Gutenberg. Sklodowska-Curie. We know that the greatest . Edison. Whitehead. Franklin. than by exploiting man Selfishness and is it these that prevent full mobilization ignorance the producing powers of the world? of Such as contribute most to human progress and human enlightenment nicus. Leibnitz. Keyser.

Indeed the bitter words of Voltaire seem to be too true "Since : God man created man in his own image. colored and distorted by selfish interests as to be falsehood in the guise of truth. itself is the product in the made a means for the deception and exploitation of the living. If an invention. is time." and so what is presented as news is frequently so limited. discoverers and inventors. To . independent papers are frequently starved by selfish conspirators and forced to close down. Honest. which is main of dead men's toil. It controls the exchange of news throughout the world. Thus the press.CAPITALISTIC ERA 137 wealth producers immeasurably the greatest have been and are scientific men. Against this proposition no sophistry can avail. must become public property. in the course of a it few is made." to use such "God-like" Those who want powers to rule the world are modern Neros. how often has endeavored to render similar service to God. it it commands the resources of space and affects in a thousand subtle ways the form of our thoughts. years after then the wealth produced by the use of the inven- tion should also become public property it is in the course of a like period of years after thus produced. who in their wickedness and folly fancy themselves divine. One of the greatest powers of modern times the Press. Unfortunately the press is often controlled by exploiters of the "living powers of the dead.

to exploit. The only enlightenment knowledge. is the work. knowledge of nature. ignorant and blind. rob and subjugate living men and women. What is the remedy? Revolution? Revolution is also mad. science applied to all the affairs of man the science and art of Human Engineering. greedy. scientific educa- remedy is tion.138 deceive. and to do it by prostituting the living powers created by the dead. knowledge of human nature. but of mad men. I will not say of men. . MANHOOD OF HUMANITY and through deception.

produced there must be an issue for Power must perforce express itself in some form. the skies comes down in Electricity produced in an often disastrous manner. and guidance.CHAPTER VII SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST TTUMANITY and is a dynamic affair. way or it will burst into insurrections. because direct basic powers." as in the Darwinian theory of animals. natural only in the life of plants and animals being 139 . Electricity. revolutions and wars. nay. Power has been held by the "God-given" or the "cleverest". just so the produced aimfully. able to transform is Where power it. personal or downright ignorance. Periodically we have had all the evils of the lack of a common aim interests." Those who speak of the "survival of the fittest. This rule. the it is most dynamic known. seldom has the scientific power been given to the "fittest" in the sense of the most capable "to do. sciences Hitherto we have been guided by those bottomless having only mythological ideas of power by ideas moulded by personal ambitions. enormous power produced by humanity in a constructive must be used aimfully. bark an animal language. runs our railroads.

The immediate the object of this writing to show as an way to directing the time-binding all. justifies itself by using the argument of the "survival of the fittest. there has been fighting. where there is a "survival. be applied to the time-binding class of life." there must be victims. . not and government There is a world of difis ference between these two words. will be ethics. without disaster. The modern vast accumulation of wealth for pri- vate purposes. where economy. dynamic. shown the right way out of the mess he will cease to will be of the greatest value to the hamper progress. politics and government are honest Simply the right if in their beliefs and speculations.140 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY to the and appropriate only lower forms of physical life. Personally I believe that most of the masters of speculative semi-sciences. powers of man- kind for the benefit of Human technology. he new world built capacities. The world has been accustomed to it for a very long while. they talk peace and make war. where Is this there are victims. This method of doing things is not in any way new. politics static. what the users of this argument mean? Like the Kaiser. man be- lieves in the wrong thing. such as economics. where human ponential functions of time. ex- by Human Engineers. ethics. law. law. cannot. except with profound change of meaning." Very well. will operate naturally.

they have been too well exposed by facts for humanity to allow itself to be blindly pre-war conditions . the common aim. human standard. and thus that Present civilization is a very complicated affair. led again." This common base the states to add up individual powers and build maximum efficiency into a collective power.SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST art 141 and ciples does not yet exist. was found enabled all in "war patriotism. Those in thou* high ideals. science. changes must be made because the world can not proceed much longer under society. some basic prinwere required as a foundation for such a science. In the World War humanity passed through trial a tremendous and for those years was under the campaign. endangering the welfare and life of all classes of although many In the meantime. This expression is used. which were given "Urbi et orbi" . of our social problems are very badly sudden changes could not be made without managed. truth. In this case the base. the importance of a common base or aim became equally manifest. not only as a social but as a known mathematical truth. strain of an extensive mobilization The necessity of increasing power was manifest. Especially was it necessary to establish a make it certain and clear the members of the animal "space-binders" world are "outside of the human law" outside the natural laws for the human class of life.

We see the prin- ciple at work all about us a in criminal exploitation fact. "Survival of the fittest" in the commonly used ani- not a theory or principle for a "timebinding" being. This theory is only for the physical bodies of animals. had and influence than most people are aware of. ideas and ideals have is going to take their place? witness an unrest which will not be eliminated fallen. Many old worn-out idols. but what We until something essential is done to adjust it. People much have been awakened and have acquired the taste for those higher purposes which in the past were available only for the few. II)." to hide our heads in the sand. the and profiteering. its effect upon humanity is sinis mal sense ister and degrading (see App. We shrug our greed and shoulders in acquiescence and proclaim selfishness to be the very core of human . like an ostrich." but it is the inevitable It is dangerous consequence of a "bad system. Calm often betokens a coming storm. and fancy we are safe. Personal greed and selfishness are brazenly owned as principles of conduct.142 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY in sands of speeches and a millions of propaganda greater educational importance papers. The coming storm is not the work of any "bad man. As matter of ages-long ap- plication of this animal principle to human in affairs has degraded the whole human morale an incon- ceivably far-reaching way.

Human nature. take it 143 pass at that. Not only life our whole collective proves a love for higher ideals. This capacity for higher ideals does not originate in some "jwprniatural" outside factor. The acteristic nature of man. but it belies the char- very disastrous. not only has the peculiar capacity for perpetual progress. not only because of its unhappy effects. Adam Smith. all for granted. it is not of extraneous origin. it is the expression of the timebinding element which we inherently possess. but it has. in his famous Wealth of Nations. pendently of our "will" it is an inborn capacity a . certain qualities constituting dimension or type of life. arrives at the laws of wealth.SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST nature. inde. this time- binding power. There is nothing mystical about it. and let in it We have gone so far our degradation that the prophet of capitalistic principles. over and above all it a distinctive animal propensities. not from the phenomena of wealth nor from statistical statements. material and spiritual. but a fact selfishness its from the phenomena of which shows how far-reaching in all dire influence upon humanity is the theory that human is beings are "animals. to call SUCH a class a naturally selfish class is not only nonsensical but monstrous. it is false. but even our dead give us the rich heritage. of all their toils." Of course the effect preceding chapters have shown that the theory is false.

Suppose it done. as the latest term. By that reunion. . I grant that old habits. we have an inclinapacity tion to use it and we survive in the deeds of our and so there is brought about the "survival creation. stupendous. the radical character of the transformation to be The world shall no longer be beheld as an alien by eyes that are not its own. in the course of time. the whole regains. it may be. the change in point of view is hard to make like walls of rock. at all events. as emerged and still emerging natura naturata from some propensive source within. none is more wonderful than the birth of wonder. maintained. and beautiful. tending to confine the tides of consciousness within their accustomed channels but it can be made and. There simply are made this way and is indeed a fine sense in which we can. . consciously. to survive in our deeds. we survival of the fittest choose. beheld advancing sequence of developments. really.144 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY gift of nature. but. Conception of the whole and by the whole shall embrace us as part. apply the expression to the activity of the time- Having the peculiar cabinding energies of man. the consciousness the latter purloined. "Note effected. literally. while the part retains. . nothing to compare with the dawning of consciousness in the ancient dark and the gradual . The moment in time" of higher and higher ideals. of an thing. In the whole universe of events. none more curious than the nascence of curiosity itself. We if not in any other. as occupying the highest rank perhaps in the ever-ascending hierarchy of being. we in consider Man in his proper dimension active TIME these things become simple. by assiduous effort.

" Indeed neither sences" life nor science bothers about "es"essences" to It is they neither leave life metaphysics. assuming at length. As we have seen.SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST 145 extension of psychic life and illumination throughout a cosmos that before had only been. through the birth of sense and of continuity. unconscious existence. the abiding intellect. It k>c. Keyser." (C. cit. One of the best is examples pletely procreation. Man has the capacity of timeIt he binds time." nevertheless. Nitrogen compound combinations and if found in such combinations it breaks away as quickly as ever it can. sufficient for which is nor science. An eternity of blindly acting. without loss or break form of fleeting time. by analysing the functions of the different classes of life. any more than we understand the "essence" of electricity or any other "essence. every class of life has an impulse to exercise resists its peculiar capacity or function. transforming. the impulse is simply time-binding impulse. have feet binding Birds have wings they fly. does not matter whether we understand the very "essence" of the phenomenon or not. Conception is a its com"es- incomprehensible phenomenon in sence." Life shows that man is and has time-binding capacity as a natural gift naturally impelled to use it.) must be emphasized that the development of higher ideals is due to the natural capacity of humanity. J. Animals they run. . having the capacity to procreate we use it without bothering about its "essence.

But this common kind of idealization. Idealization consists in the conception or the intuition of ideals and soft . are of two Let us make the distinction clearer. does not produce the great events in the life of mankind. though it is very im- portant and very precious. austere. not to feel it is to be sub-human. abdominal surgery. intellectual. admits of a peculiar type of excellence. ing profiles of activity can escape from its own type but within No its sort type For each type there is it admits of indefinite improvement. without which there would be neither dignity nor hope nor light but their aspect is not sentimental ideals are themselves the . however lowly is to be human. I have said. "It is thus evident that ideals are not things to gush over or to sigh and sentimentalize about . kinds. The dreams of such unattainable perfections are as countless as the types of excellence to which they respectively belong and they together constitute the familiar world of our human ideals. it is And ideals. very flint of reality. they are not what would be left if that which is hard in reality were taken away. and hard. ever imperfect ethics has been owing to the prevalence of animal standards. To share in it to feel the lure of perfection in one or more types of excellence. cold. an ideal a dream of perfection an unattainable limit of an endless sequence of potential ameliorations within the type and on its level. such merits as our ethics has had witness to the natural presence of ^idealization" in time-binding human life.146 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY our purpose that idealization is in fact a natural And howprocess of time-binding human energy. or paintin the pursuit of them. limit-begotten generalization a kind . Every sort of human activity shoeing horses. These are produced by the kind of idealization that corresponds to what we have called in the mathematical prototype. logical. beautiful no doubt and precious.

The "survival of the fittest" for ani- mals means is survival in space. in all the fields and forms of the spiritual life of man. in letters. not an exponential function of There fact. which means intellectual or spiritual competition.STRVTVAL OF THE FITTEST 147 of idealization that is peculiar to creative genius and that. by Cassius J. Applying animal standards applying inches to a matter or fact. As raise one class to a higher new function to the former. in social order. "survival of the fittest" for human beings as such that is. Mathematical Philosophy. in philosophy. which for space-binders and other brutal forms of struggle. in education. fittest" It is fatal to apply the "survival of the to theory in the same sense two radically different classes of life. for time-binders is survival in time." (Quoted from the manuscript of the forthcoming book. in art. Keyser.) "Survival of the fittest" has a different form for different classes of life. not content to pursue ideals within established types of excellences. Animal standards belong capacity is to a class of life whose Time. fighting on the other hand. unless measuring weight. but if we apply the reverse method. to animal standards. we cannot is to time-binding beings like we add an we can only entirely improve their lower status. is nothing theological or sentimental in this a purely it is mathematical truth. creates new types thereof in science. struggle for excellence. for making the . we can degrade human standards class. in ethics.

148 best survive. through the PRESENT for the FUTURE gives human beings the means of attaining a precious kind of immortality. Human economics. "Animal" logic leads to "animal" ethics and "animal" economics. base for natural ethics. The time- binding capacity. and side-stepping. a perpetual bless- This ing to endless generations of the children of men. it enables them to fulfill the law of their own class of life and to survive everlastingly in the fruits of their toil. is the truth we instinctively recognize when we call a great man "immortal. in justice a competition and struggle for the attainment of excellence in human life." We mean that he has . or from which there can be no escape. in art. it leads inevitably to a brutalized to contrives industrial system in which cunning rob the living of the fruit of the dead. which manifests itself in drawing from the PAST. logic points to it human will ethics and human in sci- will lead to a humanized industrial sys- tem in which competition : be competition ence. MANHOOD OF HUMANITY The-fittest-in-time those who make the best survive are those all ducing values for This ethics is the scientific who do the most in promankind including posterity. Therefore time-binders can not use "animal" logic without degrading themselves from their proper status as human beings their status as established by nature.

" gamblers will put and "politicians. mechanical appliances have been produced by "man" and man Everything we possess is the production of either dead men's or living men's work. life is The present system of social the largely built upon misconceptions or misrepresentations. What perfect nonsense to call a purely human achievement the equivalent of so much . Everything we have is evidently therefore a timepurely a binding product." It an end to industrial violence. Let us analyse alone. and "right" are to have their significance and understood entirely in terms of human Human nature not animal nature is to be the basis and guide of Human Engineering. the human time-binding power. The enslavement of the solar man-power is human invention in theory and practice. strikes. yet we continue to call it "hand-labor" and treat it as such." we are incorwork we need rect in this expression. Even in mechanical science. war and revolutions.SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST done deeds that survive weal of mankind. For all human brain. insur- rections. in reality? all How this does this "horse" look "horse. Thus based and guided. in 149 time for the perpetual logic. in the use of the term "horse-power. Human Engineering will eliminate "wild-cat schemers. the logic natu- Human ral for logic mathematical thus man will show us that "gocd" and "just" defined nature." All science.

from the beginning in the schools. affected I said is "educational" because even our subconscious mind by Human scientific it (See App. vicious implication in using the name of an animal to denote a purely Everything in our civilization was produced by MAN.) Engineering will not interfere with any research. human product of Man's work. This is an example of the degrading influence of wrong conceptions and wrong language. on the contrary. it seems only reasonable that this unit of power which is the direct product. should be correctly named after him. and respect for human work would be taught. or human beings by animal standards.150 MANHOOD or HUMANITY ! "horse-power" Of course it does not matter math- ematically what name we give to a unit of power. The educational effect would be whole- some and tremendous. if any. be- tween these phenomena or the overlapping of dif- . we may call it a Zeus or a Zebra but there is a very . it will promote this. it is to be hoped. The relationship. The human value in work would be thus emphasized again and again. This "horse-power" unit causes us to forget the human part in it and it degrades human work to the level of a commodity. Grown-ups. II. same kind of blundering as when we intermix phenomena measuring "God" by human standards. will stop the nonsense of intermixing dimensions. It is the for which we chastise children. in many ways.

so. units human standards and standards are to be applied to to man. even theology habit. solids.SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST ferent classes. The fact once realized. truth monstrous formula was accepted as a final answer to the question: What is Man? This type of answer became in the hands of church ral. will abandon the monstrous Animal animals. we will cease applying animal measures to man. for example. the "why" of things was "who" of things therein investigation culminated." In the dark ages. if we are studying the relations between surfaces and . is 151 in interesting and important. man was regarded as homo sapiens and homo sapiens = animal X spark of jwpmiatuexplained by the . it is fatal to mistake solids for surfaces just confuse humans with animals. "Divine" stand- ards to "God. if we stupidly In the reality of life. we are interested only in the values of the function of the phenomena by them- we have to use units appropriate to the phenomena. but mix the studying such relationships of classes. with the complete innocence or misunderstanding of science. The intermixing of units gives us a wrong conception of the selves and to arrive at right conclusions values of each phenomenon. this as an . the results of our calculations are wrong and the outcome is a misconception of the process of human life. too. it is fatal to classes.

of multiplicity with its correlate of .152 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY state and a powerful instrument for keeping the people in subjection. in general. or better the invention. The first psychic product of that initial psychic act is numerical: to discriminate is to produce two. tendency of the masses to let others think for them is not really a natural characteristic quite the opposite. is ginning of mind. The conceptions I introduce are based on human nature. the natural feelings of man. It is no wonder that they appear "stupid. in authority. and are often why many is that they have been spoken to in a language of speculation which they instinctively dislike and distrust. from the speech of metaphysical lead to mutual understanding and the be- "Discrimination." speech was made to conceal the truth. better still the production. as the proverb rightly teaches. Those reason used their ingenuity to keep the people from thinking. and is in harmony with. Natural lanis guage so different will speculation the disappearance of warring factions. The discovery. the simplest possible example of multiplicity. is The The habit of not thinking for one's self the result of thousands of years of subjection. My whole theory based upon." the wonder is that they are not more "stupid. thus there arose the proverb that called. "stupid. The most vital humans appear to be. best of all the creation." The truth is that they will be found to be far less stupid when addressed in the natural language of ascertainable fact.

As time went on. the subconscious mind of the masses by church and state alike. is Freedom. fundamental and. the ifestation of mind. The elimina- tion from church. trust the arithmetic instinct as shall not fail. any professor or any minister who dared and It is less to exemplify or encourage fearless investigation freedom of speech became very common. Cit. . then. the aim of Human . "lower orders" as their "destiny." and was humbly and dumbly accepted by the Ignorance was proclaimed as a bliss. witness the late intro- duction of public schools. Belief in the inferiority of the masses became the unwritten law of the "privi- leged classes". . rubbed into. Loc. from universities. Keyser. . it was forced upon. is. rightly understood. It gave a legalistic excuse to imprison. this "coefficient of ignorance" became so useful to some people and some classes of people that no effort was spared to keep the world in ignorance. burn and hang people for expressing an opinion which the ruling classes did not like. common to win in in our generation. they wanted have power there is in it and to keep the advantage of it for themselves.SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST number. from school. of any teacher. most primitive achievement or manLet us. for instruments of thought that domain of number.) The thinking few knew to the "thinking". but there remains much the way of freedom." (C. 153 therefore. repair at once to the J.

in freedom. and protected by such ignorance. a natural law for mankind. where is mere space-binders. I say "when not prevented. human beings are free when and only when they are not prevented from living in accord with the natural laws of human life. is a natural law for brutes." beings will live naturally and. licentiousness. for ani- mals. Human freedom conliving is by ignorance of what human nature sists in in exercising the time-binding energies of man accordance with the natural laws of such natural energies. therefore. nature A plant not prevented from living and to the natural laws of plant life growing according an animal is free when it is not prevented from liv- when it is . in living in in is MANHOOD or HUMANITY But freedom is not license. ing according to the natural laws of animal life. where fittest ing means of the art strongest. Survival of the fittest. Human freedom is thus the aim of Human Engineering because Human Engineering is to be the science of human nature and the art of conduct- human affairs in accordance with the laws of human nature. the time-binding class of life. . Survival fittest means best in science and and wisdom. maintained. when they are not prevented from thus for human and by artificial social systems established.i$4 Engineering. for the class of fittest. it is not Freedom consists in lawful living accord with the laws of accord with the natural laws of free human Man.

was a real one a tragedy. The war lords were the "Deus ex machina" the show begins. and very harmful belief that war was created solely by a "war-lord. The true origin of this 155 war must be looked for . the stage was set by our whole modern system of civilization. and her economic Germany availed herself. forces and impulsions. Why did Germany display more power than any other single nation? Because in the establishment of her "ethics. Restraining our emotions as much as possible. the actor enters and the show In the instance in question. The stage is set by life and the ages. let us endeavor to analyse that power the TN World War Germany with mathematical dispassionateness. It is a very common. in larger measpolitical system.CHAPTER VIII ELEMENTS OF POWER displayed tremendous power. of achievements and scientific methods." Every idea or movement doubtless originates with somebody but back of such "originations" or initiations there are favoring conditions. very erroneous." her structure. scientific ure than any other nation.

national catastrophe. not the pri- . nation. her methods were inhuman but Germany displayed power. but it seems to him that the "General Staff" point of view has as much claim to consideration as any other among the many of history different interpretations It is perhaps it has more. philoso- phies and social customs. A plain statement here will be enough. the greatest ever The leading European displayed by any not able to overpower her for a long states were This writing is not intended as an apology time. for Germany. lords. Germany was committed industrial expansion. impossible. It is therefore impossible to understand the working of the economic forces without understanding the foundation upon which this system of forces is based. and This reached its limits. and without the understanding of power. to a policy of indefinite artificial expansion had was on the verge of Germany Only a victorious war could avoid a bankruptcy. lost despite her gigantic power.156 in the MANHOOD OF HUMANITY economic field. much less to praise her or her war German purposes were nationally narrow and nationally selfish to the root. short list of works A on the subject is given at the end of this book. she played her last card. Our economic system all is the very complicated result of our creeds. It is possibly a fault Human Engineering is of the writer's military train- ing.

intelligence. It has to mobilize all the resources of a nation and generate power to the limit of its capacity. It is highly important to bear that in mind." It seems only reasonable and intelligent to analyse the history of the war from the engineer's point of view. logical The affair methods. Strategy. a grim business but "business" before else. point of view has very little or War to-day is all nothing to do with the romance or poetry of war. Mobilized technology has revealed and demonstrated the fact . knowledge of facts are the chief weapons. these brain-work. which." very from it. and the more mass that can be given and the greater the force put behind it. giant it To conduct of war to-day is a technomethods have to be engineering crush an obstacle. Prior to the World War technology had not been mobilized on so vast a scale nor confronted with a task so gigantic. there is need of a its hammer.ELEMENTS OF POWER mary aim of the general staff to "fight. Soldiers and engineers do not argue they act. brutal fighting is only a last resort. Germany affords the first example of a philosophy or a society having for its main purpose the generating of power to "do things. the more deadly will be the blow. It must be clearly understood that the modern general staff. in this case. or military. happens to coincide with the military point of view. Their primary aim is "victory" and all better if 157 far the victory be possible without a fight.

of the to twice as much the second. paying him only one cent the first day. Tech- comparatively a new science. nology is But when it engineer had became necessary "to do things. the general staff had to adopt his view. have already repeatedly pointed out that the progress of technology proceeds according to a law I like that of a rapidly increasing geometrical progres- have stressed the danger of inattention to any phenomena. We have only to recollect the story sion. the deadly secret of the geometrical progresViolent readjustments await any society whose ethics. Such sion. using the results . Engineers are the wizards who. I and simple but very greedy farmer who was very make a contract with a laborer for a happy month's work. jurisprudence and the like do not keep pace is with the developments of engineering.158 that it is MANHOOD OF HUMANITY possible to generate almost unlimited power has shown the way to do it. at the same time and it has demonstrated the measureless potency of engineering and our utter helplessness without it. by some it is called a "semi-science" because it deals primarily with the application of science to practical issues. Behold! The bill for the month ran into millions of dollars and the farmer was ruined." an to be called. twice for the third. force or movement that conforms to such a law. and so on to the end. and all other practices and traditions were bent to his ideas.

The German philosophy. as much as I said "strange. It But we look it not had to be so. It would be hard to find a better combination for a philosophy of power. ticians in their mathemamethods and philosophy. and the first thing to consider are those philosophic writers who directly and indirectly have contributed to the building up of building seem. has its defi- nite place in the history of philosophy. and Fichte in turn under that of All of them were. That is precisely what this philosophy was. as a whole.ELEMENTS OF POWER of scientific 159 research. Hegel up of the German mind greatly affected the work strange as it may Hegel was greatly under the influence of of Fichte. strange. Hegel in 1805 lectured on history of philosophy. From that we have to take our start because that is the source of human power." bethey could be in their time. The supreme factor is the use of the mind the exponential function of time the time-binding energy of man. because mathematical and me- chanical can be understood and methods are the only ones by which power built. but the German power. can subjugate or release the concealed powers of nature. up the is German power. It influenced not only Ger- . cause it is significant that the mathematical part of their philosophy was just the part if which into built it. in a way. pure mathematics and natural law. Spinoza.

but if we give them a common base a common aim or purpose then we can readily represent the magnitudes of the whole constituted by them. These powers. they must be given a common aim. we can not unite them and compute the whole X Y by adding the exponents. One of the most brilliant representatives of this movement is immense cult Professor Oswald." the famous advice: who in his Monist Sermons gave "Do not waste energy but give it The German understanding of the great and so on. they must. It affected every phase of life. constitute a whole. ethics. be reduced to a common base. There are many theories about the state. value. the problem o State becomes more and more pressing.160 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY man philosophy but even German theology. differ in degree and in respect of If they are to be united so as to individuality. so to speak. For the purpose of the moment it is important to realize that a state is the governing center of an accumulation of human beings of time-binding powers increasing exponential functions of time. politics. Z p . and so on. he value of technology directly applied that principle to their philosophy. if we take X to be their common . An of disciples arose. n . law. Each one added something to that philosophy of power. With increase of population. if they be respectively m . though the same in kind. and through these channels it sank deep into the national consciousness.

the reason is very obvious. but the powers of living horses can not. except very roughly. purpose or aim. Germany united the powers of living men and women and children: . equal. they are not equal. and constant. then. as we say. Z=bX. The mechanical horse-powers are the same in kind. where the parenthetical coeffi- the product of individualities. Hence mechanical horse-powers can be added or multiplied arithmetically. and each one is a variable.)X m+n+p . The German mathematical philosophy or theory of the state did not express itself in just this way. One mechanical "horse-power" is less than the power of one living horse. = Xm -a n -Xn -b p 'Xv . . . but the foregoing gives a clue to it. is . = (a n -b p last expression. they do not pull together. One living horse can do more work than one mechanical horse-power. serves to 9 represent the united powers of all in t?rms of X the common base. if Y = aX. . Let us look at the matter in another way. the living horses of a team interfere with each other. . we have: Xn -Y The cient n -Z p . . . .ELEMENTS OF POWER aim or shall 161 base. and so on. but in using more than one living horse at one time we get less work than by using the same number of mechanical horse-powers. . and energy is lost. but living horses differ in character.

it gave them one commood and aim. I shall call simply a collective aim. impersonal. out of personal or egoistic aims there grows a series of collective aims. the national aim was equivalent to the state aim. increasing in generality. must be a higher aim. In the case of Germany. (3) class or professional aims. congregation. But collective aims may differ profoundly in kind.1 62 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY common base. they all became conis it gave them a "social" mon solidated in service of that which called the State. general. collective. the natural aims for the time-binding class of The fatal error of political philosophy was an error of aim her aim was too low too narrow the welfare of German a state instead of the welfare of Humanity." Of course such philosophy . club aims. (2) association. German philosophy "good" and equivinflu- made the "state" equivalent to the alent to "power. (4) national or race aims. they studied and taught for the State. : King and God. The establishment of ONE AIM for all was the decisive factor. and finally (5) HUMAN AIMS life. It is obvious that if we want to inspire 60 Millions of individuals with one It aim. law and science. such as: (i) Family aims. this aim can not be private or personal. lived and died for the State the State was their idol. they worked. in some way uniting and including it all personal aims. Such was the aim of German philosophy. theology.

Special books give us is all the data. directly or indirectly. we will readily understand this "world peach. Here we have to face the fact that geometrically progressing industry can not live without new markets. with no less justice." "concentration of power" It took the leadership in all "efficiency. If we curse Germany being a "military nation" we can. and this soon evolved into a plan for the conquest of the world. Militarism and indus- trialism are almost synonymous from the mechanical point of view. first nation sequence Germany of the world. which under present conditions have been largely acquired.ELEMENTS OF POWER enced the whole national life in 163 in con- every detail. for war cannot be waged in the without strong industries. by the power of the army." Those who have tasted it know nation." something of its sweetness. par excellence. curse her for being a completely "industrialized If we add to that her nationally selfish and narrow national aim. they are both of them power. They both have to use the same scientific methods and present conditions of the world they are dependent upon each other. There is no need to go into further details. The German General proclaimed herself the Staff as an institution had. "power. and this has been for the case with Germany. the impersonal fact That which is of interest that what was the strength . as its aim and and first object." life branches of and industry.

such a theory is not unwelcome. all . obvious that in monarchical countries where "godgiven" rulers represent the state. as it gives the rulers an opportunity to show a sort of to strengthen their power." which serves The astute Bismarck can not be suspected of being a progressionist in the modern sense but. He was a proclaimed advocate of state socialism. all his ideals were those of a strong state. as the name indicates. the ownership railroad being the very life of any country.164 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY tion and power of Germany is the best possible illustra-. Since 1879 at least. was a believer and promoter of the close relaspirit tion of the state and the railways. not to the welfare of Humanity. believe that the assume the most important is functions in society. public life that phase of corruption which private of railroads brings in any country. we have had of what science and a sort of math- when ematical philosophy are able to accomplish. being a product of German culture and philosophy. The above-cited political philosophies had a very pro- nounced socialism ists. "advanced liberalism. Bismarck was considered almost the leading He of paternal state socialism. even directed. effect is upon Marx. but to that of a relatively small group of people. One of the branches of State socialstate should It the so-called state socialism. keeping always in view a thorough nationalization which he finally This fact eliminated from German accomplished.

We have to arouse ourselves from our inertia and go to the bottom of this problem and analyse it ruthlessly. she was able to mobilize and to keep mobilized all her moral. For this she desperately cheapest and quickest way to acquire them. she understood the elements of "power. industrial life followed the military way. political and industrial forces for long years before the war. no matter whether the . was to conquer them by a victorious war. and thus built her gigantic power. She applied technological methods in every part of her Her civil life. the victory in the battle fields. if they were not to be grabbed otherwise. by letting the world drift into an even worse catastrophe.ELEMENTS OF POWER 165 applied the most scientific methods to build up her national power. a collective Germany adopted aim instead of a personal individualistic aim. Her plans progressed according to the program. needed new markets. and because of this broader aim. all The except This war was a calamity of unprecedented magnitude for the world and it is our duty to study it dispassionately and learn the lesson of it. if we do not want to be moral accomplices of this great modern crime. her mili- And tary strength was built on industrial power. so the vicious circle. The direct effect of this system of continuous mobilization was over-production." for they were dis- To sum up: Germany closed to her by her science and her philosophy.

1 66 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY analysis be pleasant or not. ourselves. We must value every- one of our "ten sacred dead" at least as much as we value one rabbit killed in scientific laboratories. We do not need to delude the result of badly The World War was balanced social and economic forces. The world needs other "balances of power" than such as are devised by lawyers and politicians. . If Human Engineering had been established long system would have been different. and take the lesson to heart or be prepared for a repetition of world slaughter. by single-selfish or group-selfish interests. this war ago our social would have been avoided. our civilization would have been much higher. Humanity is reaching out for a science and art of human guidance based upon a right understanding of human nature.

It contains the roots of all we are. Out of that past we have come. Into it we are constantly returning. It permanent. It is nearly eternal as the race of man. and to-morrow they are gone. Not so with the great fact of our human Many facts are unstable. Past. of customs and institutions. One of the ways is the way of ignoring the past167 the way of . it is of the utmost importance to our lives. It contains the record or ruins of all the experi- ments that man has made during a quarter or a half million years in the art of living in this world. impermanent. of philosophy. Human Worth of Rigorous Thinking. "It is Our past abides. of jurisprudence.) In our relation to the past there are three wideopen ways in which one may be a fool." (Keyser. of science. and evanescent they are here to-day.CHAPTER IX MANHOOD OF HUMANITY TN life a previous chapter I have said that the World marks the end of one vast period in the humankind and marks the beginning of another. Meanwhile. of art. can be counted on. of War Our human Past is a mighty fact of our world. and of all we have of wisdom. It marks the end of Humanity's Childhood and the beginning of Humanity's Manhood.

they say. sloth- and stupidly magnifying its virhappiness. or cowardly fools. being comfortably situated and pros^ perous. A third way which is is the opof the foregoing. are opposed to change. or static fools. achievements and wisand folly. the desperate especially the way of such as find escape apt to be the from the bore of routine life in the excite- . is its great slothfulness. its great achievements. knowledge. it is the way of those who posite falsify the past by stupidly and contemptuously disalso alluring to be a fool regarding its its virtues. was wise for it produced the present and the present is good let us alone. ignorance.1 68 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY remaining blankly ignorant of the human past as the animals are blankly ignorant of their past and so of drifting through life as animals do. folly. without refer- ence to the experience of bygone generations. the unprosperous. its vices. contented with the Present. it is dom. its happiness. misery. and by stuits vices. the way of the self-complacent the way of those who. wisdom. worshiping the Past. opposed to change. its its pidly or dishonestly magnifying its it misery. and its way of the woeful. Fools of this type may be called drifting fools or Drifters. tues. ignorance. Fools of this type may be called idolatrous fools. the past. Another way to be a fool a very alluring it way by is that of falsifying the past by idealizing stu- pidly disregarding fulness. fearful of the Future. and knowledge.

" light In striking contrast with that three-fold division the Sun. Revelers in the excitements of Change. but my genius must be free. was all wrong. (3) Dynamic fools change of human scorners of the past haters of the present demost modest of stroyers of the works of the dead fools. Destroyers of the Present. Such are the children of folly: (i) Drifting fools ignorers of the past rience thoughtless floaters affairs. Fools of this type may be called scorning fools.MANHOOD or HUMANITY ments of unrest. we need light I will begin by blotting out the Sun casts shadows world will be full of glory the of my genius. each of with Me. I them saying: "What ought to be begins will make the world a paradise. now ing 'order' hampered by the existthe bungling work of the past. What is What is the united counsel of wisdom and common sense respecting the past? The that counsel? . Scorners of the Past. I will it is destroy it. then the of Folly. the counsel of Wisdom is one. and change. or destroying fools. I will start with chaos. turbulence. disregarders of race expeon the shifting currents idealizers of the (2) Static fools lovers of the present enemies of past complacent fearful of the future. the they say. and it is one with the sober counsel of Common Sense. thoroughly bad let us destroy it. and the present 169 past. or dynamic fools. for it produced the present is root and branch.

neither its enterprise nor its slothfulness. as the salient facts are ascertained. to see it whole to see its it in true perspective its magits nifying neither good nor evil. silly. and decay Why? Interminable alterations of peace tions and war. commerce. neither its achievements nor its failures. to explain the facts to understand them. stagnation. enslavements and emancipaafter age of world-wide worship Why? Age man-made gods. to find their causes. applying always the question Why? Centuries of centuries of cruel superstition Why? Centuries of centuries of almost complete ignorance of natural law Why? Centuries of centuries of monstrous misconceptions of human nature Why? Measureless creations. wastings arid destructions of wealth Why? Endless rolling cycles of enterprise. celebrated and supported by poetry and of wayward speculations of ignorant "sages" Why? Age upon age of world-wide slow developthe ments of useful inventions. enthroned by myth and magic.1 70 is MANHOOD OF HUMANITY answer is it easy and easy to understand. endeavor to view the past justly. craftsmanship. to contemplate it as it was and is. The counsel this: Do not ignore the past but study it study diligently as being the mightiest factor among the great factors of our human world. neither knowledge nor its ignorance. savage. and art Why? Ages of dark impulsive groping . endeavor to account for them. their favor- ing conditions.

followed by centuries of belief in the sufficiency of ratiocination un- aided by systematic observation and experiment Why? At length the dawn of scientific method and growth of natural knowledge. present. It is an exceedingly difone. immeasurable expansion of the universe in Time and in science. philosophy. belief in the lawfulness of Nature. law. To ascertain ple the salient facts of our immense human past and then to explain them in terms of their causes and condiSuch I take to be the counsel of tions ficult not an easy task. but in must be performed. the Space. the unpreparedness of existing ethics. growing faith in the limitless progressibility of human knowledge and in the limitless perfectiof bility human welfare Why? The widely diverse peoples of the world constrained by ress to live together as in scientific progone community upon a greatly shrunken and rapidly shrinking planet. of many is it generations. economics. for the it is the child of the past and only in pro- . for learn to it is only are proportion as we know the great facts of our human is past and their causes that we enabled to understand our present human . resuiring the labor of many men.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY 171 before the slow discovery of reason. rapidly increasing subjugation of natural forces to human control. politics and government to meet the exigencies thus arising Why? wisdom the simwisdom of sober common sense.

Future these can not be understood singly and separately they are welded i together indissolubly as one. Our humankind groped upon globe for probably 400. a minute fraction of it including our own ages. Owing to the work of geologists. we have. Past. we have only a rude. no history. outline. If we regard history as a kind of racial memory. according to the witness of human relics. except time. whom we less call "the father of history" proper. The period of humanity's childhood has been long 300. ethnologists and their . paleontologists. what must we say of our race's memory? It is like that of a man of 20 years whose recollection extends back than 3 months or like that of a man of 60 years whose recollection fails to reach any event less of the first 59 years of his life.000 years. Present. What is 2500 years compared with the whole backward stretch of human time? We have to say that the father of human a virtual history lived but yesterday contemporary of those this now living. broken Herodotus. dim.000 years before the writing of what we call history had even begun. lived than 2500 years ago. properly speaking. ruins and records of the caves and the rocks a stretch of time too vast for our imagi- Of that immense succession of nations to grasp.000 to 500.172 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY portion as we thus learn to understand the present that we can face the future with confidence and competence.

but for the present purpose this will suffice. facts of But we need not despair. rude. Except the known as I have dim and broken. our racial childhood The really great the massive. outstanding facts are sufficiently clear for our guidance in the present enterprise. Countless multitudes of details are lost most of them doubtless forever. domi- nant. only in outline. the first specimens of kind of the initial members of the time-binding race were absolutely without human knowledge of the hostile world in which they found themselves . man we know had no conception of what they themselves were. And what do we human childwe know that in human- know? We know that the period of our hood has been inconceivably long. the far distant time. the story said. man we now if the story of humanity's childhood were recorded in the libraries of the world. the history of prehistoric just as 173 will man grow.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY co-workers. Meanwhile we must try to make as the best use of such historical knowledge of possess. we know to-day more about the life of man- kind self in the time of Herodotus than Herodotus him- knew. it would fully not be possible in this brief writing to recount the Even story in even the most summary fashion. is tale of recent years. we know that they had neither that they speech nor art nor philosophy nor religion nor sci- .

maxim or precedent. and we know that they were able to do of the it just because the is power of initiation the power to originate a time-binding power. that they made advancement. without any guidance or example. we know. it. our ancestors being. accumulating racial experience. that they were we know birds gress progressive creatures. that their sole equipment for initiating the career human race was that peculiar faculty which made them human the capacity of man for binding time. not animals. that their progress was natural to them as natural as swimming is to fishes or as flying is to for both the impulse and the ability to proto make improvement to do greater things of things already done are of the very by help nature of the time-binding capacity which makes humans human. and so on indefinitely. We know ity for that time-binding capacity the capacit. we know that they actually did that work of initiation. in other words. What else do we know of the earliest part of humanity's childhood? We know that in that fardistant age. the third. but the second. taking not only the first step.174 MANHOOD or HUMANITY human history nor human tradiwe know. though we to-day can hardly imagine ence nor tools nor tion. enlarging . but human creatures not only began to live in the human dimension animals of life forever above the level of but continued therein.

cians call an increasing function of time. the time-binding capacity. doctrines. the defining mark. tive nature. of our pre-historic ancestors. if it have an adequate supply of raw material and be unhampered by hostile circumstances. to produce ideas. we therefore. if not in degree. we know that it is natural for this capacity. of man. inventions. knowledge and other forms of wealth. that progress in we know which is what we call civilization. inventions leading to other inventions. has been right possible and actual simply and solely because the products of time-binding work not only survive.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY and transmitting 175 it for future expansion is the the characteristic energy. not only upon its native capacity for binding time. the highest known agency of Nature. know knowledge breeding knowledge. was the same in kind as our own. of the time-binding toil of the dead. accordingly we know that the amount of progress a single generation can thus make is what mathematithat is. insights. and not . nothing but progress in the production and use of material and spiritual wealth. we know that the mental power. depends. the definipeculiar power. but naturally tend to propagate their kind ideas begetting ideas. that the amount of progress which a single generation can make. but also and this is of the utmost importance upon the total progress made by preceding generations upon the inherited fruit.

and means that it for us a fact of immeasurable significance. not constant but increases according to the same thus see. We . for the time-binding power of man is such that. is a marvelous and so on and on fact. exponential functions. too.176 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY only an increasing function but an increasing expoT a function like PR . laws of the time-binding energies of man not only do are very remarkable functions of they increase with time but their rates of increase are also exponential functions of time and so the rates of increase themselves increase at rates which are. if we will law. again. if the production spiritual be allowed to operate naturally. that. but will thus grow with a swiftness which is not constant but which itself grows towards is infinity with a swiftness which. civilization and right use of material and will not only wealth grow towards infinity (as mathematicians say). as nential function of time already explained. again. is also an increasing exponential function of we know from the differential calculus that these functions which represent natural laws. progress which we know. that the total T successive generations can thus make is: R T i R which time. laws human nature. and so on indefinitely. it is it I say. without limit.

savage. if what the enough have been and circumstances well We know that in the beginning of humanity's . we thus see that in distinctively human life. So it has been since the beginning of man. however. we know that. we may know enemies the hostile And. in the life of man as man. is in the it is long abso- relatively small. though lutely great. For we know that those peculiar energies zation-producing energies of the civili- man far from being always permitted to operate according to the laws of their nature. is literally of the core and substance of civilization. We know that the total progress made course of humanity's childhood. if the time-binding energies of humanity had been always permitted to operate unhampered by hostile circumstances. but have always been hampered and are hampered to-day by hostile circumstances. we know. they would long ere now have pro- duced a state of civilization compared with which our present estate would seem mean. that. that the proper life of man as man is not life-in-space like that of animals. we are. our present civilization is vast and rich in many ways. have never been permitted so to operate. destined to greet and to bless the unborn generabound-up time.MANHOOD or HUMANITY 177 only retire to our cloisters and contemplate it. the past is present and the dead survive tions: time. com- pared with no-civilization. but is life-in-time. reflect. meagre.

Of all the hostile circumstances. not only destroying both natural resources and the slowly accumulated products of by-gone generations but often extinguishing the people themselves with the centers and abodes of struggling civilization. because we have inherited so much bound-up time and because our have been so little imaginations disciplined to understand realities. properties and potencies had all to be discovered. even now. by age-long seasons of flood and frost and heat and drought. measure too vast for our imaginations. that the time-binding energies of in a our remote ancestors were hampered and baulked. we can scarcely picture to ourselves the actual conditions of that far-off time of humanity's babyhood. both sudden and secular. babyhood. of all the causes which throughout the long period of humanity's childhood have operated to keep civilization and . by im- mense geologic and climatic changes. no capital whatever to start with no material wealth no spiritual wealth in the form of knowledge of the world or the nature of man no existing fruit of dead men's toil no bound-up time nothing but wild and raw material. moreover. We know. so to speak there was.178 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY in its childhood as already said. unforeseen and irresistible by earthquake and storm. still less do we realize that present civilization has hardly begun to be that of enlightened men. whose very location.

" Both of them are characteristic of humanity's childhood. the false conceptions are have already pointed One of them is the conception accordThey ing to which human beings are animals. ignorance of physical facts and the laws of physical nature for this latter ignorance is in large measure mean human The ignomean is far more fundamental and far more potent. and both of them have done infinite harm in a thousand ways. . both of them are erroneous. most potent cause and most disastrous. it is Whose is the fault? the fault of none. and so he had to grope. Man In a deep started with no capital ical on knowledge with nothing but his physstrength and the natural stirring within of the capacity for binding time. rance I false conceptions of the rightful place of man in the scheme of life and the order of the world. The other one is the conception according to which human are two. animals combined with something "divine. remains to be men- tioned. I mean human ignorance of Human Nature I mean man's ignorance of what Man is I mean the effect of the cause I have in mind. I What out. I do not mean ignorance. It It is not strange that he was puzzled by himself. sense. everywhere I a cause in operation.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY human welfare from progressing the still 179 accord with in full the natural laws of the time-binding energies of man. beings have no place in Nature but are hybrids of natural and ^wp^rnatural.

origin a is it is very pathetic and very sad. and his animal propensities were so obtrusive. indeed very sad and very pathetic but it is not to be wondered at that human beings have falsely believed themselves to be animals. once in- vented. of the it is rival belief the belief that humans are neither nat- ural nor supernatural but are both at once. for he has animal propensities as a cube has surfaces. hundred unmistak- became more and animal-resembling more evident that the same . women and children animal-hunting and animal-hunted human beings a it certainly re- sembled animals physically in able ways. it was not invented by them. ran. his time-binding capacity. ate. so very evident to physical sense he was born. too. hybrid offspring of beast and god. which the physical senses do not perceive and so I say it is not strange . all just like had legs and hair. but its easy to understand. it was spiritual.180 is MANHOOD OF HUMANITY not strange that he thought himself an animal. slept. it was not a visible organ but an invisible function. grew. The belief is monstrous. For the obvious facts it became for impostors. men. was subtle. on the other hand. it was only an erroneous result of an honest effort to understand and to explain. powerful instrument for evil men. at once brutal and divine. So. it was the animals energy called intellect or mind. but created a real puzzle to be explained: On the one hand. died while his distinctive mark.

the natural activity of the time-binding energies of man and thus to retard the to hamper and thwart natural progress of civilization. neither natural nor jwpmiatural. is Man? I have no said that the answers. it is To our high and solemn duty. they are both at once. and are doing more to-day. then. examine them. a mystery. and so it was humans are neither animals nor gods. to perform the great duty is not an The misconceptions in question have come . false said. that the misconceptions involved in them have done more throughout the by-gone centuries. a mixture. in the long dark. Here was a puzzle. critical conception conception that was in the state of avoids the mixing of dimensions feeble infancy.MANHOOD or HUMANITY human 181 beings could do many things which animals never did and could not do. how honestly arrived I are erroneous. easy task. a mysterious union of animal with some- thing "divine. than all other hindering causes. are the two rival answers which. have and I repeat. It is easy to understand what the answer had to be childish and mythical. Time-binding curiosity demanded an explanation. matter to fact. human beings have given to the most important of all questions the question: What at. no matter how sincere." Such. and monstrous. It is not merely our privilege. groping course of humanity's childhood. What was it to be? Natural science had not yet arisen.

mind. we have clearly in the third place to detect the fundamental character of the blunder involved in them to see and coldly wherein they are wrong and why . women. thus disentangled and framed. . I have already Let us keep the results in repeatedly performed." but are both . their deadly effects both in the course of human history and in the present status of our human world. finally. Here they are in their nakedness ( i ) liefs : and framing them Human animals beings men. they have not come down separately. whether they be true or false. to trace. and children : are (and so they are natural) (2) human are neither natural nor supernatural. clean-cut.182 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY to us down from remote singly. to disengage them from our inherited tangle of beliefs and frame them in suitable words we have next to bring ourselves to realize vividly and keenly that the conceptions. clear and com- well-defined. neither beings wholly animal nor wholly "divine. antiquity. if we conceptions from the tangled skein of inherited bein words. at the very heart of the social philosophy of the world. of our time. are in fact. they have come entangled in the plicated mesh of traditional opinions and creeds that the mental fog constitute the vulgar "philosophy" If we are to perform the duty of them we have first of all to draw them examining forth. we can. The task of disengaging the two monstrous misthey are ruinous have.

and interested If he is welfare of mankind. and the reason is evident. What is that error? It is. to shake ourselves awake. all an error alike in logic. mean. task not. to prick ourselves into a realization of the truth. The second part of our task which is the reader's task as much as mine is not so easy. I assume that the reader I is at once hard-headed.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY 183 a sort of mysterinatural and supernatural at once ous hybrid compound of brute and gods. What is the "kind" of this one? the kind that consists in what mathematicians "confusion of . We have. He. I have said. in the rational. It is this The false creeds in question : the fatal misconceptions in they involve are so familiar to us imbedded life they have been so long and so deeply our thought and speech and ways of so thoroughly bred in we have been them by school and church and state that we and unconsciously take them for granted habitually and have to be virtually stung into an awareness of home and them and that they do actually reign to-day throughout the world and have so reigned from time immemorial. he will not be a "reader" of this book. the fact that actually hold we do therefore. knows that the third the task of detecting and exposing the funda- mental error of the misconceptions in question is a task of the utmost importance. But logical errors are not they are of It is call many kinds. therefore.

tivo It Here is a surface. say that a That the cube is a member of of surfaces? If we did. that help to in the criticism too clear nor too emphatic. That is evident. It one so simple that a is a mathematical ex- ample. three dimensions. and suppose we say . and so has length. say a has length and breadth and so dimensions next consider a solid. then. we say. at. for its imof all our thinking is great There are millions of examples I will make the matter clear. as it ought to be. we should be fools fools type-confusing dimension-mixing fools. say a cube. the mere word mathematical. Or suppose we notice that solids have certain surface properties and certain properties that surfaces do not have. notice that the cube has surfaces and so has certain surface properties. proceed confidently and once to our simple example. I beg the reader not to shy a mathematical one. or run away from. it It has. spirit. breadth and thickness Now we has. us have the mathematical for else we should at not be heart. we It say. therefore. human Let we are all of us mathematicians at us." or "mixing of dimensions. or dimensions.1 84 MANHOOD or HUMANITY The answer can types. plane surface. solid Is a surface? the class Do we." not be made portance beyond measure. again employ the simplest of them child can understand it. little us have but although most of mathematical knowledge. for the is whole question of logical types. . we all of for.

they take. pose we then say that solids are unions. unlike the plants. think for a moment of plants. animals animals. Let us now consider animals and human beings. animals belong to a higher order. soil. or higher is type. we may therefore . we see are binders of the basic energies of the world. mixtures. plants. if we did that. take possess the autonomous power to move about in to creep or crawl or run or swim or fly it space thus evident that. a start. compared with plants. What of animals? Like the plants. though in large part energies they take them in forms already prepared by the plants themselves. and let To get us look squarely and candidly at the facts. is it not evident that.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY 185 the surface properties of solids are natural but the other properties are so mysterious that they must be "jwprniatural" or somehow "divine" and sup. in. but they have not the autonomous power to move about in space. or higher dimension of life. transform and appropriate and air. too. we should be again blundering like fools? Dimension-mixing fools? Type-confusing fools? That such would be the case any one can see. or higher class. transform and appropriate the of sun. but. we may class or type or say that plants constitute the lowest order or dimension of life the dimension one. Plants are living things. soil and air. compounds or hybrids of surfaces and something divine or 5/>miatural. the energies of sun.

mals are only In the light of such considerations. sessed no capacity of higher order. For man imanimals do not.1 86 MANHOOD or HUMANITY say that the type of animal life is a type of two dimensions a two-dimensional type. if it we will attend to their mighty significance. man progresses. And say of Man? Like the animals. by their autonomous power to move about in space. But what are the facts? reflect The facts. animals do not. them. man is thus a binder of time. aninot. are such as to us that the not. animals do proves. the life of in a sense evidently animals is thus a life-in-space now what shall we human beings have indeed the autonomous not applicable to plants. I have called them space-binders because they are distinguished. men. animals are not. man is a creator of material and spiritual wealth. animals are not. of civilization. if they posbinding space. animals do not. the power of mobility power to move the capacity for and it is obvious that. women and children would indeed be animals. man invents more and more complicated tools. if we will but note them and show upon chasm separating human nature from animal nature is even wider and deeper than the chasm between animal life and the life of plants. live in man is a builder man makes the past the present and the present in the future. or marked. . to abandon one place and occupy another and so to appropriate the natural fruits of many localities.

dimensions. Nothing can be more reader reflect. no surveying. there would be no architecture in the world. and he knows that. no engineering. when we re- beings as animals or as mixtures of animal nature with something mysteriously supernatural. nothing whatever of the now familiar world-wide .MANHOOD OF HUMANITY is 187 as clear as anything can be or can become. manifest that. or that of a surface It is. no railroads. perfectly a surface. we are guilty of the same kind of blunder as if we gard human regarded animals as plants or as plants touched by the same kind of blunder as that of re"divinity" garding a solid as a surface or as a surface miraculously transfigured by some mysterious It is is influence from outside the universe of space. no charting of the seas. a mixing of disastrous. if our ancestors had committed that kind of error regarding lines and surfaces and solids. if there were no geometry. For what are Let the the consequences of that kind of error? He knows that. no astronomy. there would to-day be no science of geometry. that life the of man the time-binder is as radically dis- tinct animal as from that of animals mere space-binders as distinct from that of plants or life is the nature of a solid is distinct from that of therefore. no steamships. thus evident that our is guilt in the matter fundamental the guilt of a blunder that a confusing of types. from that of a line.

how very if. again. for posed. so that . have been appalling the consequences would throughout the period of humanity's childhood. let him shoulder the burden of the mighty argument and bear it to the goal. then the great and now familiar things of which it would have deprived the world would not be here. and so we could not now compute even roughly the tremendous mag- nitude of the blunder's disastrous consequences. he will here miss the gravity of a most momentous truth. was not persisted in. we should not now be able even to imagine them. if made. there had occurred a certain confusion of types. and persisted can in throughout the cen- he because the perceive those consequences just error was not made and hence the great things of which (had the blunder been made) it would have deprived the world are here. if that error had been committed turies.1 88 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY made I affairs possible by the scientific conquest of if he say does not. the blunder was not made or. if it had been made and persisted in. Let the reader not deviate nor falter nor stagger here. let the reader reflect. and he is enabled to see it just because. for. in the case sup- space. happily. He easily perceives the truly appalling consequences that would have inevitably followed from the error of confusing types the in the matter of lines error of mixing dimensions and surfaces and solids. He readily sees. a certain mixing of dimensions.

but all ing the center of not merely one of our human of them. in regard to the exactly simi- lar error respecting the nature of is is man. it has lain athwart the course of human progress. age after age it has hampered and baulked the natural energies the activity of the time-binding civilization-producing energies of humanity. not merely hypothetical. the situation reversed. the law of dimensions. we have seen that it was actually committed and has been actually persisted in from time immemorial. them all of man himself.MANHOOD he can say: science of OF HUMANITY 189 "Behold those splendid things the geometry and its manifold applications in everywhere shining human affairs imagine all of them gone. unlike the other one. now. that the consequences of the ages-old blunder have been and are very momentous . since it is an error regardaffects. and you will have a measure of the consequences that would have followed violation of the law of types. that it let him reflect. for this blunder. and he regarding the very nature will know. as well as any- thing can be known. surfaces and solids. concerns. imagine the world if they had never been. How are we to estimate its consequences? Let the reader keep in mind that the error is fun- damental a type-confusing blunder (like that supentities) . posed regarding geometric moreover. in the matter of lines. not merely for years or for decades or for centuries but for centuries of centuries including our own day." But.

and your sense of the appalling loss will give you the measure required. politics and government throughout the . we have recognized the necessity and the duty of virtually stinging ourselves into an awareness of the fact that we have actually held them for true and that from time immemorial they have poured their virus into the heart of ethics. we cannot describe them adequately. perhaps forever. all of the glorious achievements of which the tragic blunder has deprived the world. I have said that the duty of examining the mis- conceptions imposes upon us four obligations. Three of these we have performed: we have disengaged the beliefs in question from the complicated tangle of opinions in which they have come down to us from remote antiquity. they have not been produced. in the sad realm of dreams regarding great and noble things that might have been. we cannot delineate their proportions." It is evident that the glories of which the misconceptions of human nature have deprived manhood must long remain. Their measure is indeed beyond our power. is plain : it is that those advancements of civilization.190 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY and very terrible. are none of them here. for we cannot truly imagine them and the reason . and so we cannot say. those augmentations of material and spiritual wealth. economics. as in the other case: "Look upon these splendid treasures of bound-up time. imagine them taken away.

as to be utterly spiritual beyond our present power to conceive or imagine it. that gives us It ground for future hope. world-wide cataclysmic demonstration ignorance of of fundamental nature. that. ignorance human human It is just that tragic demonstration. has constrained us to think of realities and espe- cially to think of Man. as we have seen. pitiless as fate or famine.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY 191 world. We have just reached the conclusion that this task can- not be fully performed. possess a civilization so far But. the fourth one of the mentioned tasks is that of tracing. As already said. The period has been long and the manner of its end is memorable forever a sudden. it is has forced us to think of realities and thought . for there can be no doubt. the blunder's deadly effects both in human history and in the present status of the world. flaming. That of the supreme reality the reality is why the great Catastrophe marks the close of humanity's childhood. the world would now advanced. if we can. though plight is far we cannot perform the task from hopeless. if the blunder had not been committed and persisted in. brutal as an earthquake. we have seen not only that the beliefs are false but that their falseness is due to a blunder of the most fundamental kind the blunder of mixing dimensions or confusing types. our has War goaded us It into thinking as we never thought before. The World fully. so rich in the fruits of time and toil.

that. that these days. at length. is the hierarchy of natural life. though we cannot compute the good of which they have deprived mankind. a in rank of his own. and we can teach.1 92 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY And so I say of reality that will heal the world. and the knowledge can be taught to men and women and children by home and school and church and press throughout the world. though he is not an animal. present and future in a single growing reality charged at once with the surviving creations . for. evil in a . these monstrous misconceptions have made countless millions mourn and that they are doing so to-day. at length. are the beginning of a new order in human affairs the order of permanent peace and swift advancement of human For we know at length what human beings are. we know that create and we can teach the world. we know animal nor a miraculous mixture of angel and beast. is a natural being. and we can teach the world. and we can teach. that man is neither an weal. having a definite place. unit- ing past. despite their fear and gloom. we know at length. throughout the centuries. that what characteristic of the human is class of life which makes us human reasoned understanding is the power to material and spiritual wealth to to beget the light of it produce civilization the unique capacity of man for binding time. we can trace the dark ramifications of their positive thousand ways we know at length. that man.

with the productive labor of the living. that the natural the rate of a swiftly increasing exponential function of time we know. and we can progress is teach. It can be made an endless period of rapid developments civilization. PR T . the school. and so the work must begin with a campaign of education wide enough to embrace the world. we know at length. rate of human we can tion teach. The cooperation of all educational agencies the home. all that is precious in present civilizasacred and holy is in the fruit of the time-binding toil struggling blindly through the ages against the perpetual barrier of human ignorance of human nature. we know at length. the press must be enlisted to make known the fundamental truth concerning the nature of man . the forward-leaping function of Such knowledge and such teaching will inaugurate the period of humanity's manhood. and the world will understand. in True All the developments must grow out of the true conception of human beings as constitut- ing the time-binding class of life. the church. that what is good it.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY 193 of the dead. and . the time-binding energies of humanity will advance civilization in accordance with their human natural law time. with the rights and hopes of the yet unborn. we can teach. that in proportion as we rid our ethics and social philosophy of monstrous misrepresentations of nature.

the ethics of tooth and claw. will be wrong and bad. politics and government. promoting the weal and protecting the rights both of the living and of the unin justice. What- ever accords with the natural activity of those energies will be right and good. and excellence and will mean excellence in the production spiritual time-binding excellence and right use of material wealth excellence in science. and children everywhere. It will be a natural ethics based upon a knowledge of the laws not be a branch of zoology. economics. in . the ethics of profiteernature.194 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY so that it shall become the guiding light and habit of men. the ethical standard of beasts. women. a branch of Human Engineering." ology. "Survival of the fittest" in the sense of the strongest is a space-binding standard. in wisdom. the ethics time-binding ethics. Gradual indeed but profound will be the transformations wrought in all the affairs of mankind. whatever does not. it will be a ing. in the ethics of humanity's manhood survival of the fittest will mean survival of the best in competitions for excellence. but especially and first of all in the so-called arts and sciences of ethics. It will human of space-binding beasts fighting for "a It will be a branch of humanplace in the sun. The ethics of humanity's ethics manhood will be neither "animal" of nor "supernatural" ethics. in art. the ethics of the entirely natural civilization-producing energies of humanity.

and amazing theories. for then I manhood have only to say that in the period of humanity's the moral blindness of such "principles. and regular payment of his interest. by Mr.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY born." and the "finance" of "normalcy"? There lies before me an established S.)." in the sale of indulone form or another and the "divine wis- dom" in of ignorant priests." "business as usual. It is needless to say that the natural ethics of humanity's manhood those species of commerce shall will not be found. Mead. E. slavery is be regarded with utter loathing as regarded to-day.D. N. I can hardly do better than to ask the reader to ponder a few extracts from that work. is And what we handbook of Corporation Finance. and since both security and interest depend Upon the permanence . showing the established. and traffic gences in "supernatural. say in particular of economics. Behold the picture : "Since the bondholder is solely interested in the security of his principal. whose purpose is not that of adverse criticism but that of showing the generally accepted "sound" bases for prosperous business. (Appleton. Y. fit to be slaves. Ph." will their space-binding spirit of calculating selfishness and greed. of "industry. 195 The ethics that arose in the dark period of humanity's childhood from the conception of human beings as mysterious unions of animality and divinity gave birth to two repulsive species of traffic traffic in men regarded in the as animals.

. will become a genuine science based upon the laws of the time-binding energies of . (2) control of sources of raw material . . other things being equal the companies with the most stable earnings or a market .... a business is not property an aggregate of physical property but consists of physical buildings. the socalled "science" of economics. . The more complete this control. . for the transportation service cating the railroad plant. . see the animal standards in their studied Comment would be superfluous. In the period of humanity's manhood. . patents. The security of the creditors is here the profitableness of the business which carried on in the factory." by the author. . rates . . for example. (4) high cost of duplicating plant. the "dismal science" of political economy. The most familiar are (i) franchises. Furthermore. boilers. for example. Monopoly is exclusive or dominant control over a market. .. rather than by the consumer. . . plus the organization and ability to oper(Italics indicated ate business. . . . Stability of earnings depends upon (i) the possession of a monopoly. the right to use public property for private purposes.196 MANHOOD or HUMANITY of income.) There we perfection. . Monopolies are of various origins. . water and transportation. the more valuable is the monopoly. enables . machine tools plus an industrial opportunity. on freight and passenger is traffic.. . the high cost of duplithem to fix their . . .. the furnishing of light. furnish the best security for bonds. The advan- tage of monopoly lies in the fact that the prices of services or commodities are controlled by the producers (meaning owners Author). Railroads furnish perhaps the best basis of bond issue because of the stability of the demand . (3) In manufacturing industries. those enterprises which produce raw materials and the necessities of life have a more stable demand. .

will know and will teach that a civilizing life is a life devoted to the to the production of potential and kinetic use-values and spiritual wealth. and guide of human For it will discover. why? of right belong to Smith Or does it of right belong the living. why? And what does who are relaOnly Or both the living and unborn? The tively few? Economics of humanity's manhood will not only ask to man humanity? If so.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY humanity. that is. and will teach that a weal. is it not merely a civi- lized life but a civilizing life. It will discover and will teach that the time-binders of a given generation are posterity and ancestry at once posterity of the dead. ancestry of . creation. it will know and will teach that the wealth in any given moment is almost wholly the inherited fruit of time and the labor of the dead. it 197 will become the light of Human Engi- neering promoter. a time-binding life. In seeking the answers. it will discover some obvious truths and many old words will acquire new meanings consistent with the time-binding nature of man. "humanity" include? these questions but it will answer them and answer them aright. guardian. the world at and so it will ask: To whom it does the inheritance rightly belong? Does and Brown? to If so. of material it will know and spiritual will teach that wealth both mate- rial and wealth is a natural phenomenon offspring of the marriage of Time and human Toil. human life.

the generations to it will discover and will teach that in this time-binding double relationship uniting past and future in a single living growing Reality. economics will know and will teach that human posterity can not inherit the fruits of time-binding posterity time and dead men's toil as animals inherit the wild fruits of the earth. economics of humanity's manhood will know and lust mal The will teach that the characteristic energies of man as man are by nature civilizing energies. the peaceful energies of inventive mind. wealth-pro- ducing energies. are to be found the obligations of time- binding ethics and the seat of its authority. it will know and will teach that these energies of existing men united with one billion six hundred million available "sun-man" powers united with the ten billion living "man-powers of the dead.198 all MANHOOD or HUMANITY come . it will know and will teach that "capitalistic" lust to keep for SELF and "proletarian" lust to get for SELF are both of them space-binding lust anibeneath the level of time-binding life. are more than produce a high order of increasing pros- ." by ignorance and cient to selfishness. of growing knowledge and understanding and skill and light. but only as trustees for the generations to come. if they be not wasted conflict by and compesuffi- tition characteristic of beasts. to fight about them and to devour them. time-binding energies.

MANHOOD OF HUMANITY perity 199 everywhere throughout the world. however. but must be the welfare of all the weal of the world mankind. and will teach. It will be a natural organic embodiment of the wealth-producing ener- the civilizing energies gies characteristic of the human class of life. the basis of cooperation. it know. the prosperity of humanity. Its larger affairs will be guided by the science and art . patriotism far from it country will not perish to will grow embrace the world. the peaceful production of the destruction of Wealth without War. it man all is against man but both necessary and will know and scientific will teach that such coop- eration demands will leadership and a common aim. for your country and mine will be the world. it will know and teach and all will understand that the common aim. the love of it In humanity's manhood. for the lesson of and a Germany is plain. in the period of its manhood economics will discover and will teach that to produce world prosperity. the unifying principle. that scientific knowledge common aim are not alone sufficient. coopernot the fighting of the peaceful cooperation of ation Sufficient. Your "state" and mine will be the Human State of Man a Cooperative Commonwealth democracy in fact and not merely in a name. cannot be the welfare of a family nor that of a province or a state or a race.

period of transition natural first A step would probably be the establish- ment of tion or a a new institution Dynamic Department Department of Cooperation the name is of little importance. manufactures. one biologist. but in general outline the process is Violence is to be avoided. but the dream will come true.2oo of MANHOOD OF HUMANITY Engineering not by ignorant and graftbut by scientific men. finance. but it would be the nucleus of the new civilization. Its functions would be those of encouraging. which might be called a Department of Coordina- and distribution. one can foresee the details. and one mathTheir work would be the development ematician. one mechanical engineer. it It is a scientific dream and science will make all a living reality. of human engineering and mathematical sociology or humanology. promoting the progress of science. providing and supervising instruction in the theory . which might be as follows : (i) The Section of Mathematical Sociology or Humanoloay: composed of at least one sociologist. helping and protecting the people in such cooperative enterprises as agriculture. The Department of Cooperation should include various sections. There must be a a period of adjustment. by honest Human ing "politicians" men who know. How is the thing to be done? No clear. Is it a dream? It is a dream.

lawyers and other specialists in their respective lines. The members of the section would be selected by the appropriate scientific societies for a term fixed by the selectors. This section would be an "In- . (2). (3) The Educational Section: composed of two or three teachers. would then be recom- mended to the appropriate legislative bodies. if ratified in a joint session of sections (i) and (2). chemical engineers. one sociologist. production engineers. accountants. Their legislative proposals. (4) The Cooperative Section: composed of mechanical engineers. expert bookkeepers. (2) The Section of Mathematical Legislation: composed of (say) one lawyer. one mechanical engineer.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY of values and the rudiments of humanology for 201 ele- mentary schools and the public at large. selected as above. one mathematician. to provide means for eliminating "Legalism" from the theory and practice of law. one mathematician. and (3). their decisions being sub- They would elaborate educational projects and revise . and to bring jurisprudence into accord with the laws of time-binding human nature and the changing needs of human society. Their task would be to recommend legislation. selected as above. school methods and books ject to the approval of the joint session of sections (i). one mechanical engineer. business managers.

This paper would give daily news about the whole cooperative movement. (5) The its Banking Section: com- posed ticians of financial experts. special- and cooperative (8) The Foreign Section: for inter-cooperative foreign relations. (9) The Commercial Section.. etc. sociologists. . and no priplans. uncolored news with a special supplement relating to progress in the work of Engineering. vate person. would be latest scientific permitted by law to use them. (7) ists in The Farming scientific Section: composed of agriculture. Human . collect data. would The department and give advice respecting the general conditions of the market and the needs in the also study various lines of production. (10) The News Section: to edit a large daily paper giving true.202 dustrial MANHOOD OF HUMANITY Red Cross" (Charles Ferguson) giving ex- pert advice when asked for by any cooperative Cooperative society. but only cooperative societies. etc. and mathema- task being to help with expert advice new cooperative people's banks. markets. (6) The Promoters' Section: composed of engineers whose duty would be to study all of the facts. and elaborate Those plans would be published. This section would regulate the duplication of production.

Its principal purpose is to accentuate the imperative necessity of establishing a national time-binding agency a Dynamic Depart- ment for stimulating. . happily and without fear. All the selections for this as work should be made in the same manner through proven merits not Such appointments should be considered the highest honor that a country can offer clever oratory. the time-binding energies. in virtue of which human beings are human.MANHOOD OF HUMANITY places for this should be the very best men in the nation. Every selection should be a demon- was a person of the attainments in the field of his work. unretarded by monstrous misconceptions of human and uously. in accord with the exponential law of the timethe natural law and rapidly. it aims merely stration that the person selected at being suggestive. nature. selected to 203 All men the work They should be well paid to enable them to give their full energy and time to their duties. guiding and guarding the civilizing energies. the wealth producing energies. to its mentioned above citizens. highest The outline of this plan is vague. by vicious ethics. contin- under the leadership of human engineering. will advance peacefully. vicious economics vicious politics. For then and only then human welfare. binding energies of Man.

as I said in the beginning. Its weakness is due to the absence of a true conception of beings are. inevitably. in a new spirit. Here it would be easy to miss the signs of coming changes. but A realization of I have little doubt that it will come. that this little book has aimed to be only a sketch. The literature of the subject skill. That is what If I I miss in it what human and it is that I lack of fundamental and central thought that striven to supply. 1920. as a matter of course. from a new point of view. S. have no fear once all else will follow quickly. and the birth of children also doomed to the weary treadmill. have I have succeeded in that. having achieved nothing but avoidance of starvation." Sir Auckland Geddes. the aimlessness of life lived to labor and to die. has seized the minds of millions. it is power For a fundamental concepformed and expressed. The Problem of Life is old. British Ambassador to the U. with a new method. has a strange the power of enlisting the thought and co204 .CHAPTER X CONCLUSION "In Europe we know that an age is dying. tion. say very briefly. It it is displays fitted to great knowledge and Much of inform and to inspire such as really read with a genuine desire to understand. is vast. I conclusion let TN me have endeavored to approach it afresh.

of truths the times are ripe. I can only point. and is have no doubt that that conception guide. with gloom* Without the truth in this forebodings and fear. not according to the . felt in Buckle writing his History of Civiliza- tion: "Whether or not is I have effected anything of real value . time will decide. and on this alone. matter. there can be no rational hope history must go on is dismal course. that whatever imperfections may be observed. I have no misgivings. But. there not only hope but certitude that the old order has in its passed and that humanity's present day. I. . I Whether feel as am mistaken or not.CONCLUSION operation of 205 conception can many minds. that I feel the need of great indulgence. . wish this work to be estimated. Of this. but with the truth. the world important is filled with the saddest of memories. plead the immensity of the subject. to be the base. a question for competent judges to decide. but in the extreme difficulty of any single man putting into full It is on this operation all the parts of so vast a scheme. Of defects in its execution I am not unconscious. as to the plan itself. the the source of light. in And no have greater power our human world than a true For that most conception of the nature of Man. in manhood dates from the That I I have here presented the truth this matter the true conception of the human I class of life have personally no doubt. I feel certain. the shortness of a single life and the imperfection of every single enterprise. not in the method proposed. at least. I of a new civilization. the fault consists. therefore.

and I would moreover. subversive of the interest of Man. add. . That is why in his Mathematical Philosophy Professor Keyser has truly said: . If these two conditions have been obeyed. that if the reader has met with opinions adverse to his own." And why spirit sought throughout to follow the of mathematics? Because I have been dealI all have ing with ideas and have desired. is a task so painful. I found them unsupported by solid proof. to be ascertained. after a wider range of study. therefore. and whether the facts are certain. Ideas have a character of their own they are right or wrong independently of oar hopes and passions and will. and To examine the fatal to the progress of his knowledge. The only points. that his views are. The principles which I advocate are based upon distinct arguments supported by well ascertained facts. the same as those which I too once held. In the connection of ideas there is an unbreakable thread of destiny. and clear. and to turn aside that they from those which will not bear the test. perhaps. because. by stating that they endanger some other conclusions. whether the arguments are fair. they reproach those by whom the suffering is undergone. notions in which we have been educated. in an undertaking of such novelty and magnitude.206 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY but according to the way in which been fused into a complete and symmetrical those parts have whole. the principles follow by an inevitable inference. nor can they be even affected by allegation against their supposed tendency. This. above to be right things else. are. Conclusions arrived at in this way are not to be overturned . I have a right to expect. finish of its separate parts. and which I have abandoned. who shrink from the sufferings should pause before . he should remember.

I did set not propose to myself any novel or strange aim. his was an effort in the right direction and this quoted conclusion may in the well be a conclusion for ourselves in the 2Oth century : "The truth might forever have remained human race. pity and and passions. iyth Century had well realized this fact and although imperfect in many ways. above selfishness in any form. too impersonal maybe to please the senti- mentalists before they take the time to think. 207 not fate in a physical is the study of Fate but in the sense of the binding thread that connects thought with thought and conclusions with their premises. and. of Whoso them is free. I determined not to laugh or to weep over the actions of men. and to contemplate their affections hate. therefore. but to their essential nature hid from the the final cause and the properties involved in it. math- ematical analysis of life phenomena elevates our point of view above passion. . had not I them. then. those things which agree best with practice. arrogance. but simply to understand them . but simply to demonstrate by certain and indubitable reason. . if mathematics. . such as love. And in order that I might enquire into the matters of the science with the same freedom of mind with which we are wont to treat lines and surfaces in mathematics. all other disturbances . envy." No doubt mathematics truly impersonal in method. tell it is the only method which can Spinosa even us genuine truths about ourselves. which looks not to of figures. Logic the muse is Thought. anger. Where. is our freedom? What do you love? Painting? loves Poetry? Music? The muses is are their fates. When another type of knowledge before turned my mind to this subject.CONCLUSION "Mathematics sense.

208 MANHOOD OF HUMANITY human in the of soul not as vices of taining to it same way nature. are yet necessary. What broached. Is Time identical with Intelligence? Is either of them the other's cause? Is Time in the Cosmos or is the latter in the former? Is the Cosmos intelligent? Many no doubt and marvelous are the study of fields which the research. cold. storm. but as properties peras heat. it any. and thus. though pertain to the nature of the atmosphere. by contemplating them in their truth. are the limits of Time-binding? are somehow involved all the higher functions of mind. Infinity. else? Many topics have not even been achieve in Time-binding energy what course of the aeons to come? may it not What light may if it not yet throw upon such fundamental pheas Space. gain for our minds much joy as by the knowledge of things that are pleasing to the senses. scientific man will open for . for then we may and art that will know how to direct the energies of man to the advance- ment of human weal. and have certain causes through which we may come to understand them. nomena and so on? In What. For these. Time. I shall be confidently expect a science happy. thunder troublesome." If only this little book will initiate the scientific study of Man.

and look into the suggestions." and also the metaphysicians not to do the same with an equally hasty judgment "Oh! mathematics. the form. the mathematicians and physicists not to discard this appendix with too hasty a judgment of "Oh! metaphysics. forgive ticians. The problem is of exceeding difficulty to give expression to in any form and therefore much more difficult to express in any exact or correct form. and so I beg the reader's patience in regard to the language because some of the ideas are in themselves correct and sometimes very suggestive in spite of the language used." My answer is that the problems involved are too pressing. tremendous fields to work in. too fundamental for humankind. too vital. because I if scientific psychology such a science is to exist." is I hope that if this appendix sympathetically understood. very pedantic and therefore intolerant and they may say "the fellow should learn first how to express himself and then ask our attention. to permit me to delay in their pedantry Some 209 . would by I particularly beg necessity have to be a branch of physics. mathematicians and physicists will be moved to investigate the problem. If mathematicians and and physicists if would be more tolerant toward metaphysics metaphysicians would be scientists are both would find moved to study mathematics. physicists me am particularly interested that mathemaand metaphysicians should read it carefully.APPENDIX I MATHEMATICS AND TIME-BINDING TPHE gestions purpose of this appendix is to give an expression of some new ideas which evolve directly out of the fact that humans are time-binders and which may serve as sugfor the foundation of scientific psychology.

and a locomotive as "pullers. may be not that of some new science." and if we were not to use any other names in connection with them.. Every phenomenon of nature can be classed and therefore. a man. An would speculate about any or all of these things. but rather that of a new branch of mathematics. in "a talking" about example will serve to make If we were to speak of a cow. etc. or we words. by one common characteristic. "to pull. namely. or look for a screw in a man. or chemistry. in mere verbalism. Metaphysics used words and conceptions of multi-dimensional meanings which of necessity resulted in hopeless confusion. to The old word "metaphysics" is an illegitimate child of ignorance and an unnecessary word in the scientific study of nature. its its What use of prevented metaphysics from achieving more was matical method. but belongs rather to an of physics. in spite of its being from exact. the problem." far The old metaphysics. or. unknown or an undeveloped branch problem. and also that the problems involved cover too vast a field for a single man work it conclusively.210 APPENDIX I for perhaps long years before I shall be able to present the subject in a correct and satisfactory form. we would try to milk an automobile or we would try to extract gasoline from a cow. unmathe- failure to under- stand the importance of dimensions. to be more explicit. or physics. an autothis clear. is not in any way supernatural or superphysical." havoc would be introduced into our conceptions and in practical life. what would happen? If we characterized these things or beings. studied in physics or chemistry or mathematics. therefore. accomplished a great deal. mobile. The It is pathetic that only after many aeons of human existence the dimensionality of man has been discovered and his proper status in nature has been given by the definition of "time-binder. or all combined. Too obvi- . It seems best to give the new ideas to the public in a suggestive form so that many people may be led to work on them more fully.

etc. but a special humanized mathematics. powers. Once analysis the word and concept Time enters. be. scientific As a matter of psychology will very much need mathematics. and so on. book a new and experimental fact has been disIt is the fact that humanity is a timewhere the time-binding capacity or the closed and analysed. In using the words mental.. We ing body has four dimensions. but exactly the same thing happens. the so-called mental.MATHEMATICS AND TIME-BINDING ously nonsensical 211 much more subtle way. in a when we use such words as "life in in a crystal" or "memory animals". physicists. fact. see. may it feel that the expression is just a "well adapted one. but.." and inclined to look closer into they may not be very much or attentively to analyse it. will. ordinary sense time-binding including all without further analysing them. in this way experimental sciences are a permanent source of inspiration to mathematicians because the need of In this new facts bring about new methods of analysis. which is three dimensional. we are thus mentally making a mistake no ing an automobile" less nonsensical than the talk of "milk- would Laymen are baffled by the They imagine that dimensions are applicable only to space. binding class of life ENERGY is the highest function of humanity. Mathe- maticians. but they are mistaken. with undefined terms and inco- . that a mov- word dimension. it has three dimensions as any object at rest. Theologians and metaphysicians probably will speculate a great deal about it vaguely. Can this be produced? It seems to me that it can. and will powers. It is a well known fact that experimental sciences bring us to face facts which require further theoretical elaboration . the ground for and reasoning at once becomes very slippery. spiritual. a fourth dimension is necessary to give its position at any one instant. I deliberately accept and use them in the popular. etc. when the object is moving. therefore. a moving object is four-dimensional that is. spiritual.

One fact must be borne in mind. One own case. scientific time as such. are mere shadows. "self evident. mathematically. In the meantime two facts remain facts: namely. Do we in this way Such are the crucial approach or go back to "Cosmos"? questions which arise out of this new concept of Man. not work psychologically but works ABSTRACTLY: the higher the abstraction the less there is of the psychological element and the more there is. mathematicians and physicists have almost all agreed with Minkowski "that space by itself and time by itself." but psychological It must be noted that the time-binding energy the facts. or may be identical. so to say. or that action is equal to reaction. but we have been obliged to use them as definitions. ." from "Bios" to "Logos. by Henri Poincare) and mathematics also has its whole foundation in a few axioms. is that time psychological fact undefined and not understood. by definition that equal to the product of mass by acceleration. is also our own human time. impersonal time- . higher or highest energies of man (one of way.212 APPENDIX I herent ideas with incoherent results. Which one of them is the best conwhich one more nearly corresponds to the truth about cept "time"? What is time (if any) anyway? Until now we have gone from "Cosmos" to "Bios. and only a kind of blend of the two exists in its own right. for sake of discrimination let us call its it branches anyit "M") when does works properly. but will keep us away from the discovery of truth." The other fact exists psychologically by is itself. is our own human time. that "the principles of dynamics chief difficulty judgment upon their always that humans have to sit in appeared force is first to us." now we are confronted with the fact that "Logos" and Time-binding are dangerously near to Intelligence akin to each other. as experimental truths It is . that is. The psychological time as such. of the pure." (The Foundation of Science. which will not lead us toward a scientific or true solution.

ties This or apparatus in the present stage of our development. works automatically machine- were. by which will mean such conceptions of the truth as any one person possesses. but whether the results are true is another question. which they are. but different from other types of truth -On)(2) Scientific truth (as). that conclusions are true. bios. because of the time-binding involved in it. it will thrash out the results correctly. but it does assert that is the inestimable value of fact if mathematics. One the of tions of the possibility that one of the functime-binding energy in its pure form. (i. shaping correctly the product of its activity. but whether truly is another matter. practical purposes. which are introduced only for It may happen that may become scientific. as it presume that its its conclusions are correct. or relative truth. Mathematics does not like. or private. by which I will mean a psychological truth when it is approved by the time-binding facul2. This becomes a very comprehensive we approach and analyse the mathematical processes as some branch (M) of the time-binding process. then this process at once becomes impersonal and cosmic. time-binding taking us right back to cosmos again ? Now if we put psychological axioms into the time-binding apparatus. scientific truth represents the "bound-up-time" in our present knowledge. in the them is highest abstraction (M). Is the succession of cosmos. To duce three be able to talk about these problems I have to intronew definitions.MATHEMATICS AND TIME-BINDING 213 The definition of a man as a timebinding energy (M). binder a definition based on facts suggests many reflections. . no matter what time is (if there is such a thing as time). after some rewording these definitions I will try to define "truth" and for this purpose I will divide the concept "truth" into three types: I (1) Psychological. and finally. logos.

If it were possible to isolate completely from the other the "logos" and the rays the "mental" process rays have a complete abstraction (which in the present could only M be in mathematics)." or "relative" truths. I will illustrate the suggestions by an example. . . and finally a^ for the absolute truth valid in infinity. B for the "psychological. . B. M . . type M material put into it. the "will" powers. . logical the A B namely AB C . . rays of the time-binding energy. 2 . . that the complex time- M binding energy has many different stages of development and different kinds of "rays" A. which. . I will not discriminate. It is a fact that mathematics sionless. for the moment. Let us suppose that the human time- To binding capacities or energies in the organic chemistry correspond to radium in the inorganic chemistry being of course . then the work of could be compared to the work of an impersonal machine which always gives the same correctly shaped product no matter what is the is correct impersonal pasAgain. which will be the final definition of a phenomenon based upon the final knowledge of primal causation valid in infinity (a x ). all the basic axioms which underlie mathematics are "psychological axioms". for it probably is so. M . or / (A B C . C. rays. the character of any "truth" in question will largely depend upon which of these elements prevail. therefore it may happen that these "axioms" are not of the but are of the / (A B C ) personal type and dy. as a matter of fact." "private. .214 APPENDIX I (3) The absolute truth. . s2 -an wu "l be used for scientific truths. ). Let us suppose that the so-called mental capacities are the . between as i. . It may happen. M. . Psychotruths will then be a function of all rays together. the rays. . . and so on. . make it easier to explain. . of different dimensions and of absolutely different character. For simplicity's sake I will use the signs a\. . . the "spiritual" capacities. .

from O. . The . or psychonumbers. Here to my mind is to be found the kernel of the whole trouble. must be done." for the words "normal numbers" and for the "transInstead of using finite" the words "very great numbers. . or the development. . . M . in the meantime. . then take the next very small number as the first finite or "normal number" then the old finites or the normal numbers would become very great numbers and the old very . the very small. I will use for the way to embrace psychology. outline a way in which this can Here I will endeavor to To the words "very small numbers. and for the very great numbers. ) . The / (M) evolved from this / (A B C . is composed exclusively of very great numbers and of very small magnitudes (atoms. the physical world. the world and man. ." axioms concerning normal numbers.). But the rules logical which govern the small numbers. and the great numbers. the normal. If psychology to be an exact science cannot account for psychological it must be therefore. we shall have to start from the beginning." the word "number" I will sometimes use the word "magnitude" and under the word "infinity" I will understand the meaning as "limitless. And. express it correctly is more than difficult : I beg the mathematical reader to tolerate the form and look for the sense or even the feelings in what I attempt to express. the psychological world. . if we want really to understand etc. electrons. base of mathematics was f (A B C .MATHEMATICS AND TIME-BINDING this 215 may be why mathematics is facts. the work. mathematics mathematical find a in principle. ." The base of the whole of mathematics or rather the starting point of mathematics was "infinitesimals" "finite" the "psychological truths. and magnitudes that were tangible for the senses. of mathematics is / (M) this is the reason for the "ghosts" in the background of mathematics. are not the same. To make it less shocking to the ear of the pure mathematician. . It seems to me that. M . As a matter of fact.) base a wonderful abstract theory absolutely correct for the normal.

The socalled infinitesimals are Nature's real. immediate and most vital effect would be. losophy in existence. the concept of numbers.216 great APPENDIX I numbers would become the very great of the second Such transposed mathematics would become psychological and philosophic mathematics and mathematical The philosophy would become philosophic mathematics. which is an artificial concept and is not as a concept an element of Nature. or from the limit "zero. is a common tangible base for psychological as well as analytical truths. it would change or enlarge and make humanly tangible for the layman. This new philosophic mathematics would eliminate the concept of "infinitesimals" as such. course. This new branch of philosophic. space. In an "M" . of sophic or psychological mathematics. ordinary purposes. maybe." from the "O" from the intrinsic "to be or not to be" and the next to it would be the very first small magnitude. order and so on. correct and true in addition to which. infinity. but starting from a real. continuum. time and so on. would not change the ordinary mathematics It would be a special mathematics for for the study of old Man infinitesimals) dealing only with the "natural finites" (the and great numbers of different orders common which (including the normal numbers). that the start would be made not somewhere in the middle of the magnitudes but from the beginning. it could be changed to a still higher order in the way indicated here and become philoThis new science. base from O. the physical and therefore psychological continuum (I use the words physical continuum in the way Poincare used them) would become a mathematical continuum in this new philosophic mathematics. and next to it very small number. natural mathematics the infinitesimals were an analytical finites. nevertheless. psychological mathematics would be absolutely rigorous. Such a mathematics would be the mathematics for the time-binding Mathematical philosophy is the highest phipsychology.

would build rather a new philosophic mathematics where analytical facts would be also psychological facts. The most vital importance. see. because of our starting point. is by human "intelligence". is that taking zero as the limit and the next to it very small magnitude for the real starting point. repeat once again that this transposition of our starting point would not affect the normal mathematics for normal pur- poses. I call "time-linking" for the sake of dif- . is the same instead of positive. if we consider facts alone. too. nevertheless. All we know about "time" will explain to us a great deal about Man. This new mathematics would not only give correct results but also true results. Keeping in mind both of time. is also some funcof time. the organic growth. and all we know about Man will explain to us a great deal about time. with the formula "P R . tion This fact only the exponent is negative is indeed very curious and sug- Procreation. it will give us a mathematical science from a natural base where correct formulas will be also true formulas and will correspond to psychological truths." we see that they are of the same type and the law of organic growth human time-binding energy. The formula for the decomposapplies to the We ing of radium gestive. that the time-binding energy is also "alive" and multiplying in larger and larger families.MATHEMATICS AND TIME-BINDING time-binding 217 I necessity. the scientific time and the psychological conceptions it rigorously correct we may see that the human capacity of "Time-binding" a very practical one and that this time-binding faculty is a functional name and definition for what we broadly mean time. If we compare the formula for T kt organic growth y=e . which makes it obvious that time (in any understanding of the term) is somehow very closely related to intelligence the mental and spiritual activities of man. We have found that man is an exponential function where time enters as an exponent. The "ghosts" in the background will rapidly vanish and become intelligible facts for philosophic mathematics.

is almost a certainty because it seems to ' be the only possible supposition to account for that energy. the transfor- mation of organic atoms. and this cosmic energy time and intelligence are somehow connected if not indeed equivalent. is we analyse this energy. or theological methods. energy. which seems to be the only supposition. "able to direct basic powers. would bring us to face striking facts. Not so with the mind this "time-binding. Radium was discovered only a few years ago and is still very scarce. tremendous energy and what is very This supposition the results are time-binding energies. I do not know. but just methods. to my knowledge." but. which means a direct drawing upon the cosmic energy. and so on. correct There is they start. there will be results in which all the so-called . new energies unknown the solar energy transformed into coal transformed into the energy of the drive of a piston. if once direct. namely. physicists have never attempted to study this energy from that point of view. free from will find that this higher energy which If we somehow is is directly connected with "time" no matter what time ing to on able to produce. but the results for science and life are already tremendous because scientific methods were applied in the understanding and use of it. I am confident that. This supposition." any speculation. or the rotary energy in a steam engine. Happily these things can be verified in scientific laboratories.2i8 APPENDIX I ference. in food can account for such an energy as the time-binding There is only one supposition left. is. that the time-binding apparatus has a source for characteristic its in the transformation of organic atoms. Whether the energy of procreation or that of "time-linking" can be accounted for in units of chemical energy taken up in food. We did not use any zoological and scientific no scarcity in "human radium. Thus for instance. It is obvious that no amount of chemical energy nature. by transformation or by drawother sources of energy." higher exponential energy. namely.

such as are not become scientifically understood and will be con- Now they are mostly wasted or only sciously utilized. Keyser. Henri Poincare (deceased) . but not all readers are willing . therefore. It is not . N. This book is a pioneer book in its its own way. J. valid in infinity. and subject. will "supernatural. for me to advise the reader what selections to make. approaches the prob- lems somewhat from a physicist's point of view. They are two English scientists. Whitehead. psychic" phenomena. Professor C. Bertrand Russell and A. Messrs. the science of time-binding will disclose to us the inner and final secrets the final truth of nature. one Frenchman. spiritual. the art is the art of creative engineering. Russell and Whitehead approach the problems from a purely logical point of view and therein lies the peculiar value of their work. these two sciences are (i) Mathematical philosophy and (2) Scientific biology. and one American. There so there are no books dealing directly with are two branches of science and one art which are fundamental for the further development of the subject. It is very difficult to give in such a book as this an adequate list of the literature which may help to orient the reader in a general way in the great advance science has made in the last few years. for if a thorough knowledge of the subject is desired the reader should read all these books. Henri Poincare was a physicist (as well as a mathematician) and. It may happen that the science of Man as played with. In mathematical philosophy there are to my knowledge only four great mathematical writers who treat the subject as a distinct science.MATHEMATICS AND TIME-BINDING 219 fakes. These four scientists are unique in their respective elaborations and elucidations of mathematical philosophy. Professor Keyser approaches the problems from both the logical and the warmly human points of view in this is the great human and practical value of his work. a circumstance giving his philosophy its particular value.

Y. N. Selection from contents: Mathematics and the metaphysicians. to give a fuller list of the writings of those four unique men." Chicago. 1919. (i) is The purely mathematical foundation: RUSSELL. Limits logical numbers. Kinds of nite relations. On the notion of cause.220 APPENDIX I to make that effort toward clear thinking (which in the meantime will remain of the highest importance in science). be read by every one interested in mathematical philosophy." Cambridge Uni- this not giving any selections from the contents of book because this book should. On scientific method in philosophy." Macmillan. The Definition of order. . BERTRAND. "Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy. Mathematics. without doubt. Mathematics and "Mysticism and Logic. Infinite cardinal series and ordinals. Selection from contents: Definition of number.) am "The Problems of Philosophy. H. "Our Knowledge of the External World. 1903.. Y." 1912. Classes. Infiand continuity. before going into print. as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy.Y. "The (I Principles of versity. For many temporary reasons I was not able." Longmans Green & Co. N.. types. . Some readers will wish to select for themselves and to facilitate their selection I will lay out a feast "Menu" of this intellectual by giving in some cases the chapter heads. but there is no stroke of their pen but which should be read with great attention besides which there a very valuable literature about their work. The axiom of infinity and logic. 1914. N. The ultimate constituents of matter. Holt & Co.

Science and hypothesis. The ultimate physical concepts. The The theory of abstraction. ALFRED N." "Human Worth (2) of Rigorous Thinking." C. Nature and thought. I. J." The Science Press. It is a noble monument to the critical spirit of science and to the idealism of our time. "The Foundations of Science. it is an amazing revelation of how the familiar terms with which they deal plunge their roots far into the darkness beneath the surface of common sense. The data of science. Henry Holt & Co. N. HENRI. Selection from contents: traditions of science. method of extensive objects. "Principia Mathematical' Bertrand Russell. 1913. "As a work of constructive criticism it has never been surpassed. Whitehead and Cambridge. By A. The physicist's point of view: POINCAR^. "The Concept of Nature. Space. Selection from contents: sive abstraction. time." 1911. 1920." Cambridge. N. Time. "An Enquiry The Concerning the Principles of Natural Knowledge. Objects. To every one and especially to philosophers and men of natural science. 221 "An Introduction to Mathematics. The organization of thought.MATHEMATICS AND TIME-BINDING WHITEHEAD. Selection from contents: Number and magnitude. N." Cambridge. Keyser.. 1917. The anatomy of some scientific ideas.Y." London. "The Organization of Thought Educational and Scientific. Y. This monumental work stands alone. and relativity. 1910-1913. 1919. The method of extenSpace and motion. . Selections from contents: The principles of mathematics in relation to elementary teaching.

Autonomous truth and autonomous falsehood. "Supersimian" Wisdom. 1916. practical life. Mathematics as the study of fate and freedom. Science and method. Mathematical productivity in the A United States. point of KEYSER. III. Lectures for Educated Laymen. "The Human Worth of Rigorous Thinking." The Yale University Press. Selection from contents of general interest. "Mathematical Philosophy. The physical sciences. Distinction of doctrine and method." The Yale Essays University Press. the Constitution of the United thought. fiers . "The New Infinity and the Old Theology. Nature. philosophy in the role of critic." Forthcoming Book. A diamond Distinction of logical and psychological.222 APPENDIX I Force. the Study of Fate and Freedom. The axiom of infinity: new presupposition of thought. Research in American Universities. The prototype of reasoned discourse often disguised as in the Declaration of Independence. The mathematical sciences. industrial education. Mathematical reaAstronomic science. The existence of the hypercosmic. significance of mathematics. Logic the Humanmuse of Radiant aspects of an over-world. Science and the soning. The value of science. civilizing. or concerning the figure and the dimensions of the Universe of space." and Addresses. test of harmony. The objective value of science. scientist. The universe and beyond. The mathematical istic and and obligations of philosophy. "Science and Religion: The Rational and the Superrational. The new mechanics. view: (3) The human. Press. Other Varieties of truth and untruth. Columbia University Selection from contents: The human worth of rigorous thinking. CASSIUS J. The human The walls of the world. Significance and nonsense. II. Mathematical Theoretical and practical doubt. Verifalsifiers. Space. A world un criticised the garden of the devil.

ideals and idealization. as economist. Science as engineering in preparation. asymmetry of imagination. Need of history of the Imperious concept. Meaning of dimensionality. its dynamic and static aspects. The theory of logical types. The ages-old problem of The quest of what abides world as the binding thread of human The tie of comradeship among the enterhistory. as psychologist. The engineer as educator. the 223 Sermon on the Mount. The Qualities essential to engineering leadership. Open avenues to unimaginable worlds. The static and the dynamic worlds. The symmetry of thought. The psychology of mathematics and the mathematics of psychology. cal infinity. notion a simply exemplified in many fields. Its study. The The "Mind" group. Logical existence and sensuous existence. as statesman. A supreme application of it to definition of man. is The philosophy of the cosmic limit processes omnipresent as year. Engineering the guide of humanity. Engineering as science in action. no thinking. Mathematics the guide of the engineer. Distinction of imagination and conception. Importation of time and sup- The nature of in a fluctuant pression of time as the classic devices of sciences. Limits and Science and engineering. as ethics of the art. The problem of time and kindred problems. in all thought and human Ideals the flint of reality. prises of human spirit. the common enterprise of science. as mathematical thinker as a Man. scientist. invariance. Mathematiaspiration. the Origin of Species. Humanity the civilizing or Time-Binding class of life. The role of infinity in a mighty poem. Transformation law essentially psychological.MATHEMATICS AND TIME-BINDING States. . Nature of mathematical transformation. The concept of a group. Consequent retardation of science. No transformation. permanence and change. Relation function and transformation as three aspects of one thing. as philosopher. and the science of human welfare. Both of them in their infancy.

facts are falsely defined. or take pains to use. logic was supposed to be the science of correct thinking. but modern thought has progressed so far that the progress old logic is not able to handle the great accumulated volume and the great complicated mass of existing ideas and facts so we are forced to look for another instrument much more expedient and powerful. When ideas and realize .APPENDIX II BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING TTHE are life of one man is short. Our is not a well ordered pursuit after truth. they tend to bring us to false con- clusions. but the initial discovery not only has to be produced but correctly defined before it can be used and What we do not that is the important point to be made. and to very few is it given to achieve much in their lifetime. getic phenomenon of nature because we do not use. suitable language at the same time. and knowledge greatly suffer in consequence. we arrive at a complete "truth. is the tremendous amount of mental work that is lost an incorrect use of words. false definitions lead to consequences not merely wasteful but positively harmful. we simply have to look closer 224 . There is no need to establish a new science to replace logic. Until lately. as pure chance plays too large a part in it. and life and false conclusions lead us in wrong directions. by Human thought that unique." not by the production of one man but by a chain of men. Extensive achievements made almost entirely by many men taking up the work done by a discoverer. In such a case. subtle and yet most eneris in the main wantonly wasted.

and so will lead to trustworthy results. or being a slave of words? If instead of calling wine wine. but why confuse our minds by being afraid of. in much the same way as the disit covery of radium has affected them. the analysis of these phenomena presents great technical difficulty. and cannot be altered by words. the same for all peoples. Everybody who wants to think logically must think mathematically or give up any pretense of correct thinking there is no escape and all who refuse to investigate the justice of it is this statement put themselves outside the pale of logically thinking people. change the quality of wine? Of course not. All the "qualities" will remain because they are facts. Very probably all our some rejected. of the cases. we called it by its chemical formula. space and time. in any way. would this. I doctrines and creeds will have to be revised. bringing about unanimity of all sciences and thus greatly increasing their effectiveness in the pursuit of truth. In App. even in most. The application of rigorous thinking to life will even revolutionize scientific methods by the introduction of right definitions. This application of mathematics to life will even revolutionize mathematics itself. This problem can be solved only by scientific experiments with the time-binding energy. In many. some broadened. some rectified. correct classifications. As the seemingly ultimate and highest experimentally known energy is the human time-binding energy. that mathematics and mathematical reasoning is nothing else than the true logic of nature all is the one means of expression that nature's universal tongue This is not a play on words. is suggested tentatively how this may be accomplished.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING into the sciences at 225 which was hand and realize the fact. just language. a fact which. A most pathetic picture of the havoc and chaos which . after investigation. this new concept may lead to a change in our present concepts of matter. namely. everybody must admit. with us the time.

dimensions. rela- and time. electricity results know all energies in motion the electric motor. etc. no matter what For example. when our systems are suitthe transformations are reversible.. and also of space Hitherto. whether mic is the origin of the electricity be chemical. living complex organisms have been produced which grew to maturity through a chemi- . The experiments in scientific biology have proved this to be true in living organisms and just this the tremendous importance of the discoveries in scientific biology. Mathematics has been able to make its most stupendous achievements because of method of exact analysis of the continuum.226 APPENDIX use of II and science is wrong words its words brings into life exhibited in all fields of thought by the endless and bitter fighting over not well defined. the in the dynamo. the same marvel. transfinite numbers. etc. chemical process results in electricity the galvanic battery. Light and other energies react on organisms in the same way as the are reversible. We are tion somehow is related to each other. not all of these conceptions in their sharply defined form have had direct application to our daily The thoughts expressed in life or to our world conception. More chemical reactions and these phenomena than that. a galvanic or chemical is the origin of each. functions. energy results in a chemical process an accumulator. that all energies can be somehow one kind to another and that all of them knows battery produces the same kind of electricity as the mechanical process of friction or the interaction of cosmic laws as In some instances. in that their transformaThe effects produced by the same type of possible. Modern science transformed from represent one type of energetic phenomena. classes. App. tions. the ably adjusted. mechanical or cosas in the dynamo. energy are absolutely the same The marvel of an electric lamp is no matter what its origin. I may suggest this "missing link" connecting mathe- matics more intimately with life. that is. motion results in electricity the dynamo.

energies (embracing all faculties) are the highest of the known energies equally magnificent and astonishing no matter what the base . the results are astonishing. I have attempted.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING cal or mechanical treatment of the egg. time-binding energies are not a pound of beefsteak.) All phenomena in nature are natural and should be ap- proached as such. although a pound of beefsteak in the may help to save life and be therefore instrumental production of a poem or of a sonata but by no means can a beefsteak be taken for either of them. it will unmistakably help us to develop them indefinitely by mathematical analysis. and the scientific understanding of them will only add to our respect for them and for ourselves. it is equally false for the mind or the so-called spiritual and will powers. The scientific under- standing of these phenomena will not "degrade" these phenomena. The base is not the phenomenon sulphuric acid and zinc are not electricity. Electricity is electricity and nothing else. By this analysis . because that cannot be done. If we persist in saying and believing that the "spiritual evidences cannot be explained on a material base. as they lead us to a much higher and more embracing ethics than society has ever had. not fully understand the nature of the human mind and we shall learn to understand it when and only when we acquire enough to recognize it as natural. no matter what its origin human time-binding . The human mind it is is at least an energy which can direct other energies. If this statement is false for these phenomena." this statement should be equally sense applicable to electricity or radium. by Jacques Loeb. incorrect and mislead- It is of course true that we do ing to call it supernatural. . to solve these and life. with some measure of success problems in science I trust. Facts remain facts and no scientific explanation of a phenomenon can lower or degrade that which is a fact. 227 this has and been (See The accomplished in the infancy of scientific biology! Organisms as a Whole.

With enough to avoid the issues of the supernatural attitude. by a simple statement do not believe" and that was enough to break all bonds and be free from the "supernatural morale" but to get away from the "natural morale" and remain HUMAN is IMPOSSIBLE. as supernatural. simply because we do not understand them? It seems evident that . It is method is scientific and their tool is mathe- that in remote antiquity. and feel perfectly satisfied as long as one escaped the jail. human ethics will have the validity of natural law. their work is not to befog the air with cloudy expressions or sophistry.228 I APPENDIX II prove that the understanding of this most stupendous but of NATURAL phenomenon tifical brings us to the scienthat the so-called "highest prove ideals of humanity" have nothing of "sentimentalism" or of the "supernatural" in them. it was simple "L life. Engineers are not metaphysicians. WILL KNOW BY HIMSELF. in some temples electrical phenomena were known and were used to keep known the ignorant masses in awe and obedience. spiritual phenomena. their field is not one of argument but one of proved facts.. the curtain of sophistry and speculation is removed and everyone who breaks away from the NATURAL THAT HE clever IS LAWS FOR HUMANS. Whereas. The recog- are natural and as phenomena of the human mind such conform to natural law has the fur- ther advantage over the "supernatural" attitude in that we can no more evade a law of human nature than the law of gravity. and the usually so-called mental. in other words. etc. with an artificially formulated morale it was easy enough to break away by a simple mental speculation. OUTSIDE THE LAW FOR HUMANS. but to create. but are exclusively the fulfilment life human I source of ethics and of the natural laws for the nition of the fact that the human class of life. their matics. with a morale made clear that it is a NATURAL LAW for the human class of life. Shall we follow the methods used by those magicians or shall we squarely face facts? Shall we look upon life.

" which is far too destructive. Animals to-day than man. are facts and must be accepted as such. Who does not know the marvelous properties of this phenomenon? . The attitude of mind which admits the supernatural blinds and frustrates any analysis or any attempt at analysis. and the result is that the hideous proverb homini lupus" has become true. we have first but If we take. no matter what the origin. though it may. we see that from two chemical substances a third a salt is made in addition to which we have a peculiar energy produced called electricity. sulphuric acid and to know them. no matter how simple or complicated a phenomenon it is. We upon man alone. for example. The phenomena human time-binding energy are and will remain the most precious. In modern science facts are not wanting.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING 229 everything which exists in nature. Our present social system imposes these disastrous methods their proper standards. The dice. therefore we see that the "social structure" of the animals on a farm never breaks down as they are managed on a scientific base with an understanding of live more happily don't allow animals to practice the "survival of the fittest. problems of animal life were approached without prejuno supernatural "spark" was bothering us in our analysis an animal was an animal and nothing else we did not intermix dimensions. Facts may not be denied or falsified of the The high analysis is to arrive at correct conclusions. at the moment. The unprejudiced analysis of the so-called "supernatural" does not alter any part of the strange and high functions of it. the so-called spiritual and will powers. is natural. It is if about time to establish an exact science to deal with them. and on no occasion can the so-called "supernatural" be anything else than a completely natural law. "Homo zinc and make what we call a galvanic battery. be above or beyond our present understanding." or "competition. subtle and highest of known functions. dimensionality of the human mind.

Not only is the mechanour social basis istic conception of life compatible with ethics. that it is is based on the experimentally proved fact that Man is a Timebinder. hitherto considered "supernatural. it seems the only conception of life which can lead to an understanding of the source of ethics. There is no escape from that. and that this concept or definition of Man is rigorously scientific and accounts for the highest functions of man the highest of the mental . But here one objection may be raised. belong to-day to the realm of practical life. naturally active as such in time." less is well in hand. of scientists all over the world are working at this problem and the scientific facts which they have established. law and ethics. an objection which for some is a serious one indeed namely. have to know these facts.230 APPENDIX II Scientific biology has made tremendous progress lately. is nothing else than a' physico-chemical process? To quote Doctor Jacques Loeb from his Mechanistic Conception of Life: "If on the basis of a serious survey." I hope to have proved in this book that scientific ethics based on natural laws for the human class of life. engineers cannot afford to ignore the facts established in laboratory researches. Engineers. and ethical life will have to be put on a scientific and our rules of conduct must be brought into harmony with the results of scientific biology. and which cannot now be denied. only then can the process of integration in any phase of thought be made without mistakes. mathematicians have to establish correct dimensions in the study of all the sciences and people will have to study mathematical philosophy. and proves to be none the A number astonishing though entirely natural. if truth is what we really want. The problem of "life" and of other energies. what will take the place of the old philosophy. of course. if human life . this question (that all life chemical terms phenomena can be unequivocally explained in physicoAuthor) can be answered in the affirmative.

therefore. The time- man (no matter what time unique to man. as I pro- pose to call biolyte the substances produced. of a more One of complicated character and of another dimension. which manifest themselves in some peculiar energies. Scientific biology proves the fact that life and all of its phenomena are the results of some special physico-chemical processes. This name is important for the -consequences it will bring about later on. it is) . in reproducing the former materials that is. This process of form- ing chemical substances by the passing of an electrical current is called electrolysis and the product so produced is called electrolyte. which result I call the "time-linking" capacity or energy. The energy produced by the reactions of some organic chemical groups are. these energies of organic chemistry which lately has come into the scope of scientific analysis is called life its physicochemical base is the protoplasm. of which the human mind is the highest known form. These phenomena have a parallel analogy in inorganic chemistry in electhe difference being only in the scale or dimension. Eyes are sensitive to the more subtle vibrations of . At is the same time it is a known fact that organic chemistry infinitely more complicated and variable than inorganic chemistry. is a most subtle complex it is the highest known energy and probably has many subdivisions.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING and spiritual perfections 231 without the need of any "super- natural" hypothesis. tricity When an electric current is passed through a special battery called an accumulator or reversible battery. which is air. in that new compounds are formed which possess a reversible capacity. chemical changes occur. the process involved I propose to call biolysis. Ears are sensitive to the vibration of the binding capacity or energy of is if . electricity is generated. These processes are known to be reversible. in that some of these peculiar energies cause physico-chemical changes in their own base. namely.

or C 2 proin 2 which again in turn affects the base and produces a physico-chemical effect 2 .. whereas the transformain the production of the time-binding energy complete or nearly complete and is that which I call the time-binding energy. the time-binding apparatus is sensitive to the most subtle energies. will better explain the continuity. /. it grows and multiplies "autonomously" in its own dimension.. Here again we see the same continuity of phenomena. The time-binding energy is a complex radiating energy somewhat like the emanations of radium and it probably also has many different subdivisions. besides which it has the capacity to register not only all of our sensations but also the time-binding energies of other people." to grow and multiply "autono- same autonomous peculiarity applies to the time-binding energy. theoretically without limits. C^ and E i combined. and so on .) All the higher tion which occurs is probably characteristics of tal. (See App. The thought 7\ turn produces a physico-chemical effect E l on the base C^ (corresponding for the same reason to electrolysis and electrolyte in electricity). process tricity the thought produced by a physico-chemical (corresponding. duces T E T . in a similar way. the protoplasm as a complex organic physico-chemical unit which has the peculiarity to "live. is not complete but probably ends in lead. are embraced in this exact definition of energy in the capacity of time-binding. and it apparently has the capacity to register the energies of the universe.. evolution and diagram A mechanism of this time-binding energy. the physico-chemical base (for simplicity I represent the whole complex as one base) of the human time-binding C x is energy." etc. to elec- 7\ is produced by a galvanic battery). spiritual man which it is customary to call the "menand will powers. this new combination produces the energy 8 .232 APPENDIX II light. Note that the transformation of the atom or the transformation of mously" and this radio-active substances after passing different stages. for illustration's sake only..

BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING 233 .

the biolyte seriously of false teachings in the animal dimension ferent from the biolyte of true ideas in the must be very dif- human dimension. and it also explains other phenomena which. have had no scientific explanation whatever. degrade human nature still. of course. This energy is so peculiar that it embraces. therefore. It will be a shock to those who teach. not only down to the animal level but lower Happily now science can explain and prove these how fundamentally fiendish in effect are teachings in the life and progress of human beings. in other words.234 as long as there is special APPENDIX II any source of energy upon which this This theory which I call the energy can draw. and also the most criminal ideas ings (when the time-binding energy is obstructed by false teachand in consequence works abnormally). It explains the processes of all the mental and so-called spiritual energies which have been such a puzzle to humanity. "spiral theory" represents a suggestive working mechanism of the time-binding energy and is in accord with the latest scientific discoveries. if I may use the old expression. preach and practice animal standards and in the same breath contradict themselves in any talking about "immortality" and "salvation". We cannot make animals moral or immoral because they have not this timeWhereas human progress can be very binding capacity. until now. Nature or nature's laws happily cannot be completely deviated from or violated the time-binding energy cannot be completely suppressed in the time-binding class of life. At the same time. The false teachings that we are animals and essentially brutal and selfish can. false it will be obvious that if we teach humans ideas. they have not the capacity of the "spiral". . The animals are not time-binding. they have not autonomous progress. we affect their time-binding ca- and energies very seriously. the highest pacities way ideals (when the time-binding energy is unobstructed and is allowed to work normally). by affecting in a wrong the physico-chemical base. affected by false ideas.

It seems indeed uncanny that so delicate a mechanism should function so regularly for so many years. ." ligible. The idea that the physical conditions are guaranteed. "The confollow the same type of exponential function. cells are naturally immortal and die only if exposed body to extreme injuries such as prolonged lack of oxygen or too ligible. stant synthesis then of specific material from simple com- way pounds of a non-specific character is the chief feature by which living matter differs from non-living matter. the heart. by Jacques Loeb. With the natural law of time-binding realized. we see that the idea of the immortality of the body it Thus cell if can be generalized may be destined to become one of the main supports for a complete physico-chemical analysis of life phenomena since it makes the durability of organisms intel. . since there is no a priori reason why this synthesis should ever as long as come is to a standstill of its own accord enough food available and the proper outside ." but unhappily we cannot help them. high a temperature helps to make one problem more intelThe medical student. . . The mysticism connected and other phenomena of adaptation would disappear be certain that all cells are really immortal and that the fact which demands an explanation is not the with this if we would continued activity but the cessation of activity in death. problem of synthesis leads to the assumption of immortality of the living cell. "space-binding animal standards" is not very promising as disclosed by the "spiral. This . doing its duty incessantly for the seventy years or so allotted to man. who for the first time realizes that life depends upon that one organ. .) The outlook for those who live and profess selfish. the is open to entering scientifically upon the problem of The time-binding energies as well as "life" immortality.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING a little 235 thought makes it perfectly clear that "animal stand- ards" and "salvation" or "immortality" simply exclude each other. is amazed at the precariousness of our existence. greedy. (The Organism as a Whole. . .

the "tropism theory of animal conduct. knowledge few instances proves it is not because the principles of this theory are wrong. Grove-Korski. Since we have disis a time-binder (no matter what covered the fact that Man is) and have introduced the sense of dimensionality into the study of life phenomena in general.236 only APPENDIX II humans time-binding only fulfilling the natural laws for can give them the full benefit of their natural capacities by which they will be able to fate. Most of the problems touched upon in this appendix from a mathematical point of view are based upon laboratory facts. formerly at Berkeley University." founded by Dr. a great many facts which were not clear before become very clear now. We time have only to collect them and there is little need of imagination to see their general bearing. My friend Dr. illustrate as nothing better could." For the mathematician and the engineer. I wrote this book on a farm without any books at hand and I had been out of touch with the progress of science for the five years spent in the war service and war duties. I found with deep satisfaction that the is scientific new "scientific biology" because it has used mathematical methods with they do not "milk an auto- notable regard to dimensionality mobile. is of the greatest interest. but because they intermix dimensions and use words not sufIf they differ in a ficiently defined which always results in confusion and the checking of the progress of science. the correctness of my theory. Loeb. raise themselves above animals and their The results obtained in scientific biological researches are in their growing very rapidly and every advance this theory to be true. J. drew my attention particularly to the books of Dr. Jacques I found there a treasury of laboratory facts which Loeb. because this is a theory which analyses the functions and reactions of an organism as a whole and .

a "mathethe survey of a life long study of "trothe name given to express "forced movements" give the quintessence of laboratory exare the effects of different energies such They what etc. It would. periments as to as light (heliotropism).. since the reactions produced in an isolated element cannot be counted upon to occur when the same element is part of the whole. . since tropisms are reactions of the organism as a whole. These experiare conclusive and the conclusions arrived at cannot be overlooked or evaded. however.. be a misconception to speak of tropism as of reflexes. inasmuch as both are obviously of a purely physicochemical character. therefore. and they must not intermix dimensions. able to construct the reactions of the organism as a whole from the individual reflexes. I will quote here only a very few passages. if I may say so. in their reaction and influence upon the movements and ments of actions of living organisms. impossible to express the conduct of a whole animal as the algebraic sum of the reflexes of its isolated segments. such an attempt is in reality doomed to failure. while reflexes are reactions of isolated segments. on account of the mutual inhibitions which the different parts of the organism produce upon each other when in organic connection. matical biology" pisms. in one respect. Reflexes and tropisms agree.. electricity (galvanotropism). The tremendous practical results such scientific methods are based upon two principles. and it is. "Physiologists have long been in the habit of studying not the reactions of the whole organism but the reactions of isolated While it may seem justifisegments. the so-called reflexes. namely: that. but these books are of such importance that every mathematician and engineer should read them.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING therefore there is 237 no chance for confusion of ideas or the intermixing of dimensions. By Jacques Loeb. (i) the scientists must think mathematically. therefore. is They are. their studies of the phenomena must be in "systems" as a complex whole." Forced Movements Tropism and Animal Conduct. (2) . gravity ( geotropism ) ." which in organisms.

. but must use clear and rigorous thinkthe poison of metaing to eliminate the prejudices in science These books physical speculating with words. Conklin I quote only from his Heredity and Environ- a repetition of the title of the book.238 APPENDIX II they must see the danger and not be afraid of old words with wrong meanings. I will indicate the quotations by using only his name. Brown seem to indicate that this may be true for the crystals of ' The hemoglobins of any species are different subhemoglobin. that is man Dr. . biologically The following quota* tions prove dimension of a totally different From a totally different being than an animal. K. the differences being such that when complete crystallographic data are available the different species can be distinguished by these differences in their hemoglobins'. . who have shown by crystallographic measurements that the hemoglobins of any species are definite substances for The following sentences by Reichert and that species. but the proteins of each species of the same italics are indicated . genus are apparently different again in chemical constitution . The different species of a genus have all the same genus proteins. This has been done for hemoglobins of the blood by Reichert and Brown. (All to save ment and by A. . is doubtful reader is interested to see an how deadly the effect also may be referred to these books. But upon comparing the corresponding stances for that species. If a sceptical or of ample proof which an incorrect or unmathematical manner of thinking brings into science and life he. or verbalism. substances hemoglobins in different species of a genus it is generally found that they differ the one from the other to a greater or less degree.) "It would be of the greatest importance to show directly that the homologous proteins of different species are different. . The facts thus far reported imply the suggestion that heredity of the genus is determined by the proteins of a definite constituThis constitution differing from the proteins of other genera. give ample proofs of how misleading and obscuring are the words used and how arrived at basically wrong are the conclusions by such scientists as still persist in using the anthropomorphic or teleological methods of analysis. tion of the proteins would therefore be responsible for the genus heredity.

and yet the latter is a fact of universal observation which cannot be relegated to the domain of hypothesis or theory. micro-organisms. Consequently it is not possible to hold. Every cell comes from a pre-existing cell by a process of division. from the germ cells which are not made by the bodies of the parents but have arisen by the division of the antecedent germ cell. Men do not gather grapes of thorns nor figs of thistles. no fact in human experience is fraught with greater practical and philo- . . there can be no reasonable doubt that the two develop together from the germ. of every living thing are unalterably fixed by heredity. otherwise there would be no constant characteristics of these groups and The chief characters possibility of classifying organisms. ity reactions. horses. Men. polyps. birds. " No fact in human experience is more certain than that the no . mollusks. It is a curious fact that many people who are seriously disturbed by scientific teaching as to the evolution or gradual development of the human race accept with equanimity the universal observation as to the development of the human mind as well as body.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING 239 and hence they may give rise to the specific biological or immunThe Organism as a Whole. mind develops by gradual and natural processes from a simple condition which can scarcely be called mind at all. species. . reptiles. that the body generates germ cells." "All pecularitifs which are characteristic of a race." Conklin. and which can not be Now we know that the child comes successfully denied. fishes. sponges. "The entire organism consisting of structures and functions. and the organization of the germ determines all the possibilities of development of the mind no less than of the body. by Jacques Loeb. . cattle. Every living thing produces off-spring after its own kind. The only possible scientific position is that the mind or soul as well as the body develops from the germ. and every germ cell comes from a pre-existing germ cell. genus. order. worms. body and mind. all of the million known species of animals and plants differ from one another because of inherited peculiarities. develops out of the germ. "The development of the mind parallels that of the body. The animal ancestry of individual. because they have come from different kinds of germ cells" Conklin. nor that the soul generates souls. though the actual realization of any possibility is dependent also upon environmental stimuli. the race is surely no more disturbing to philosophical or religious beliefs than the germinal origin of the individual. whatever the ultimate relation of the mind and body may be. . class and phylum are of course inherited. . insects.

period of infancy and of immaturity in the human race greatly increases the importance of environment and training as factors Conklin." (Author. .. cease dividing at an early age. Individual traits are not transmitted from the hen to the egg. which by long series of combinations and transformations. and in this sense the person is merely the carrier of the germ-plasm.. It is an interesting fact that in man. disregarded. other organisms. the person is the developed organism which arises from the germ under the influence of environmental conditions. and in several other animals which may be assumed to have a sense of identity. ." (Author.) "In education Any are strangely blind to proper aims and education is bad which leads to the formation we . . but the egg produces the hen and also other eggs. ." "The hen does not produce the egg." " Doubtless the elements of which consciousness develops are present in the germ cells." is "The germ This control is what I call "time-linking. of development." the undeveloped organism which forms the bond between successive generations.. and these identical cells persist throughout the remainder of life. due to interactions with one another and with the environment. The person nourishes and protects the germ.240 APPENDIX II sophical significance than this. The children of lower races of man develop more rapidly than those of higher races but in such cases they The prolongation of the also cease to develop at an earlier age.. .) is "Through impossible intelligence environment for in and social cooperation he in able to particular ends. the person develops and dies in each generation. give rise to the fully developed condition. but rather in the form of elements or factors. in the same sense that the elements of the other psychic processes or of the organs of the body are there present. Other animals develop rapidly than man but that development sooner comes to an end." much more Another methods. and from genera~ . a manner quite . the nerve cells. the germ-plasm is the continuous stream of living substance which connects all generations. especially those of the brain. sidelight given also on the "Spiral theory. not as a miniature of the adult condition. but they develop out of germinal factors which are carried along from cell to cell. and yet no fact is more generally Conklin. tion to generation. . the mortal trustee of an Conklin. immortal substance.

the reign of natural law. slavish regard for authority and disregard for evidence.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING 241 of habits of idleness. failure." Conklin." pendence. If evolution has progressed from the amceba to man without human interference. . . "All that man now is he has come to be without conscious human guidance. open-mindedness and inde. science recognizes everywhere the inevitable sequence of cause and effect. institution is bad which leads to habits of pious make-believe. if the great progress from ape-like men to the most highly civilized races has taken place without conscious human control. . the fact that he greatest importance. Man can not change a single law of nature but he can put himself into such relations to natural laws that he an profit by them" Conklin. thoroughness and success. . the question may well be asked Is it possible to improve on the natural method of evolution? It may not be possible to improve on the method of evolution and yet by intelligent action it may be possible to facilitate that method. . . a part of the great mechanism of the universe. . physiological. Every human being comes into existence by a process of development. instead of habits of Any religious or social industry. : This proves the great importance of KNOWING THE NATand making natural URAL LAWS for the human class of life. esses. anatomical. from the immensity of the universe to the minuteness of the electron. in their This shows the importance of keeping the study of humans own dimensionality. time-binding impulses conscious. wise the biolyte will be "animal" in substance as well as in Here it is immaterial how the first "time-binder" was produced. insincerity. instead of habits of sincerity. for then only will the spiral give a logarithmical accumulation of the right kind. every Our step of which is determined by antecedent causes. and also the importance of find- . psychological possibilities were predetermined in the germ cells from which we came. and all that he is and does is limited and prescribed by laws of nature. the universality of natural procMan also is a part of Nature. . othereffect. is of another dimension is of the " From sands to stars. in living things no less than in lifeless ones. carelessness.

In short. reflection and inhibition man is much freer than any other animal. satisfactions. then and only then have a chance to develop peacefully. religion are the results of the environment and education of our early years. thoughts. their business relations. but our possible personalities are. APPENDIX II for the IMPERSONAL NATURAL LAWS it human class of Now can be realized that all the so-called human none else than the ever growing fulfillment of the NATURAL "TIME-BINDING" LAWS. To a large extent our habits. Human happiness is based upon the possibility of a natural and harmonious satisfaction of the instincts. and their actual appearance depends upon many complicated reactions of the germinal units with one another and with the environment. .. accord with them. words.. which will not ideals are be a contradiction of the real. our actual personalities are not predetermined in the germ cells. . . "The . NATURAL LAWS but will be in human progress will "Adult characteristics are potential and not actual in the germ. Animals which learn little from experience have little freedom and the more they learn the freer they become. our aspirations. ideals. x It may be added here that the "spiral theory" explains how our reactions can be accelerated and elaborated by ourselves. This understanding will enable man to discover new "time-binding" laws for their conduct. The influence of environment upon the minds and morals of men is especially great." "Owing to this vastly greater power of memory.. ... our responsibility. It is rather ." view analysis of instinct from a purely physiological point of ultimately furnishes the data for a scientific ethics.242 ing the life. morality." Conklin. ." Conklin.. . their state. There will be no the difficulty in the settlement of facts with new philosophy of "Human Engineering. . and how truly we are the masters of our destinies. "Because we can find no place in our philosophy and logic for self determination shall we cease to be scientists and close our eyes to the evidence ? The first duty of science is to appeal to fact and to settle later with logic and philosophy.

vidual can ruin or diminish the value of its life by a onesided development of its instincts.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING 243 remarkable that we should still be under the influence of an ethics which considers the human instincts in themselves low and their gratification vicious. despotism and miserable economic conditions is intelligible.g.. It is no doubt true that in our present social and economic conditions more than ninety per cent of human beings lead an existence whose value is far below what it should be. That such an ethics must have had a comforting effect upon the orientals. as well as for the scientists or commercial work of the man. can be maintained at a But while it is certain that the indicertain optimal intensity^. whereby the This instinct can be again cells of the animals lose water.. e. dissipation. . . same conditions by which phenomena of growth and organization can be controlled the instincts are controlled also. for the play and learning of the child. criminologists and philosophers frequently imagine that only want makes man work. This common base is the physical and chemical character of the mixture of substances which we call protoplasm. in order . This is the reason why the satisfaction of the instinct of workmanship is of such importance in the economy of life. . Robert Mayer has pointed out that any successful display or setting free of energy is a source of pleasure to us. We can vary at will the instincts of animals. reversed by raising the temperature or by lowering the concenI have found repeatedly that by the tration of the sea water. first by lowering the temperature and second by increasing the concentration of the sea water. We are instinctively forced to be active in the same way as ants or bees. They are compelled by want to sacrifice a number of instincts especially the most valuable among them. The instincts. A number of marine animals . extent. that of workmanship. Lawyers. it is at the same time true that the economic and social conditions can ruin or diminish the value of life for a great number of individuals. greatest happiness in life can be obtained only if all that of workmanship included. whose instincts were inhibited or warped through the combined effects of an enervating climate. . . . This indicates that there is a common basis for both classes of life phenomena. .. and it is perhaps due to a continuation of the unsatisfactory economic conditions that this ethics still prevails to some . go away from the light. . The instinct of workmanship would be the greatest source of happiness if it were not for the fact that our present social and economic organization allows only a few to satisfy this instinct. can be forced to go to light in two ways. This is an erroneous view.

It seems to me that we can no more expect to unravel the mechanism of associative memory by histological or morphological methods than we can expect to unravel the dynamics of electrical phenomena by microscopic study of cross-sections through a telegraph wire or by counting and locating the telephone connections in a big city. If we are anxious to develop a dynamic of the various life-phenomena. by Jacques Loeb. those who amass immense fortunes could possibly intensify their lives with their abundance. . Mach expressed the opinion that chemical conditions lie at the foundation of sensation in general. We can . But for an increase of happiness only that amount of money is of service which can be used for the harmonious development and satisfaction of inherited instincts. and the same should be true for the business man.244 APPENDIX II If to save the lowest and most imperative. that of eating. For this. . The rest is of no more use to a man than the surplus of oxygen in the atmosphere. becomes in the time-binding class of life the instinct of creation... . substances is still a science of the future. . we do not deny personal responsibility. As a matter of fact. . is the satisfaction of the instinct of workmanship or the pleasure that is connected with a successful display of energy. and is nothing else than the expression of the natural impulse of the "Time-binding" energy. Although we recognize no meta- physical free-will. but the physics of these . The scientist gets this satisfaction without diminishing the value of life of his fellow being.. it might perhaps be rational to let many suffer in order to have a few cases of true happiness. In the present social and economic system very few have a possibility to satisfy this instinct. The idea of specific energy has always been regarded as the terminus for the investigation of the sense organs. Physiology gives us no answer to the latter question. fill the memory of the young generation with such associations as will prevent wrong doing or dissipation." Comparative Physiology of the Brain. comparatively little is necessary. .. scientific management is or . . we must remember that the colloidal substances are the machines which produce the life phenomena. Cruelty in the penal code and the tendency to exaggerate punishment are sure signs of a low civilization and of an imperfect educational system. . the only true satisfaction a multimillionaire can possibly get from increasing his fortunes. Here it may be added that the "Instinct of Workmanship" in the animal class. .

Any function in which the rate of change or rate of growth at any instant / is directly proportional to the value of t the function at the instant of organic growth.e. . with unlimited food supplied. The function <S=P(i-j-i) w is of fundamental importance in other fields than in finance. y=ce kt . .D. the increase in the number of bacteria per second is proportional to the number of bacteria present at the beginning of that second. increase according to the terms of a geometrical progression as the variable creases in arithmetical progression. "Time- binding" in its last analysis is creation and only such a social and economic system as will satisfy this want this natural impulse will satisfy Humans the in will bring about their fullest growth "Time-binders" and work and happiness. Karpinski. by Louis C. i.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING may it is 245 be satisfying the animal instinct of workmanship. The constant k is the proportionality constant and is negative when tive . Ph. "LAWS OF GROWTH" (from Unified Mathematics. wherein c and k are constants determined by the physical facts involved.). "Compound interest function.' obeys what has been termed the 'law and may be expressed by the equation. Thus the growth of timber of a large forest tract may be expressed as a function of this kind. ce kx .178 "The values of the function of x. x in- "The most immediate application of a function in which the . and e is a constant of nature analogous to IT. the assumption being that in a large tract the rate of In growth may be taken as uniform from year to year. c is commonly posi- =2. . but not satisfactory to the instinct of creation. the quantity in question decreases. the case of bacteria growing under ideal conditions in a culture.

246 growth APPENDIX II The is proportional to the function itself is to the air. measured from the time when the wound is aseptic or sterile. enable the physician-scientist to determine the normal progress of the wound-surface. like a pendulum. h in feet. In inches as units of length of the mercury column. Radium in decomposing follows the same law. the expected decrease in area. the surface-area of a wound. similarly in the case of a noise dying down and is in certain electrical phenomena. Closely allied to the e kt. for this wound- . the rate of proportional at any instant to the value of the function at the instant. children. two observations at an interval commonly of four days give the 'index of the individual. The negative exponent indicates that the pressure decreases as h increases.' y=^~ . . .' and this index. the rate of decrease at any instant being proportional to the quantity. again growth follow approximately the law of organic growth. decrease in the pressure of the air at the distance h above the earth's surface is proportional to h. and formulas expressing the law of organic growth. the rate of decrease of the amplitude follows this law . by washing and flushing continually with antiseptic solutions. In the case of is known as Halley's law. D P= This 26200 limited intervals and the between quite restricted limits. y tt the law of 'organic decay. with time expressed in days. is a recently discovered "The Curve = law which connects ally algebraically by an equation and graphicby a curve. and the two measurements of area of the wound-surface. decrease . "The growth of bean plants within of vibrating bodies. of Healing of a Wound. "The expression P=y6o e~7wo gives the numerical value of the pressure in millimeters of mercury for h measured in meters. When this aseptic condition is reached.

He it more rapidly is noted that the larger the wound-surface. somewhat In nature there are two types closely connected mathemat- . Tuffier and R. sterile which S. and that the rate of healing seemed all to be proportional to the area. Paris. 1918. Desmarres. article by Dr.. which measures areas. the indication is that there infection in the wound.. 247 is The area of the wound traced carefully on transparent paper. not the same for This proportionality constant values of the surface or we would have an equation of the form. pp. and then computed by using a mathematical machine. i/i and 172... reprints kindly furnished by Major George in . .BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING surface of this individual.. "The areas of the wound are plotted as ordinates with the measured in days as abscissas. to "This application of mathematics to medicine is largely due Dr. T. is the area at the time that the wound is rendered and observations to be plotted really begin. After each observation and computation of area the point so respective times of observation is plotted to the same axes as the graph which gives the ideal or prophetic curve of healing. Alexis Carrel of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research. . "When the observed area Is found markedly greater than obtained that determined by the ideal curve. in this event secondary ulcers develop which bring the curve back to normal . General. "WAVE MOTION. Auxiliary Hospital 75. . of recurrent motion. "The data given are taken from the Journal of Experimental Medicine. The diagrams are reproduced from the issue of Feb. . . called a planimeter. A* Stewart of the Rockefeller Institute. rather surprising and unexplained situation occurs frequently when the woundis still A surface heals more rapidly than the ideal curve would indicate. the healed. .. i.

*C 3 6 0> g.2 48 APPENDIX II o <L> a 5s SJ-fi -w O <O rt . fa < rt "rt <u -G (*4 O .

repeats the motion in one place. to simple applications in other sections of this chapter. To the fundamental and basic function involved. vibrations in If a tuning fork for note lower C is set the free bar makes 129 complete. As the bar moves to the right . as is Tuning The curve y sin (50 2irt). "Both of these types of motion are representable mathe- matically by equations involving a sequence of trigonometric functions. forth. a similar movement string. the tides. electrical vibrations or Sound waves. the respiration. is "Corresponding to each movement of the vibrating rod there a movement of the air. Our curve is traced by a bar vibrating 50 times in I second. and moving under attaching a fine point this bar at a uniform curve it vibrates. we to will direct our attention in the next section and . is Of this stationary type may the motion of a vibrating be mentioned the heart- the pulse. "One type of this motion. and radiant energy vibrations are transmitted by a process similar to that by which the waves of the sea are carried. and the rotation its axis. . waves. . fork vibrations recorded on smoked paper. . and is in a sense stationary. back-and- one second. of a wheel about second type of recurrent motion transmits or carries the vibratory impulse over an extent of space as well as time. a smoke-blackened paper. . vibrating. "The The waves of the sea are of this character. = X . By to the end of the bar rate. beats. "Sound Waves. The tuning fork in motion moves through the same space again and again. 249 in which repetition of motion occurs at regular in- tervals.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING ically. y= sin*. in cycles as we may say. a sinusoidal traced on the paper.

it compresses the layer of air to is sion In^of i pressed. wave then is 22 feet.APPENDIX II its right and that compresimmediately communicated to the layer of air to the right. this disturbance is transmitted The wave length for this sound i$^= is length is commonly designated by the velocity. This last manner wrong . 'father. X "The wave = Vt.. If V "Vibration records produced by the voice: 'ou' as in 'about'. back to normal.' 'r' 'a' as in 'ate' in 'relay'. 'e' in 'be'. Every word has its energy and produces some physico-chemical effects in the time-binding apparatus in accord with the idea which we associate with the sound of the word. during this time the neighboring air is affected and the compression is communicated a distance which is the wave length of this given sound wave. the pressure on the adjacent air is released and a rarefaction takes place." drawing may help to visualize the fact in what expressions and untrue teachings hamper the true progress of humanity. gives the vibration frequencies. frequency 50 per second. and 'a "a in fork record. and t the time of one vibration. If we teach ideas which are untrue. In I second 1 100 feet at 44 Fahrenheit. \. second you have the air adjacent to the rod comand rarefied. The tuning .. as the bar moves back and to the left.

On the Nature of Formative Stipulation (Artificial V. because in a literal sense of the chemical effects we have "poisoned. J. : : parative Psychology. VII. VI. 1900. The Prevention of the Death of the Egg through the Act of Fertilization. that is. III. LOEB. 1905. LOEB. : "Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Com"Studies 1906. as the poisoning with wrong ideas or with careless or incorrect words does not in any way differ in consequences from poisoning with any other stupor-producing or wrongly stimulating poison. On Some VIII." Chicago. The Significance of Tropisms for Psychology. MONOGRAPHS ON EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY LOEB. J. of Life. On the Nature of the Process of Fertilization. CONTENTS 1 II. This correct NATURAL APPROACH to the "Time-binding" energies will make it obvious how unmeasured is the importance of the manner in which we handle this subtle mechanism. LOEB." word." New York." New York. Some Fundamental Facts and Conceptions concerning the Comparative Physiology of the Central Nervous System. Mechanism of Facts and Principles of Physiological Morphology.: "The Mechanistic Conception 1912. The Mechanistic Conception of Life." Chicago. work naturally or normally or true to the There is every reason why the standards in our civilization are so low. IV. J. it does not human dimension. Pattern Adaptation of Fishes and the Vision.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING 251 then the physico-chemical effects produced are not proper in other words the human mind does NOT WORK PROPERLY. Parthenogenesis). "The Dynamics of Living Matter. our minds with the physicoof wrong ideas. . J. in General Physiology.

CONTENTS Introductory Remarks. G. II. The Incompatibility of Species not Closely Related. Tropisms. P. J. 1918. The Cytological Basis of Sex Determination. J. Determinism in the Formation of an Organism from an Egg. VII. Regeneration. The Species Specificity. Lippincott. III. Animal Instincts and Tropisms.252 APPENDIX II IX. Forced Movements. The Role of Salts in the Preservation of Life. The Physiological Basis of Sex Determination. 2. Determination of Sex. Heliotropism. II. Adaptation to Environment. CONTENTS I. : "Forced Movements. VIII. VI. IV." J. 1916. V.: The Organism as a Whole. B. The Influence of One Source of Light. Putnam's Sons. XI. Secondary Sexual Characters and Sexual Instincts: 1. Specificity in Fertilization. Evolution. . 2. The Influence of Environment. Galvanotropism. New York. Artificial Parthenogenesis. Specific Difference between Living and Dead Matter and the Question of the Origin of Life. Philadelphia. III. IV. XII. Death and Dissolution of the Organism. Experimental Study of the Influence of Environment on Animals. and Animal Conduct. XIII. Mendelian Heredity and its Mechanism. The Chemical basis of Genus and Species and of I. LOEB. XIV. Introduction. X. The Symmetry Relations of the Animal Body as the Starting Point for the Theory of Animal Conduct. V. LOEB. X. IX. The Chemical Basis of Genus and Species: 1.

D. The Germ Cells. XVIII. Cellular Basis of Heredity and Development. C. Author. Experimental Study of Inheritance. CONKLIN. EDWIN GRANT: "Heredity and Environment in the Development of Men. A. I9I5- CONTENTS Facts and Factors of Development. Memory Images and Tropisms. The Mechanism of Heredity. XIX. Factors of Development. VII. Stereotropism. Heliotropism of Unicellular Organisms. A list of 554 books on this subject. An Artificial Heliotropic Machine. II. IX. XVI. XL X." Princeton University Press. 3. A. General Facts. Statistical Study of Inheritance. XIV. Relative Heliotropic Efficiency of Light of Different Wave Lengths. The Effect of Rapid Changes The XIII. . Two Sources of Light of Different Intensity. C. Phenomena of Inheritance. I. Introductory. Introduction.BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING 1. 4. Heliotropism of Sessile Animals. 253 VI. The Validity of the Bunsen-Roscoe Law for the Heliotropic Reactions of Animals and Plants. in which any reader interested will find a vast storehouse of exact knowledge in this line. 2. Chemotropism. Phenomena of Development. The Mechanism of Development. Observations on Inheritance. XV. VIII. B. Thermotropism. Direct Proof of the Muscle Tension Theory of Heliotropism in Motile Animals. in Intensity of Light. Change in the Sense of Heliotropism. XII. B. III. B. Forced Movements Caused by Moving Retina Images: Rheotropism: Anemotropism. Geotropism. Instincts. XVII. Asymmetrical Animals. A.

" etc. "The Elementary Nervous System. D. F.. B. Author.. Influence of Environment. Relative Importance of Heredity and Environ- ment. and JONES." . N. VI. Control of Human Heredity.. " H.. Inheritance or Non-inheritance of Acquired Characters. D. H.. Genetics and Ethics. V. Glossary of books on this subject. Functional Activity as a Factor of Development. Physical Basis of Heredity. G. "The Nature of Animal Light. Domesticated Animals and Cultivated Plants.254 APPENDIX II IV. B. Experimental Modifications of Development. Applications to Human Development: Euthenics. MORGAN. E. "Inbreeding and Outbreeding. Control of Heredity: Eugenics." EAST. E. PARKER. T." HARVEY. M. A. E. C. A. for those who desire to be more fully acquainted with the subjects of heredity and development.

mathematicians and builders. the written laws in some countries and the unwritten in others. familiar to us in every day life.APPENDIX III ENGINEERING AND TIME-BINDING Arts of Engineering. The simple steel structure of a bridge. is a clear reminder to us all of the arts of Hephzestus and the bound-up knowledge of countless generations of smiths and mechanics. and the pride and the sense of responsibility of the designer and builder of the THE from bridge first to demand enter it that he. Rarely are the affairs of engineering done with the entirely selfish motive of merely acquiring immediate selfish gain. yet the transgressors of these natural laws are punished with all the severity of the common law. be the . and should the bridge collapse. which seldom happens for no one is entrusted with the work unless he has bound up in his knowledge the accumulated experience of the past. he has to take the immediate consequences of his neglect of the time-binding laws. 255 . are derived the work of dead men and destined to serve not only the present but the future. teachers and engineers who toiled for many thousands of years to make possible the riveted steel beams which are the elements of modern structure. They are freer than any other human activity from the errors of intermixing dimensions and from the fallacy of belief in individualistic accomplishment and pride. and the last to leave it the creator of the bridge. These structures do not collapse unless the natural laws for their construction are transgressed. When a bridge is opened and tested. by their very nature. metallurgists and chemists.

in silent consent. Mr. self-supporting structures and thereby serving future humanThe Time-binding capacity of humans creates and fority. Fuels Section.M. Doctor of Engineering. tions unrealized in the sciously submit to the degradation.E. all to himself. who first not even the talking from one hemisphere to rightly the accomplishment of any one man. mathematical formulas proving the possibility of erecting tall. one is at once and bewildered. of seeing their marvelous collective achievements chained to space- binding aims. Gantt being no more with us. for observed the phenomena of magnetism. L. Polakov. at the confusion and contradicmass of evidence. I was eager to have my book read and analysed by a few leading engineers. ..S. Industrial Counselor. no matter how marvelous. Upon the completion of this book I was astonished that there are such a small number of engineers who have the intuitive feeling of the greatness of the assets at their command and of the gravity of their liabilities concerning affairs of humanity. and how pathetic and deplorable is the sight of hundreds of thousands of workers in the field of engineering toil and creation who unconastonished. mulates new values for the service of mankind. Again. In an attempt to trace and evaluate the time-binding faculties manifested in the Arts of Engineering. no student of the Arts of Engineering could ever forget himself to the point of claiming his accomplishments. A. is the origin of the discovery can be traced at least as far back as the days of that barefooted shepherd boy Magnus. electricity. Chairman of Com- mittee on Service and Information. Eiffel did not erect his tower to haunt Paris with the sight of a steel skeleton towering over the city of daring His tower stands to-day as a mechanical proof of thoughts. The late H. I then turned to Walter N. No wondrous discovery of modern another.256 for even APPENDIX when this III this could be traced unworthy thought disappears in the halo of the glory of the accomplishment.

The task of engineers was to conbrain work "bound-up time" into daily bread by means of conserving time and effort. "It was not my intention to compile a text book on power engineering. fore. Gantt and Charles P. Vice-President of A. but I could not avoid trespassing in the adjoining fields of psychology and economics. N. few volumes and writings for the New Library of the Manhood of Humanity.. for without familiarity with these sciences the mastery of power production is a futile attempt. Of all the pure and applied sciences. Y. Polakov.an exaggeration to say that their work. Steinmetz. engineering alone has the distinction of being the first to have the correct insight into the human vert knowledge problem. dimensionality has led some of them in their practical work may be seen from the work of Walter N. I found. marking the parting of the way of engineering thought from the past and form the first subjection to speculative fetishes. to the full. This concept is naught else but the working out of the imperfect formuIt was inevitable. theresome engineers had already beaten the path in the How straight and how far this sense of right direction.E. Both have done a most remarkable work in their respective lines. It will not be. in his Mastering Power Production.S. for they are based on .ENGINEERING AND TIME-BINDING and Robert B. that 1921. a very sympathetic 257 In them my esteem grew as I understanding and became more intimately acquainted with the character of their work and their accomplishments. Engineering Magazine. together with the work of the late H. L. These books and pamphlets are based on facts analysed scientifically.M. Wolf. may be considered as the first corner-stones of the science and art of my Human to knowledge Engineering. " I do not hold that the principles upon which the method is laid out are subject to choice or opinions. lation of the time-binding principle. it was rather my care to avoid the treatment of any technical subject which could be found elsewhere in engineering literature.

APPENDIX Yet work of be III examples this character cannot be complete. of Anyone who has anything Mechanical Engineers. Robert B. I shall feel that my own and my readers' time have not been altogether lost. where a most valuable statistical picture of facts in modern America is given and the astonishing conclusions which are to be drawn therefrom. or chosen. It is obvious that a scientific knowledge of facts.258 facts." Indeed the readers' time will not be lost. psychology and philosophy as applied to engineering. It is a deep and practical treatise on all great questions concerning modern industrialism and so-called economic problems and is a foundation for a new Another very clear outline scientific industrial philosophy. scientific in the meantime practical analysis of all human problems. The outstanding contribution of Mr. I can only regret that in Europe we have not such a knowledge written down If more such books had concerning European conditions. Polakov. been written and read by the public. is of the greatest importance for anyone who cares to approach any problem in a serious way. biology. Polakov in his paper presented at the annual meeting of the development. to do with industrial or economic problems cannot afford to overlook the important and fundamental work in this book. December 7-10. This book gives an engineering. Statistics which are up-to-date are therefore of primary importance. of the Principles of Industrial Philosophy was given by Mr. I had the privilege of read- Quo Vadis America. many crises and catastrophes would have been avoided. . for it deals with living and constantly reshaping relations and applies to things in process of may illy " If this work and its underlying idea will facilitate the solving of some of the problems now in the course of rapid evolution in our industrial relations. the forthcoming book of Mr. Wolf to ing the manuscript of engineering was made in his study of physiology. American Society 1920.

ENGINEERING AND TIME-BINDING 259 "If anyone wishes to inquire into the forces which have led up to the individual development of mankind. mensely profitable and of practical value. That this unity would not have been possible without the development of the nervous system. that is. That the recording of past events. because of its deep psychological analysis of the peoples and their institutions which ultimately shape the development of any nation and which do not change with victory or defeat. " Now. " id. Doctor Charles P. that have to do with the subject in hand are: " ist. " $th. however. That the human is such a wonderful body organization the product of the forces of creation. Although this book was written in 1916. is absolutely essential to its development. Steinmetz has given in his America and New Epoch a most correct engineering picture of the political situation in the world. we have no right to expect an industrial " 2nd. "My homage of tribute to the memory of Gantt will be. with a fine characterization the of the psychological peculiarities of the different races. not only the a friend and admirer. with the power of consciously recalling them for the solution of problems immediately confronting it. viduality in Industry. but the proof that his philos- . he will find himself at once plunged into the realm of psychology and mental I can heartily recommend such a course as imphilosophy. " The five important facts. before the end of the World War." IndiBy Robert B. it will be of permanent value. because it is its capacity for progress depends upon the maintenance of the unity resulting from this creative evolution and upon a conscious recognition of this unity. " 4th. That organization to make progress which it must do as a unit without the establishment of a conscious co-ordinating mechanism similar to the nervous system in the human body. That the conscious intelligent progress made by mankind could not have reached its present level until in the process of evolution a mechanism had been built up in the nervous system itself capable of recording the various impressions which the senses are constantly receiving. what I want to point out is that inasmuch as man's progress depends upon the perfect co-ordination of his forces to produce unity of action. acting through millions of years of evolution. Wolf.

The investigation had to be made from the beginning. or speaking mathematically. by applying mathematically rigorous thinking. and is mathematical nonsense. is the cause of all the periodical collapses. so these . and human 'time-binding' impulses were. Mathematics. with its exact concept of dimensions. we practice take. I found the solution. then the other is not. the results of such elementary mistakes. but our synthesis. which is identical to such an absurdity as x square inches equal y linear inches plus or multiplied by z cubic inches. gave me the method. shared with many others. "These definitions have the peculiarity that they make it i The classes of life have different dimensions.' Gantt took 'rendering service' as an axiom. so in life. be it 'give* or 'take. " As the theory of gravitation and the calculus made engi5 neers and. " I defined the classes of life by emphasizing their incontestable. scientifically true. dimensional characteristics: plants are 'Chemistry-binding/ animals are 'Space-binding. which would not permit of any blunders in dimensions.260 ophy APPENDIX III is A rigorous proof is necessary. If one of them is true and natural law for humans. obvious. differentiation. equal ANIMAL plus or multiplied by SPARK OF DIVINITY is basically and elementarily wrong. my observation. produce tragic consequences. but our faulty integration did not restore the original dimensions. The method we use in studying phenomena is analysis. all the time. in a specific way. wars and revolu- HUMAN tions.' Humans are 'Time-binding' classes of life. mathematicians masters of inanimate nature. then our deeds are not true. The differentiation correctly lowered the dimensions. " This basically wrong formula on which our civilization 3 rests. that the methods of differentiation are mostly correct. 'we preach give. by defining the phenomena of life. or process of integration made by the use of metaphysics was faulty. was how to find a way out of this contradiction that would be irrefutable. " 2 The old formula on which our civilization is built. if our words are true. "4 The old system was ouilt on animal 'space-binding' standards. is that our civilization had quite another axiom. in rebellion. the meaning of which can be completely reversed by the verb. as in mathematics it makes a correct solution impossible. or if our deeds are true then the words are camouflage. I soon found. that: and that the intermixing of dimensions.' The problem which interested me. because the word 'service' belongs to that category of words.

ENGINEERING AND TIME-BINDING
i

261

tangible and incontestable definitions give them a positive base will enable them to approach and solve human living problems, by establishing the mathematical fact that man is man, not an animal. " 6 All of those who are blinded by traditions and refuse to investigate, or to know these mathematical truths, are a danger to humanity in directly helping to obscure issues, and in helping to maintain the faulty structure which, as in the past, is bound to collapse again and again in the future.

which

"7 The duty of mathematically thinking people is to throw such light on this problem as will stop the stupid, or willfully destructive, and show whether they are working for or against,
class of life, it is obvious then that in this dimension, 'time-binding' is the natural law, and, if understood and analysed, it is the highest human aim. "9 Such 'natural laws' as 'survival of the fittest' for animals, which is the 'survival of the fittest in space,' result in fight, or the survival of the strongest; whereas such a law to be a FOR HUMANS, must be in the human dimension which obviously would be the 'Survival of the fittest in TIME,' resulting in the survival of the best. " 10 All known facts must be brought to the light, to be

mankind. "8 For the 'time-binding'

NATURAL LAW

summed

up, and correlated by mathematicians and engineers with the strictest attention to dimensionality. " II All of our ideas have to be revised; the animal 'spacebinding' standards must be rejected as dangerous and destructive, must be replaced by 'time-binding' standards, which will correspond to the natural impulses and NATURAL LAWS for

12 The minds of mathematicians and engineers are by education the first to see the far reaching importance of the facts disclosed by these definitions, and just this realization will bring about the readjustment of values in life to a human dimension, wherein pending revolutions and wars could be turned into evolution, destruction into construction, discord into accord of a common aim. " are the masters of our own destinies, the responsibility is ours to correct the mistakes of our ancestors and to establish a true laws, scientifically true scientific philosophy, scientifically ethics, and a scientific sociology, which will form one unified science of man and his function in the universe, a science which

humans. "

We

I

propose to

call
first

'Human

would be the

practical application

Gantt's methods Engineering/ toward this end.

262

APPENDIX

III

"Gantt's concept of rendering service is scientifically true it is 'time-binding,' and therefore true for the human This is why Gantt's life and in human dimension. " concepts have counted for so much and will survive 'IN TIME.' Discussion by Alfred Korzybski of Mr. W. N. Polakov's paper "Principles of Industrial Philosophy" presented at the Annual Meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, December 7-10, 1920.
because class of
.

.

.

'

LITERATURE
GANTT, H. L.: "Work, Wages, and N. Y. Co., 1913.
Profits."

The Engineering Magazine

Yale University Press. 1916. "Organizing for Work." Harcourt, Brace & Howe, 1919. N. Y. Selection from Contents: The Engineer as the Industrial Leader. Economics and Democracy. Democracy in Production. Democracy in the Shop. Democracy
"Industrial Leadership."
in

Management.
:

"The

Religion of Democracy."

POLAKOV, WALTER N. "Mastering Power Production." The Engineering Magazine Co. N. Y. 1921. Selection from Contents: The Descent of the Principle of Production for Use. The Power Industry as an Economic Factor. Mastering Labor Problems. (Conditions) Autonomous Co-operation. Aims of Labor. Right to be Lazy and the Right to a Job. Qualification of Men. The Working Day. Fatigue. UNIVERSAL LABOR (Corresponding exactly to Time-binding Author). The Position of an Engineer. Mastering Labor Problems. Com-

The Social Aspect. The Economic Aspect. pensation. The Basis of Wages. Incentive Payments. Profit SharPremium Places. Rewarding Individual Efforts. ing. Two-rate wages. Energy as a Commodity. Presented at the "Principles of Industrial Philosophy." Annual Meeting of the A. S. of M. E., December, 1920. "Equipment and Machinery." Y. M. C. A. Association Press.
1921.
Press.

N.Y.
1921.

Y. M. C. A. Association N. Y. "Quo Vadis America?" In preparation.
"Organization and Management."

ENGINEERING AND TIME-BINDING
STEINMETZ, CHARLES P.: "America and the New Epoch."

263

Harper

&

Brothers.

1016.

N.Y.
Selection from Contents: The Individualistic Era: From Competition to Co-operation. England in the Individualistic

Era.

Germany

in

the

Individualistic

Era.

The

Other European Nations in the Individualistic Era. America in the Individualistic Era. Evolution: Industrial Government. "Incentive and Initiative." Y. M. C. A. Association Press.
1921.

N.Y.
B.:
in

WOLF, ROBERT

Pamphlets. Industry." Bulletin of the Society to promote the Science of Management. Vol. I. No. 4. August, 1915. "The Creative Workman." Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. 1918. N. Y. "Non-Financial Incentives." Presented at the Annual Meeting of the A. S. of M. E. December, 1918. N. Y. "Modern Industry and the Individual," A. W. Shaw & Co.
"Individuality
1919.

N.Y.

"Securing the Initative of the Workman." American Economic Association. 1919. N. Y. "Creative Spirit in Industry." Y. M. C. A. Association N. Y. Press. 1921.

MISCELLANEOUS LIST OFf BOOKS
VON BERNHARDI,
General F.: "Germany and the Next War." E. Arnold, London. 1912.

BRANDEIS, Louis: Other People's Money and Use it." F. A. Stokes, N. Y. 1914.

How

the Bankers

THOMAS FARROW and WALTER CROTCH: "The Coming Trade War." Chapman & Hall, London. 1916. HUEFFER, FORD MADDOX: "When Blood is Their Argument."
Hodder

&

Stoughton.

1915.

N. Y.

HAUSER, HENRY: "Germany's Commercial Grip on the World, Her Business Methods Explained." E. Nash Co., London.
1917.

LAUGHLIN, N. Y.

J. L.:

"Credit of the Nations."

Scribner's Sons,

1918.

264

APPENDIX

III
in the

MAETZU, RAMIRO DE: "Authority, Liberty and Function Light of War." Geo. Allen and Unwin.
DELAISI, FRANCIS:
Small,

French Opinion, "The Inevitable War."
Co., Boston.
1915.

Maynard &
B.

NEILSON, FRANCIS:

English Opinion,
1916.

"How

Diplomats

Make

War."

W. Huebsch.

BY A GERMAN (German
Stoughton, London.

Opinion).
1915.

"J* Accuse!"

Hodder

&

.

.

.

.

.

A 000 687 555 3 .

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