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SDS-2.0

Jonathan McDowell 1999 Apr 4

Contents

I Part 1: Mission-independent formulation

1 General Introduction

1.1 Update notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Notational conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Pixel convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Vector and coordinate notation . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Rotation and translation of Cartesian systems 1.2.4 Spherical polar coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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**2 Data Analysis Coordinate Systems - Imaging
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2.1 General model of the system . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Data Analysis 1: Telemetry to Tangent Plane 2.2.1 Telemetry to Chip coordinates . . . . . 2.2.2 Tiled Detector Coordinates . . . . . . 2.2.3 Local Science Instrument coordinates . 2.2.4 Mirror coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Pixel planes for intermediate systems . 2.3 Data Analysis 2: Tangent Plane to Sky . . . . 2.3.1 Sky Pixel Coordinates . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Physical Tangent Plane coordinates . 2.3.3 Physical Sky Plane coordinates . . . . 2.3.4 J2000 Celestial Coordinates . . . . . . 2.4 Simulation: Sky to Telemetry . . . . . . . . . 1

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2.4.1 Mirror Spherical Coordinates to Focal Surface Coordinates . . . 2.4.2 Focal Surface or Mirror Nodal Coordinates to CPC coordinates 2.4.3 Chip coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Summary of coordinate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Data Analysis 3: Full treatment with misalignments . . . . . . . . . . .

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3 Data Analysis Coordinate Systems - Gratings

3.1 Data Analysis: Grating data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Grating Zero Order Coordinates (GZO-1.0) . . . . . . 3.1.2 Grating Angular Coordinates (GAC-1.0) . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 Grating Di raction Coordinates (GDC-1.0) . . . . . . . 3.1.4 Grating Di raction Plane Pixel Coordinates (GDP-1.1) 3.1.5 Dispersion relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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**II Part 2: AXAF systems
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4 ACIS

4.1 Instrumental details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 ACIS readout coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 ACIS Fast Window mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 2-D detector coordinates: TDET parameters . . . . . . . . 4.3 3-D chip locations: CPC to LSI transformation parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5 HRC

5.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 3-D chip locations: CPC to LSI parameters . . . . . 5.1.2 2-D detector coordinates: TDET parameters . . . . . 5.2 Instrumental details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 HRC physical layout and Tap Coordinates (HRC-6.0) 5.2.2 Deriving linear tap coordinates from HRC telemetry . 5.2.3 HRC Chip Coordinates (HRC-1.1) . . . . . . . . . .

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6 The SIM

6.1 Chip orientation summary tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 6.2 Relative positions of instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 6.3 Aimpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

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7 The HRMA ( ight)

7.1 HRMA nodal coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Focal and Tangent plane systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 Mosaicing XRCF images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Angular systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 HRMA Left Handed Spherical Coordinates (AXAF-HSC-1.1) . . 7.3.2 HRMA Right Handed Spherical Coordinates (AXAF-HSC-1.2) . 7.3.3 HRMA rotation coordinates (Pitch and Yaw) (AXAF-HSC-3.0) 7.3.4 HRMA Source coordinates (AXAF-HSC-2.1) . . . . . . . . . . .

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8 HETG and LETG 9 XRCF 10 ACIS-2C 11 HSI

9.1 XRCF coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

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11.1 Instrument origins . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 HRMA motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.1 XRCF to MNC transformation 11.3 HXDS Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 FAM Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5 FAM Motion, old copy . . . . . . . . .

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12 AXAF Spacecraft

12.1 Project coordinate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.1 Spacecraft coordinates (SC-1.0) . . . . . . . . 12.1.2 HRMA coordinates (HRMA-2.0) . . . . . . . 12.2 Project Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.1 Orbiter coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.2 Payload coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.3 The Telescope Ensemble Coordinate System . 12.2.4 Optical Bench Assembly system . . . . . . . . 12.2.5 OTG Coordinates (OTG-2.0) . . . . . . . . . 12.2.6 Project FPSI Coordinate System . . . . . . . 12.2.7 SIM and ISIM coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.8 SAOSAC coordinates (HRMA-3.1) . . . . . . 12.2.9 Summary of useful HRMA Cartesian systems 3

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. . . .ACIS-2C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACIS Chip corner locations in ACIS-I LSI coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parameters of Tiled Detector Coordinate de nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parameters of Tiled Detector Coordinate de nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grating properties . . . . . Tiled Detector Plane systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HRC electronically meaningful coordinate ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GDC pixel image centers . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 The relationship between CHIP. LSI and STT coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 1 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Default axis orientations . Tiled Detector Plane systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tiled Detector Plane systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometrical layout of mirrors and detectors: Value of MNC X Coord XN Mirror radii. . . . . . . . HRC-S boundaries (Revised Jan 99) . . . . . . . . . . . . . HSI boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location of instrument origin on Translation Table. . . . . . . . HRC-S1 TELV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parameters of Tiled Detector Coordinate de nitions . Location of instrument origin on Translation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grid) corner locations in LSI coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GDP Pixel Sizes (assuming ight Rowland radius) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SIM position o sets for nominal focus positions . XRCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parameters of Tiled Detector Coordinate de nitions . . . . . . . . . . . v and CHIPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interesting points in spacecraft and HRMA nodal coordinates . . HRC-I boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assumed Misalignments . . . . . . . . . . ACIS-2C chip corner locations in ACIS-2C LSI coordinates . 16 31 31 33 34 35 35 38 39 40 42 44 44 45 50 50 51 51 52 53 53 53 54 54 57 59 60 61 List of Figures 1 2 3 Pixel convention. . . . . 7 The relationship between CHIP and Tiled Detector coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . HRC chip (i. . . . . . . HSI chip corner locations in HSI LSI coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Euler angles in degrees for CPC to LSI coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . Distances are in mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The rays then intersect one of several inclined detector planes. . . . . . . . . . Coordinate systems used in data analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of interesting points in the spacecraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HRMA source coordinates . . . . while the Focal Plane Coordinates system describes the angular position of rays emerging from the mirrors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HRMA Nodal and STF Coordinates showing the on-orbit con guration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XRCF Coordinates showing the general con guration with HRMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2: Grating data analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . this misalignment (highly exaggerated here) may be signi cant and variable as the mirror is tilted with respect to the instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordinate systems used in data analysis. . . . . The instrument bench moves with respect to the instrument compartment. . . . . . . . . . . Imaging the sky in LSI coordinates . . . . . . . Coordinate system is AXAF-STT-1. . . . HRMA spherical coordinates . . DFC and LSI coordinate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Tangent Plane Coordinate system describes the incoming rays. . . The relationship between STT and STF coordinates. . . . . . HRC-I pixel axes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distorting e ects are highly exaggerated. . . . . . . . . . The di erent pixel plane coordinate systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . showing the ight focal plane instruments to scale. . . ACIS readout nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . Grating Di raction coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XRCF Coordinates showing the general con guration with HRMA and LSI coordinate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 The instrument compartment (dashed line) may be misaligned with the telescope mirrors. . . . . 1: Imaging data analysis. . . . . . 13 13 15 17 18 21 22 26 27 30 40 42 65 66 66 66 67 67 68 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relationship of HRC-S pixels to the physical instrument. . At calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grating Zero Order coordinates . . . . . . . . . . as indicated by the arrow. . . . . . . . The AXAF SIM Translation Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . causing events whose locations are described in tiled detector coordinates. . . . . . .

FP-3. We further recommend that for nite detector planes.0. If the detector is rectangular with sides of length XMAX.1 Update notes 1. When we refer to a point as an argument in this way we usually get lazy and omit the boldface. Minor update to XRCF focal plane systems FP-4. B denotes a point in 3D space. YMAX the pixel coordinates then run from (0.Part I 1 General Introduction Part 1: Mission-independent formulation There are a lot of di erent coordinate systems used in the AXAF program. The notation YA(B ) denotes the Y coordinate of point B in the 3-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system A. one corner be designated as the lower left corner. 1.5). LL. YA(B ). 0. The coordinates of the LL point itself are (0. followed by a string identifying the system.5.5) in the lower left corner (LL) to (XMAX+0.e.g.5. In all cases where we use discrete pixel numbers. General update post XRCF.0).1) so that its center has coordinates (1.5) in the upper right corner (UR) while the pixel numbers in each axis run from 1 to XMAX. CHIP coordinates) refers to a pixel system de ned by the equation immediately following its bold-face rst mention. especially to HRC values (1997 Dec 21). which are useful for data analysis of observations both in ight and at XRCF. the corresponding real-valued. and ending with a version number. Each of the pixel coordinate systems is identi ed by a label beginning with the string ASC. YMAX+0. For example. This memo is intended to give the ASC SDS group's current understanding of the relationships between them (mirror metrology systems are not yet included) and to de ne many more systems. Then the pixel which has LL as one of its corners (i. 1 to YMAX.1 (1997 Feb 27).1 Pixel convention 1.2.g. mostly intended for use in constructing and aligning the hardware.2. e. ASC-CHIP-1.1. and satisfying the pixel convention discussed below. the lower left pixel) shall be numbered (1.2 Notational conventions 1.2 Vector and coordinate notation .0 (loosely. 0. continuous pixel coordinates are de ned to be equal to the pixel number at the center of the pixel. The 6 1. Corrected HRC TDET system (1998 May 12). A bold face symbol e.5.

5. E ) cos E cos E cos E cos E cos E sin E = cos sin E E sin E sin E sin E cos E sin E cos E cos E + cos E sin E sin E cos E sin E + cos E cos E sin E sin E sin E cos E sin E sin E cos E ! (2) Then coordinates of a general point G PA(G) = (XA(G). 1. E )Rot1(Y. (P is not in boldface since it is not a vector . the coordinates of B in the A coordinate system.UR (XMAX + 0. B ) = Rot( E .0 ) LL (0. E . E of the rotation R(A. YB (A0). YB (G). E . the position vector PB (A0) = (XB (A0).) We de ne an Euler rotation Rot( E .5. ZA(G)) may be converted to using the formula (3) (4) (5) PB (G) = (XB (G). E ) (1) where the rotations apply to the successively rotated axes from right to left in the usual sense of matrix multiplication. E . B )KAB PA(G) + PB (A0) 7 . The general transformation from a cartesian system A to a system B involves a scaling. YA(G). E )Rot1(Z.Z to be the product of three rotations Rot( E . E .Y. notation PA(B ) denotes the triple (XA(B ). ZB (A0)) of the origin of A in the B system.2.0) (1. YA(B ). This may be described by seven numbers: the scale factor KAB (choice of units).it is in a speci c coordinate system. i.5) (XMAX+0.0. E ) of a Cartesian system X. and the three Euler angles E . ZB (G)) PB (G) = R(A.e.5) Figure 1: Pixel convention. YMAX+0. and a rotation.B) from A to B. E ) = Rot1(Z. 0. 1.0. YMAX+0. a translation.3 Rotation and translation of Cartesian systems R(A. ZA(B )).

Z ) = rS ( .1 General model of the system 2 Data Analysis Coordinate Systems . r cos ) (9) so that the north pole is through the positive Z axis and the azimuth is zero along the positive X axis and 90 degrees along the positive Y axis. . C ) = Rot( E . each chip is subdivided into rectangular (usually square) `detector pixels'. these chips are all rectangular. `mirror') which images the sky by converting incoming photon paths to outgoing photon paths in a well determined way. E ): Further. The instruments are xed with respect to the instrument table. The WCS paradigm describes general rotations of a spherical polar coordinate system. Each telescope has an optical system (loosely. if C is related to B by re ection about the X axis. For AXAF. the instrument compartment itself may move relative to the optical system (for AXAF. sin sin( (10) We model an observatory consisting of several telescopes. Y.Imaging . this happens only at calibration). A) = Rot( E. E. Each instrument consists of one or more xed `chips' or planar detector surfaces of nite area (we don't imply by this that they are chips in the semiconductor sense). In the appendix I derive 0 0 1. E ): We also use spherical polar coordinate systems.e. E ) (6) (7) (8) R(B. ) = (r cos sin . i. E . although note that the ROSAT PSPC is circular.If then R(A.4 Spherical polar coordinates = cos 1 (cos = arg (cos E cos + sin E sin cos( E )) E )) E E sin cos( E ) sin E cos . r sin sin . B ) = Rot( E . ZC = ZB then R(A. YC = YB .Y.Z of a spherical polar system (r. We de ne the native cartesian axes X. 0. ) by the equation (X. Further.2. and an instrument compartment. but the table may move relative to the instrument compartment. Any other choice of spherical coordinates (r. 0) may be de ned by specifying the Euler rotation matrix which rotates the corresponding native systems into each other. Finally. enumerating the 8 2. + E . In the instrument compartment is an instrument table on which are mounted several instruments.

for a circular detector such as the ROSAT PSPC. and its lower left corner is (0. Going from CHIP to FP involves taking out 3-D geometry of the chips. The logical plane may be larger than the actual set of possibly active pixels. for instance. 1 to YMAX.5. These three pixel coordinate systems. these correspond to physical CCD pixels.0).set of distinct locations that can be represented in the instrument telemetry stream.5.1 Telemetry to Chip coordinates The telemetry coordinates of a photon are a collection (n-tuple) of integers. the HRC telemetry coordinates consist of two Tap values and six voltages. position of the instrument on the optical bench. (In the case of CCDs.0. and plate scale. is two dimensional. the telemetry position. 2. For instance.5 to YMAX+0.Y) pixel coordinate system gives locations in a pixelized tangent plane to the nominal RA and Dec of observation. This chip pixel coordinate system is labelled as ASC-CHIP-1. The FP (Focal Plane) pixel coordinate system (called DETX.DETY in the FITS les) gives the locations in a pixelized tangent plane to the telescope optical axis. 0. boresights. while in microchannel plate detectors they are arbitrarily set by the electronics). 9 . The formats may be very di erent from instrument to instrument. we extend this logical chip pixel coordinate plane to be rectangular. Going from FP to SKY involves applying the aspect solution. the center of pixel number (1. So the three types of coordinate system we will use are: Two dimensional pixel plane Two dimensional spherical angular coordinates Three dimensional cartesian coordinates. Every time we want to make an image. They de ne a logical plane extending from coordinate 0. Once instrumental details are removed. The information available to us. but to infer the nal two dimensional angular incoming sky direction we must calculate a photon position in three dimensional space. we use a two dimensional pixel plane (possibly losing information in a third dimension). while the ACIS telemetry coordinates are directly given as pixel numbers. motion of the optical bench. The SKY (X. we provide a rule to convert from telemetry coordinates to our standard data analysis chip pixel coordinates which run from 1 to XMAX.2.5 to XMAX+0.1) is (1. The remaining coordinate systems are used internally to make precise the transformations involved in going from CHIP to FP to SKY.2 Data Analysis 1: Telemetry to Tangent Plane 2. 1. plus the convenience TDET system which combines the CHIP systems for all the components of one detector and systems associated with dispersive gratings.5. In other words. For each instrument. are the systems that users will see in data analysis.0.5). 0. we derive the CHIP pixel coordinate system which records a location in a 2-dimensional plane pixel surface.

i and i are di erent for each chip.The corresponding physical coordinate system is a three dimensional Cartesian system called Chip Physical Coordinates (CPC). where XLEN = XMAX p and Y LEN = Y MAX p. Now for ACIS it so happens that the true CCD pixels satisfy this condition su ciently accurately. Projecting onto a 2-D plane (e. FP coords) will then lose the identity of individual pixels since one true detector pixel will map to a variable number of square pixels on the projected plane.0) are CHIPX = XCPC = p + 0:5 (11) CHIPY = YCPC = p + 0:5 or XCPC = (CHIPX 0:5) p (12) YCPC = (CHIPY 0:5) p Note that CHIPX and CHIPY are by de nition linear. or may be separated by a non-integral number of detector pixels. YCPC .0. 10 . The CPC Z coordinate of any point in the chip has a value of 0. (XCPC .2. or both (as in ACIS-I). For recording calibration information like bad pixel lists and inspecting the raw image.2 Tiled Detector Coordinates In an instrument with multiple detector planes. but for HRC the readout values may require linearization and removal of discontinuities. i gives the sub-pixel resolution factor. by which I mean that the mapping to real physical space is linear. and the Z axis completes a right handed set. For this purpose we introduced the tiled detector coordinate systems (TDET). YCPC its chip pixel coordinates (ASC-CHIP-1. and i gives the rotation angle of the chip axes with respect to the detector coordinate axes. ZCPC ) are de ned to have units of mm. Hi gives the handedness of the planar rotation and has values +1 or 1. Thus if a photon lands at Chip Physical Coordinates XCPC . The CPC X and Y axes are coincident with the chip X and Y axes.g. it is useful to have a single coordinate system covering the whole instrument which retains true detector pixel identity at the expense of relative positional accuracy. The X and Y coordinates run from 0. giving the physical location of a detected photon event on the active area surface. 2. the planes may be tilted with respect to each other. They are fully de ned in terms of the chip pixel coordinates when the pixel size p and the array size XMAX x YMAX is given.0 to XLEN and YLEN. ! ! ! ! ! 1 0 cos i sin i CHIPX 0:5 + X 0i + 0:5 TDETX = (13) i 0 H Y 0i + 0:5 TDETY sin i cos i CHIPY 0:5 i where the values of Hi .

and is used to describe the changing position of the instrument table. The STF. X CPC Z S Y LSI Figure 2: The relationship between CHIP and Tiled Detector coordinates. The Science Instrument Translation Table (STT) coordinate system is xed in the moving instrument table. The position of its origin is mission-dependent. but the axes are parallel to the STF axes. the actual focal point for a particular observation may be di erent. LSI and STT coordinate systems are de ned to use units of mm. For telescopes with movable instrument tables. Since the axes are also parallel. The Local Science Instrument (LSI) coordinate system for each instrument is xed in that instrument. The Science Instrument Translation Frame (STF) coordinate system is xed in the instrument compartment.3 Local Science Instrument coordinates Each instrument has an Instrument Origin which is the nominal focal point for the instrument. and +Y and +Z forming a right handed set whose orientation matches that of the observatory coordinates.2. To describe the motion of the instrument table. 11 . To convert from the LSI system to the STT system. we use three aligned Cartesian coordinate systems. the direction of instrument table motion is along Z. Its origin is at the ight focus and its axes have +X running from the focus toward the telescope aperture. 2. Y CPC XCHIP LSI XDET YCHIP XCHIP. STF and LSI coordinates become identical. When the instrument table is moved to put the instrument at its nominal focus position. and is identical to the STT frame but with the origin shifted to the instrument origin. one needs to know the STT coordinates of each LSI origin (i. that means that the LSI origin is coincident with the STF origin. For AXAF.e. and is used to describe the positions of the instrument origins relative to each other. The STF system therefore measures how much the instrument is o set from its nominal focus.YDET X LSI Z CPC YCHIP .

LSI ) = B (eX )Y (eY )Y (eZ )Y C A @ (eX )Z (eY )Z (eZ )Z These unit axis vectors can easily be derived from the corner coordinates. PG(LSI ) = PLL(LSI ) + R(CPC. and several chips each with its own CPC system. The information we need for each chip to de ne the transformation is the LSI coordinates of each of the four corners of the chip plane (actually. To convert from a position P(LSI) in LSI coords to P(STF) in STF coords. these two vectors are equal and opposite. eX = LR LL. Let us denote the position vectors of the four chip corners as LL. one then performs the vector sum: P (STF ) = P (LSI ) + OLSI (STT ) + OSTT (STF ) (14) adding the STT coordinates of the LSI origin and the STF coordinates of the STT origin. which we describe by giving the STF coordinates of the STT origin OSTT . A general point on the plane is r = p0 + XCPC eX + YCPC eY (15) where p0 is the origin of CPC coordinates. eY = UL LL (16) and eZ = eX ^ eY : (17) Z CPC X LSI X STT YCHIP .UL. LSI )PG(CPC ) where the matrix is 1 0 (eX )X (eY )X (eZ )X R(CPC. one needs to know the instantaneous position of the instrument table. To convert to the STF system.the location of each instrument on the instrument table).LR. When the instrument is at its nominal focus. only three of the four are required). LSI and STT coordinates. Y CPC Σ CPC S Z LSI Y Y STT LSI Z STT XCHIP. Then the unit vectors of the CPC origin and axes in LSI coordinates are p0 = LL. We can recast this in a rotational formulation. 12 (18) (19) .UR. To convert from CPC coordinates to LSI coordinates. with eZ as the unit normal to the plane. we need to carry out a rotation and translation. X Figure 3: The relationship between CHIP. Each instrument has one LSI coordinate system. and eX and eY are the unit vectors along the CPC axes.

Optical bench Mirror SI Instrument module platform Science instrument (described by LSI coords) Optical bench (described by STT coords) Instrument module (described by STF coords) Mirror (described by HNC coords) Tilt of HNC with respect to STF is exaggerated Figure 4: The instrument compartment (dashed line) may be misaligned with the telescope mirrors. 13 . HRMA XSTT ACIS XSTF Y Σ STT YSTF HRC Z Z STF STT Σ0 SIM Translation Table Figure 5: The relationship between STT and STF coordinates. At calibration. AXAF example. The instrument (SIM) table has moved so that HRC is at the focus. as indicated by the arrow. this misalignment (highly exaggerated here) may be signi cant and variable as the mirror is tilted with respect to the instruments. The instrument bench moves with respect to the instrument compartment.

YN . we support the more general alignment (20) (21) (22) P (FC ) = OSTF (FC ) + R(STF. in previous versions of the document HNC for HRMA Nodal Coordinates) is the nominal optical node of the mirrors. We de ne Focus Coordinates (FC-1. 0) + P (FC ) The nominal connection between FC and STF coordinates is P (FC ) = P (STF ) However. The +X axis goes from the node toward the entrance aperture. and a nominal focus at mirror coordinates (-f.4 Mirror coordinates We now specialize to a simple optical system which can be modelled to rst order as a thin lens with an optical node N from which rays appear to emerge toward a detector. is p =f 14 s . FC )P (STF ): This equation allows us to handle the inversion of the HRMA with respect to the instrument compartment that was originally planned for XRCF. tangent to the pole of the sphere. Focal Surface Coordinates measure the o axis angle and azimuth of an emerging ray.2.2. radians. The generic Focal Plane Pixel coordinates are FPX = FPX 0 + tx FPY = FPY 0 + ty 1 s (YN =jXN j) 1 s (ZN =jXN j) s (23) is the pixel size in (24) where tx. This simple description is ne for the AXAF HRMA. The mirror has a nominal focal length f. but won't apply directly to the complicated optical path of the AXAF Aspect Camera. an incoming ray with MNC direction cosines ( XN . Thus P (MNC ) = ( f. and their pole is the MNC +XN axis.0) as a cartesian system identical to MNC coordinates but with its origin at the focus. with pole at the XN axis (toward the focus). 0. ty are sign parameters which control the orientation of the image. ZN ). (We use the subscript 'N' for mirror nodal coordinates). YN . Mirror Spherical Coordinates measure the o axis angle and azimuth of an incoming ray. ZN ) emerges from the mirror with direction cosines ( XN . 0. To rst order. and the Y and Z axes complete a right handed system. 0). for focal length f. Associated with the MNC system are two spherical coordinate systems. Each of these spherical coordinate systems has an associated family of pixel plane coordinate systems (parameterized by the selected pixel size). The actual physical pixel size at the focus. The origin of mirror coordinates (labelled here as MNC for Mirror Nodal Coordinates.

The Tangent Plane pixel coordinates are de ned in the same way. The rays then intersect one of several inclined detector planes.Chip detector planes Tangent Plane Focal Plane Figure 6: The Tangent Plane Coordinate system describes the incoming rays. The nominal focal length of the mirror is then needed to convert to actual angular size. causing events whose locations are described in tiled detector coordinates. (In practice. The sign on FPY is then chosen to take out the mirror inversion of the image caused by the optics. the angular size may be directly encoded in a WCS CDELT header parameter). we de ne the standard ASC-FP-FSC-1. CHIP X and 15 . ty = 1) FPX = FPX 0 + FPY = FPY 0 1 s (YN =jXN j) 1 s (ZN =jXN j) (25) Note that in the focal plane XN is negative but we take the absolute value in the formula. A focal plane pixel coordinate system is de ned in terms of this physical pixel size. FC Y. so sky X decreases FPX decreases Incoming photon moves to smaller MNC Y and MNC Y/jX j Image moves to larger MNC Y.0 variant of focal plane coordinates as (tx = 1. The sign on FPX re ects the fact that we want celestial longitude to increase from right to left when the roll angle is zero. To repeat this in another way: (assuming zero roll angle and the default chip orientation) Source moves to higher RA Source moves to left in sky image. Speci cally. LSI Y. while the Focal Plane Coordinates system describes the angular position of rays emerging from the mirrors. but form the pixel plane for the Mirror Spherical Coordinates.

Users should be aware of the di erence between FP coordinates at XRCF and in ight. Z ) with ray unit vector ( X. H) in terms of mirror nodal Cartesian coordi- 16 . and do not include mirror optical distortions. choosing tx = ty = 1. YN . +XRCF Z +FPX.-CHIP Y -CHIP X. Table 1: Default axis orientations Flight XRCF -RA. so -X is positive. For XRCF. Z ) is imaged to a ray with the same unit vector ( X. Thus in our simple mirror model where an incoming photon coming from unit vector (X. we adopt a di erent convention. Z ).MNC Z or + XRCF Z.MNC Y or + XRCF Y. FC Z. we look at the detector from the source. -FCZ +LSI Y. the tangent plane coordinates of the incoming photon TPX. while focal plane coordinates do. ZN ) are the unit vector in MNC coordinates of the incoming ray.0 version of tangent plane coordinates as TPX = FPX 0 + TPY = FPY 0 1 s (YN =jXN j) 1 s (ZN =jXN j) (26) (identical to the focal plane coordinates) where here the (XN . Y. +Dec +XRCF Y. Y. -MNZ -MNY. +FPY +MNY. LSI Z. +FPY +FPX. FPY is parallel to .Source moves to higher Dec Source moves up in sky image. -MNZ +FCY. H . Y. -CHIP Y We de ne Mirror Spherical Coordinates (r. CHIP Y We de ne the standard ASC-TP-MSC-1. Then FPX is parallel to . and mirror distortions are handled in the spatial variation of the centroid of the PSF.-LSI Z -LSI Y. Tangent plane coordinates are de ned to apply to positions on the `sky' side of the mirror. TPY are equal to the focal plane coordinates of the imaged ray. In practice we assume that tangent plane and focal plane coordinates are identical. For incoming rays the sign of X is always negative. Instead of looking at the sky from the detector. -FCZ -FCY. so sky Y increases FPY increases Incoming photon moves to larger MNC Z Image moves to smaller MNC Z. -LSI Z +CHIP X.

ZN ) The Focal Surface Coordinates (r. nates as follows: The angle is the MSC o -axis angle and H is the MSC Azimuth. They are related to the MSC coordinates by (30) F= H. F ) are 1 1 0 0 rcos F XN B YN C = B r sin F cos F C (29) A A @ @ r sin F sin F ZN The angle F is the FSC o -axis angle and the angle F is the FSC azimuth.Tiled Detector Plane Focal Plane (with tilted chips) + + + ++ Tangent Plane (with mirror effects) Sky Plane (with aspect solution) Figure 7: The di erent pixel plane coordinate systems. F= H H 1 0 0 XN B YN C = B rcos H cos A @ r sin H @ r sin H sin ZN H H 1 C A (27) 17 . The inverse is q 2 2 2 r = XN + YN + ZN (28) 1 (X =r) H = cos N H = arg(YN . Distorting e ects are highly exaggerated. F .

Dec SKY RA Y DETECTOR HRMA X ZL XL Dec YL RA Figure 8: Imaging the sky in LSI coordinates The inverse is q 2 2 2 r = XN + YN + ZN 1 H = cos ( XN =r) H = arg(YN . ZN ) (31) 18 .

3 Data Analysis 2: Tangent Plane to Sky 2. If the Tangent Plane pixel coordinates represent a position on the tangent plane to the unit sphere at the optical axis.0) are X = FPX 0 + (TPX FPX 0) cos (TPY FPY 0) sin + AX (33) Y = FPY 0 + (TPX FPX 0) sin + (TPY FPY 0) cos + AY The quantities AX and AY are the sky frame aspect o sets in pixels. ASC-FP-STF-1. STT. coordinates. FPX = FPX 0 + sp1 Y FPY = FPY 0 sp1 Z (32) where sp is the physical pixel size and Y.3. To do this we use the FP system and set the LSI or STF origin at the nominal focus by specifying a physical pixel size.0 coordinates further ignore the possibility that the the instrument is not at its standard position in the focus (no SI instrument table correction) while ASC-FP-STT-1.5 Pixel planes for intermediate systems We may want to make pixel images for data in coordinate systems such as LSI and STF frames. it's not clear to me why this choice was made. (mosaicing images) we must reproject to the nominal sky tangent plane. etc.3. ASC-FP-LSI-1. sky pixel coordinates (ASC-SKY-1.0 pixel coordinate system is also called 'dithered focal plane coordinates' since it can be used to debug XRCF dither mode. which required applying the roll angle to.) In general when combining data over a wide range of pointing directions. determining the sky pixel coordinates of the optical axis..2. The ASC-FP-STF-1. For small aspect corrections. For each of these systems.2.1 Sky Pixel Coordinates The Sky Pixel coordinate system is a translation and rotation of the Tangent Plane pixel coordinate system to align the image with a nominal pointing direction and spacecraft roll angle.0 coordinates but ignore the possibility of defocus or misalignment (or dither) between the instrument compartment and the mirrors. while the Xcoordinate is ignored.Z are the LSI.0 coordinates are like ASC-FP-FSC-1. the Physical Tangent Plane coordinate system 1 1 0 0 XPTP s (TPX TPX 0) B YPTP C = B s(TPY TPY 0) C : (34) A A @ @ 1 ZPTP 19 2. (Note that the aspect o sets for Einstein and Rosat were stored as detector frame o sets. 2.0 coordinates arti cially place the STT origin at the focus.2 Physical Tangent Plane coordinates .

The PTP system is closely related to HRMA Nodal coordinates. ) = Rot( =2 + A. YN . which the convention that the XPTP and YPTP axes run in the direction of increasing RA and Dec respectively in the on-orbit case with zero roll.3. 0 ) @ YPSP A ZPSP From TP pixel coordinates. =2 A. Use the nominal pointing direction ( 0. If the direction of the incoming ray is (XN . recall that 1 0 XPTP C B A ) @ YPTP A ZPTP (37) 1 1 0 0 XPTP s (TPX TPX 0) B YPTP C = B s(TPY TPY 0) C A A @ @ 1 ZPTP 20 (39) . and roll angle A. ZN ) then 1 1 0 0 YN =XN XPTP B YPTP C = B ZN =XN C A A @ @ 1 ZPTP (35) 2.3. S ( .represents the 3D vector from the center of the unit sphere to that position on the tangent plane.4 J2000 Celestial Coordinates One can go from Tangent Plane Physical coordinates to J2000 celestial coordinates using the instantaneous pointing direction ( A.3 Physical Sky Plane coordinates The Physical Sky Plane coordinate system for zero aspect o set and nite roll angle is 1 1 0 0 XPTP cos + YPTP sin XPSP B YPSP C = B XPTP sin YPTP cos C A A @ @ ZPTP ZPSP (36) where is the spacecraft roll angle. 0) and set the roll angle to zero if using Sky Plane Physical Coordinates: 1 0 XPSP C B (38) S ( . The PTP and PSP systems are important as you need them to calculate the RA and Dec. A). 2. =2 0 . ) = Rot( =2. However they are only used in internal calculations.

2.1 Mirror Spherical Coordinates to Focal Surface Coordinates Incoming photons with given mirror spherical coordinates (o axis angle and azimuth) can be described by their tangent plane pixel coordinates. We choose a Cartesian coordinate system (usually LSI coordinates) and calculate the intersection of the ray line with each detector plane.Physical -. determining the higher order corrections is the job of ray trace simulators such as SAOSAC. 2.4 Simulation: Sky to Telemetry 2. the photon will only hit one of the chips).2 Focal Surface or Mirror Nodal Coordinates to CPC coordinates We then have the problem: how to transform from mirror nodal coordinates of a ray emerging from the mirror to the detected photon position.4.Angular CHIP CPC Orient chips in 3D space FP-LSI LSI Place detector on instrument table FP-STT FP-STF FP FP TP STT Move instrument table STF Orient instrument compartment relative to mirrors FC Include telescope focal length MNC FSC Account for distorting effects of mirrors PTP MSC Apply aspect solution SKY PSP CEL Figure 9: Coordinate systems used in data analysis. When simulating. There should be only one detector plane which has an intersection within its nite bounds (i.e. To rst order.4.Pixel --. This is harder than working in the data analysis direction. 1: Imaging data analysis. we often will not bother with these tangent and pixel plane coordinates but instead will work directly with mirror nodal coordinates. For 21 .. these are the same as the focal plane pixel coordinates.

YCPC = r:eY 22 (43) . 2: Grating data analysis. XCPC = r:eX . and eX and eY are the unit vectors along the CPC axes. detectors which do not include any tilted or out-of-plane chips (pre-AXAF missions). The general ray is r = l0 + l (41) where l0 is an arbitrary point on the ray (the output of ray trace or else for approximate calculations. λ GDC Figure 10: Coordinate systems used in data analysis. as before a general point on one of the detector planes is r = p0 + XCPC eX + YCPC eY (40) where p0 is the origin of CPC coordinates. the mirror node). and labels positions along the ray. The intersection with the plane is then at 0 r = l0 + (p0 l:elZ):eZ l (42) and we nd CPC X and Y by taking the dot product with the CPC unit vectors. with eZ as the unit normal to the plane. l is the ray direction. the calculation is much easier as you can just nd the LSI coordinates of the ray when it hits the focal plane.Pixel Physical Angular Energy FC GDP GZO GAC E. In our more complicated situtation.

ID.0 Pixel size Yes Focal plane MNC Mirror Nodal ASC-FP-FSC-1.0 Pixel size No Tangent Plane 3D PSP Physical Sky Plane ASC-SKY-1. so there can be several parallel TDET systems for one instrument and individual TDET labels assigned for each system must be used.4.2.0 Pixel size Yes Tangent plane MSC Mirror Spherical ASC-TP-MSC-1. CHIPX = XCPC = p + 0:5 CHIPY = YCPC = p + 0:5 (44) Each of the physical coordinate systems. and revisions to the equations will imply version number changes in the label. o set u STF SI Translation Frame ASC-FP-STF-1.0 Pixel size Yes Focal plane.0 Inst. No Detector coords TDET params LSI Local SI ASC-FP-LSI-1. In the following table.0 Pixel size No Focal plane MNC Mirror Nodal ASC-TP-MSC-1.0 Inst.0 Pixel size No Tangent plane CEL Celestial ASC-SKY-1. representing either a 3-D position or a 2-D angular position. ID Yes Focal plane.0 Inst. Physical Name Pixel Params Info Description System System Loss CPC Chip Physical ASC-CHIP-1.5 Summary of coordinate systems . The table also notes whether information is lost going from the physical to the pixel system. 23 2. No Single chip Chip ID CPC Chip Physical ASC-TDET-1. data associated with this label is deemed to satisfy the equations in this document. extra parameters such as the chip ID are required.0 Pixel size No Aspect applied PTP Physical Tangent Plane ASC-TP-MSC-1. To isolate a speci c system. o set u STT SI Translation Table ASC-FP-STT-1. has a corresponding 2-D pixel coordinate system used for display purposes and for practical storage in cases where the third dimension is redundant. I give each physical system with the corresponding pixel plane systems. `Label' is the generic label used to identify the system. alignme FC Focus Coordinates ASC-FP-FSC-1. ID.0 Pixel size Yes Focal plane FSC Focal Surface ASC-FP-FSC-1.0 Pixel size Yes Focal plane.3 Chip coordinates We can then recover chip coordinates and telemetry coordinates using the equations from previous sections.0 Pixel size No Sky Plane 3D The TDET parameters for tiled detector coordinates are arbitrary.

Then a point in STF coordinates can be converted to spacecraft coords by 2. For the full treatment. we consider misalignment of the telescope and optical bench.6 Data Analysis 3: Full treatment with misalignments P (DFC ) = OSTF (DFC ) + R(DFC. DFC )P (DFC ) Here ODFC (SC ) is the position in spacecraft coords of the home position of the SIM assembly OSTF (DFC ) is the displacement of the SIM assembly relative to this home position. R(SC. MNC ) gives the orientation of the mirrors. For the speci c case of Chandra we have: Parameter Name Flight XRCF 24 .MFC) give the misalignment of the zero of pitch and yaw relative to the SC system. the spacecraft frame (the XRCF frame plays this role in calibration) DFC. The discussion of transforming STF to MNC coordinates above is incomplete. and R(MFC.STF) is the rotation of the assembly relative to its home orientation. but sometimes is picked arbitrarily. the mirror ducial coordinate system along whose axes the mirror is commanded to move. at Chandra calibration the background coordinate frame is the XRCF system.The pixel size used in the FP and TP systems is often equal to the detector pixel size in the nominal focal plane. We de ne the following new frames: SC.DFC) gives the misalignment of the spacecraft and DFC frames. R(SC. OMNC (MFC ) allows for a translation of the mirror node relative to the center of rotation. and include a background spacecraft (or lab) coordinate frame. P (SC ) = OMFC (SC ) + R(SC. MFC )P (MFC ) and and P (MFC ) = OMNC (MFC ) + R(MFC. For instance. MNC )P (MNC ) Here OMFC (SC ) is the position of the center of rotation of the telescope in spacecraft coordinates. STF )P (STF ) P (SC ) = ODFC (SC ) + R(SC. We further allow an independent motion of the mirror relative to the spacecraft frame. and R(DFC. the frame along whose axes the STF frame (the science instrument module) is mechanically displaced and rotated. MFC.

The Grating Node is on the optical axis at a distance R from the focus.. and a zero-order undispersed image.Z give the SIM frame displacement.MNC) R(SC. -2.1 Data Analysis: Grating data 3. spacecraft roll aspect must be applied to the zero-order position. When we observe with the gratings. To analyse a dispersed photon. 3 Data Analysis Coordinate Systems . we must know the location of the zero-order image as well as that of the dispersed photon. -1. Each grating is de ned by a grating node position and a grating pole vector which de nes the cross-dispersion direction. yaw Mirror alignment FAM rotation FAM misalignment The FITS keywords STG X. boresight Zero Zero? Zero Boresight Zero? Node FOA FAM displacement HRMA pitch.DFC) Nodal o set of center of rotn. +2.STF) R(SC. cos G) (46) 25 3.Y. and let the vector from the grating node to the source zero order be S . For instance. Then de ne eXZO = S =jSj eYZO = d0 ^ eXZO =jd0 ^ eXZO j (45) eZZO = eXZO ^ eYZO where the Grating Pole (cross-dispersion unit vector) d0 is d0 = (0. as distinct from SIM X.Gratings We now consider objective transmission gratings placed between the mirrors and the detectors.0) .MFC) R(DFC. . The undispersed (zero-order) photons do not interact with the gratings and we can deal with them using the same analysis as for imaging detectors. where R is the diameter of the Rowland Circle.Y.1.OMNC (MFC ) OMFC (SC ) ODFC (SC ) OSTF (DFC ) R(MFC. SC coords of center of rotn.Z which give the SIM table position relative to the SIM frame. sin G.1 Grating Zero Order Coordinates (GZO-1. SC coords of ducial point SIM frame displacement Mirror pitch and yaw Mirror misalignment SIM frame orientation SIM frame misaligment Zero Node OTA focus Best focus. Now we pick a source. with zero order position ZO. however. we get a dispersed spectrum with orders +1.. The location of the zero order photon must be calculated relative to the Grating Node rather than the Mirror Node. not the dispersed position.

y. Zo) = ((Zo sin G + Yo cos G ). Z ) = (gXo. Di racted photons travel in the XZO . gYo. Z Z Z ZO d0 ZO F Y ZO ZO G X X ZO Y ZO Y Figure 11: Grating Zero Order coordinates The key step is calculating the GZO to FC transformation matrix. where G is the angle between the dispersion direction and the spacecraft Y axis. cos G . The columns of this matrix are simply the vectors eXZ0 etc.in MNC coordinates. GZO)(P (FC ) OGZO (FC )) (47) where OGZO(LSI ) are the FC coordinates of the grating node. The GZO coordinates of the photon are then P (GZO) = R(FC. whose origin we choose to be at G0. Yo. z ) will have GZO coords and (49) (50) G) eXZO eYZO eZZO P (GZO) = (x g. Then to rst order jS j = g(1 Xo) = (1. For an approximate treatment ( which can be in error by several pixels). (z Z ) cos 26 G (y Y ) sin (51) . cos G ) so that a point with FC coords (x. Y. This de nes a cartesian orthonormal set. we can write the zero order coords as ZO(FC ) = (X. (y Y ) cos G + (z Z ) sin G. and the intersection of this plane with the detector surface de nes the dispersion direction. Grating Zero Order Coordinates. sin G. sin G) = ( Yo sin G + Zo cos G. gZo) (48) where g is the distance from G0 to the focus. YZO plane.

is the cross-dispersion angle. is the dispersion angle and the latitude coordinate. GDY are de ned by GDX = GDX 0 gs1 (YZO=XZO ) GDY = GDY 0 + gs1 (ZZO =XZO ) analogously to the Focal Plane Pixel Coordinates.0) Grating Angular Coordinates (GAC) are the most important system for grating analysis.1) The Grating Di raction Plane Pixel Coordinates GDX. which is approximately equal to the length jS j.1. P d G ZO r The Grating Di raction Coordinate system (rTG. This is just related to the GAC coordinates by a simple scaling rTG = XR r (53) d = X tan TG R d 3. d) is a 2D angular system giving longitude and latitude with respect to GZO coordinates. They are de ned as r d ZO = tan 1 XYZO = tan 1 pX+2ZZOY 2 + ZO ZO YZO =XZO +ZZO=XZO (52) Here XR is the length from the grating node to the focus.3. r . The longitude coordinate.1.1. They are related to the physical Grating Di raction Coordinates by GDX = GDX 0 + gs1 tan(rTG=XR) GDY = GDY 0 + gs1(dTG=XR) cos(rTG=XR ) 27 (54) (55) . The GAC system ( r .3 Grating Di raction Coordinates (GDC-1.2 Grating Angular Coordinates (GAC-1.4 Grating Di raction Plane Pixel Coordinates (GDP-1. dTG) gives the distance in mm along the dispersion direction and in the cross-dispersion direction.0) Figure 12: Grating Di raction coordinates 3. d .

f(x.1 Instrumental details The CHIP ID is also called CCD ID for consistency with ASCA.5 Dispersion relation The wavelength of the di racted photon is = P sin R =m where P is the average grating period and m is the di raction order. 4. are arranged in a rough square (but individually tilted). the imaging set. This memo de nes two coordinate systems. So (P=m)(GDX GDX 0) gs (56) (57) Part II Part 2: AXAF systems 4 ACIS The ACIS instrument has 10 CCD chips. Chip Name ACIS-I0 ACIS-I1 ACIS-I2 ACIS-I3 ACIS-S0 ACIS-S1 ACIS-S2 ACIS-S3 ACIS-S4 ACIS-S5 CHIP ID 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4. Four of the chips. In the event list data.1. Six are the spectroscopic array. each is identi ed by an integer from 0 to 9. the \pixel coordinate system of the readout le array.1 ACIS readout coordinates The ACIS readout coordinate system was explained in a 1995 draft memo from J Woo. which 28 . arranged in a line.3.y)".1.

or even useful? Do the telemetry values start at 1 or 0? Under what circumstances do we get YCHIP values of 1025 and 1026? Do those values correspond to true active area? 29 .0 (these are the ones that run from 1 to 1024). The two systems are related by Y READ Overclock 8 Underclock > > XREAD 4 > > Overclock > > > Unde ned Parallel Transfer > > Underclock > > 857 XREAD > > > Overclock > > Unde ned Parallel Transfer < XCHIP = > Underclock > > XREAD 172 > > Overclock > > Unde ned Parallel Transfer > > > Underclock > > 2049 XREAD > > > Overclock > : Unde ned Parallel Transfer Y CHIP = The inverse transformation is ( 1 Y READ 1026 1027 Y READ 1030 1 XREAD 4 5 XREAD 260 261 XREAD 337 338 XREAD 340 341 XREAD 344 345 XREAD 600 601 XREAD 677 678 XREAD 680 681 XREAD 684 685 XREAD 940 941 XREAD 1017 1018 XREAD 1020 1021 XREAD 1024 1025 XREAD 1280 1281 XREAD 1357 1358 XREAD 1360 (58) (Node A) (Node B (59) (Node C) (Node D) Y READ = 8CHIP Y > XCHIP + 4 > 857 XCHIP < XREAD = XCHIP + 172 > : 2049 XCHIP 1 XCHIP 256 257 XCHIP 512 513 XCHIP 768 769 XCHIP 1024 (A) (B) (C) (D) (60) Unresolved questions: Is the above correct.y)". Y CHIP ) with identi er AXAF-ACIS-1. We don't normally deal with the readout coordinates. (XCHIP. but in ight the Chip coordinates are calculated on board and telemetered directly. and the \pixel coordinate system of the active detector image array p(x.0.I will call the ACIS Readout Coordinates (XREAD. ACIS Readout Coordinates may be seen in subassembly cal (SAC) data. Y READ) with identi er AXAF-ACIS-3. which I will call ACIS Chip Coordinates.

0 coordinates for the incident radiation. However. CY0). There is no way to uniquely know from the telemetry what the true ACIS chip coordinates of the photon were . this will involve the forward calculation including the STF coordinates of the FAM.0) we can assume that the photon is associated with a known incident source location. For non grating data.0) WX. say (CX0. to calculate best guess ACIS chip coordinates (AXAF-ACIS-1. each of which speci es a TDET system in terms of the CHIP coordinates. Then and CHIPX = WX CHIPY = WY + CY 1 (61) (62) The ASC-TDET-1. WY which run from 1 to 1024 and 1 to WSIZE. calculate the predicted AXAF-ACIS-1.1.2 2-D detector coordinates: TDET parameters . At XRCF. 30 4. Then set CY1 = (CY0 / WSIZE ) * WSIZE using integer arithmetic.A B C D YREAD XREAD YCHIP LL XCHIP Figure 13: ACIS readout nodes 4. we get an initial set of Window Chip Coordinates (AXAF-ACIS-4. WSIZE is a con gurable number.you get an uncertainty module WSIZE. resolving the uncertainties.2 ACIS Fast Window mode In window mode.0 tiled detector coordinates are implemented for AXAF with the following speci c systems.

0 1833.0 5131.0 15305.0 Hi 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 In the following tables we list the CPC and LSI coordinates of each corner of each chip.3A AXAF-ACIS-2.0 1702.0 1702.2 AXAF-ACIS-2.3A 32768x32768 (16384. We give coordinates for each of the ACIS chips in both the ACIS-I and ACIS-S LSI systems.0 1702.0 8510.0 12150.0 6010.0 3061.2 AXAF-ACIS-2.2 AXAF-ACIS-2.0 26850.0 25655.5.5) Table 6: Parameters of Tiled Detector Coordinate de nitions Tiled System AXAF-ACIS-2.3A AXAF-ACIS-2.3A AXAF-ACIS-2. 4096.0 3061.3A AXAF-ACIS-2.0 6001.0 22500.0 Y 0i 5131.0 20535.2 AXAF-ACIS-2.0 800.0 8510. The systems are simply 31 4.0 1702.0 4959.0 1702.2 AXAF-ACIS-2.2 8192 x 8192 (4096.0 5131.3A AXAF-ACIS-2.0 4085.0 8510.0 21640.3A AXAF-ACIS-2.Table 5: Tiled Detector Plane systems System Size X Center.2 AXAF-ACIS-2.0 8510.5.0 11220.2 AXAF-ACIS-2.3A Chip ACIS-I0 ACIS-I1 ACIS-I2 ACIS-I3 ACIS-S0 ACIS-S1 ACIS-S2 ACIS-S3 ACIS-S4 ACIS-S5 ACIS-I0 ACIS-I1 ACIS-I2 ACIS-I3 ACIS-S0 ACIS-S1 ACIS-S2 ACIS-S3 ACIS-S4 ACIS-S5 90 270 90 270 0 0 0 0 0 0 90 270 90 270 0 0 0 0 0 0 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 i X 0i 3061.0 22500.0 3917.3A AXAF-ACIS-2.0 8510. Y Center Use Standard Obsolete AXAF-ACIS-2.0 4107.2 AXAF-ACIS-2.0 16430.5) AXAF-ACIS-2.3 3-D chip locations: CPC to LSI transformation parameters .2 AXAF-ACIS-2.0 20425. since we may take data from ACIS-S chips while ACIS-I is in the focus or vice versa.0 791.3A AXAF-ACIS-2.0 2875. 16384.0 8510.3A AXAF-ACIS-2.0 12150.2 AXAF-ACIS-2.0 1702.

The ACIS data is from ACIS-SOP-01. Juda. 32 .o set by 46. and the HRC data is deduced from information provided by M.88mm in the ZLSI direction.

011.035.543) (1. 23. 0. -81.58.543) (1. 0.0) (24. -1. -34. 0.042.58. -59. 0.170) (0. -34. -31.58.096. -6.58.0) (0.997) (2.58.939.0. -1. -26. 23.0. 0. 24. -59.361.58. -1.58.051.58. 0. 0. -1. -34. 0. 0. 0.58.0) (0.458) (1. -81.130.58.011. 0.0) UL (0.0) (24.0.170) (24. 0. 0.0) (0.543) (-0.459.590) (0.130.0) (0.0) (24.0) (-0.0) (24. 24. -31.0.58. -34.0) (24.0. -2.466.047.0.086. 24.360.0) (24. 0. 18. -56. 23. -1. 0.0.0) (0.590) 33 . -6. 0.0) (24.0) (0.458) (1. -31.58.0.58.0) (0.130.58. 0.58.0) (24.58.0.0) I1 LL LR UR UL LL LR UR UL LL LR UR UL LL LR UR UL LL LR UR UL LL LR UR UL LL LR UR (0.58. 0.051.361.0) ACIS-I LSI coords (2. -56.131. 24.478.042.590) (0. -6. -59.473.0. -1.024.58.0) (24.348.0. 0.361. 0.543) (0.170) (0.100.473. -59. -1. -59. 23.590) (0.744.047. -59.0.170) (24. 0.458) (-0.353. 0. -1. 0.170) (0.58.58.0.0) UR (24. -31.590) (0. 18. -1. 0.0.58.58. 23. 0. 0.0) (0.0. 0.099.353.0) (0.086. -56.521. -2.997) (2. -34.099.484.458) (2.58.0) (24. 23.0. -56.0.100.130.58. 23. -1. 0. 0. -34.58.546.997) (-0.096.0.58. -59. 24. 0.024. -1.590) (0.0) (0. -26. -26.170) (0.58.0. 0.001. 0.58.170) (-0.939. 0.011.0.58.088) (-0.459. 24. -1.590) I2 I3 S0 S1 S2 S3 (0. 24.521.0.024. 24. 0.0.024.58. -26.0) (0.0. 0.100.466.0.130.0.170) (-0. 23.744.088) (1. -1. 0.130. 0. 0. 0.484. -34.0. -1.0.130.100. 0. -26.997) (1. -59. 0. 0.0. -26.0) (24. -26.541.0.Table 7: ACIS Chip corner locations in ACIS-I LSI coordinates Chip Corner CPC coords I0 LL (0.0) (0.541. 0. 24. 0.546. 24.0.478. -26. 24. 0.088) (1.088) (1. 0.0) LR (24. 0.0) (0.0) (24. 24. 24. 24.001.348. 24.0.58.

We de ne an HRC-I chip plane which is 16384 pixels square.0) (24. 0. -34.590) (0.1. Name HRC-I HRC-S1 HRC-S2 HRC-S3 ID 0 1 2 3 CHIP size (pix) 16384 x 16384 4096 x 16456 4096 x 16456 4096 x 16456 Pixel size ( ) 6.UL S4 LL LR UR UL LL LR UR UL (0.S LSI coords ( 0. 0. (not all of these pixels correspond to actual readable values).000 .339 .208.1 Overview 5 HRC 5. -6.600 x 105.0) (24.0. -34. 0. 24. Note that S2 is no longer centered around the detector center.026.58. -34.0) (24.0.58.250 x 6.000 .0.972.552.0.170) (0.000 ) LR ( 105.1 3-D chip locations: CPC to LSI parameters The corners of these logical chip planes are located in the LSI coordinate system as follows.0.58. -59. 0.552. 24.972.000 .429 6.528.208. 74. 0. Table 9: HRC chip (i.802 25. 0.000 .170) (0. 43.S3. 24.58. 68. 68. 43.250 x 6.0) (-0.429 x 6.58. these are calculated by placing the HRC-S origin (default aimpoint) at 4. 0. 24. 24.58.600 x 105. 0. 0. 43.58.590) (0. 0.2.547.170) (0. 0. 0.035.170) (0.482 .000 ) 34 .590) (0.482 ) ( 0. -1).000 . 0.e. 43. 18. HRC team segment designation +1.026.590) (0. 0. since its edges are determined by the measured gap locations. 0. -34.Y plane.011. name HRC-S1.0mm to +LSI Y of the overall detector center and using the chip sizes calculated above together with the designed S1 and S3 chip tilts in the X. 0.429 6.528. The HRC-I has a single `chip' or segment/microchannel plate pair (CHIP ID = 0.978. the HRC-S chips are 4096 x 16456 pixels The pixel size is 0.600 x 105.978.250 x 6.0) (24. -59. 0.0064294 mm. the HRC-S and the HRC-I.0.3.0) (0.0.333 x 105.0) (0. -34. grid) corner locations in LSI coordinates Chip HRC-I HRC-I Corner CPC coords LL ( 0.0.0. 18.333 25.208. 74.0) (0.429 6. 0.802 5. -59. 0. 0. -59.58.0) (0.58.429 CHIP size (mm) 105.S2.590) S5 The HRC instrument has two detectors.000 ) HRC-I.547.208.802 25.000 . name HRC-I) while the HRC-S has three (CHIP ID = 1.

000 ) ( 0.000 .400 . 0.000 ) ( 0.0 tiled detector coordinates are implemented for AXAF with the following speci c systems. -13.2 2-D detector coordinates: TDET parameters Table 11: Parameters of Tiled Detector Coordinate de nitions Tiled System Chip i i X 0i Y 0i Hi 35 . 13.000 ) ( 0.180 .2I AXAF-HRC-2.000 . 0.000 .167 ) ( 0. 56.334 .5) AXAF-HRC-2.180 . 0.000 .000 ) ( 0.253 .000 .802 .000 . 13. 12488. 0.400 .802 .334 .HRC-I HRC-I HRC-S1 HRC-S1 HRC-S1 HRC-S1 HRC-S2 HRC-S2 HRC-S2 HRC-S2 HRC-S3 HRC-S3 HRC-S3 HRC-S3 UR UL LL LR UR UL LL LR UR UL LL LR UR UL ( 105.5.167 ) ( 0.000 . 0.5S replaces Obsolete Alternative Old Standard HRC-S AXAF-HRC-2. 13.000 .000 ) ( 0.949 .2S AXAF-HRC-2. -49.000 ) ( 26.5) (24576.167 ) ( 0. 0. 13.5) (8192.000 . 13.5.167 ) ( 0. -49.622 .622 .3S AXAF-HRC-2. 0. 161. 56. -49. 105.167 ) ( 0. 8192.5. 0. -13.167 ) ( 2. Y Center Use Standard HRC-I Revised HRC-S Alternative Incorrect. 2. 105.167 ) ( 0.000 ) ( 0.000 ) ( 0.5.4S 32768 x 32768 49152 x 4096 16384 x 24976 49152 x 4096 16384 x 16384 (16384.334 .339 .5.000 ) ( 26. 0.3I 16384 x 16384 (8192. 0.5) (24576.5) AXAF-HRC-2.5) 5. -13.167 ) ( 2.000 ) ( 2.167 ) ( 0. 0.802 . 0.180 .000 . 0.000 .000 . 105. 0.000 .000 .644 .167 ) ( 2.000 ) ( 0.5) (8192.5. 2048. -74.167 ) ( 0.334 . -13. -155.000 . 56.339 . 0.339 .167 ) The ASC-TDET-1. 105.622 .5.334 . -49.000 ) ( 26.622 . 16384. 0.482 . 161.334 . 2048.802 . 0.6S 49368 x 4096 (24684. 13.644 .000 .1. 0. 105. 2048.000 .000 . 105.000 .000 ) ( 26.000 ) ( 26.253 . 0. -155. Table 10: Tiled Detector Plane systems System Size X Center. 0. 8192.949 .802 . 105.180 .5S AXAF-HRC-2.802 .000 .000 . 0.000 .482 ) ( 0.000 ) ( 26. -13. each of which speci es a TDET system in terms of the CHIP coordinates. 56.000 . 105. -74. -13.000 . 0.

These numbers.0 0.0 16384.3S HRC-S2 270 1 AXAF-HRC-2.2375 -1 5.0 0.2 Instrumental details 5.5S HRC-S2 270 1 AXAF-HRC-2.0 16384.0 32912.2.6S HRC-S3 270 1 AXAF-HRC-2.2 Deriving linear tap coordinates from HRC telemetry The instrument electronics records four numbers per axis for each event: the `center tap' (usually the tap with the maximum voltage).2I HRC-I 315 1 AXAF-HRC-2.0) which runs from u = 0:5 to u = Nu 0:5. which are the values which get coded into ight telemetry.5 to +0. Then we can de ne an HRC Tap Coordinate System (AXAF-HRC-6. The electrical axes are labelled u and v.0 14336.4S HRC-S2 270 1 AXAF-HRC-2.5.5S HRC-S3 270 1 AXAF-HRC-2.4S HRC-S3 270 1 AXAF-HRC-2. The coarse tap positions are modi ed by a ne position which runs from -0.AXAF-HRC-2. In the internal HRC-S electronics the three MCPs have individually numbered taps but these are combined before we see it in the telemetry.3S HRC-S1 270 1 AXAF-HRC-2.3S HRC-S3 270 1 49368.1 HRC physical layout and Tap Coordinates (HRC-6.0 16456.0 19456.6S HRC-S2 270 1 AXAF-HRC-2.0 9216. and the voltages of that tap and the one on either side.0 0.0) Each HRC sub-instrument contains a series of electrical 'taps' on each axis of the wire grid.0 1024.0 27969.4S HRC-S1 270 1 AXAF-HRC-2.0 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 AXAF-HRC-2.0 0.0 16384.0 0.0 6144.0 11264.6S HRC-S1 270 1 AXAF-HRC-2.0 16384.0 32512.0 16384. which de ne a continuous spatial system. 5.0 0.0 16640.5S HRC-S1 270 1 AXAF-HRC-2.3I HRC-I 90 1 0. we will refer to as HRC 36 .0 48896. numbered starting at 0.0 16384.0 16128. and v = 0:5 to Nv 0:5.0 0. and we will say there are Nu and Nv taps on each axis.2.

giving us HRC raw tap coordinates. and an HRC image plotted in raw coordinates contains `gaps'. The simplest choice of the degapping parameters is to take Cu1 = Cv1 = 1 Cu2 = Cv2 = 0. 0uto Nu 11(`coarse position') < uht = > ADC2 Voltage of ucoarse (63) Voltage of coarse > : ADC3 Voltage of ucoarse + 1 and similarly for vht): From the telemetry coordinates we can calculate an intermediate quantity. the ne position Note that ADC3 ADC1 u ne = ADC1 + ADC2 + ADC3 (64) (65) (66) (67) (68) 0:5 u ne +0:5 We now split o the sign of this ne position correction to obtain the tap side 0) su = +1 (u ne < 0) 1 (u ne and the ne position magnitude ( u = ju ne j From these we calculate the linear HRC Tap Coordinates u = u0 + suCu1(u0. sv ) v sv Cv2 (v0. s) u2 v = v0 + sv Cv1 (v0 . vht). Earlier detectors (Einstein and Rosat HRI) assumed C factors which were independent of coarse position. The four integer components of uht are 8u > 0 > ADC1 Max tap. for HRC they have di erent values for each tap and tap side.telemetry coordinates (uht. (69) uraw = (ucoarse + u ne) (70) vraw = (vcoarse + v ne ) These coordinates do not provide a continuous system over the detector. With some choice of the degapping parameters. sv ) u suCu2(u0. s) v2 The C factors are called the degapping parameters. we obtain 37 .

5 and 126. v and CHIPY TELV Coarse v.2. It returns us to a system in which the taps are numbered separately for each chip. For instance.5 -255 16640 64.5.3 HRC Chip Coordinates (HRC-1. Table 12: HRC-S1 TELV.1) The HRC Telemetry Pixel Number System scales the taps by a pixel size t = 256 to give (73) TELU = (u + 0:5) TELV = (v + 0:5) t t. so udg = (ucoarse + 1:049u ne 0:11u neju nej) vdg = (vcoarse + 1:049v ne 0:11u neju nej) The coe cients to be used for the HRC have not yet been determined.5 for HRC-I. v0 = -0. HRC degapped coordinates (udg .a continuous (but not linear) system giving an image with no gaps. -0.5 for HRC-S2.5 for HRC-S3. This de nition is corrected from the one in editions 4 and earlier of this memo. 1 pixel = 0. +0.5 for HRC-S1.1) CHIPX = (u u0) CHIPY = (v v0) t + 0:5 = TELU t + 0:5 = TELV t t (u0 + 0:5) + 0:5 (v0 + 0:5) + 0:5 (74) (75) (76) Note that u0 = 0:5 always.5 16384 In this system. This corresponds to HRC-S tap boundaries at 64. 38 . The size of one tap is 1. we add one to these engineering coordinates and then divide them up into individual chips to get HRC Chip Coordinates (AXAF-HRC-1.0064294 mm = 0.646mm. integer pixel numbers which start with pixel 0 (for a tap value of -0. vdg ).5). +0. 64. Now this coordinate system actually covers a larger area than the true possible coordinates. For compatibility with other data archives. (72) 5. Fine v CHIPY 0 0. Example values from Murray and Chappell (1989) of C used to give degapped coordinates are Cu1 = Cv1 = 1:049 (71) Cu2 = Cv2 = 0:110.13 arcsec. 126.

5 128. v = (-0.0 of this document de ned chip coordinate system AXAF-HRC-1.96 to 64.0 so that each chip has a length of 63.0 taps.5 126.5 CHIPY 0.5 256.0 0.0 to 15. 39 . Juda I have adjusted the chip sizes so that the true chip gaps fall on the logical chip boundaries.0 v 0.5 to 126.5 128.5) but even this does not correspond to a valid detected event position. and measure positions starting at the physical position corresponding to chip pixel position 0.5 to 16384.0 and 126.5).88 to 126.v taps 0 and 1 for HRC-S1 are missing.0 to 63.6460 exactly.5 to 16128.5 to 15872. v) = (7:5.5 126.5 128. +0.5 64.5 u 0.5 to 190. but on recommendation from M.0 1.5 to 3968.5 CHIPX 0.0 to 15.5 to 16384.5 to 3968.0 0. so the lowest possible v coordinate in the telemetry for HRC-S is 1. Nevertheless.5 (bearing in mind this may be outside of the wire grid). The center of HRC-S2 is then at (u.5 to 3968. Table 13: HRC electronically meaningful coordinate ranges Chip HRC-I HRC-S1 HRC-S2 HRC-S3 v0 -0.5 0.5 to 16128.0 to 63.0 which did not cover this full logical range and had a slightly di erent origin. 95:5) and the gaps between the MCPs are at v values of 62. We keep extra gures for self-consistency only assuming a tap scale of 1.04.0 to 15.1. CHIPY = 0.5 (lower left corner of rst pixel) which corresponds to HRC-S u.5 TELU TELV Now let's look at the boundaries on HRC-S and HRC-I more closely. In earlier work I arbitrarily set the chip boundaries at 63.5 0.5 (corresponding to tap 2 with ne position -0.5 to 64.5.0 0. we will de ne our logical coordinate system to cover the range of v coordinates starting at CHIPX.5 0.12 and 124. Version 3.5 64. the current system is denoted AXAF-HRC-1.

TELV from 1190 to 16250 with CsI limit at 1613.344 mm Total physical length is 3 x 100. 17012. 32244. 2670 (S3) with the 'T' strip at TELV from 22780 to 27670. 2670 (S2). Juda) Post XRCF revision 1: (M Juda Oct 97) S1 TELU range from 600 to 3496.000 mm from 'TOP MCP COORDINATES' drawing Total logical length is 3 x 105. The coating strip is at TELU = 2660 (S1).646 mm x 64 taps MCP physical size 100. S2 Center is center of both total logical and total physical length. Coating extends 94. TELV from 16990 to 32261 S3 TELU from 600 to 3504.000 mm x 27.905 mm. S2 TELU from 600 to 3488.I used the following information on the HRC-S: Tap size is 1. 32932. Juda) 16384 pixels = 105. More accurate post XRCF data: MCP edges at TELV = 16428.5mm on outer MCPs and 16mm wide (M.646 mm (M. TELV from 32925 to 48110 with CsI limit at 47650.000 mm + 2 x gap size = 1. This information leads to the following MCP layout : Area covered by pixel numbering Physical size of MCP Active area of MCP Coated area of MCP 4096 16384 pixels 16384 pixels 16384 pixels Figure 14: Relationship of HRC-S pixels to the physical instrument.344 mm: logical chip size = tap size 1. Table 14: HRC-S boundaries (Revised Jan 99) 40 pixels .

802 108.604 211.802 105.180 100.000 0.5 8738.776 104.5 524.000 105.500 0.17 6.000 3.08 128. mm -0.2 0. pix -286.802 0.5 0.767 10.700 -0.5 8116.5 560.604 211.5 -1.545 105.802 105.93 125.604 211.369 7.73 63.5 16456.80 63.80 65.322 211.5 15705. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 CHIPX.5 16456.776 207.000 0.58 63.5 600.802 105.0 32916.5 0.46 189.802 105.0 YCPC .0 32916.983 161.829 3.5 0.5 14675.5 440.14 125.000 0.14 95.500 0.50 192.5 15790.50 97.17 185.077 3.5 1676.73 63.748 41 .064 94.604 211.767 10.500 1.13 128.000 0.50 1.5 15187.5 16456.802 0.46 187.5 1208.5 0.351 97.858 52.369 7.000 2. mm Seg No.520 105.406 XCPC .5 0.4 32930.000 0.13 128.Boundary S1 Logical Left Edge S1 TELV = 0 S1 Electronic L Edge S1 MCP Left Edge S1 Active Left Edge S1 Active Right Edge S1 MCP Right Edge S1 Logical Right Edge Gap left edge Gap right edge S2 Logical Left Edge S2 MCP Left Edge S2 Active Left Edge S2 Center S2 Aimpoint S2 Active Right Edge S2 MCP Right Edge S2 Logical Right Edge S3 Logical Left Edge Gap left edge Gap right edge S3 MCP Left Edge S3 Active Left Edge S3 Active Right Edge S3 MCP Right Edge S3 Electronic R Edge S3 Logical Right Edge Boundary MCP Edge TELU = 0 Logical Edge Active edge Coating Edge TELV -12 0 512 1196 1664 16404 16444 16444 16444 16459.0 32930 32940 47605 48117 48640 49386 TELU 0 560 Tap v Pos.776 105.08 128.50 4.974 101.00 63.5 600.41 Tap u 0.5 10.802 0.73 63.5 15710.5 16456.982 206.5 16456.51 66.000 0.000 -0. mm CHIPY.660 157.077 3.5 0.643 101.668 305.802 105.48 128.181 56.604 317.247 312.955 309. pix 0.5 16416.620 -0.545 105.802 105.843 3.802 105.604 211.5 12.5 16456.9 16460 16900 17060 24576 25198 32165 32250 32916.08 128.631 109.

688 21.0 to 105.672 6.000 2.172 22.0 to 26.500 15.500 58.Center Strip Edge Coating Edge Active edge Logical Edge MCP Edge 2048 3536 7.5 25.5 15191.4 1193.6 15968.500 1.161 31.172 102.3 15424.672 105.5 The CPC coordinates run from 0.344 0.0 3500.250 4. Table 15: HRC-I boundaries Boundary Logical Edge MCP Edge Active Area Coating Edge Center Coating Edge Active Area MCP Edge Logical Edge Tap u or v XCPC or YCPC .875 3536.800 16.672 97.877 63.5 416.1 960.930 13.10 15.500 9. The active area of each microchannel plane is smaller.5 2670.839 59.300 2048. and the area coated with photocathode 42 .0 4096.672 52.7 8192.9 16384.500 0.672 99.750 61.5 4208. mm CHIPX or CHIPY.5 V U Z STT Y STT Figure 15: HRC-I pixel axes.123 3.600 26.33 (XCPC for HRC-S) and from 0. pix -0.937 12.172 7.3 (YCPC for HRC-S and both axes for HRC-I).

each chip is 100 x 27 mm. we derive the locations of the various areas in CPC (mm) and Chip (pixel) coordinates listed above. For HRC-I. the chip is 100 x 100 mm. For HRC-S.0 mm.is smaller still.5 x 16. except for HRC-S2 where the coated area is 100 x 16 mm. 43 . with a 93 x 93 mm active area and a 90 x 90 mm coated area. and the coated area is 94. Using these numbers. the active area is 100 x 20 mm.

i.0) Rot( 0.871. 90. 90.129 ) Rot( 0.249.0. -250. -126. 87.1) 44 6. Table 16: Euler angles in degrees for CPC to LSI coordinates Chip I0 I1 I2 I3 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 HRC-I HRC-S1 HRC-S2 HRC-S3 CPC to LSI Rot(180.0.0. 90.875. 90. 182.0.0. 177.869.0. 0. 182. 90. 180.222.0.424) Rot( 90. 0.0. 90. 180.0. 90.0.Z plane relative to chip I0. 90. 90.751) Rot( 90. 0. 90. the rst angle indicates the tilt with respect to the LSI plane (with HRC-I having = 180 to indicate being completely ipped over. o sets S ACIS origin (0.872. 0.581.125.424. The LSI to CPC transformation is more intuitive.0. 92.0. 90. 90. 180.128.0.0) Rot( 2.4) HRC-I origin (0.0) Rot(0.0 ) Rot( 0.0) Rot( 1. 180.0 ) Rot( 180.0) Rot(-2. 178. 90. 179.6 The SIM 6. 90.2 Relative positions of instruments .0.869. 237.746) Rot(-135. 92.746.1 Chip orientation summary tables The following table gives the Euler rotation angles for the chips.0.869 ) Rot(180.0.0.0 ) Rot(-0.0. 0. another way of expressing the di erent handedness of its axes). 179.0. -45. 180.082) Rot( 90.0) Rot(0.082.0.0. 180. 90.0 ) Rot(-0.131 ) Rot( 0.0.128.0. and the third angle indicates the rotation of the chip in the LSI Y.778) LSI to CPC Rot( 2.0) Rot( 0.875.088) Rot( 90.0.0. 90. 90.125.0.0. 92.0. 92. 90.426) Rot(0. 90.0) The location of the origins of the LSI system for each instrument are given in STT coordinates in the table below. 90.6) HRC-S origin (0.0. 87. 87.872. 90. 90. Table 17: Location of instrument origin on Translation Table Values of PSTT (S ).10.0. 90.0 ) Rot(-0.0.0) Rot(-1.871.0. 87.419) Rot( 90. 90.0. 181. 90.912.0.15.0 ) Rot( 0.0. 180. 179. 180.0 ) Rot( -2.0.426.871) Rot( 90.e. 90. 180. 0. 177.

together with their usual purpose (although one may still use e. -190. Most observations will use one of these default aimpoints.1 HRMA nodal coordinates 7 The HRMA ( ight) In ight. 0. the SIM can be moved so that the nominal focal point and the telescope focus do not coincide (general ight con guration). the orientation of the SIM with respect to the HRMA is xed. one of the SIs has its nominal focal point at the telescope focus. The coordinate systems are de ned in terms of their physical pixel size at the nominal ight focal length f = 10061.0. 7. 126. We de ne systems for the nicely rounded pixel sizes and for the accurate actual pixel sizes.0. 1 1 0 1 0 0 XN f XSTF B YSTF C + B 0 C = B YN C A A @ A @ @ ZN 0 ZSTF (77) 7.g. the size of an HRC-I 45 . 0.10. which is 10061. 0.0 mm. The corresponding angular sizes are also given. 0.5) HI1 HRC-I o set (-0. 0. We've decided to use the mean actual pixel sizes for the ight system.4) AI2 ACIS-I o set (0.6) HS1 HRC-S o set (-0. but the actual angular size will be di erent for XRCF/HRMA and XRCF/TMA data.0.9) AS1 ACIS-S o set (0.3 Aimpoints Several named default aimpoints are de ned for the various AXAF instruments.0 with XRCF ACIS data.1) The conversion from STF (instrument compartment) to MNC (HRMA nodal) coordinates requires knowledge of the focal length. -237.15. Table 18: SIM position o sets for nominal focus positions Values of PSTF ( ) AI1 ACIS-I o set (0. -233. FP-2.0.0 mm.). However. Thus.6. but in general the SIM can be moved in X and Z to any aimpoint.2 Focal and Tangent plane systems We de ne the following focal plane pixel systems. 250.0.0. etc. The table below gives the STF coordinates of the instrument table origin for each of these aimpoints. In the ight nominal con guration.0.0.

5 XRCF HRC.125 -1 -1 16384.2 0.5 XRCF ACIS AXAF-FP-3. slightly more than can t in a 4-byte signed integer.2 0. actual pixel Flight HRC-I.5 HSI alternate (The total image size should be 2*(FPX0-0. test for long int con AXAF-FP-2.1 0. We choose a 65536 pixel sided plane.0240 0.5 XRCF ACIS.125 +1 +1 16384.1 pixel size (even if the detector is moved well o focus).5 Flight HRC-I. software should also support generic ASC-FP/TP coordinates with arbitrary pixel size 46 .0061 0. actual pixel size AXAF-FP-4.132 +1 -1 23000.006429 0.00240 0.1 0.129 -1 -1 32768.1 0.490 +1 +1 2048.132 AXAF-FP-2.5 4196.132 +1 -1 4096. We therefore recommend not making full resolution full frame image les in this coordinate system. FPY0 sp s0 (mm) (arcsec) AXAF-FP-1.492 AXAF-FP-2. so 0.5 XRCF HRC. actual pixel size AXAF-FP-4.pixel at the nominal focal distance of 10061.0244 0. actual pixel AXAF-FP-2.3 gigapixels.5 Flight ACIS. actual pixel Flight HRC-S Purpose Here are the historically used pixel systems: System tx ty FPX0.490 +1 -1 4096.132 +1 -1 16384.3 0.132 arcseconds is de ned as the FP-2.0064294 0.0244 0.5 Flight HRC AXAF-FP-2.3.483 -1 -1 4096.006429 0.5 Flight ACIS AXAF-FP-1.5 XRCF ACIS. actual pixel AXAF-FP-2.5 +1 -1 32768.5 Flight ACIS.0244 0. new AXAF-FP-5.0240 0.5)).0 mm is 0.483 +1 +1 2048.132 +1 +1 4096.2 0.2 0.0240 0.5 HSI AXAF-FP-6. de ned as FP-2.1 0.5 Flight HRC-S.0061 0. However.3 0.0 0.1 0.00643 0.132 +1 -1 25000.5 +1 -1 16384.0 0.2 0. we must de ne a square pixel plane (to allow for the roll angle).006429 0. obsolete AXAF-FP-4.132 arcseconds. Here are the current ight pixel systems: System tx ty FPX0.006429 0.3 0.0061 0.5 ACIS-2C AXAF-FP-5.0024 0.125 +1 -1 16384.5 XRCF HRC AXAF-FP-4. This plane has a total of 4.1 0.5 XRCF HRC.129 -1 -1 16384. The HRC-S detector has a maximum linear extent of over 48500 pixels. When making sky coordinates for such a detector.0 0.5 -1 -1 4096.00643 0.5 ACIS-2C AXAF-FP-6.5 Flight HRC-S AXAF-FP-3.1 0.0064294 0.5 +1 +1 4096.0064294 0. obsolete AXAF-FP-3. FPY0 Purpose sp s0 (mm) (arcsec) AXAF-FP-1.129 +1 +1 4096.1 0.0 0.5 +1 -1 4096.

The AXAF-FP-5. However. The HSC-1. We don't want to make a 32768 square image when only a 4096 square part is used. ZN ) This coordinate system is also used for input to the XRCF Test Database. 0. but in an image we should make only the minimal subset and store the location within the larger image as a WCS. 0) and HSC coordinates (f. H .3 Angular systems 7. The focal point F of the HRMA has HRMA nodal coordinates ( f. We de ne HRMA Spherical Coordinates (r.Y axes are aligned. The north pole of this system is the center of the forward aperture of the HRMA A0.and sign choices. 0).1 HRMA Left Handed Spherical Coordinates (AXAF-HSC-1. Consider a source in the sky when roll angle is zero: The FPX. ZN plane such that for an observer at XRCF standing by the SI and looking at the XSS.1) This system is used to express o -axis angles.1 systems are therefore of interest. FPY and X. The AXAF-FP-2. The XRCF test database immediately converts these to pitch and yaw. A0. . 0). 0. 47 . a single XRCF ACIS-2C image covers only a small part of the eld.0 or -2.1. 7. H ) in terms of HRMA nodal Cartesian coordinates as follows: 1 1 0 0 +rcos H XN B YN C = B r sin H cos H C (78) A A @ @ r sin H sin H ZN The inverse is q 2 2 2 r = XN + YN + ZN (79) 1 (X =r) H = cos N H = arg( YN .1 systems can be used for this purpose. As long as we stay in event list format. it is a LEFT HANDED coordinate system. has HRMA nodal coordinates (a. there is no storage problem. 0) and HSC coordinates (a.1 system actually makes most sense when looking in the sky plane. Then the forward aperture of the HRMA. H measures the o -axis angle of the incoming ray and H measures its azimuth in the YN .2. H = 0 is to the left and H = =2 is vertically downwards.3. 0. 7.1 Mosaicing XRCF images We want to make mosaiced images which show the point spread function at di erent o axis angles over the whole eld of view.6.

the HSC azimuth is just the conventional plane polar coordinate angle in the +FPX. ZN ) = H A third choice of pole is the +YN axis. whose latitude-like coordinates z is called yaw.3. -SCZ and lands at +LSI Y.RA.2 HRMA Right Handed Spherical Coordinates (AXAF-HSC-1. The inverse is 1 0 0 XN B YN C = B rcos HRHR cos A @ r sin @ r sin HR sin ZN HR HR 1 C A (80) (81) q 2 2 2 r = XN + YN + ZN 1 HR = cos (XN =r) = H HR = arg( YN . the photon leaves from +SCY.) 7. +Y axes are parallel to -SCY. +Y. +SCZ. and whose azimuthal coordinate y is called pitch. A photon from larger Dec and smaller RA than the eld center comes from the +X.0) = sin 1 (YN =r) = arg(XN .3. +FPY tangent plane coordinate system. +SCZ. +Y direction. It enters the telescope from -SCY. and therefore has HSC coordinate azimuth between +0 and +90 deg. Dec are parallel to -X. I de ned HSC-1. Thus. This system has not been used and is now deprecated. ZN ) 48 (83) . -LSI Z. but this is not normally of interest. The mapping between pitch and yaw coordinates and HRMA coordinates is 1 1 0 0 +r cos z cos y XN C B YN C = B +r sin z (82) A A @ @ r cos z sin y ZN or z y 7.2 to be the same as HSC-1.2) To satisfy my desire for using left handed systems as little as possible.3 HRMA rotation coordinates (Pitch and Yaw) (AXAF-HSC-3. (The HSC coordinates of the outgoing photon have azimuth between 180 and 270. After passing through the (ideal) mirror origin. (since RA increases toward the left looking at the sky). The +X.1 except that the azimuth increases in the opposite direction: HR = 0 is to the left and HR = =2 is vertically upwards. and o axis angle between 90 and 270.

2 right-handed spherical coords is R(HSC-1. Drawing 301331.0 had az going the other way.69mm. YN ) The rotation matrices from the other HRMA angular systems are R(HSC-1. 8633. and 8636. (HSC-2. where R is the diameter of the Rowland Circle. 7. creating a left-hand system).2. positive el gives a source above the HRMA axis (top of the eld of view). This is an error caused by confusing H0 and H1 when measuring the location of the OTG origin. Dec system that gives the `sky' position of the source as seen by the HRMA.00 mm 3]. The relationship between Source coordinates and HRMA nodal coordinates is: 1 1 0 0 +r cos el cos az XN B YN C = B r cos el sin az C (85) A A @ @ r sin el ZN Coordinates az =0. 8633.HSC-3.1) = Rot( =2. el) is a pseudo RA. =2. =2.The rotation matrix from HSC-1. The nominal Rowland Circle diameter is quoted as 8650. Sheet 3.2. p.69 mm 1].0 mm 1]. To put the XSS at these coordinates. they have a pole at ZN rather than XN . while positive az gives a source to the left of the center of the eld of view. We call the pitch and yaw coordinates of the XSS y (XSS ) = y0 and z (XSS ) = z0 . Unlike HRMA spherical coordinates. el = 0 refer to a source on the HRMA axis (center of the eld of view).0) = Rot( .1) The HRMA Source Coordinate system (r. 11.HSC-2.) The MNC coordinates of the Grating Node G0 in ight are 49 . az. (However View F on the same drawing shows the Rowland circle intercepting the X axis at XA = 372:116 corresponding to R = 8643.e. ): (84) The motivation for this coordinate system is its relationship to the commanded pitch and yaw of the HRMA at XRCF. the HRMA must be yawed z0 to the left and its aperture pitched y0 downward.11 mm.HSC-2. i. Appendix A.4 HRMA Source coordinates (AXAF-HSC-2. The inverse function is el = sin 1( ZN =r) az = arg(XN . =2. 3 =2): (87) (86) 8 HETG and LETG The Grating Node is on the optical axis at a distance R from the focus.3.1) = Rot( =2. R(HSC-3. I will adopt the value from the drawing. ).0.

1 system we have chosen the GDP pixel size for ACIS and HRC to be the same 6 micron value.0 system was described with 24 micron ACIS GDP pixel sizes. However. For ACIS.The exact value is di erent at XRCF. We use the same physical pixel size as for the detector systems. However. GDY0 Image size ACIS. our worst case is a zero order at an extreme end of the 3-chip array. with the zero order position at (32768. we might have photons up to 16384 pixels from the zero order in principle. 2048. you could be as many as 49152 pixels down the dispersion coordinate. Table 21: GDC pixel image centers Instrument System GDX0.18432) be used. in the case of ACIS.HRC GDP-1. the GDP-1.14336) to (49152. with HRC-I as the detector. gp (mm) g s (arcsec) ACIS GDP 0. in the GDP-1.) What is the extent of the GDP coordinate system? In the case of HRC-S.5 32768 x 4096 Table 22: GDP Pixel Sizes (assuming ight Rowland radius) Instrument System Size at Focal Plane Angular Size p. For both ACIS and HRC. 16384. This is such a pathological case that we have decided not to build our de nitions around it. In the cross dispersion direction. which correspond to somewhat di erent angular sizes than the imaging case because we are measuring angles from G rather than H0. As a compromise to support most o axis cases. we recommend that in normal use the 32768 x 4096 subarray extending from (16384. (In an earlier version of this memo.1 system is sized to be 65536 pixels in the dispersion direction and 32678 pixels in the cross dispersion direction. That system was never implemented. the GDP-1.2. In that case.5. giving 32768 pixels on either side of zero order. with dispersion coordinates up to plus or minus 25000 pixels or so.006430 0.1 32768.5. A normal case would be a zero order in the center. So.1.HRC GDP-1.5. the extreme range is 32678 super-resolved pixels in the dispersion direction and 24800 pixels in the cross dispersion direction. This subarray is de ned as AXAF-GDP-1. we hope to get extra resolution by using the sub-pixel dither of the detector relative to the sky coordinate zero order position.154 50 1 1 0 0 1431:81 XN (G0) C B YN (G0) C = B 0 A A @ @ 0 ZN (G0) (88) .5 65536 x 32768 ACIS. 16384.2 16384. it has the same pixel size as GDP-1. and 8192 even if the source is centered in the detector.5). we adopt pixels running from 1 to 65536 in the dispersion direction.

The X-ray Source System (XSS) is xed in the XRCF frame and lies on the positive XXRCF axis (see below). Table 23: Grating properties Instrument HETG METG LETG P G (deg) 2000.0A 5. the HRMA sits aligned with the Facility Optical Axis in its 'rest' position. or equivalently the polar angle and polar azimuth. The two chips are similar to the ight ACIS chips. Y Center Use XRCF ACIS-2C AXAF-ACIS-2.0A +0.4 4096 x 2048 ( 2048.006430 0. We therefore need to distinguish between facility (XRCF) coordinates and mirror (MNC) coordinates. The origin of XRCF coordinates is at the HRMA CAP (H1).ACIS-2C System Size X Center. we have the HRMA mounted on two axes . 1024. Table 24: Tiled Detector Plane systems . the HRMA axis and the SI are aligned with the FOA (Facility Optical Axis) and the SI nominal focus S is located at the actual focus F. 9.5. In the XRCF. In the default con guration C0.0 9921. The instrument (SI) is mounted on either the FAM (Five Axis Mount) or the HXDS (HRMA X-ray Detection System).154 The average grating periods for the three gratings are given in the table below. but it can be tilted in two axes.0 4000.it can change its yaw (azimuth) and pitch (elevation).1 XRCF coordinates 10 ACIS-2C The ACIS-2C instrument is used for ground calibration at XRCF.HRC GDP 0.5 ) 51 . and will frequently be used in Fast Window mode.0 9 XRCF For much of XRCF.0A -5.

4 ACIS-C0 0 1 304.0 512.Table 25: Parameters of Tiled Detector Coordinate de nitions Tiled System Chip Y 0i Hi i i X 0i AXAF-ACIS-2.4 ACIS-C1 0 1 1536. 52 .0 1 AXAF-ACIS-2.0 512.0 1 The ACIS-2C chip centers are separated by approximately 63.0 mm.

0.342.342. pix -0.45) (-0.58. Table 27: HSI boundaries Boundary Logical Edge MCP Edge Active Area Coating Edge Center Coating Edge Active Area MCP Edge Logical Edge Tap u or v XCPC or YCPC .58. -39. 0. 10. 0. 24.3 HSI 0 1 .0) UL (0.57.58.5 648. -14.500 0.0) (24.57.45) (-0. -39. -15.48) (0.Table 26: ACIS-2C chip corner locations in ACIS-2C LSI coordinates Chip Corner CPC coords C0 LL (0.0) ACIS-2C LSI coords (0. 11. 0.0) (24.58.0) LR (24.58. 0.0.000. HSI has 16 taps on its side and an area of 18 mm.168 13.58.0.76. mm CHIPX or CHIPY.0.000.7 2048.0. 10.500 2.5 Table 28: Parameters of Tiled Detector Coordinate de nitions Tiled System Chip 53 i i X 0i Y 0i Hi 0.500 ? ? 13. 0. 0.3 4096. 0.58.336 0.0) UR (24.0) C1 LL LR UR UL (0. -14. 0.342. -13. 22.0 1 AXAF-HSI-2.342.10) (0. 24.5 3448.970 15. 11. 0. 24. -13.18.0.0 0.0. 22.13) (-0.000. -15.18.99. 0. 47.0.99.168 22.000 4.0) (0.10) (0.032 ? ? 7.168 26. HSI is like a small HRC.48) (-0. 0.76. 24.000.0. 47.58.13) 11 HSI Just as ACIS-2C is like a small ACIS.

Table 29: HSI chip corner locations in HSI LSI coordinates Chip Corner CPC coords HSI LL (0.0, 0.0, 0.0) LR (26.34, 0.0, 0.0) UR (26.34, 26.34, 0.0) UL (0.0, 26.34, 0.0) HSI LSI coords (0.000, -13.17, -13.17) (0.000, 13.17, -13.17) (0.000, 13.17, 13.17) (0.000, -13.17, 13.17)

**11.1 Instrument origins
**

Table 30: Location of instrument origin on Translation Table, XRCF Values of PSTT (S ), i.e. o sets S ACIS origin (0.0, -5.35, 67.20) HRC-I origin (0.0, 0.0, 517.988) HRC-S origin (0.0, 0.0, 637.480) HSI origin (0.0, 0.0, 0.0) ACIS-2C origin (0.0, 0.0, 65.002) (Phase F) ACIS-2C origin (0.0, -4.33 133.310) (Phase G) In addition, the raw FAM values must be adjusted by (87.92, 12.94, 7.55) to get FAM coordinates relative to the DFC origin. In the nominal con guration CN, the HRMA is tilted but the SI is moved so that its normal XLSI axis remains coincident with the HRMA optical axis XXRCF . In the most general con guration the HRMA and SI are both moved relative to the XRCF but the XLSI axis is not made to coincide with the XXRCF axis. WARNING: The terms `on-axis' and `o -axis angle' are correctly used to refer to an angle relative to the optical axis of the HRMA. However, at XRCF they are sometimes used to mean an angle relative to the Facility Optical Axis, which could lead to confusion. I will always use the concept of on and o axis to refer to the HRMA optical axis. 54

11.2 HRMA motion

The YLSI ; ZLSI plane contains the science instrument, which returns coordinate values of events measured in detector pixels CHIPX, CHIPY from each of several discrete planar `chips' (or MCPs in the case of HRC). In data analysis we consider two complementary problems: The forward case: Given an XRCF con guration, at which chip CHIP ID and chip pixel CHIPX, CHIPY will the XSS photons fall? In other words, where do we expect the image to be? The inverse case: Given a photon landing on chip CHIP ID and chip pixel CHIPX, CHIPY, from which direction (o -axis angle and azimuth) did the incoming photon approach the HRMA? We assume that the roation is around the point OMNC = (0, 0, 0) in MNC coordinates, or (XH, 0, 0) in XRCF coordinates, where XH = 9:42: In terms of the pitch and yaw, the transformation between XRCF and MNC coordinates is given by the translation vector (XN (H 1); 0; 0) = (XH; 0; 0); and the Euler rotation matrix R(XRCF; MNC ) = Rot( z ; + y ; ) (89) or explicitly XN = (XXRCF XH ) cos z cos y + YXRCF sin z cos y ZXRCF sin y (90) YN = (XXRCF XH ) sin z YXRCF cos z ZN = (XXRCF XH ) cos z sin y YXRCF sin z sin y ZXRCF cos y and the inverse XXRCF = XH + XN cos z cos y + YN sin z ZN cos z sin y (91) YXRCF = XN sin z cos y YN cos z ZN sin z sin y ZXRCF = XN sin y ZN cos y Note that for zero pitch and yaw, XN = (XXRCF XH ) (92) YN = YXRCF ZN = ZXRCF re ecting the fact that the mirror is installed upside down at the XRCF. So in particular if the focal point PN (F ) = ( f; 0; 0) then PXRCF (F ) = (XH f cos z cos y ; f sin z cos y ; f sin y ) (93) 55

11.2.1 XRCF to MNC transformation

q 2 2 PX (F ) ( f cos ( z + y ); f sin z ; f sin y ) which is OK for small y , z . The XSS is at HRMA nodal coordinates 1 1 0 0 +LS cos z cos y XN (XSS ) C B YN (XSS ) C = B +LS sin z A A @ @ LS cos z sin y ) ZN (XSS )

For some reason the Ball SER approximates this as

(94)

(95)

11.3 HXDS Motion 11.4 FAM Motion

The HXDS stage moves in XRCF X, Y and Z. For a tilted mirror, one must convert from XRCF X, Y and Z to MNC X, Y and Z to obtain the STF to MNC translation-rotation matrix. Treatment of the FAM is complicated by the fact that the FAM axes are inverted with respect to the mirror axes. The FAM rotates and translates the origin of STF coords, OSTF , relative to the facility optical axis, OXRCF . The three translational axes of the FAM de ne a (moving) FAM coordinate system with origin at OSTF . Move the FAM to the FOA so that the STF and FC origins coincide; then the FAM coordinate system is coincident with a ( xed) DFC (Default FAM Coordinate) system which is almost aligned with the XRCF axes. We record the transformation from DFC to XRCF axes as: P (XRCF ) = R(DFC; XRCF )P (DFC ) where the matrix is a misalignment matrix close to unity. Let the FAM position readouts at OXRCF be F0. Now move the FAM to an arbitrary position with FAM readouts F. Then the DFC coordinates of the STF origin are OSTF (DFC ) = F F 0 and the DFC coordinates of a position with FAM coords P(FAM) are P (DFC ) = OSTF (DFC ) + R(DFC; FAM )P (FAM ): Now the instrument is mounted on the LASSZ (a simulator for the SIM translation table). Let the LASSZ reading be L, and the LASSZ reading when OSTT = OSTF be L0. The sign of LASSZ is such that L increases with XRCF +Z, FAM +Z, or SC -Z, STF -Z. A point with LSI coordinates P(LSI) has FAM coordinates P (FAM ) = P (LSI ) OLSI (STT ) + L L0 56

At the start. Let's consider a FAM move with the HRMA held constant. the beam will then move to smaller chip coords CX. The FAM moves to larger +Y. lands nearer to the lower left of the detector). Let us assume we have converted the FAM variables to units of mm and radians. Move the FAM to larger Y.0. which stays put.0. The mirror angles are also chosen wrt XRCF signs.0. old copy P (MNC ) = OSTF (MNC ) + R(STF.So from this we can go from P(LSI) to P(FAM) and hence P(XRCF). FAM angles of all zero result in an STF to DFC transformation which inverts STF relative to DFC.0) and dO is the o set of the FAM coordinate origin relative to that point. In the present version it is assumed that this misalignment has been taken out by Ball in the data coming from the FAM). Now OSTF (XRCF ) = OFAM (XRCF ) + dOFAM (XRCF ) + PFAM (XRCF ) (99) where OFAM is the XRCF focus at XRCF coordinates (XH-f. z . y . we need to nd the parameters of 11.6. The pixlib routine pix setup mirror gets its arguments in FAM coordinates. FY0. ZFAM and absolute XRCF orientations x. +Z in XRCF coordinates.0. Table 31: Assumed Misalignments Stage Angles (arcmin) HXDS ( 0. 0.-1). MNC )R(FAM. of course the beam's FP coords remain the same. The trouble is that we don't reliably know dOFAM and it 57 .5 FAM Motion. We need to convert this to an STFMNC translation-rotation matrix. YFAM .0 ) The FAM data le returns relative XRCF coordinates which we will designate as PFAM (XRCF ) = XFAM . The FP coords of the old chip position CX0. SIC ) (98) (The earlier versions of this memo used a misalignment matrix to allow for FAM axis misalignment with the XRCF. CY (the detector moved up and to the right. MNC )P (STF ): These are and (96) (97) OSTF (MNC ) = R(XRCF. and the focal plane coordinates of CX0. so the beam. Speci cally. CY0. Then from Part 1 of this memo. MNC ) = R(XRCF.4 ) FAM ( 0. -16. CY0 have moved to larger values of FX0. 0. FY0 (in the default XRCF focal plane system with signs -1.Z FAM readouts. The HXDS stage axis misalignment is from a 1996 Dec 27 memo of Ian Evans. the beam is at chip coords CX0. CY0 are the central values FX0. MNC )(OSTF (XRCF ) OMNC (XRCF )) R(STF. 1. XRCF )R(STF.

2. It is the nominal `thin lens' position from which we measure o -axis angles at the focal plane . The FAM rotation matrix is R(FAM. but actually the e ective nodal point depends both on energy and o -axis angle.1 Project coordinate systems The Spacecraft (Observatory) coordinate system XA. Reference point X 1 marks the origin of Spacecraft Coordinates. the nominal optical node H 0. relative to the positions derived using that conventional nodal point.can change every time the FAM is switched o and on. 12.0) . such that 58 12. 2] The X axis is parallel to the HRMA centerline. the nominal grating node. the center of the aperture at the front edge of the paraboloids (which is the origin of the ray trace system). It must be derived from measurements of the beam centroid. YA. The analogous data analysis reference point is G0. It is o set from our data analysis reference point. the aperture is toward positive X.1) is as follows: 1]. If this were exactly true. while the SIM is at lower values of X. 3. H 1 is a physical datum which can be surveyed. 0) (100) 12 AXAF Spacecraft In this section I describe the geometry of the AXAF spacecraft and other coordinate systems used in the project. we can adopt a conventional nodal point and make astrometric position corrections as a function of position and energy. The Y and Z axes are in the plane of the SIM. the origin of project OTG coordinates. which I will designate H 1. A0.1.it's where the photons `appear to come from'. while H 0 is a theoretical point which must be modelled. A1. ZA (SC/TS ICD 4 Nov 1992. a ctitious point out in space beyond the SIM. XRCF ) = Rot(3 =2.1. This is the origin of AXAF Project HRMA coordinates. z .1 Spacecraft coordinates (SC-1. The primary positional reference is the HRMA Central Aperture Plate (CAP) reference point. we'd have a constant plate scale. the center of the aperture in the spacecraft-to-IUS interface plane. Another reference point is G1. Reference point F is the ight focal position. x. Nevertheless.1. =2)Rot( y .

The Spacecraft and HRMA coordinate systems are the fundamental ones for hardware alignment. where 12. YA. ZA) are measured in `inches'. 0. The HRMA XH axis is along the HRMA optical axis. which are called HRMA coordinates. 0). 0:0). The original interface document gave a di erent position for the HRMA node from the one currently in use.2 HRMA coordinates (HRMA-2.0) 1 1 0 0 XH XH (H 0) XN C B YN C = B YH A A @ @ ZH ZN (101) The nite conjugate focus is at HRMA nodal coordinates (-10256. 0.15 mm from the HRMA CAP datum A. Table 32: Interesting points in spacecraft and HRMA nodal coordinates Point Description Flight (XA. The focus is at (31:836. This point is calculated to be o set by 18. although elsewhere in this document XRCF coordinates are measured in mm. 0. The coordinates are also called SCX. Units of HRMA coordinates shall be mm. YA. and positive X is toward the entrance aperture.116. ZA) 59 (XN . SCY.0). YH . YN . Z right handed set. (XA. YN . The coordinates of the HRMA nodal point H 0 in SC coordinates are (XA(H 0). Note that 1 1 0 0 (SCX SCX (H 0)) 25:4 XN C B YN C = B SCY 25:4 (102) A A @ @ SCZ 25:4 ZN where SCX(H0) (or XA(H 0)) is +428.0. (IF1-20 Obs/SI ICD). but for data analysis of observations it's easier to use the HRMA nodal point H 0 as origin. I give XRCF coordinates in inches for easy comparison with the drawings.the ACIS radiator is toward positive Z and the Y axes completes an X.116. so these numbers need to be rechecked. ZN ). The spacecraft trunnion plane has SCZ=14. ZN ) Ref . Y. SCZ when we want to refer to a spacecraft coordinate system in general rather than AXAF in particular. which is a unit of length de ned to be exactly 0. 0.1. ZH ) xed in the HRMA cap midplane. 0) where the value of XA(H 0) is 428. The origin of HRMA coordinates H 1 is at the HRMA CAP reference point.0. The center of the aperture in the AXAF/IUS interface plane is de ned to have coordinates (500. The HRMA mirror nodal coordinate (MNC) system is (XN .02540m. For XRCF. In the following table are listed reference points for various parts of the spacecraft. 0:0. The project has de ned Cartesian coordinates (XH .

0.0.0) (500. 0.116.0 ) 1].0. 0.49.0. 0. 0.0) (-9.6.0. 0.745.0.91.0) (370. 0.245. 0.0) (0.0) (428. 0.810. 0.0.0) (60.0) (-10874.0) (-1506.0) (55.113 0.0) (462.81 None Unknown Unknown 0. 0. 301331/3 1]. 0. dr.17 1].0.301331/3 ?] 1].0) (-9.0.0.0) (1825. 0. 0. 0.9 1].0.p.0.0) (371. 0. 0.57.0) (-9455.0) (31.301331/3 1].0. 0.9 1].85.0. 0. 0.X1 F G1 G0 H1 H1 H0 A1 A0 SC coordinate origin Flight Focus Translation Table surface ISIM to OBA interface OTG Origin OTG Datum OTG Node HRMA CAP reference point HRMA CAP Datum A HRMA nodal point Front end of paraboloids Aperture center in IUS I/F plane (0. 0.0) (-1549. 0. 0.5 -10061.0 -1485.0) (369.0.0. 0.0.0.0 -0. 0. 0.0. 0. 0.0.836.49 Unknown Unknown Unknown 0.42. 0.0) (0.0) (-1485.0) (-1495. ZN ) (-10258.146. 1]. 0.0) (-10061. 0. 0. 0.dr. 0.613 -58.0) (427. 0.0) (XN . 0. 0.06 -546.692 .5 -60.336.15. 0.943 -58.37 Table 33: Geometrical layout of mirrors and detectors: Value of MNC X Coord XN Point F (old) F G0 H0 A1 Description On Axis Focus On Axis Focus On Axis Rowland Circle Shutter Plane Hyperbola back Hyperbola front Mirror Node Parabola back Front end of mirror TMA/TOGA -6068. 0.836.0. dr.0 -1431.p.0) (872.06 -400. 0.692 HRMA (Flight) -100065. 0. YN . 0. 0.0. 0.9.0. 0.61 -6068.3. 0.0.0.94 60 HRMA (XRCF) -10258. 0.88 -40.9 Ref 1]. 0.dr. 0.0 Unknown 872.0.p. 0. 301331/3 1].0) (-9341.0.61 -702. 0.745.0.0.692.0. 301331/5 1] 1] 1] Point Description F0 XRCF Default Focus G1 OTG Origin at XRCF OTG Datum at XRCF G0 OTG Node at XRCF H1 HRMA CAP reference point H0 HRMA nodal point XRCF XXRCF (in) -403.0 40. 0. 0.0.0) (18. 0.0) (-1431.0. dr.42. 0. dr.3. 0.30133/31 2].43 0.0. 0. 0.0 Unknown 872.0. 0.0) (-1452.915.3 -10256.474.p.42 400.0.

12.87773 209.2 Payload coordinate system The Space Shuttle payload coordinate system 1] is xed with respect to the payload.33744 1200 960 850 620 There are a plethora of existing coordinate systems in use describing positions relative to the HRMA mirror.Table 34: Mirror radii.00000 210.e. the origin of spacecraft coordinates is at orbiter coordinates 0 1 1 0 596:0 XO B YO C = B 0:0 C (103) A A @ @ 400:0 ZO The relation between Orbiter and Spacecraft coordinates is 1 1 0 0 XO 596:0 XA C B YA C = B YO (104) A A @ @ ZO 400:0 ZA 12.30940 213. It is measured in inches. They are used in the assembly and alignment of the hardware but they will not be used in the kind of data analysis I am concentrating on in this memo. During launch.7? 199. the +YO axis to starboard. upwards at landing). and related by 1 1 0 1 0 0 XA XO 596:0 XP C C = B YA B YP C = B YO (105) A A @ A @ @ ZA + 200:0 ZO 200:0 ZP 61 . They are presented for reference. mm Description Gratings Hyperbola back Hyperbola front Midplane Parabola back Parabola front TMA/TOGA Shell 1 Shell 3 Shell 4 Shell 6 187. payload and Orbiter coordinates are parallel.07069 210. and the +ZO axis toward the top side (tail side) of the orbiter (i.2. It is measured in inches with the +XO axis downwards at launch (i. In the stowed position. probably. toward orbiter aft end).e.2.1 Orbiter coordinate system The Space Shuttle Orbiter coordinate system 1] is used to locate the spacecraft within the Orbiter payload bay during the launch phase.2 Project Coordinate Systems 12.

The inner and outer radii of the OTG are 234.0) of interest for data analysis.) 12.2. I won't discuss it further.5mm) relative to the Grating Nodal system (AXAF-OTG-1. ZF ) is essentially identical to the LSI system de ned in this document.836. YT .4 Optical Bench Assembly system The OBA system 2] is 1 1 0 1 0 0 XA 60:336 XFP 28:5 XOBA C C = B YA B YOBA C = B YFP A A @ A @ @ ZA ZFP ZOBA (106) (TRW AXAF I system alignment plan). the SE30 2] de nition speci es the origin as the `desired aim point'. Presumably this is the on-orbit. The HETG dispersion direction is rotated 5 deg counterclockwise from YA viewed from XA = 0. ZG) has XG parallel to XH and YG. ZG parallel to YA. ZT ) to be identical with spacecraft coordinates.2. 0. ZT ) with somewhat di erent axis choice (+Z is the optical axis) and with origin at the focus.3 The Telescope Ensemble Coordinate System The document EQ7-002 Rev D. The OTG coordinates system (XG. but the document doesn't say. 4] describing the HRMA. YT .2. with their origin at the SIM/OBA 62 . YG. 12. de nes the Telescope Ensemble Coordinate System (XT .50 in (63.95 and 558. This system (AXAF-OTG-2.80 mm. while my LSI de nition speci cally selects a single nominal aim point for each instrument. SIM coordinates are de ned in the System Alignment Plan D17388.6 Project FPSI Coordinate System The Focal Plane Science Instruments coordinate system (XF .(reference 1]. However. The document IF1-20 OBS/SI ICD 1] de nes the Telescope Coordinate System (XT . 12. 0.0) is o set by 2. ZA XG = 0 is the side of the OTG closest to the focal plane. zero-g focus f0. METG is rotated the same amount clockwise. 12.2.2.5 OTG Coordinates (OTG-2. YF .7 SIM and ISIM coordinates ISIM coordinates are de ned in the OBS/SI ICD 1] with their origin at spacecraft coordinates (31.0.0) near the focus (and thus de ned only while the spacecraft is assembled).0) 12.

YSIM .P.8 SAOSAC coordinates (HRMA-3. The origin of SAOSAC coordinates is at CAP Datum A. 1 0 31:836 C (XISIM . 2 Apr 1996. YA. Both are usually measured in inches. D17388. AXAF-I System Alignment Plan. 11 Jan 1996. I recommend use of the more generally de ned data analysis coordinate systems FP ( xed wrt the HRMA) and STF ( xed wrt the SIM) de ned below. D. YISIM .interface.2. 2] TRW SE30. SIM and OBA coordinates are identical after assembly. 63 . ZA) B 0 A @ 0 and 1 0 60:336 C: (XSIM . Huenemorder. YA. the Z-axis increases towards the SI along the FOA. Observatory to Science Instrument ICD. YOSAC .9 Summary of useful HRMA Cartesian systems 1 1 0 0 1 0 XN (A1) ZOSAC XH XH (H 0) XN C (108) C = B +XOSAC B YN C = B YH A A @ @ A @ YOSAC ZH ZN 1 0 (SCX SCX (H 0)) 25:4 C = B SCY 25:4 A @ SCZ 25:4 References 1] TRW IF1-20. ZA) B 0 A @ 0 The SAOSAC coordinate system (XOSAC . while the X and Y axes are in the aperture plane with the +Y axis vertical. ZSIM ) = (XA. 11 Jan 1996.1) 1 1 0 0 YN XOSAC C B YOSAC C = B ZN A A @ @ XN (A) XN ZOSAC (107) 12. which has nodal X-coordinate XN (DatumA) = 18:15. ZOSAC ) is slightly di erent again.2. ASC Memo. 3] AXAF Transmission Grating Di raction Coordinates. 12. at XRCF. ZISIM ) = (XA. In the SAOSAC system.

4] EQ7-002 Rev D. 64 .

0. 65 . Distances are in mm. showing the ight focal plane instruments to scale. Coordinate system is AXAF-STT-1.Figure 16: The AXAF SIM Translation Table.

φ θ XH H0 Figure 18: HRMA spherical coordinates HRMA equator el=0 XH H0 HRMA meridian az=0 Figure 19: HRMA source coordinates 66 . The SIM Transfer Table (STT) carrying the instruments moves along the ZSTF axis to select an instrument and along the XSTF axis to adjust focus.ZN Z STF H0 ACIS HRC XN X STF HRMA YN STT SIM Y STF Figure 17: HRMA Nodal and STF Coordinates showing the on-orbit con guration.

Default Configuration C0: HRMA. SI along FOA Z XRCF HRMA SI FAM S X XRCF H0 YXRCF Figure 20: XRCF Coordinates showing the general con guration with HRMA. DFC and LSI coordinate systems Z XRCF SIM Z LSI FAM HRMA ZH X SI LSI Y LSI Z DFC S0 X DFC XXRCF H0 Y XH H Y DFC YXRCF Figure 21: XRCF Coordinates showing the general con guration with HRMA and LSI coordinate systems 67 .

SCZ SCX X1 SCY ISIM/ OBA F A0 A1 H0 H1 OTG G Figure 22: Schematic of interesting points in the spacecraft 68 .

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