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S2634: Physique de la matière condensée & nano-objets

**Miguel Anía Asenjo Alexandre Le Boité Christine Lingblom
**

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What is superconductivity?

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Superconductivity occurs in a wide variety of materials.Superconductivity Superconductivity generally occurs at very low temperatures. In this state the materials have exactly zero electrical resistivity. including simple elements like tin and aluminium. 3 . various metallic alloys and some heavily-doped semiconductors. As the material drops below its superconducting critical temperature. magnetic fields within the material are (totally or partially) expelled.

and is a defining characteristic of superconductivity.Meissner effect When a superconductor is placed in a weak external magnetic field. decaying exponentially to zero within the bulk of the material. the field penetrates the superconductor only at a small distance. χ bulk = −1 This is called the Meissner effect. 4 . called the London penetration depth. For most superconductors. the London penetration depth is on the order of 100 nm.

Phase transition In superconducting materials. Mercury-based cuprates have been found with critical temperatures in excess of 130 K 5 . The value of this critical temperature varies from material to material Superconductors usually have critical temperatures below 20 K (down to less than 1 K) Cuprate superconductors can have much higher critical temperatures. the phase transition appear when the temperatureT is lowered below a critical temperature Tc.

Type I superconductors Type I superconductors are superconductors that cannot be penetrated by magnetic flux lines (complete Meissner effect). they have only a single critical temperature at which the material ceases to superconduct. mercury and lead behave as typical Type I superconductors below their respective critical temperatures 6 . such as aluminium. As such. becoming resistive. Elementary metals.

This allows them to conduct higher currents Type-II superconductors are usually made of metal alloys or complex oxide ceramics 7 .Type II superconductors A Type-II superconductor is a superconductor characterised by its gradual transition from the superconducting to the normal state within an increasing magnetic field Typically they superconduct at higher temperatures and magnetic fields than Type-I superconductors.

Critical Field vs Transition Temperature 8 .

1950 . while studying the resistance of solid mercury at cryogenic temperatures using liquid helium.Complete microscopic theory of superconductivity proposed by Bardeen.History of Superconductivity 1911 . 1933 .Ginzburg-Landau theory. and Schrieffer (1972 Nobel Prize winners in Physics).Discovery of superconductivity by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. 1957 .Meissner and Ochsenfeld discover the Meissner Effect. 1962 – Josephson Effect Kamerlingh Onnes Josephson Ochsenfeld Meissner Landau Ginzburg 9 . Cooper.

London theory (1935) Macroscopic theory Fundamental facts : When T<Tc supercurrent flows without resistance B=0 inside the superconductor 10 .

London equation The electrons are freely accelerated by the electric field : Supercurrent is given by : Therefore : Substituting the previous into the equation for Faraday’s law : We obtain a first equation : 11 .

Let us assume that : Using : We find : which is seen to account for the Meissner effect.London equation But this does not immediately imply B=0. since it does not allow a spatially uniform solution We call order of 100nm the penetration depth. which is of the 12 .

Landau-Ginzburg theory (1950) Phenomenological theory Based on Landau’s theory of second order phase transitions Describes the phenomenon when T~Tc The idea is to find an expression for the free energy introducing a so called “order parameter” 13 .

jauge invariace imposes : Next we have to minimize this expression. We perform ∗ variations with respect rot are 3 parameters : ψ .Expression of the free energy Free energy in a metal with cubic symmetry when there is no electrmagnetic field : When there is an electromagnetic field. and A 14 .ψ .

Landau-Ginzburg equations First equation: Second equation: We recall Ampère’s law: When the field is weak. and we find the 15 . London equation: .

16 . another parameter describing a superconductor states appears : the coherence length. It marks the fluctuation of : The ratio : determines whether a superconductor behaves as type I or type II (when it is less or greater than 1 2 respectively).Coherence length We can express the London penetration depth in terms of a and b : In GL theory.

translationally invariant orbital part. 17 . thermal properties. BCS theory is widely applicable and tremendously predictive From He3 in its condensed state to type I and type II metallic and high-temperature superconductors Critical field.BCS theory BCS: microscopic theory of superconductivity Requires a net attractive interaction between electrons in the neighborhood of the Fermi surface – Cooper pairs Cooper pair wave functions are singlets with a symmetric. the spatial range of the wavefunction is shown to be several orders of magnitude larger than the average spacing between electrons. By a variational calculation. Central feature: an energy gap exists between the energy of the cooper pairs in the BCS electronic ground state and the “single particle” excited states. and most magnetic properties are consequences of the energy gap.

and the flux quantum (fluxoid) is given by: Duration of persistent currents "practically infinite" (in most cases the expected time required for one fluxoid to escape is calculated to be larger than the age of the universe) 18 .BCS theory: Quantitative Predictions Transition temperature: Energy gap: Specific Heat: } Magnetic flux through a superconductor ring is quantized.

BCS theory: Flux quantization GL formula for the superconducting current density: We suppose that the spatial variation of Therefore: is contained in its phase: ⇒ 19 .

From this model (which is verified experimentally) one can estimate the lower and upper critical fields. from thermodynamical stability considerations: 20 .BCS theory: Type II SupC’s How do we explain the existence of type II superconductors? Theory of type II superconductors developed by G&L + Abrikosov & Gorkov Vortex State : Stable configurations of a superconductor in a magnetic field with rods or plates in the normal state surrounded by the superconducting region. Finally.

BCS Theory: Single particle tunelling 21 .

Current maxima at : 22 .BCS Theory: Josephson tunelling Semiconductors separated by an insulator junction Due to electron-pair interaction accross the junction DC Josephson Effect : DC current accross the junction with no applied voltage. Macroscopic quantum interference: Total current shows interference effects as a function of the applied magnetic flux. Used to design sensitive magnetometers. DC Josephson Effect : A DC voltage gives rise to current oscillations accross the junction.

Applications Superconductors are used in NMR machines Mass spectrometers The beam-steering magnets used in particle accelerators Superconductors are used to build Josephson junctions. which are the building blocks of SQUIDs the most sensitive magnetometers known. The large resistance change at the transition from the normal to the superconducting state is used to build thermometers in cryogenic micro-calorimeter photon detectors. Josephson junction can be used as a photon detector 23 .

Superconductivity Questions? 24 .

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