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Free the Animals Affirmative
Free the Animals Affirmative..........................................................................................................................................1
*Inherency*.....................................................................................................................................................................2
Animal testing.................................................................................................................................................................3
Dolphins-Iraq 1/2............................................................................................................................................................4
Dolphins-Iraq 2/2............................................................................................................................................................5
Dolphin inherency-generic..............................................................................................................................................6
Law supports military.....................................................................................................................................................7
Sea lions..........................................................................................................................................................................8
........................................................................................................................................................................................8
HARMS..........................................................................................................................................................................9
Dolphins treated bad 1/3...............................................................................................................................................10
Dolphins treated bad 2/3...............................................................................................................................................11
Dolphins treated bad 3/3...............................................................................................................................................12
Dolphins forced to kill..................................................................................................................................................13
Dolphins killed by enemy troops..................................................................................................................................14
Dolphins exposed to LFA sonar....................................................................................................................................15
Impactish cards.............................................................................................................................................................16
Dolphins are captured/taken from better lives..............................................................................................................17
Rats boiled alive............................................................................................................................................................18
Sheep blown to pieces...................................................................................................................................................19
Radiation testing...........................................................................................................................................................20
Disease research............................................................................................................................................................21
Surgical research...........................................................................................................................................................22
Solvency........................................................................................................................................................................23
Dolphins-they are cool once set free.............................................................................................................................24
Answers.........................................................................................................................................................................25
A2 Animals have uses-dolphins....................................................................................................................................26
A2 animals have uses-testing........................................................................................................................................27
A2 Dolphins don’t care.................................................................................................................................................28
A2 animals aren’t people..............................................................................................................................................29
A2 “world” CP..............................................................................................................................................................30
Narrative!?....................................................................................................................................................................31
Generic T answers.........................................................................................................................................................32
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*Inherency*
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Animal testing
The military tests weapons on animals
“Maximum pain is aim of new US weapon” 19:00 02 March 2005
Exclusive from New Scientist Print Edition David Hambling
The US military is funding development of a weapon that delivers a bout of excruciating pain from up to 2
kilometres away. Intended for use against rioters, it is meant to leave victims unharmed. But pain researchers
are furious that work aimed at controlling pain has been used to develop a weapon. And they fear that the
technology will be used for torture."I am deeply concerned about the ethical aspects of this research," says
Andrew Rice, a consultant in pain medicine at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital in London, UK. "Even if
the use of temporary severe pain can be justified as a restraining measure, which I do not believe it can, the
long-term physical and psychological effects are unknown."The research came to light in documents
unearthed by the Sunshine Project, an organisation based in Texas and in Hamburg, Germany, that exposes
biological weapons research. The papers were released under the US's Freedom of Information Act.One
document, a research contract between the Office of Naval Research and the University of Florida in
Gainesville, US, is entitled "Sensory consequences of electromagnetic pulses emitted by laser induced
plasmas". It concerns so-called Pulsed Energy Projectiles (PEPs), which fire a laser pulse that generates a
burst of expanding plasma when it hits something solid, like a person (New Scientist print edition, 12
October 2002). The weapon, destined for use in 2007, could literally knock rioters off their feet. According to
a 2003 review of non-lethal weapons by the US Naval Studies Board, which advises the navy and marine
corps, PEPs produced "pain and temporary paralysis" in tests on animals.

320,000 animals die each year at the hands of the US government
Peta, People for the Ethical treatment of animals “The military’s was on animals”, No date, accessed 4/23/05
http://www.peta.org/feat/military/index.html
Each year, at least 320,000 primates, dogs, pigs, goats, sheep, rabbits, cats, and other animals are hurt and
killed by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in experiments that rank among the most painful conducted
in this country. Because these figures don’t include experiments that were contracted out to non-
governmental laboratories or the many sheep, goats, and pigs often shot in wound experiments, the total
number of animal victims is actually much higher. The cost to taxpayers for these military experiments is
estimated to be in excess of $100 million annually.

The military has 725 independent experiments, and they are all cruel
Peta, People for the Ethical treatment of animals “The military’s was on animals”, No date, accessed 4/23/05
http://www.peta.org/feat/military/index.html
The military’s tracking system lists approximately 725 military experiments using animals. Such tests are as
misleading as they are cruel. Animals often respond to chemical agents and antidotes differently than
humans. A rat’s respiratory system differs greatly from that of a human, and rats are more susceptible to
toxins because they are unable to vomit. Mice have a genetic tendency to develop lung tumors, rendering
much of the research on physiological effects of exposure invalid. Regarding skin tests, a U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services report said, “Since laboratory animals have fur and do not have sweat glands on
most of their body, they do not provide optimal models for dermal exposure.”

Animals are conscripted into service as everything from intelligence agents to mine sweepers
Peta, People for the Ethical treatment of animals “The military’s was on animals”, No date, accessed 4/23/05
http://www.peta.org/feat/military/index.html
The armed forces conscript various animals into intelligence and combat service, sending them on “missions” that
endanger their lives and well-being. The Marine Corps teaches dogs “mauling, snarling, sniffing, and other suitable
skills” needed to search for bombs and drugs. A series of Navy tests of underwater explosives in the Chesapeake
Bay in 1987 killed more than 3,000 fish, and habitats for hundreds of species have been destroyed by nuclear tests in
the South Pacific and the American Southwest.
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Dolphins-Iraq 1/2
The Navy uses dolphins and sea lions to spot sea mines in Iraq
Hawaii news.com, Amy Wright, April 1st, 2003 “Dolphins, sea lions sent to support Iraq
war”
http://www.hawaiinews.com/archives/science/000107.shtml

Two Atlantic bottlenose-dolphins — likely trained in Hawai`i — were deployed to the Middle East to help coalition forces. The
dolphins, named Makai and Tacoma, were sent to the port city of Umm Qasr where they will help locate underwater mines.
While there were reports over the weekend that Takoma had gone AWOL, Navy officials reported late Sunday that he'd
returned about 48 hours later.
In addition to dolphins, the Navy is also using California sea lions trained to recover unarmed practice mines and to locate
underwater swimmers, and then attach a restraint device. They will participate in a demonstration of their abilities in
Bahrain in the upcoming weeks, according to a Navy release. The dolphins use their highly developed sonar to locate and
then mark the underwater mines so that human divers can deactivate them. This work has angered some animal rights
groups, however. The animal rights group PETA recently released a statement opposing the military's use of dolphins and
other animals in the war against Iraq. Wars are human endeavors, PETA argues, and animals should be left out of it.

Dolphins are being used in Iraq
BBC NEWS “Navy dolphins prepare for first mission”
Updated 25 March 2003, 20.17 http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/animals/newsid_2886000/2886535.stm
A team of specially trained dolphins are getting ready for their first important war missions in the port of
Umm Qasr in Iraq. The bottle-nosed Atlantic dolphins - Makai and Tacoma - have been taught by the US
Navy to help divers hunt down Iraqi mines in the waters. The navy is training more than 70 dolphins and
20 sea lions to do the job. Their mission is very important because the mines planted by Iraqi troops must
be moved to allow ships carrying vital aid through to Iraq. The mammals find mines using their natural
sonar. But the clever dolphins are trained to stay away from them when they see one. Once they spot a
mine, they are taught to drop a floating marker which tells divers where the explosives are. This means
they stay out of danger too. According to the US navy, they are keen and work very hard. But animals
rights campaigners are angry the animals are being used like this. They feel they are being exploited, are
just being taught tricks and could get hurt. Although the US navy say the only real danger they face
comes from other dolphins who might not like new faces in their waters

Dolphins are being used in Iraq
”Combat Dolphins, Sea Lions Ready for Gulf War” ABC news
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s797943.htm
Wednesday, 5 March 2003
A battalion of sea lions and dolphins, especially trained by the U.S. military, is expected to see service if war
breaks out in Iraq.Based in the Californian city of San Diego, they have been trained to play a key role in
defending marine assets from attacks, either during war or in preventing terrorism at home, their military
trainers told reporters.
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Dolphins-Iraq 2/2
Dolphins are used in Iraq
Wednesday, March 26 2003
http://teacher.scholastic.com/scholasticnews/indepth/war-iraq/during_war/index.asp?article=dolphins
“Navy Dolphins Clear Port for Humanitarian Ships”
By Suzanne Freeman
Two Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphins were deployed by the Navy to the Persian Gulf today. The two specially trained
dolphins are searching the waters for explosives around the port city of Umm Qasr. Makai, 33, and Tacoma, 22, both
males, use their natural sonar abilities to locate mines and mark them with floats. The dolphins are working in the
Khor Abdullah waterway to clear a path for the first ship carrying humanitarian aid, Britain's Sir Galahad.
The Navy has 20 trained dolphins as part of the Marine Mammal Project based in San Diego, California. Nine of
those dolphins were flown to the Persian Gulf recently. They are staying in specially built tanks aboard a U.S.
warship. Makai and Tacoma were flown by helicopter in special travel sleeves to the port at Umm Qasr. Both were
doused with water on the trip. The Navy dolphins are taught to avoid touching the mines, which could cause them to
explode. According to one bomb-disposal expert, the dolphins are more at risk from local dolphins than the mines.
Dolphins are territorial and could drive away the two newcomers. "They are like children really," Tacoma's handler,
Petty Officer Taylor Whitaker, told reporters. "They are keen and work very hard and very effectively, but
sometimes they can have a bad day and they do not do so well. Tacoma is one of the most vocal ones we have and
one of the best at his job." Whitaker is only 1 year older than Tacoma. Dolphins have a long history with the Navy.
They were used to protect warships from enemy divers during the Vietnam war in the 1960s. They were also used to
plant mines on enemy vessels during the Cold War.
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Dolphin inherency-generic
There are thousands of dolphins in slavery in the world
Richard O’ Barry, original trainer of "Flipper" the dolphin, now a captive dolphin researcher
“Free the advanced biological weapon system: an interview with Richard O’Barry”. By Brent Hoff, no date,
accessed 4/23/05
There are about 1,000 captive dolphins spread out around the world, not counting the military dolphins. The
Russian military had about 500 and the US Navy have about 100. They all live in sub-standard conditions
and are controlled by food.

The United States has the largest amount of marine mammals enslaved
“A Dolphin Disses War”
By David Helvarg, AlterNet. Posted April 11, 2003.
http://www.insolidaritywithanimals.com/voices/dolphinwar.php
I also don't want to keep carping, but you know what really rubs me the wrong way? The Pentagon says
America has an all-volunteer military. Hell, I don't recall any recruiting pitch before they gill-netted me out
of the Gulf of Mississippi. There was talk of phasing out our program at the end of the Cold War but it
turned out to be just that: talk. Today the Navy has the largest contingent of captive marine mammals in
the world, 75 dolphins, 20 sea lions and two beluga whales that are on R&R right now doing a breeding
gig at Seaworld. Talk about your sweet deployment. Still, over 40 dolphins, 20 sea lions and four whales
have died on active duty since 1972 and many more in the program's earlier years before mortality
reporting was required under the Marine Mammal Act.

The marine mammal program employs dolphins and sea lions
”Combat Dolphins, Sea Lions Ready for Gulf War” ABC news
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s797943.htm
Wednesday, 5 March 2003
Known as the Marine Mammal Program, the U.S. navy unit boasts 20 sea lions and about 70 dolphins specifically
trained to defend U.S. sailors and installations. Some have already been deployed for key training exercises in the
Gulf as the U.S. build-up for an expected attack on Iraq reaches fever pitch.

The military has used dolphins since the 1960’s
CBS NEWS
March 29, 2003
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/03/29/iraq/main546667.shtml “Mine-Hunting Dolphin AWOL In Iraq?”

The Navy has been using marine mammals since the early 1960s, when military researchers noticed how sea
mammals' highly developed senses, such as the dolphins' sonar, could be harnessed to locate mines and do other
underwater tasks. Dolphins were used in the 1970s during the Vietnam War. In the late 1980s, six Navy dolphins
patrolled the Bahrain harbor to protect U.S. ships from enemy swimmers and mines. They also were used to escort
Kuwaiti oil tankers through potentially dangerous waters. Umm Qasr has already been proven to be a likely hazard.
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Law supports military
The militaries abuses are protected by law
”Combat Dolphins, Sea Lions Ready for Gulf War” ABC news
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s797943.htm
Wednesday, 5 March 2003
Despite tough U.S. laws - and a vocal lobby - against the exploitation of animals, LaPuzza claimed his program had
not encountered major opposition. The military's use of animals is protected under national security
exclusions.Trainers say sea lions are unlikely to suffer casualties, as they are too quick to be targeted by a potential
enemy.Animal rights groups disapprove the use of animals in warfare. "To say they're not putting the animals in
harm's way is ridiculous," said Stephanie Boyd, a biologist with People for Ethical Treatment of Animals.
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Sea lions
Sea lions are used to catch enemy divers
”Combat Dolphins, Sea Lions Ready for Gulf War” ABC news
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s797943.htm
Wednesday, 5 March 2003
Some of the sea lions have already joined the U.S. Navy fifth fleet in Bahrain, in a key test of the animals' ability to
detect enemy divers menacing the fleet. While the U.S. Navy has used sea lions for recovery missions for 30 years,
some are now being re-trained to not only to detect enemy divers, but also catch them."We train a select small set of
sea lions to actually find divers and attach recovery lines" allowing them to be captured, said Tom LaPuzza, a
spokesman for the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Centre in San Diego, which runs the program. "Those are the
sea lions that are in Bahrain.""This is a new capability that we are demonstrating for the first time," he said, adding
that if the new recruits did well in their test, they could be used to protect U.S. harbours.The mammals are trained to
attach a restraint device - a C-shaped, handcuff-like clamp - to the leg of an intruder with their mouths before
deploying a floating marker signalling the attacker's position.
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HARMS
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Dolphins treated bad 1/3
Dolphins are beaten, starved, killed and maimed if they refuse to participate in the military’s wars
Craig Redmond, Captive Animals' Protection Society, Liz Sandeman, The Marine Connection, and Alan Cooper, Cetacea Defence,
March 31, 2003
http://www.command-post.org/oped/2_archives/001304.html
The use of dolphins and sea lions by the American military in the war with Iraq must be unreservedly
condemned. Dolphins are highly intelligent and sensitive animals. Using them in a war zone is deplorable.
When the United States used dolphins in the Persian Gulf during the Iran-Iraq war, it was reported
that Iranian patrol boats would machine gun any dolphin they saw, fearing it might be laying mines
Former trainers have alleged that dolphins are trained by withholding food (a common training
method for captive dolphins) and physical beatings, and that electrodes are implanted to enable the
military control room to stimulate the dolphins to attack. There have even been claims, following
the beaching of 22 dolphins in France five years ago with holes in their necks, that military-trained
dolphins were fitted with a small explosive charge which was set off by radio-control if they
"deserted”. Animals have been used as combatants and weapons for centuries. Footage of remote-
controlled equipment that searches for mines in the oceans has been shown during television
coverage of the war against Iraq. Why does the military feel the need to use a living creature, when
they have another option that does the same job, without endangering either human or dolphin
welfare?

Dolphins are referred to as “systems”, and are controlled by food as slaves
Richard O’ Barry, original trainer of "Flipper" the dolphin, now a captive dolphin researcher
“Free the advanced biological weapon system: an interview with Richard O’Barry”. By Brent Hoff, no date,
accessed 4/23/05
Tacoma may have been outfitted with an Anti Foraging Device (AFD). This is a simple strip of orange Velcro that is
attached around the snout. The AFD prevents the dolphin from opening its mouth, which is necessary for the dolphin
to catch fish and eat. This is how the navy dolphins are controlled when they are in the open sea. When one is lost,
they send out a search team to look for the "system" using a "recall pinger," which can be heard by the dolphin from
a great distance. If the dolphin returns to the pinger and trainer, the AFD is removed and the ABWS is rewarded with
food. If the "system" is lost, they simply replace it with another one.

Dolphins experience severe stress, destroying their lives and making them aggressive, lowering life expectancy
“Dolpins exploited for military purposes”, WCDS, Whale and Dolphin Conservation society, 2005
http://www.wdcs.org/dan/publishing.nsf/allweb/B84336D57E281EB580256D0300464287
Military dolphins are confined in captivity, which can cause them extreme mental and physical stress. This suffering
has been revealed in dolphins kept in marine parks and dolphinariums through aggression, lower life expectancy and
higher infant mortality than in the wild.

Dolphins are put into torturous conditions
“Dolpins exploited for military purposes”, WCDS, Whale and Dolphin Conservation society, 2005
http://www.wdcs.org/dan/publishing.nsf/allweb/B84336D57E281EB580256D0300464287
Bottlenose dolphins and other marine mammal species have been used by the navy of the former Soviet Union. The
animals may have been used for similar purposes as by the US Navy. Additionally perverse manoeuvres such as to
para drop dozens of dolphins from planes into fresh water lakes have been adopted, to test the adaptability of
dolphins to extreme situations.
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Dolphins treated bad 2/3
Dolphins die from stress on their horrid journey to the combat zone
“Dolpins exploited for military purposes”, WCDS, Whale and Dolphin Conservation society, 2005
http://www.wdcs.org/dan/publishing.nsf/allweb/B84336D57E281EB580256D0300464287
The use of marine mammals for military operations means lots of transports and therefore stress to the animals. The
animals get transported quite often and within quite short periods of time thousands of kilometres from one location
to the other. This is a further threat to their survival. Little is known about the danger caused through the
manoeuvres themselves, as most are undertaken under strictest confidentiality. Ralf Breier & Joerg Reiter report in
their book "Delphingeschichten" (1992) that six dolphins from the US Navy were transported to the Persian Gulf to
detect mines. One of the animals is reported to have died during the operation.

While in captivity, dolphins lifespan is shortened drastically
“Dolpins exploited for military purposes”, WCDS, Whale and Dolphin Conservation society, 2005
http://www.wdcs.org/dan/publishing.nsf/allweb/B84336D57E281EB580256D0300464287
Notwithstanding the possible risk caused by the manoeuvres, it has to be kept in mind that dolphins used for military
purposes are confined in captivity and therefore their average life span, but mainly their quality of life is greatly
reduced. To continue this practise further animals will be caught from the wild in the long-term, an unacceptable
practise. WDCS is campaigning to end the use of marine mammals for military purposes.

Dolphins usually die before even reaching the United States
“Dolpins exploited for military purposes”, WCDS, Whale and Dolphin Conservation society, 2005
http://www.wdcs.org/dan/publishing.nsf/allweb/B84336D57E281EB580256D0300464287
WDCS has documented that the mortality during transport and captivity of Tursiops from the Black Sea is extremely
high. Traders advertising specimens on the internet offer only a 15 day survival guarantee. In case one animal dies,
another one replaces it. Therefore capture operations continue until today. Meanwhile live animals are already
offered via the Internet for up to US$ 20.00, in order to identify new markets. As the trade of these species has now
been banned, WDCS will monitor the implementation and effectiveness of this ban.

Dolphins are treated as military resources, the commanders don’t care if they survive
Cetacean Society International
Whales Alive! - Vol. XII No. 2 - April 2003
http://csiwhalesalive.org/csi03202.html
K-Dog is another of the five bottlenose dolphins involved in the mine clearing. As his name suggests, the Navy
wants us to think of the game like a dog eagerly searching for a ball, but it's more like getting a child to run into the
street after a ball, or urging someone to stick their head up to see if the shooting has stopped. Who knew that the
mines in Iraq weren't redesigned to blow up when a dolphin's echolocation clicks got too close? That overdue
countermeasure might signal that a mine was present, as the dolphin vanishes, but would the remaining dolphins be
used to locate more mines if it meant saving ships at war? The dolphins are military assets. To the Navy field
commander their survival is more justified by efficiency than by being humane. To save a ship or assault force from
such mines, a field commander's worst-case concern might turn into running out of dolphins before the mines are all
destroyed.
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Dolphins treated bad 3/3

Dolphins die hundreds of different ways as a result of the navy programs
“How Dolphins Die in Captivity”
http://www.dolphinawareness.org/facts/main.html
Helene O'Barry, Dolphin Project
February 28, 2003
Trauma, Killed in a fight, Euthanasia, Drowning, Kidney problems, Pneumonia, Gastritis, genic shock,
Malnutrition and stress, Trauma, Stress related, Severe bronchopneumonia, Chlorine toxicity, Accidental drowning,
Penetrated by stingray spine, Zinc poisoning, Suffocation, Bacterial septicemia, Internal bleeding, Shock during
capture, drowning, Anorexia, Infection, Died of shock during treatment, Drowned, jaw caught in netting, Perforated
ulcer, Inanition caused by stomach ulcer, Rupture of stomach ulcer, Heart attack, Capture mortality, Chronic
esophageal ulcers, Ulcerative dermatitis, Emaciated, Accidental collision with pool, Capture shock , Failure to adapt
Chlorine, Back injury, Foreign object ingestion, Stress/malnutrition, Shock, Related to fractured jaw, Drowned,
maternal trauma, Accidental death, Shock during movement Neo-natal shock, Salmonella, By another animal, Died
during strike , starvation Died during strike, adrenal exhaustion, Died during strike, emaciation, Allergic reaction to
vaccination, Malnutrition, Gastric ulceration, Pregnant, capture related stress Inadequate nutrition intake, Possible
malnutrition, Food poisoning, Killed by another dolphin, Jumped out of the tank , Stomach ulceration, Injured
during a fight, Vaccine reaction, Fractured skull, Shock syndrome, Drug reaction, Killed by aggressive male Capture
stress, Foreign body (US Navy), Capture related (US Navy), Drowning (US Navy), Failure to adapt (US Navy),
Related to jaw fracture (US Navy), Possible toxic fish (US Navy), During release (US Navy), Spinal fracture (US
Navy), Toxic shock (US Navy), Failure to thrive (US Navy), During testing (US Navy), Other causes of death are
noted as: Unspecified...Under investigation... Pending...Undetermined...Undeterminable...Unknown...To be
continued....
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Dolphins forced to kill
Dolphins are equipped with bayonets and needles and used as weapons of war
“A Dolphin Disses War”
By David Helvarg, AlterNet. Posted April 11, 2003.
http://www.insolidaritywithanimals.com/voices/dolphinwar.php
Psst. Listen: while SEAL-boy's playing with that motor, you ever hear of our "wet work?" of "swimmer
nullification?" Yeah, in Vietnam we used needles attached to CO2 cartridges to "nullify" over 30 enemy
divers in Cam Ranh Bay, also a couple of Americans who strayed into restricted waters. Later in the war
we carried out live captures, which is the only thing the Navy admits to. Today both dolphins and sea lions
have specialized snout gear that includes a .45 caliber bang-stick for killing enemy swimmers.
Of course that's black ops stuff. The Navy still denies weaponizing us despite all the ex-trainers and Navy
guys who've talked to reporters like you. They got some sea lions over in Bahrain right now who are
showing off how they can cuff divers by the legs with a rope attachment so they can be hauled out of the
water backwards.
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Dolphins killed by enemy troops
If a military dolphin is believed to be deployed, the enemy army will kill all dolphins, including non military
ones, in the area
Richard O’ Barry, original trainer of "Flipper" the dolphin, now a captive dolphin researcher
“Free the advanced biological weapon system: an interview with Richard O’Barry”. By Brent Hoff, no date,
accessed 4/23/05
The real danger to the dolphins and I'm talking about all dolphins in a war zone is the fact that every dolphin
in the area, wild or trained, is placed in harm's way because the enemy simply kills every dolphin that they
come across. One can't really tell the difference between the friendly and the enemy dolphins. "Kill them all
and let God sort them out" is the plan of the day. This is done with bombs, hand grenades, and especially
"ashcans," which is an anti-submarine explosion devise. I really can't tell you much about the Iraqi dolphins.
I do know that when the Cold War ended, many of the Soviet navy dolphin trainers started working in the
Middle East capturing and training dolphins for the captive dolphin industry, but I don't have any insight into
their activities.
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Dolphins exposed to LFA sonar
Dolphins are exposed to LFA sonar in ghastly experiments, and kills whales too
“A Dolphin Disses War”
By David Helvarg, AlterNet. Posted April 11, 2003.
http://www.insolidaritywithanimals.com/voices/dolphinwar.php
You know what I've been doing to help the world recently? Being exposed to the Navy's low-frequency
active sonar in a controlled experiment to see if it affected me. Bottom line, I had some temporary hearing
loss. I'm O.K. now, thanks, better than those dead whales in the Bahamas. So you know what the Navy
plans to do in response to its findings? Get Congress to give them exemptions from the Marine Mammal
Protection Act so they can claim incidental "takes" of marine mammals like me. That's their weasel term
for killing noncombatant cetaceans. I swear it's enough to make a hagfish gag. You give your life to the
service and they just turn their dorsal side to you.
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Impactish cards
Dolphins used in combat is just as bad as child soldiers
Cetacean Society International
Whales Alive! - Vol. XII No. 2 - April 2003
http://csiwhalesalive.org/csi03202.html
Even war has rules. It is evil, unethical and immoral to use innocents in war, because they cannot understand
the purpose or the danger, their resistance is weak, and it is not their conflict. To use innocents as military
assets denigrates and defames a nation, no matter how easy, expedient and efficient it may seem to those in
power. We believe the same rules should apply to the use of innocent children as human shields on one side
and innocent dolphins in combat on the other.

Dolphins are slaves, they have no choice but to serve, even if they escape they die in unknown waters
Cetacean Society International
Whales Alive! - Vol. XII No. 2 - April 2003
http://csiwhalesalive.org/csi03202.html
Tacoma did just that, two days after he vanished immediately after his handlers released him in the southern Iraqi
port of Umm Qasr. It was no joke that he was labeled AWOL, or Absent Without Leave. The underlying attitude of
the Navy is that these dolphins are on duty, although they haven't announced plans for a court martial for Tacoma ...
yet. The Navy says the dolphins are in no danger, but after at least one peacetime NATO exercise they left a dolphin
behind, and in this war many things will be left behind. Tacoma had no choice, but he made his point. A companion
minesweeper is Makay, 33, who also went AWOL in Florida once. His back is scarred from the shark attack that
may have convinced him that he had no option but to return to Navy duty, where he will live out his already long
life.
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Dolphins are captured/taken from better lives
Dolphins are taken as newborns and serve their whole lives
”Combat Dolphins, Sea Lions Ready for Gulf War” ABC news
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s797943.htm
Wednesday, 5 March 2003
.La Puzza said candidates for the program, which costs about US$20 million a year, found its 'recruits' by buying
them - mostly from San Diego's Sea World Aquatic Park."We get them when they're newborns," he said adding that
the mammals lived for around 25 years and never left the service. "They are in the Navy for life."

Dolphin capture kills the animals, and life in captivity is worse
List compiled by Helene O'Barry
Copyright ©2001 Captive Dolphin Awareness Foundation
http://www.dolphinawareness.org/facts/main.html
The capture of a dolphin is an extremely violent procedure, which involves hours of chasing the entire pod to
exhaustion, frequently separating mothers and calves, and once netted, some die from capture shock.
Photographs of transfers and a capture.
OVER HALF (53%) of the dolphins that survive their violent capture typically die within 90 days *
The maximum life expectancy of a dolphin in the wild is 45 years; yet half of all captured dolphins die
within their first two years of captivity.* The survivors last an average of only five years in captivity. *
Every seven years, half of all dolphins in captivity die from capture shock, pneumonia, intestinal disease,
ulcers, chlorine poisoning, and other stress-related illnesses.* To the captive dolphin industry, these facts are
accepted as routine operating expenses.
In many tanks the water is full of chemicals, as well as bacteria, causing many health problems in dolphins,
including blindness.
When a baby dolphin is born in captivity, the news is usually kept secret until the calf shows signs of
survival. Although marine mammals do breed in captivity, the birth rate is not nearly as successful as in the
wild.
Wild dolphins swim 40 to 100 miles per day. In captivity they repeatedly swim in the same small circles.
Many marine parks subject their mammals to hunger so they will perform for food. Jumping through hoops,
tail-walking and playing ball are trained behaviors that do not occur in the wild.
Confined animals who abuse themselves (banging their heads against the walls) are creating stimuli their
environment cannot supply. Dolphins in captivity tend to develop stereotypical behaviors (swimming in a
repetitive circle pattern, with eyes closed and in silence) because of boredom and confinement. This is
equivalent to the swaying and pacing of primates, lions, tigers and bears confined in cages.
Dolphins are predators of fish and spend up to half of their time in the wild hunting for food. Supplying dead
fish results in less exercise and lack of mental stimulation, thus causing boredom.
This information was obtained through the Marine Mammal Inventory Report (MMIR), which is obtainable
through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) from the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
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Rats boiled alive
Rats are boiled alive in some experiments
Peta, People for the Ethical treatment of animals “The military’s was on animals”, No date, accessed 4/23/05
http://www.peta.org/feat/military/index.html
At the Army’s Fort Sam Houston, live rats were immersed in boiling water for 10 seconds, and a group of them were
then infected on parts of their burned bodies. In 1987, at the Naval Medical Institute in Maryland, rats’ backs were
shaved, covered with ethanol, and then “flamed” for 10 seconds.
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Sheep blown to pieces
Sheep are literally blown to pieces
Peta, People for the Ethical treatment of animals “The military’s was on animals”, No date, accessed 4/23/05
http://www.peta.org/feat/military/index.html
In 1988, at Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico, sheep were placed in a loose net sling against a reflecting plate,
and an explosive device was detonated 19 meters away. In two of the experiments, 48 sheep were blasted: the first
group to test the value of a vest worn during the blast, and the second to see if chemical markers would aid in the
diagnosis of blast injury (they did not).
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Radiation testing
Radiation testing is used on some animals
Peta, People for the Ethical treatment of animals “The military’s was on animals”, No date, accessed 4/23/05
http://www.peta.org/feat/military/index.html
At the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute in Maryland, nine rhesus monkeys were strapped in chairs and
exposed to total-body irradiation. Within two hours, six of the nine were vomiting, hypersalivating, and chewing. In
another experiment, 17 beagles were exposed to total-body irradiation, studied for one to seven days, and then
killed. The experimenter concluded that radiation affects the gall bladder. At Brooks Air Force Base in Texas, rhesus
monkeys were strapped to a B-52 flight simulator (the “Primate Equilibrium Platform”). After being prodded with
painful electric shocks to learn to “fly” the device, the monkeys were irradiated with gamma rays to see if they could
hold out “for the 10 hours it would take to bomb an imaginary Moscow.” Those hit with the heaviest doses vomited
violently and became extremely lethargic before being killed.
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Disease research
Animals are eaten alive by other animals
Peta, People for the Ethical treatment of animals “The military’s was on animals”, No date, accessed 4/23/05
http://www.peta.org/feat/military/index.html
To evaluate the effect of temperature on the transmission of the Dengue 2 virus, a mosquito-transmitted disease that
causes fever, muscle pain, and rash, experiments conducted by the U.S. Army at Fort Detrick, Maryland, involved
shaving the stomachs of adult rhesus monkeys and then attaching cartons of mosquitoes to their bodies to allow the
mosquitoes to feed. Experimenters at Fort Detrich have also invented a rabbit restraining device that consists of a
small cage that pins the rabbits down with steel rods while mosquitoes feast on their bodies.
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Surgical research
Animals are wounded repeatedly to simulate battle wounds
Peta, People for the Ethical treatment of animals “The military’s was on animals”, No date, accessed 4/23/05
http://www.peta.org/feat/military/index.html
The Department of Defense has operated “wound labs” since 1957. At these sites, conscious or semiconscious
animals are suspended from slings and shot with high-powered weapons to inflict battle-like injuries for military
surgical practice. In 1983, in response to public pressure, Congress limited the use of dogs in these labs, but
countless goats, pigs, and sheep are still being shot, and at least one laboratory continues to shoot cats. At the Army's
Fort Sam Houston “Goat Lab,” goats are hung upside down and shot in their hind legs. After physicians practice
excising the wounds, any goat who survives is killed.
In 1992 and again in 1994, doctors with the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine testified before
Congress on military animal use and worked with the General Accounting Office in an investigation of
Michael Carey’s experiments at Louisiana State University. Carey shot 700 restrained cats in the head to
“model” human injuries. As a result of the investigation, Carey’s cat-shooting experiments were halted.
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Solvency
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Dolphins-they are cool once set free
Dolphins set free get their lives back
Richard O’ Barry, original trainer of "Flipper" the dolphin, now a captive dolphin researcher
“Free the advanced biological weapon system: an interview with Richard O’Barry”. By Brent Hoff, no date,
accessed 4/23/05
Observing the healing process of a dolphin named Stephania was the most memorable part of this or any captive
dolphin rehab project that we do. We had just rescued Stephania from a dolphin abusement park in San Andres,
Colombia, and transferred her from a small sub-standard tank that she had been living in for ten years to a natural
sea pen that we built on this tiny island far away from civilization, literally in the middle of nowhere. When
Stephania was re-united with the ocean, she could once again experience the natural rhythms of the sea, the tides and
currents, and take advantage of the trace elements of natural sea water, which have healing properties. For the first
time in ten years, she could chase and eat live fish. Seeing a captive dolphin get its life back is the most memorable
experience that I have had.

Dolphins can reintegrate back into the ocean if given the chance
Richard O’ Barry, original trainer of "Flipper" the dolphin, now a captive dolphin researcher
“Free the advanced biological weapon system: an interview with Richard O’Barry”. By Brent Hoff, no date,
accessed 4/23/05
es, the World Society for Protection of Animals (WSPA) has rescued, rehabilitated, and released several former
captive dolphins back into the wild successfully. One of them was called "Flipper" -- the last captive dolphin of
Brazil. We have good documentation of the dolphin doing well two years later. If one does this work correctly, and
the trained behaviors are extinguished properly, the dolphin will blend back into nature. A successful release would
mean that the bonds with, and dependency upon, humans are broken and the dolphin becomes more interested in
other dolphins and nature, not in human contact.
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Answers
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A2 Animals have uses-dolphins
There are new types of sonar that can replace dolphins
Richard O’ Barry, original trainer of "Flipper" the dolphin, now a captive dolphin researcher
“Free the advanced biological weapon system: an interview with Richard O’Barry”. By Brent Hoff, no date,
accessed 4/23/05
I think that the program is cruel and unusual and it should be abolished. In a perfect world, the animals would be
given an honorable discharge and sent home. The term Advanced Biological Weapon System (ABWS) is an accurate
job description. It is also very revealing as it describes our relationship with nature. In my opinion, this is a faulty
weapon system and should be replaced with an alternative such as side scan sonar, which is cruelty-free and more
dependable.

Dolphins in service are totally unnecessary
“A Dolphin Disses War”
By David Helvarg, AlterNet. Posted April 11, 2003.
http://www.insolidaritywithanimals.com/voices/dolphinwar.php
I'm not denying I'm good at my job hunting mines. We've found a bunch. But you know, so are a
new generation of AUVs, autonomous underwater vehicles, or robot subs. The Navy says they
need a full range of options but I don't see the Air Force supplementing their predator drones with
camera-toting bald eagles, or the army employing tigers to guard their tanks. Still the Navy plans to
hang on to us for what they call "the foreseeable future." I mean I hate to say this, but this isn't
really our war. This is a human thing. So while I keep my fixed grin for the man, inside I keep
wondering, when does our tour of duty end?

Turn: Dolphins Regularly save lives, defending people from sharks, we shouldn’t move them away
from that job
“Dolphins prevent NZ shark attack”
Phil Mercer, BBC, Sydney
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4034383.stm
Tuesday, 23 November, 2004, 08:03 GMT

A group of swimmers has told how a pod of dolphins protected them from a great white shark off New Zealand's
coast. The lifeguards were training at a beach near Whangarei on the North Island when they were menaced by a 3-
metre shark, before the dolphins raced in to help. The swimmers were surrounded by the dolphins for 40 minutes
before they were able to make it safely back to the beach. Marine biologists say such altruistic behaviour is not
uncommon in dolphins. Lifeguard Rob Howes was in the water with two colleagues and his teenage daughter. It was
an uncomfortable experience, as they were circled by a great white shark, which came within a couple of metres.
He said around half a dozen dolphins suddenly appeared and herded the swimmers together. The mammals swam in
tight circles to create a defensive barrier as the great white lurked under the surface.
The swimmers said the dolphins were extremely agitated and repeatedly slapped the water with their tails,
presumably to try to deter the predator as it cruised nearby. The drama happened in New Zealand three weeks
ago, but only now are the lifeguards telling their story. It is a day they will never forget, especially for one of
the swimmers, who was on her first day as a volunteer. They have no doubt that the dolphins acted
deliberately to protect them. Researchers have said they are not surprised. A marine biologist insisted that
dolphins, which are considered to be one of the most intelligent mammals, "like to help the helpless".
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A2 animals have uses-testing
Testing is inefficient and pointless
Peta, People for the Ethical treatment of animals “The military’s was on animals”, No date, accessed 4/23/05
http://www.peta.org/feat/military/index.html
Military testing is classified “Top Secret,” and it is very hard to get information about it. From published research,
we do know that armed forces facilities all over the United States test all manner of weaponry on animals, from
Soviet AK-47 rifles to biological and chemical warfare agents to nuclear blasts. Military experiments can be acutely
painful, repetitive, costly, and unreliable, and they are particularly wasteful because most of the effects they study
can be, or have already been, observed in humans or because the results cannot be extrapolated to human
experience.

Animal experiments are not necessary, better things already exist
Peta, People for the Ethical treatment of animals “The military’s was on animals”, No date, accessed 4/23/05
http://www.peta.org/feat/military/index.html
According to the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, mustard gas, first used in World War I, continues
to be a favorite agent for Department of Defense animal experimenters. Yet, good treatments are already available
and are easy to use. Military personnel receive a “Mark I Kit” with two self-injectable antidotes to the gas: atropine,
which counteracts the effects, and pralidoxime chloride, which binds the nerve agent so it can be cleared from the
body. Preventive drugs, such as benactyzine, oximes, aprophen, and physostigmine, are also commonly used. Little
about these treatments has changed in the last 35 years, yet military experimenters continue to receive hundreds of
thousands of dollars for animal tests with the agent. Under the banner of defense use, animals have been used to test
bullet trajectories when blocks of gel are better, as they allow military weapons experts to permanently freeze the
bullet trail, something that doesn’t happen with a sheep or dog; they’ve even been put in slings and shot so that
medics could practice cutting away dying tissue, when there are far superior ways to train medics.
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A2 Dolphins don’t care
Dolphins do not want to do this, they only do it for food
Richard O’ Barry, original trainer of "Flipper" the dolphin, now a captive dolphin researcher
“Free the advanced biological weapon system: an interview with Richard O’Barry”. By Brent Hoff, no date,
accessed 4/23/05
True. Fact is, dolphins are not dependable; they are controlled by food. When they are full, they do not respond. This
is exactly why I had five dolphins for the "Flipper" TV series. When Flipper #1 had ten pounds of food and was full,
I lost control and I would bring on Flipper #2, and so on.

Orcas were used before, but they weren’t good enough, they died and ran away
Richard O’ Barry, original trainer of "Flipper" the dolphin, now a captive dolphin researcher
“Free the advanced biological weapon system: an interview with Richard O’Barry”. By Brent Hoff, no date,
accessed 4/23/05
They did use orcas in the early days of this program. They went AWOL however. Another problem in using orcas is
the warm water of the Gulf, especially in the summertime. This is also a huge problem for the dolphins that are
currently being used. When the summer comes and if the dolphins are still there, they will indeed suffer. The navy
lost some dolphins in this area during the last war because of warm water. Navy dolphins were also used in Viet
Nam and some of them never returned.

If dolphins understood their danger they would not want to be in the area
Cetacean Society International
Whales Alive! - Vol. XII No. 2 - April 2003
http://csiwhalesalive.org/csi03202.html
The Navy sees the trained dolphins as expendable "biologics", animals suited to tasks too difficult and dangerous for
humans. As military assets the dolphins are expected to perform their mission, and it's not up to them whether or not
to do it. But if the dolphins knew what the mine was, and what they were really being told to do, would they do it?

Dolphins are slaves, they have no choice but to serve, even if they escape they die in unknown wars
Cetacean Society International
Whales Alive! - Vol. XII No. 2 - April 2003
http://csiwhalesalive.org/csi03202.html
Tacoma did just that, two days after he vanished immediately after his handlers released him in the southern Iraqi
port of Umm Qasr. It was no joke that he was labeled AWOL, or Absent Without Leave. The underlying attitude of
the Navy is that these dolphins are on duty, although they haven't announced plans for a court martial for Tacoma ...
yet. The Navy says the dolphins are in no danger, but after at least one peacetime NATO exercise they left a dolphin
behind, and in this war many things will be left behind. Tacoma had no choice, but he made his point. A companion
minesweeper is Makay, 33, who also went AWOL in Florida once. His back is scarred from the shark attack that
may have convinced him that he had no option but to return to Navy duty, where he will live out his already long
life.
A dolphin went AWOL! They don’t want to be there!
CBS NEWS
March 29, 2003
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/03/29/iraq/main546667.shtml “Mine-Hunting Dolphin AWOL In
Iraq?”
There's been no official confirmation, but there's a report that one of the dolphins on duty with the U.S. Navy
in Iraq is missing. According to the London Times, Tacoma, a 22-year-old dolphin trained to search for mines
underwater, has not been seen since leaving on his first mission. Tacoma and his fellow dolphin, Makai -
both part of the U.S. military's Mammal Maritime unit - were flown into the Iraqi port of Umm Qasr by U.S.
Navy helicopters on Tuesday and began their mine-detecting work the next day. Tacoma's handler, Petty
Officer Taylor Whitaker, told the Times after 24 hours that he wasn't worried and suggested that Tacoma
might have met up with "some local" marine life. Calling the dolphin's name and offering the lure of his
favorite fish reportedly has yet to cause Tacoma to swim back to base. The Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphin's
first mission was checking for underwater mines to clear the way for the arrival of the British ship Sir
Galahad, which carried the first large shipment of humanitarian supplies to reach Iraq.
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A2 animals aren’t people
Dolphins are just as intelligent as humans
Richard O’ Barry, original trainer of "Flipper" the dolphin, now a captive dolphin researcher
“Free the advanced biological weapon system: an interview with Richard O’Barry”. By Brent Hoff, no date,
accessed 4/23/05
Smart and dumb are human concepts and these concepts do not apply to other forms of life. Many people think that
dolphins are more intelligent than us because they have a bigger brain and are more fully developed. Having worked
with dolphins and other whales for more than forty years, I have come to the conclusion that they are not more
intelligent, and they are not less intelligent, they are simply "different."

Dolphins can talk to humans
Dolphin Mental Abilities Paper by Kenneth W. LeVasseur <Cetaman@aol.com>
“THREE EARLY DOLPHIN EXPERIMENTS FUNDED BY THE U.S. NAVY”
http://whales7.tripod.com/policies/levasseur/levass2a.html
1. Man/Dolphin Communication. The possibility of human-type language acquisition (using whistles) in the
bottlenosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus (1964-1967). For purposes of comparison, the earliest work with
chimpanzees using American Sign Language was in 1966 (Gardner and Gardner, 1968, Premack, 1971).
ABSTRACT: "A program of research was conducted over a period of three years to determine the feasibility of
developing a man-dolphin language and to investigate to what extent such a language might be developed. Devices
were constructed to translate articulated vowel sounds into sinusoidal whistles and to provide real time visual
displays of the frequency modulated whistles. Two dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, were found able to respond
distinctly to 35 response-demand messages embedded in 5-word spoken sentences.

Dolphins can talk to eachother
Dolphin Mental Abilities Paper by Kenneth W. LeVasseur <Cetaman@aol.com>
“THREE EARLY DOLPHIN EXPERIMENTS FUNDED BY THE U.S. NAVY”
http://whales7.tripod.com/policies/levasseur/levass2a.html
2. The Transmission of Arbitrary Environmental Information (abstract communication) Between Bottlenosed
Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus.
ABSTRACT: "This is a report of an investigation of the capacity of a pair of bottlenosed dolphins to perform a
cooperative task which required the acoustic transmission of information about an arbitrary visual event in the
environment of one of the animals. Each animal was first trained to press one of two paddles, depending on the state
of a light signal. Next, while housed in adjacent enclosures, they were required to coordinate their actions in the
fixed sequence and within fixed time limits. The light signal to the animal required to respond first was removed,
visual contact with the other animal and its light eliminated. The pair continued to perform successfully as long as
they were in acoustical contact and the light signal to one of the animals was provided. Their performance success
was found to depend directly upon the emission of pulsed trains by the animal receiving the light signal, although it
was also found to be directly connected with its emission of whistle signals. The specific nature of this dependency
could not be determined."
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A2 “world” CP
The US is the only country with a marine mammals program
”Combat Dolphins, Sea Lions Ready for Gulf War” ABC news
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s797943.htm
Wednesday, 5 March 2003
the U.S. is believed to be the only country to use marine mammals in its defence forces, after a similar Soviet
programme launched in the 1960s was shut down when funding ran out.The scheme, under the command of the U.S.
Marine Corps, remains largely experimental, but its aquatic troops have already fought in previous U.S. wars during
the 40-year history in the military, he said. Dolphins were deployed in the 1991 Gulf War as well as the Vietnam
War."The dolphins have a wonderful sonar system that enables them to locate objects that you don't know if they're
there or not," said LaPuzza.
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Narrative!?
“An interview with the dolphin”, 8 april 2003, The morning news
http://www.themorningnews.org/archives/personalities/an_interview_with_the_dolphin.php

The Morning News: Did you get anything?
Takoma: Skee ee nee ee klik nee klik ee.
TMN: I forgot to turn this on. I’m sorry.
Takoma: – translator on, turn it – there. Seven.
TMN: That’s a good run or a bad one?
Takoma: Very good. Tagging seven mines is a good run. We’re clearing a path for coalition vessels.
TMN: Your superiors are happy?
Takoma: Happier than they were.
TMN: Because these last few days…
Takoma: Not the best days.
TMN: You went AWOL.
Takoma: I did. I was under real pressure. Eat the fish, find the mine, go, go, go. No time to think, and then when I
do think, it’s: What am I doing? Why am I doing this? Am I hurting the world or helping it? No Iraqi ever called me
Flipper.
TMN: So you left.
Takoma: I was going to try to make it over to the canal and then seek asylum in the Seine. But it was a long way
from home. I think I could have made it. But then there are five of us, you know. Maybe someone else will get the
mine meant for me. Maybe the shark will attack Bruce instead of Takoma, and Bruce’s kids grow up without
someone to look up to, with no shoal model. So I go back, and they let me skate.[long pause] I still am very
uncertain about my part in all this. The recruiters, they say, join up and meet land mammals, they show you pictures
of fish piled to the ceiling on porcelain plates. I’m young, haven’t seen more than a few reefs and some humpback
whales. Of course I go.
TMN: There are 2,000 mine-sweeping monkeys that have been promised to the Iraqis by Morocco.
Takoma: See, that’s something people say, they go, ‘a monkey could do this job.’ I’m telling you something. You go
to those minefields when they release those monkeys. You ever pour cherry Kool-Aid into a whale’s blowhole?
TMN: No.
Takoma: That’s what those monkeys are going to look like in that minefield. Just puffs of red mist. Chee, chee,
chee, chee, chee, chee, chee, boom, poof. It takes brains to do this job, and flippers.
TMN: How is it in the boat?
Takoma: Tight. Packed like sardines.
TMN: At least you’re not packed like tuna –
Takoma: My uncle was killed in a tuna net.
TMN: I’m sorry.
Takoma: In any case, they changed my quarters, and now –
TMN: – why did they change them?
Takoma: They smelt crappie.
TMN: Do you have a favorite American opera?
Takoma: Porgy and Bass.
TMN: How is the war going from your perch?
Takoma: I need to mullet over.
TMN: [wiping brow, long exhale] Thank you. If you can sum it up: What did you learn from those days out of the
Navy?
Takoma: I learned that duty comes first, duty to my comrade dolphins. You can’t be sole; you’ve got to be a
grouper. But I also got a glimpse of something, when I tried to swim to France. Something I’d neglected inside of
myself, but it was glimmering there. I think I saw what that was. Maybe it’s not something I can think about too
much – too much to do, too many responsibilities – but I glimpsed it, and it’s inside of me. I’m not going to let it go.
TMN: What was that?
Takoma: A calling, a sense of self. A higher porpoise.
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Generic T answers
__: The resolution never specifies humans

__:CI Dolphins are as smart as humans, they ought to have civil liberties
Dolphins are just as intelligent as humans
Richard O’ Barry, original trainer of "Flipper" the dolphin, now a captive dolphin researcher
“Free the advanced biological weapon system: an interview with Richard O’Barry”. By Brent Hoff, no date,
accessed 4/23/05
Smart and dumb are human concepts and these concepts do not apply to other forms of life. Many people think that
dolphins are more intelligent than us because they have a bigger brain and are more fully developed. Having worked
with dolphins and other whales for more than forty years, I have come to the conclusion that they are not more
intelligent, and they are not less intelligent, they are simply "different."