Specific behaviors of the leader ( Sultan Haji HassanalBolkiah ) Leadership behavior supportive leadership ± Give consideration to needs of subordinates;

display concern for their welfare; create a friendly work climate } Relevant theory Leadership substitutes theory {This theory says that there are aspects of the situation that can reduce the importance of leadership. It sorts these aspects into two categories: (1) substitutes (an aspect of the situation that leads employees to behave in the same way that a leader would get them to behave and; (2) neutralizers (a neutralizer is something that lessens the effect of something else). If substitutes for leadership work, then leaders would not be required.} Point of view: The Sultanate has shown itself capable of adapting and adjusting itspolitical structure to meet these challenges and has experimented with other techniques of legitimacy in place of democracy. One technique used is theideology of Melayu Islam Beraja (MIB), which allows for the pivotal role ofIslam at the state level, and has enhanced the legitimacy of the Sultan.However, official promotion of MIB runs the risk of alienating andmarginalizing the non-Muslim population such as the Chinese and the nonMuslim indigenous peoples. Melayu Islam Beraja (MIB) as a Legitimizing InstrumentIn July 1990, on the occasion of the Sultan¶s forty-fourth birthday, the conceptof Melayu Islam Beraja (MIB, Malay Islamic Monarchy) was enunciated.Over the next few years,MIB was refined as a national ideology appropriated to justify the role of theSultan as ³guardian and protector of Islamic principles and Malay culture´. The Sultan, in his 1984 Declaration of Independence, proclaimed Bruneias a sovereign, independent and democratic Malay Islamic Monarchy,observing the teachings of Islam according to the Shafeite sect. In his address to the Muslim Youth Conference hosted in March 1984, theSultan underlined the importance of Islam,I am thankful to Allah«for destining Negara Brunei Darussalamto be an Islamic country since the fourteenth century as the resultof which it was able to absorb Islamic influences up to the presenttime, through the efforts of previous Sultans of the country. To further elaborate this viewpoint, the Sultan, in a royal address madeon his fortyfourth birthday in July 1990, maintained that MIB encapsulatesvalues important to Bruneians. He stated that the Malay language binds thepeople together and is an important signifier of Malay identity. Islam is areligion which guarantees the rights of the people. He also suggested that theA Resilient Monarchy 143monarchical system

MIB haselevated Islam to the status of official religion and is a reference point for allactivities in the state. But it must be emphasized that when MIB was officiallysponsored in 1990. official promotion of MIB runs the risk of alienating and marginalizing the non-Muslim population such as the Chinese and the nonMuslim indigenous peoples. and even sponsoring pilgrims to Mecca.Mindful of the potential threat of Islamic extremism. this one is Shidapunya part«( just points. In contrast to attempts at modernization giving prominence to rational action and de-emphasizing ritual practices. It invites discussion and debate on the extent to which Islam has been incorporated into politics and may. establishingreligious schools and colleges. the Sultan. in future.µMalay¶. alsoreceived the attention of Pehin Aziz (1992).has become part of the heritage of Bruneians. It may also be worthwhile to caution that the use of Islam as an instrument of legitimacy is a double-edged sword. µIslam¶. for example.. suggests the consolidation of the Malay culture as a dominantfeature in the state¶s cultural life. According to Pehin Aziz (1992). Acknowledging Anderson¶s (1983) recognition of an imagined community and the view that the evolution of a nation need not necessarily be a linear one slowed down by people¶s primordial loyalties. According to him. It was in the following years that MIB was elevated to itsstatus as an ideology.culminating in the establishment of the first Islamic bank in 1994. Financial institutionsrun along Islamic lines have also been introduced since the early 1990s. alum edit) y However. which has been practised for six hundred years: its power is absolute. in MIB. be used to question the legitimacy of a monarchical system of government in Brunei. Italso refers to a monarch who rules justly and consults with his ministers oradvisers and always has the interests and welfare of his population at heart. TheSultan participates in religious rituals. called for existing lawsin the state to be brought in line with the teachings of Islam. the governmentpays great heed to the religion by building grand mosques. this type ofA Resilient Monarchy 141 nation-building receives its inspiration from quite opposite sources. Another component of MIB. it was described as Brunei¶s national philosophy and notnational ideology. identity with a nation would rest y . and thiscommitment is demonstrated. and Islamic subjects have beenincorporated into the national educational curriculum. by the ban on the sale of alcohol inthe state. In order tohighlight the importance of Islam. The Malay language is given prominenceand the jawi script has been revived. a system of government that is unique to the Malayworld. in 1990. the word µBeraja¶ in MIB signifies a Malay type of monarchy.

Kendall and Hardacre 1994: 5. It is not unusual for religion in Southeast Asia to form a basis of political legitimacy. Brunei has.nzasia. Buddhism in Thailand has long been utilised by rulers to legitimize their rule and facilitate social control (Somboon 1982: 6). sharing its religion.org. since independence.nz/downloads/NZJAS-Dec02/Talib. common heritage and history. Nation-building entails commitment to a faith and ³the promotion of selected practices and even the invention of new rites´ (Keyes. as an illustration. Acceptance of a particular national identity would necessarily involve participation in the community. Apart from religion. it is often used as a strong referent in the identity of the nation. given prominence to the concept of Melayu Islam Beraja (MIB. Owing to the strong influence Buddhism has over Thai society. These concerns are central to the concept and practice of a state ideology.pdf . Malay Islamic Monarchy) in an attempt to promote loyalty to the new nation.y y with certain indigenous givens in a country (Geertz 1963). see also Talib 1998: 149). Appendixe: http://www. official promotion of MIB runs the risk of alienating and marginalizing the non-Muslim population such as the Chinese and the nonMuslim indigenous peoples.. However. monarchical regimes often consolidate fundamental internal structures and institutions through the ritualization of cultural values and primordial sentiments in order to neutralise aspirations for political change and even avoid religious radicalism.. It is the contrast between the constant change and innovation of the modern world and the attempt to structure at least some parts of social life within it as unchanging and invariant.

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